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Sample records for cultured pacific bluefin

  1. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-02

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management.

  3. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing tec...

  4. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in the trans-Pacific migration of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) revealed by archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Tei, Yaoki; Okamoto, Suguru; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Furukawa, Seishiro; Takagi, Junichi; Estess, Ethan; Farwell, Charles J.; Fuller, Daniel W.; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ohshimo, Seiji; Kitagawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Archival electronic tags were internally implanted in 713 age-0 Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) caught in their nursery waters off the southern coast of Japan and in the East China Sea over an extended study period (1995-2015) to clarify the spatial and temporal variability of their trans-Pacific migration. Two hundred twenty-five of these tagged tuna were recaptured by fisheries (31.6%), and we successfully retrieved tag data from 14 of 21 individuals recovered in the Eastern pacific. Furthermore, one archival tag recovered in the Western Pacific revealed that the individual had performed a trans-Pacific migration, so in total 21 tagged PBF were shown to have migrated to the Eastern Pacific (2.9% of the total tags released). We successfully downloaded data from 15 of these 21 archival tags, which revealed that some age-1 PBF migrate rapidly (123.9 ± 82.8 km day-1) and directly from waters offshore of Japan to the eastern Pacific (160.0°E to 130.0°W), a journey that takes an average of 2.5 months (ranging from 1.2 to 5.5 months) through relatively cool waters (14.7 ± 2.0 °C). All juvenile PBF began their trans-Pacific migration shortly after exposure to cooler water temperatures (physiological challenge for this age class. Three patterns were identified in the timing of the departure of juvenile PBF from the western Pacific: departing 12-14 months post-hatch (N = 7) in early summer (May-July), departing 17-19 months post-hatch (N = 7) in late autumn (October-December), and departing 21 months post-hatch (N = 1) in late winter (February). The PBF tagged along the southern coast of Japan (SCJ) arrived in the eastern Pacific earlier than those tagged in the East China Sea (ECS), most likely due to the shorter travel distance. Additionally, the PBF that began their trans-Pacific migration in the earlier period remained in an offshore foraging zone (the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region) for shorter periods (2.8 months on average) and at lower latitudes (35.0

  6. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  7. Amino Acid Isotope Incorporation and Enrichment Factors in Pacific Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christina J.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Block, Barbara A.; Popp, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ15N∼11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ15N∼13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic 15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of 15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  8. Data reconstruction can improve abundance index estimation: An example using Taiwanese longline data for Pacific bluefin tuna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Kai Chang

    Full Text Available Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE is often the main piece of information used in fisheries stock assessment; however, the catch and effort data that are traditionally compiled from commercial logbooks can be incomplete or unreliable due to many reasons. Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF is a seasonal target species in the Taiwanese longline fishery. Since 2010, detailed catch information for each PBF has been made available through a catch documentation scheme. However, previously, only market landing data with a low coverage of logbooks were available. Therefore, several nontraditional procedures were performed to reconstruct catch and effort data from many alternative data sources not directly obtained from fishers for 2001-2015: (1 Estimating the catch number from the landing weight for 2001-2003, for which the catch number information was incomplete, based on Monte Carlo simulation; (2 deriving fishing days for 2007-2009 from voyage data recorder data, based on a newly developed algorithm; and (3 deriving fishing days for 2001-2006 from vessel trip information, based on linear relationships between fishing and at-sea days. Subsequently, generalized linear mixed models were developed with the delta-lognormal assumption for standardizing the CPUE calculated from the reconstructed data, and three-stage model evaluation was performed using (1 Akaike and Bayesian information criteria to determine the most favorable variable composition of standardization models, (2 overall R2 via cross-validation to compare fitting performance between area-separated and area-combined standardizations, and (3 system-based testing to explore the consistency of the standardized CPUEs with auxiliary data in the PBF stock assessment model. The last stage of evaluation revealed high consistency among the data, thus demonstrating improvements in data reconstruction for estimating the abundance index, and consequently the stock assessment.

  9. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  10. Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quayle, D. B; Quayle, Daniel Branch

    1988-01-01

    .... Harvesting, processing, and storage methods are described. The problems of Pacific oyster culture include industrial and sewage pollution, paralytic shellfish poisoning along with predators and disease...

  11. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...

  12. Festival of Pacific Arts: Education in Multi-Cultural Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Can acts of support and/or revival of Pacific cultures serve to educate international tourists about Indigenous cultures? This paper examines, from a postcolonial perspective and using a qualitative methodology, whether the Festivals of Pacific Arts, to which all nations send delegations, can educate visitors about Indigenous cultures of the…

  13. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jusup

    Full Text Available We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT, a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  14. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... overfishing of the stock. DATES: Comments must be submitted in writing by January 11, 2013. A public hearing... effort quotas are an important step for reducing the overfishing of bluefin tuna. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna based on stock assessment results of the...

  15. Introduction : Performing cross-cultural understanding in Pacific tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, A.A.C.; Tamisari, F.; Venbrux, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the special issue entitled Indigenous Tourism, Performance, and Cross-Cultural Understanding in the Pacific. Based on various examples from the Pacific, we argue for the analysis of the tourist encounter as a single performative act of production and reception that

  16. Culturally Sustaining Leadership: A Pacific Islander’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Therese Perez Hattori

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social justice in educational settings can be advanced through culturally sustaining leadership development programs for indigenous students, faculty, and administrators. The state of Hawai‘i has been a fertile ground for culture-based development experiences for emerging leaders from islands throughout the Pacific. These opportunities arise from the recognition of dissonance created by customary leadership programs which often give little or no attention to native cultures of the Pacific islands and prioritize other models. This essay highlights elements of my Chamoru culture that form the foundation of a culturally responsive leadership praxis within the context of American educational institutions. I offer this as an example that may help others develop their own culturally sustaining practices and inspire creation of leadership development programs which honor native cultures while facilitating effective professional practices in mainstream settings.

  17. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. Bolivia and the Cook Islands are cooperating non-members. International... Pacific bluefin mortality. In addition, the Department of the Interior, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  18. Pacific discourses about cultural heritage and its protection: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The articles collected in this special issue aim at addressing the debate about the protection and use of cultural heritage in the Pacific within the context of globalization. Contributions aim specifically at analyzing the tension that exists between, on the one hand, political, legal and economic

  19. Making to Taste: Culinary Experimentalism in Asian Pacific American Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Stephanie H.

    2014-01-01

    This project studies works by Asian Pacific American writers and artists that respond critically to the widespread enthusiasm for ethnic food and multiculturalism which arose in the United States during the late-twentieth century. This enthusiasm reflected popular hope that food culture's welcoming of ethnic cuisine was a sign of racism receding into the past. Yet consuming palatable ethnic food representations as a surrogate for racialized bodies encourages the disavowal of past inequities...

  20. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  1. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D Atkinson

    Full Text Available The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints.

  2. Trophic impact of Atlantic bluefin tuna migrations in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; Andersen, Ken Haste; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    and the stability of the fish community. The impact of a migrating top-predator is investigated here for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the North Sea. Bluefin tuna has been absent from the region for half-century, but recent years have seen recovery of migrations and a return of bluefin tuna in the area. We use a size...

  3. Characterization of the Boundary Layer on Full-Scale Bluefin Tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Brian; Cipolla, Kimberly; Henoch, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The physics that enable tuna to cross large expanses of ocean while feeding and avoiding predators is not presently understood, and could involve complex control of turbulent boundary layer transition and drag reduction. Typical swimming speeds of Bluefin tuna are 1-2 m/s, but can be higher during strong accelerations. The goal of this work is to experimentally determine the approximate lateral location at which transition to turbulence occurs on the tuna for various speeds. The question is whether laminar flow or an advanced propulsion mechanism (or both) allows them to swim at high speeds. Uncertainties include the surface roughness of the skin, local favorable and adverse pressure gradients, and discontinuities such as the open mouth or juncture at the fins. Historically, much of the fluid mechanics work in the area of fish locomotion has focused on vortex shedding issues rather than the boundary layer. Here, the focus is obtaining information on the boundary layer characteristics of a rigid tuna model. A full scale model of a Pacific Bluefin tuna was fabricated using a mold made from an actual deceased tuna, preserving the surface features and details of the appendages. The model was instrumented with 32 wall pressure sensors and experiments performed in a tow tank. Results from flow visualization, drag and wall pressure measurements over a range of speeds and varying angles of attack will be presented.

  4. Access to general practice for Pacific peoples: a place for cultural competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeke, Melissa; Puni, Ronald; Cook, Lynley; Pasene, Maria; Abel, Gillian; Sopoaga, Faafetai

    2012-06-01

    Access to primary health care services has been identified as a problem for Pacific peoples. Although cost is the most frequently cited barrier to Pacific service utilisation, some research has indicated that access may also be influenced by features of mainstream primary care services. This study aimed to identify features of mainstream general practice services that act as barriers to accessing these services for Pacific peoples in order to explore strategies that providers could adopt to enable their practices to be more welcoming, accessible and appropriate for Pacific peoples. Pacific participants were recruited through Pacific networks known to Pegasus Health and via 'snowball' sampling. In total, 20 participants participated in one of three focus groups. A semi-structured interview explored the participants' views and experiences of mainstream general practice care. Thematic analysis was utilised to interpret the data. The analysis revealed five themes highlighting non-financial features of mainstream general practice services that may influence the availability and acceptability of these services to Pacific peoples: language and communication; rushed consultations; appointment availability; reception; and Pacific presence. The findings indicate that all personnel within the primary care setting have the ability to directly engage in the improvement of the health status of Pacific peoples in New Zealand by developing cultural competency and incorporating flexibility and diversity into the care and service they provide.

  5. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  6. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Culture and Collegiality at Protestant Christian Universities in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on faculty perceptions of organizational culture and collegiality at denominationally affiliated Christian colleges and universities in the Pacific Northwest. It was found that while faculty members perceive tension around their experience of organizational culture, the extent of their relationships as cultivated through formal…

  7. Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S.…

  8. Bluefin tuna fishing and ranching: a difficult management problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefano, de V.; Heijden, van der P.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The fish processing industry and consumers in Japan are willing to pay high (and sometimes outrageous) prices for fresh bluefin tuna with fat content and flesh colour just right to be served raw as sashimi or sushi. This willingness was and still is the economic incentive for a high fishing pressure

  9. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusup, M.; Klanjscek, T.; Matsuda, H.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and

  10. Trace elements in the kidney tissue of Bluefin Tuna ( Thunnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace elements, namely lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), found in kidney tissues were analyzed and compared between wild/fattened and female/male bluefin tuna (BFT) in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred (that is, 50 female and 50 male) individual ...

  11. Factors Influencing Student Achievement in Different Asian American Pacific Islander Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsing, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) students are often characterized as model minorities. However, AAPI students represent many diverse communities and a wide spectrum of achievement. Each AAPI culture may experience varying levels of biculturalism and acculturation that can influence students' academic success. This quantitative study…

  12. Housing policy, poverty, and culture: 'discounting' decisions among Pacific peoples in Auckland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Tarin Cheer; Robin Kearns; Laurence Murphy

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the links between housing and other welfare policies, low income, and culture among Pacific peoples within Auckland, New Zealand. These migrant peoples occupy an ambiguous social space within Auckland: they represent the visible face of the world's largest Polynesian city, yet are occupants of some of the city's poorest and least health-promoting housing. Through considering the balance between choice and constraint, we examine how housing costs, poverty, and cultural prac...

  13. How gambling harms experienced by Pacific people in New Zealand amplify when they are culture-related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Langham, Erika; Bellringer, Maria; Siitia, Pesio Ah-Honi

    2017-01-01

    Pacific people in New Zealand are a minority ethnic population identified in national prevalence studies as having the highest risk of developing gambling problems. As earlier studies identified some links between culture and gambling for this population, our study aimed to deepen understanding of these links and their role in explaining the disproportionate gambling harms experienced by Pacific people. To achieve this aim we employed intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore the culture-gambling intersection for this population group. We analysed data from a subset of focus groups conducted for a broad study of gambling harms in New Zealand. The subset was selected based on the presence of individuals knowledgeable about Pacific people's gambling behaviours, including staff from Pacific problem gambling treatment services who provided examples from a cultural perspective. We identified themes at a latent level via an interpretive process to identify underlying cultural contexts of gambling harms. Findings indicated that whilst harms experienced by Pacific people were similar to those identified amongst the general population, the cultural contexts in which some harms manifested were complex. This paper contributes to the existing knowledge base about gambling harms for Pacific people in relation to six culture-gambling intersecting themes that emerged from the data: collectivism, gift-giving, gambling-based fundraising, patriarchy, beliefs about blessings, and sports celebrities. Findings are discussed in relation to the current knowledge of gambling and conceptualisations of gambling harm within Pacific communities. Implications for culturally appropriate harm minimisation strategies and prevention interventions for this population are suggested.

  14. Cultural/Community Mentoring with Maori and Pacific Electrical Apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Holland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand government policy documents over the last decade have committed to supporting Maori and Pasifika learners, yet still today there is little real support in place for learners in apprenticeships. There is even less support in place that acknowledges the cultural dimension of learning in the workplace. This paper discusses the establishment and review of a development project which sets out to provide culturally supportive mentoring for Maori and Pasifika apprentices. The project sought to do this by engaging experienced Maori and Pasifika tradesmen who were located in the local communities of their learners.

  15. New Mana: Transformations of a Classic Concept in Pacific Languages and Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Matt Tomlinson; Kāwika Tengan, Ty P.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Mana’, a term denoting spiritual power, is found in many Pacific Islands languages. In recent decades, the term has been taken up in New Age movements and online fantasy gaming. In this book, 16 contributors examine mana through ethnographic, linguistic, and historical lenses to understand its transformations in past and present. The authors consider a range of contexts including Indigenous sovereignty movements, Christian missions and Bible translations, the commodification of cultural heri...

  16. Ecological and Cultural Importance of a Species at Risk of Extinction, Pacific Lamprey, 1964-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-07-01

    The cultural and ecological values of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) have not been understood by Euro-Americans and thus their great decline has almost gone unnoticed except by Native Americans, who elevated the issue and initiated research to restore its populations, at least in the Columbia Basin. They regard Pacific lamprey as a highly valued resource and as a result ksuyas (lamprey) has become one of their cultural icons. Ksuyas are harvested to this day as a subsistence food by various tribes along the Pacific coast and are highly regarded for their cultural value. Interestingly, our review suggests that the Pacific lamprey plays an important role in the food web, may have acted as a buffer for salmon from predators, and may have been an important source of marine nutrients to oligotrophic watersheds. This is very different from the Euro-American perception that lampreys are pests. We suggest that cultural biases affected management policies.

  17. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Marin, Enrique; Ortiz, Mauricio; Ortiz de Urbina, José María; Quelle, Pablo; Walter, John; Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  18. How gambling harms experienced by Pacific people in New Zealand amplify when they are culture-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komathi Kolandai-Matchett

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pacific people in New Zealand are a minority ethnic population identified in national prevalence studies as having the highest risk of developing gambling problems. As earlier studies identified some links between culture and gambling for this population, our study aimed to deepen understanding of these links and their role in explaining the disproportionate gambling harms experienced by Pacific people. To achieve this aim we employed intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore the culture-gambling intersection for this population group. We analysed data from a subset of focus groups conducted for a broad study of gambling harms in New Zealand. The subset was selected based on the presence of individuals knowledgeable about Pacific people’s gambling behaviours, including staff from Pacific problem gambling treatment services who provided examples from a cultural perspective. We identified themes at a latent level via an interpretive process to identify underlying cultural contexts of gambling harms. Findings indicated that whilst harms experienced by Pacific people were similar to those identified amongst the general population, the cultural contexts in which some harms manifested were complex. This paper contributes to the existing knowledge base about gambling harms for Pacific people in relation to six culture-gambling intersecting themes that emerged from the data: collectivism, gift-giving, gambling-based fundraising, patriarchy, beliefs about blessings, and sports celebrities. Findings are discussed in relation to the current knowledge of gambling and conceptualisations of gambling harm within Pacific communities. Implications for culturally appropriate harm minimisation strategies and prevention interventions for this population are suggested.

  19. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  20. Microbiota of Vibrio sp. in the hepatopancreas of cultured white pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of vibrios in the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp. Materials and methods. Vibrios from the hepatopancreas of fifteen samples of five specimens each, of apparently healthy Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were isolated, identified and quantified. Results. The vibrio density ranged from 430 to 2,400 MPN g-1 (rs MPN cm-1=-0.114; rs MPN g-1 = 0.211. Thirty isolations were obtained, most of which belonged to the species V. cholerae (n=11 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=7. Conclusions. The outcomes of the present study suggest that, even in the absence of symptoms of vibriosis, the microbiota of the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp may include sucrose positive and negative vibrios.

  1. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian; Iudicone, D.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world's most valued fish species. Here we...... develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan...... mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and eventually contribute to management of bluefin tuna fisheries....

  2. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XW79 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine..., recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter/headboat BFT landings constitute...

  3. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Iudicone, Daniele; Bozec, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world’s most valued fish species. Here we develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan Sea. The model reproduced the drift and growth of anchovy larvae as they drifted along the Catalan coast and yielded similar patterns as those observed in the field. We then applied the model to investigate transport and retention processes affecting the spatial distribution of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae during 1999-2003, and we compared modelled distributions with available field data collected in 2001 and 2003. Modelled and field distributions generally coincided and were patchy at mesoscales (10s-100s km); larvae were most abundant in eddies and along frontal zones. We also identified probable locations of spawning bluefin tuna using hydrographic backtracking procedures; these locations were situated in a major salinity frontal zone and coincided with distributions of an electronically tagged bluefin tuna and commercial bluefin tuna fishing vessels. Moreover, we hypothesized that mesoscale processes are responsible for the aggregation and dispersion mechanisms in the area and showed that these processes were significantly correlated to atmospheric forcing processes over the NW Mediterranean Sea. Interannual variations in average summer air temperature can reduce the intensity of ocean mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and

  4. Home Here, Home There: The lives and Landscape within High-tech Trans-Pacific Commuter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglin Chang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the last two decades the issue of 'home identity' (how a home reflects a person's identity has been an emerging topic within contemporary intellectual discourse in fields as diverse as Asian-American studies, anthropology, cultural geography, cultural studies, literary criticism and landscape architecture. In this article, I focus on the transnational experiences of members of a newly emerging trans-Pacific commuter culture, and give special attention to describing how individual members of this group construct the relationship between self and landscape. This article reveals the complex process in which members of a newly emerging trans-Pacific commuter culture have developed new non-traditional ways of constructing the landscape/home relationship - ways that call for challenging essentialist versions of home within a rapidly changing information age. I examine how Taiwanese-born, high-tech computer engineers who relocated to Silicon Valley engage in a struggle between their old identities and their newly forming American identities. These engineers and their families - members of the 'trans-Pacific home phenomenon' that emerged in the late 1990s - have a lifestyle in which they regularly commute between their American and Taiwanese homes. The ease of global travel and instant worldwide communication that became available in the 1990s afforded the trans-Pacific commuter group ease of travel, simultaneous ownership of two homes, and led to the reinvention of the relationship between global and local within the construction of self and home. This article explores how members of the trans-Pacific commuter culture struggle to make sense between the here-and-there homes across the Pacific Rim. With evidence from 80 interviews conducted in Silicon Valley (USA, Hsinchu (Taiwan, and Shanghai and Beijing (China, I focus on the ways in which members of the global-commuter group invented new, non-essentialist ways of constructing their home

  5. The impact of socio-cultural context on young people's condom use: evidence from two Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather

    2011-03-01

    Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples' condom use in two Pacific Island nations. The data show a marked disjuncture between attitudes and practice with regard to condoms. This paper discusses factors underpinning that inconsistency and directs attention to the effect of social and cultural influences on young people's condom use. The authors conclude that individual-level approaches to improving rates of condom use will be inadequate unless they are informed by an understanding of the role of identity, culture and tradition in young peoples' decisions around condom use. The findings also underline the need for country-specific approaches to condom promotion efforts in the Pacific.

  6. Cultural transmission of tool use by Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) provides access to a novel foraging niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruetzen, Michael; Kreicker, Sina; MacLeod, Colin D.; Learmonth, Jennifer; Kopps, Anna M.; Walsham, Pamela; Allen, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Culturally transmitted tool use has important ecological and evolutionary consequences and has been proposed as a significant driver of human evolution. Such evidence is still scarce in other animals. In cetaceans, tool use has been inferred using indirect evidence in one population of Indo-Pacific

  7. Migratory culture, population structure and stock identity in North Pacific beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suydam, Robert; Quakenbush, Lori; Potgieter, Brooke; Harwood, Lois; Litovka, Dennis; Ferrer, Tatiana; Citta, John; Burkanov, Vladimir; Frost, Kathy; Mahoney, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The annual return of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, to traditional seasonal locations across the Arctic may involve migratory culture, while the convergence of discrete summering aggregations on common wintering grounds may facilitate outbreeding. Natal philopatry and cultural inheritance, however, has been difficult to assess as earlier studies were of too short a duration, while genetic analyses of breeding patterns, especially across the beluga’s Pacific range, have been hampered by inadequate sampling and sparse information on wintering areas. Using a much expanded sample and genetic marker set comprising 1,647 whales, spanning more than two decades and encompassing all major coastal summering aggregations in the Pacific Ocean, we found evolutionary-level divergence among three geographic regions: the Gulf of Alaska, the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas, and the Sea of Okhotsk (Φst = 0.11–0.32, Rst = 0.09–0.13), and likely demographic independence of (Fst-mtDNA = 0.02–0.66), and in many cases limited gene flow (Fst-nDNA = 0.0–0.02; K = 5–6) among, summering groups within regions. Assignment tests identified few immigrants within summering aggregations, linked migrating groups to specific summering areas, and found that some migratory corridors comprise whales from multiple subpopulations (PBAYES = 0.31:0.69). Further, dispersal is male-biased and substantial numbers of closely related whales congregate together at coastal summering areas. Stable patterns of heterogeneity between areas and consistently high proportions (~20%) of close kin (including parent-offspring) sampled up to 20 years apart within areas (G = 0.2–2.9, p>0.5) is the first direct evidence of natal philopatry to migration destinations in belugas. Using recent satellite telemetry findings on belugas we found that the spatial proximity of winter ranges has a greater influence on the degree of both individual and genetic exchange than summer ranges (rwinter-Fst-mtDNA = 0

  8. Mercury in fish products: what's the best for consumers between bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Vazzana, Mirella; Arizza, Vincenzo; Giunta, Francesca; Vella, Antonio; Lo Dico, Gianluigi; Giaccone, Vita; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cicero, Nicola; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    A total of 205 bluefin and yellowfin tuna samples were examined for mercury detection in order to verify possible differences and have a detailed risk assessment of the two tuna species. The results showed significant higher mercury concentration in muscle tissue of bluefin tuna respect yellowfin tuna (p < 0.001) with mean concentration of 0.84 mg/kg and maximum value of 1.94 mg/kg. These differences can be due the different biological and ecological aspects of the two tuna species and to different oceanographic aspects between Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean sea. The results obtained in this study suggest an advisable containment of the sources of pollution and further studies on the closed-loop farming of bluefin tuna, in order to ensure the product safety.

  9. Derivation and characterization of cell cultures from the skin of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Jia, Kuntong; Yang, Lili; Chen, Jialin; Wu, Yuping; Yi, Meisheng

    2013-06-01

    The marine mammalian Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, once widely lived in waters of the Indian to western Pacific oceans, has become an endangered species. The individual number of this dolphin has significantly declined in recent decades, which raises the concern of extinction. Direct concentration on laboratorial conservation of the genetic and cell resources should be paid to this marine species. Here, we report the successful derivation of cell lines form the skin of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin. The cell cultures displayed the characteristics of fibroblast in morphology and grew rapidly at early passages, but showed obvious growth arrest at higher passages. The karyotype of the cells consisted of 42 autosomes and sex chromosomes X and Y. The immortalized cell lines obtained by forced expression of the SV40 large T-antigen were capable of proliferation at high rate in long-term culture. Immortalization and long-term culture did not cause cytogenetically observable abnormality in the karyotype. The cell type of the primary cultures and immortalized cell lines were further characterized as fibroblasts by the specific expression of vimentin. Gene transfer experiments showed that exogenetic genes could be efficiently delivered into the cells by both plasmid transfection and lentivirus infection. The cells derived from the skin of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin may serve as a useful in vitro system for studies on the effects of environmental pollutants and pathogens in habitats on the dolphin animals. More importantly, because of their high proliferation rate and susceptibility to lentivirus, these cells are potential ideal materials for generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

  10. Financial analysis of pond area extension in Pacific white shrimp culture at Cantigi Indramayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Diatin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacific white shrimp is one of the primadona of fishery commodities. This shrimp is superior as it resists to diseases and also high productivity. Jati Hasil Diri (JHD located in Cantigi Indramayu is one of the pacific white shrimp culture company. In order to develop the business, this company planned to extent their pond area from 26 to 42 Ha. This plan was therefore needed to be financially analyzed to confirm its feasibility. There were two different scenarios of area extension, first scenario was to extent pond area without any technical improvement, and the second scenario was to extent pond area with technical improvement. The result of the study shows that the pond area extension was feasible with NPV of Rp7.221.427.150,00  and  Rp29.867.006.067,00, the net B/C of  2,62 and 7,7  and  also the  IRR of 47,84%  and 146,55% for the first and second scenario, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the business is still feasible to be operated at a maximal of feed price the increase of 38,84% for the first scenario and 119,36% for the second scenario or if the shrimp price decrease with a maximum decrease of 18,81% and 41,12% at first and second scenario, respectively. The first business scenario is more sensitive as compare to the second scenario. Key words: Pacific white shrimp, Cantigi Indramayu, pond, technical improvement, sensitivity analysis   ABSTRAK Udang vaname merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan yang menjadi primadona, karena keunggulannya yaitu tahan terhadap penyakit dan menghasilkan produktivitas yang cukup tinggi. Usaha Jati Hasil Diri (JHD di Cantigi Indramayu adalah salah satu perusahaan yang bergerak dalam usaha budidaya udang vaname. Dalam rangka mengembangkan usahanya, perusahaan berencana untuk menambah  luas lahan tambaknya dari 26 Ha menjadi 42 Ha. Sehingga perlu dikaji melalui analisis kelayakan finansial, apakah penambahan luas lahan ini layak atau tidak untuk diusahakan. Pengembangan ini

  11. Picoplankton diversity in the South-East Pacific Ocean from cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Le Gall

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off the Marquesas Islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we undertook a vigorous effort to isolate novel photosynthetic picoplanktonic eukaryotes. Two strategies were attempted on board: enrichment of filtered samples with culture medium and sorting of specific populations by flow cytometry based on size and chlorophyll fluorescence. Over 1900 pre-cultures were started and then further purified by flow cytometry, serial dilution or pipette isolation to yield a total of 212 strains. These strains were characterized morphologically and for more than 50% of them, genetically, through partial sequencing of the 18 S rRNA gene.

    Among the characterized strains, the largest number belongs to stramenopiles (Heterokontophyta with a record of 38 strains belonging to the species Pelagomonas calceolata (Pelagophyceae. Strains from the recently described genera Bolidomonas and Florenciella have been re-isolated for the first time since their description. Two other abundant groups are the Chlorophyta, especially Prasinophyceae, and the Haptophyta, especially the genera Phaeocystis and Emiliania. A limited number of heterotrophic flagellates have also been isolated, all of them belonging to groups containing known species. Finally, over a dozen of unicellular cyanobacterial Synechococcus strains have been obtained, some forming unusual short chains.

    Overall our strategy was quite successful since it allowed us to isolate a large number of picoplankton strains. Still it failed in two respects. First, apparently very few novel taxa have been obtained. One set of strains is related to Prasinoderma coloniale (Prasinococcales

  12. A qualitative investigation into key cultural factors that support abstinence or responsible drinking amongst some Pacific youth living in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaalii-Sauni Tamasailau

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abstinence and responsible drinking are not typically associated with youth drinking culture. Amongst Pacific youth in New Zealand there are high numbers, compared to the general New Zealand population, who choose not to consume alcohol. The Pacific youth population is made up of several ethnic groups; their ethno-cultural values are largely Polynesian and heavily influenced by the socio-economic realities of living in New Zealand. This paper explores factors that support abstinence or responsible drinking amongst Pacific youth living in Auckland. Methods A qualitative study comprised of a series of ethnically-, age-, and gender-matched semi-structured focus group discussions with 69 Pacific youth, aged 15-25 years from a university and selected high-schools. Participants were purposively sampled. Results Key cultural factors that contributed to whether Pacific youth participants were abstinent or responsible drinkers were: significant experiences within Pacific family environments (e.g. young person directly links their decision about alcohol consumption to a positive or negative role model; awareness of the belief that their actions as children of Pacific parents affects the reputation and standing of their Pacific family and community (e.g. church; awareness of traditional Pacific values of respect, reciprocity and cultural taboos (e.g. male–female socialising; commitment to no-alcohol teachings of church or religious faith; having peer support and experiences that force them to consider negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption; and personal awareness that being part of an (excessive drinking culture may seriously affect health or impede career aspirations. Conclusions The narratives offered by Pacific young people highlighted three key communities of influence: family (immediate and extended, but especially siblings, peers and church. Young people negotiated through these communities of influence their

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Ashok D.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Dockum, Bruce W.; Brill, Richard W.; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6 years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  14. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XB116 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2011 Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate...

  15. 78 FR 20258 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 120306154-2241-02] RIN 0648-XC593 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... retention limit is vital to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2012 Large Pelagics Survey...

  16. 76 FR 18416 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 100317152-0176-01] RIN 0648-XA327 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... ability to attract customers. In addition, recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter...

  17. GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PRAWN Macrobrachium tenellum IN EXPERIMENTAL CULTURES DURING SUMMER AND AUTUMN IN THE TROPICAL MEXICAN PACIFIC COAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vega Villasante

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For aquaculture purposes, Macrobrachium tenellum is considered as a good candidate, is not aggressive nor presents cannibalism and can tolerate an ample interval of temperatures, salinities and oxygen concentrations. The present work evaluates the semi-intensive culture of M. tenellum under environmental conditions of summer and autumn with special attention to water temperature. The results of the experimental cultures in the tropical Mexican Pacific coast, suggest this species demonstrates better growth during the end of the spring, summer and the beginning of the autumn, time at which the average temperature of the water is near 30°C. The experimental cultures of end of autumn and beginnings of winter demonstrate minimum growth, with an average temperature of the culture water of 27°C.  Other parameters like pH, O2 concentration and turbidity in the culture water were similar in all the experimental cultures reason why temperature is suggested the factor was the determinant in the differences found in growth. Â

  18. The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on Atlantic bluefin tuna otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Igaratza; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Santos, Miguel Neves; Macías, David; Addis, Piero; Dettman, David L.; Karakulak, Saadet; Deguara, Simeon; Rooker, Jay R.

    2016-06-01

    Otoliths of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) collected from the Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed to evaluate changes in the seawater isotopic composition over time. We report an annual otolith δ13C record that documents the magnitude of the δ13C depletion in the Mediterranean Sea between 1989 and 2010. Atlantic bluefin tuna in our sample (n = 632) ranged from 1 to 22 years, and otolith material corresponding to the first year of life (back-calculated birth year) was used to reconstruct seawater isotopic composition. Otolith δ18O remained relatively stable between 1989 and 2010, whereas a statistically significant decrease in δ13C was detected across the time interval investigated, with a rate of decline of 0.05‰ yr- 1 (- 0.94‰ depletion throughout the recorded period). The depletion in otolith δ13C over time was associated with the oceanic uptake of anthropogenically derived CO2.

  19. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  20. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  2. Peritoneal fluid culture and antibiotic treatment in patients with perforated appendicitis in a Pacific Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Boueil

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Although antibiotic use may be considered as an adjunct to surgical intervention of AP, the appropriate use of preoperative antibiotics and modifications according to culture results are essential to prevent infectious complications.

  3. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (Pshrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge

  4. Cultural transmission of tool use by Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) provides access to a novel foraging niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krützen, Michael; Kreicker, Sina; MacLeod, Colin D.; Learmonth, Jennifer; Kopps, Anna M.; Walsham, Pamela; Allen, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Culturally transmitted tool use has important ecological and evolutionary consequences and has been proposed as a significant driver of human evolution. Such evidence is still scarce in other animals. In cetaceans, tool use has been inferred using indirect evidence in one population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), where particular dolphins (‘spongers’) use marine sponges during foraging. To date, evidence of whether this foraging tactic actually provides access to novel food items is lacking. We used fatty acid (FA) signature analysis to identify dietary differences between spongers and non-spongers, analysing data from 11 spongers and 27 non-spongers from two different study sites. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in FA profiles between spongers and non-spongers between and within study sites. Moreover, FA profiles differed significantly between spongers and non-spongers foraging within the same deep channel habitat, whereas the profiles of non-spongers from deep channel and shallow habitats at this site could not be distinguished. Our results indicate that sponge use by bottlenose dolphins is linked to significant differences in diet. It appears that cultural transmission of tool use in dolphins, as in humans, allows the exploitation of an otherwise unused niche. PMID:24759862

  5. First data on growth and nucleic acid and protein content of field-captured Mediterranean bluefin (Thunnus thynnus and albacore (Thunnus alalunga tuna larvae: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The waters surrounding the Balearic archipelago are considered to be prime spawning habitats of the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and other tuna species such as albacore (T. alalunga in the Mediterranean. During the 2003 bluefin and albacore spawning season, a tuna larval survey (TUNIBAL 0703 was carried out to assess the distribution of bluefin larvae in relation to hydrographic mesoscale features. Tuna larvae were collected by means of surface plankton tows with a bongo gear with a quadrangular mouth measuring 1 m diagonally. The otolith microstructure of 157 and 71 field-captured larvae of Mediterranean bluefin and albacore, respectively, were analyzed to estimate the daily growth pattern. Furthermore, biochemical analysis to estimate DNA, RNA and protein content was done on another batch of 114 bluefin and 132 albacore larvae. The size range included pre-flexion to post-flexion larvae, from 2.8 to 8.6 mm in body length. bluefin and albacore larvae grew linearly in standard length (0.35 and 0.33 mm/day, respectively and potentially with respect to dry weight. No significant differences between species were observed in the size-weight relationship, or in the allometric relationship of body size and weight to otolith radius. However, the relationship of DNA and RNA to body size and weight showed a significant difference between species. Bluefin tuna larvae showed a greater nucleic acid content than albacore larvae. Protein content showed no significant differences with respect to body length.

  6. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Composition, diversity and function of intestinal microbiota in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at different culture stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shenzheng; Huang, Zhijian; Hou, Dongwei; Liu, Jian; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph) to adult stage (75 dph) to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity. A total of 2,496 OTUs were obtained, ranging from 585 to 1,239 in each sample. Forty-three phyla were identified due to the classifiable sequence. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. OTUs belonged to 289 genera and the most abundant genera were Candidatus_Xiphinematobacter , Propionigenium , Synechococcus , Shewanella and Cetobacterium . Fifty-nine OTUs were detected in all samples, which were considered as the major microbes in intestine of shrimp. The intestinal microbiota was enriched with functional potentials that were related to transporters, ABC transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, two component system, secretion system, bacterial motility proteins, purine metabolism and ribosome. All the results showed that the intestinal microbial composition, diversity and functions varied significantly at different culture stages, which indicated that shrimp intestinal microbiota depended on culture stages. These findings provided new evidence on intestinal microorganism microecology and greatly enhanced our understanding of stage

  8. Composition, diversity and function of intestinal microbiota in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei at different culture stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzheng Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph to adult stage (75 dph to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity. A total of 2,496 OTUs were obtained, ranging from 585 to 1,239 in each sample. Forty-three phyla were identified due to the classifiable sequence. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. OTUs belonged to 289 genera and the most abundant genera were Candidatus_Xiphinematobacter, Propionigenium, Synechococcus, Shewanella and Cetobacterium. Fifty-nine OTUs were detected in all samples, which were considered as the major microbes in intestine of shrimp. The intestinal microbiota was enriched with functional potentials that were related to transporters, ABC transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, two component system, secretion system, bacterial motility proteins, purine metabolism and ribosome. All the results showed that the intestinal microbial composition, diversity and functions varied significantly at different culture stages, which indicated that shrimp intestinal microbiota depended on culture stages. These findings provided new evidence on intestinal microorganism microecology and greatly enhanced our understanding of stage

  9. Culture-specific views of child maltreatment and parenting styles in a Pacific-Island community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, A F; McClure, F H; Collier, J; Otto, C; Polloi, A

    1999-03-01

    Providing culturally sensitive definitions of child abuse is difficult as perceptions of what constitutes abuse can vary around the world. This study was undertaken to assess how teachers in the Republic of Palau perceived the severity of potentially abusive incidents and what types of recommendations, if any, they would have for situations judged as severely abusive. Attitudes about child rearing practices were also evaluated. Teachers (n = 141 ) were given: (1) a questionnaire consisting of 25 vignettes describing parent/child interactions that were potentially abusive and asked to rate the severity of abuse and recommended interventions for each vignette; and (2) a 40-item parenting styles questionnaires to evaluate attitudes about child-rearing practices. Teachers identified and recommended interventions for more severe forms of abuse at rates similar to other international samples. For less severe parental misconduct, teachers were reluctant to involve nonfamily and outside agencies. Sexual abuse was rated as the most serious type of abuse and when identified, intervention was highly recommended. Some traditional Palauan parenting practices that might be considered maltreatment by other cultures were not considered abusive. For parenting styles, older individuals were more likely to use guilt induction and less likely to use methods of acceptance. Aggressive parenting styles were negatively correlated with all forms of abuse, suggesting that teachers who used aggressive disciplinary styles were less likely to perceive abusive situations as harmful. These results indicate that cultural values and practices play important roles in shaping the definition and interpretation of child maltreatment.

  10. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Payne, Mark; Boje, Jesper

    Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food-webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species...... since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species into the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts...

  11. Content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured in modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Rahman, A.; Siswanting, T.; Pin, T. J.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal is one of the hazardous substances which often found in shrimp farm. Since this shrimp become mostly favorable food, it is necessary to determine the content of metal in this shrimps. This research was aimed to determine the content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured on the modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java. Samples were taken from five farms. During transport, samples were kept in a more relaxed box. Farms used were designed using black plastic as the bottom layer to separate contact with soil. Heavy metal of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on shrimp meat was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry method. The content of Cr was ranged from 0.06 – 0.38 ppm and Pb were 0.02 – 0.05 ppm. The content of Cu was ranged from 1.89 – 15.25 ppm and Zn were 2.16 – 3.92 ppm. According to government rules and literature, those content were below a threshold which was 0.4 ppm for Cu, 0.5 ppm for Pb, 20 ppm for Cu and 0.2 ppm for Zn.

  12. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of sinbiotic at different doses in Pacific white shrimp pond culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing demand of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei requires the application of intensive culture system. However, intensive culture system of white shrimp could increase the risk of disease outbreak. The application of sinbiotic may provide solution to the problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of technical sinbiotic on the survival and growth of white shrimp in ponds. This study consisted of four treatments; treatment K (control, treatment A (probiotic 0.5% and prebiotic 1%, treatment B (probiotic 1% and prebiotic 2%, and treatment C (probiotic 2% and prebiotic 4%. The results showed that administration of sinbiotic had no significant differences on survival rate, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, size, and biomass of shrimp (P>0.05. However, based on analysis of business, sinbiotic A provided higher profits to the farmer (Rp10.230 compared to other symbiotic treatments and control. Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei, sinbiotic, technical media ABSTRAK Permintaan terhadap udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei yang semakin meningkat membuat sistem budidaya udang sebaiknya menggunakan sistem budidaya intensif. Namun demikian sistem intensif pada budidaya udang vaname dapat meningkatkan risiko timbulnya penyakit. Penggunaan sinbiotik diharapkan dapat memberikan solusi dalam mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas penggunaan sinbiotik teknis terhadap sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan keuntungan usaha udang vaname yang dipelihara di tambak. Penelitian ini terdiri atas empat perlakuan, yaitu perlakuan K (kontrol, perlakuan A (probiotik 0,5% dan prebiotik 1%, perlakuan B (probiotik 1% dan prebiotik 2%, dan perlakuan C (probiotik 2% dan prebiotik 4%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian sinbiotik tidak berbeda nyata dalam nilai sintasan, laju pertumbuhan, rasio konversi pakan, size, dan biomassa udang (P>0,05. Namun demikian, berdasarkan analisis usaha perlakuan A

  14. A Satellite Imagery, Ecosystem-Based GIS Study of Bluefin Tuna and Right Whale Distribution and Movements in the Gulf of Marine and NW Atlantic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutcavage, Molly

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this research were to develop a GIS workstation to examine the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of Atlantic bluefin tuna and the Northern right whale in relation to their environment and prey...

  15. Vocalisation Repertoire of Female Bluefin Gurnard (Chelidonichthys kumu in Captivity: Sound Structure, Context and Vocal Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Radford

    Full Text Available Fish vocalisation is often a major component of underwater soundscapes. Therefore, interpretation of these soundscapes requires an understanding of the vocalisation characteristics of common soniferous fish species. This study of captive female bluefin gurnard, Chelidonichthys kumu, aims to formally characterise their vocalisation sounds and daily pattern of sound production. Four types of sound were produced and characterised, twice as many as previously reported in this species. These sounds fit two aural categories; grunt and growl, the mean peak frequencies for which ranged between 129 to 215 Hz. This species vocalized throughout the 24 hour period at an average rate of (18.5 ± 2.0 sounds fish-1 h-1 with an increase in vocalization rate at dawn and dusk. Competitive feeding did not elevate vocalisation as has been found in other gurnard species. Bluefin gurnard are common in coastal waters of New Zealand, Australia and Japan and, given their vocalization rate, are likely to be significant contributors to ambient underwater soundscape in these areas.

  16. A reconstructed database of historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué M. Polanco-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data paper presents a reconstruction of a compilation of a small but consistent database of historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Italy. The compilation come from diverse historical and documentary sources and span the time interval from 1525 to 1936 covering a period of 412 years. There is a total of 3074 datum, which reach up to 67.83% of the total implying a 32.17% of missing data. However, we have only reconstructed the captures for the time interval 1700–1936 and we provide these reconstructions only for this time interval and for 9 out of 11 series due to the scarcity and inhomogeneity of the two oldest capture time series. This reconstructed database provides an invaluable opportunity for fisheries and marine research as well as for multidisciplinary research in climate change. Keywords: Data reconstructions, DINEOF, Missing data, Historic Bluefin tuna captures, Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

  17. Does ethno-cultural betrayal in trauma affect Asian American/Pacific Islander college students' mental health outcomes? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health, with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma. Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental healthcare utilization. According to cultural betrayal trauma theory, societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students. Participants (N = 108) were AAPI college students from a predominantly white university. Data collection concluded in December 2015. Participants completed online self-report measures. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that when controlling for interracial trauma, ethno-cultural betrayal trauma significantly impacted dissociation, hallucinations, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hypervigilance. The results have implications for incorporating identity, discrimination, and ethno-cultural betrayal trauma victimization into assessments and case conceptualizations in therapy.

  18. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  19. Relative growth pattern and hard tissue of vertebral centra by microradiography of bluefin tuna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, H.

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of three species, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus, bigeye tuna T. obesus and skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis (BL: 44.2, 39.5 and 40.0cm respectively). We examined the ratio of cetrum length to diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.9-1.3 in most centra among three species. This indicates that the examined species belong to the equivalent type of the relative growth pattern of vertebral centra. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm) cut through the center of notochordal pore. The major centra of the vertebral column were composed of characteristic simple structure like a cross, when seen in the microradiographs of cross sections. Microradiographs indicated that the bone has complicated canals with minute spaces like the bone cavities

  20. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  1. Isotopic discrimination factors and nitrogen turnover rates in reared Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (Thunnus thynnus: effects of maternal transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Uriarte

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of stable isotope analysis to study animal diets requires estimates of isotopic turnover rates (half time, t50 and discrimination factors (Δ for an accurate interpretation of trophic patterns. The stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were analysed for eggs and reared larvae of Thunnus thynnus, as well as for the different diets supplied during the experiment. The results showed high values of δ15N in eggs and larvae (n=646 until 4 DAH. After this time lapse, the stable isotope values declined progressively until 12 DAH, when notochord flexion began. The δ13C showed an inverse trend, suggesting that maternal inheritance of the stable isotopes is evident until pre-flexion stages. This study proposes a model for estimating maternal isotopic signatures of bluefin broodstock. After notochord flexion, larvae were fed with aquaculture-bred gilthead seabream, which resulted in a rapid increase of bluefin larvae δ15N values together with a rapid decrease in δ13C values. The estimated nitrogen half-time to reach the steady state from the diet was 2.5±0.3 days and the discrimination factor was 0.4±0.3(‰. These results represent the first data set that has allowed isotopic nitrogen turnover rates and discrimination factors of the larval stages of bluefin tuna to be estimated.

  2. Improved safety culture and labor-management relations attributed to changing at-risk behavior process at Union Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Changing At-Risk Behavior (CAB) is a safety process that is being conducted at Union Pacifics San Antonio Service Unit (SASU) with the aim of improving road and yard safety. CAB is an example of a proactive safety risk-reduction method called Clea...

  3. Early manifestations of the Valparaíso’s imaginary. In the context of a porteña culture of the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Chandía Araya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The poetic imaginary that emerges from the porteña culture of the South Pacific is a product of the imagination that responds to a historic scriptural exercise. We review these manifestations from three moments or sensitivities that build an image of the Valparaiso city-port. The journey tale, the modernist gesture and the naturalistic narrative (all of them appear before a major aesthetic-literary product reveal a way of inhabit the city-port that allows to propose the existence of a culture in conflict with Occident.  The passages of these manifestations cannot be read separately from that poetic of the porteño inhabit, but as part of a discourse of the border that declares against the oblivion and in favor of the historic survival of these city-ports

  4. Depressed resilience of bluefin tuna in the western atlantic and age truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, D H; Rooker, J R; Gahagan, B I; Siskey, M R; Wingate, R W

    2015-04-01

    Following intense overfishing in the 1970s, the western stock of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) experienced a long period of depressed abundance, which has been attributed to failure of the population to periodically produce large numbers of juveniles, the western stock mixing with the more highly exploited eastern stock (fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea), and regime shift in the population's ecosystem resulting in lower replacement rates. To evaluate the presence of relatively strong years of juvenile production, we analyzed age structure from a recent sample of otoliths (ear stones) collected from the western stock (2011-2013, North Carolina, U.S.A., winter fishery). Mixing levels for the recent sample were analyzed using otolith stable isotopes to test whether age structure might be biased through immigration of eastern stock bluefin tuna. Age structure from historical samples collected from United States and Canadian fisheries (1975-1981) was compared with more recent samples (1996-2007) to examine whether demographic changes had occurred to the western stock that might have disrupted juvenile production. Relatively high juvenile production occurred in 2003, 2005, and 2006. Otolith stable isotope analysis showed that these recruitments were mostly of western stock origin. However, these high recruitments were >2-fold less than historical recruitment. We found substantial age truncation in the sampled fisheries. Half the historical sample was >20 years old (mean age = 20.1 [SD 3.7]; skewness = -0.3), whereas 20 years old (mean age = 13.4 [SD 3.8]; skewness = 1.3). Loss of age structure is consistent with changes in fishing selectivity and trends in the stock assessment used for management. We propose that fishing, as a forcing variable, brought about a threshold shift in the western stock toward lower biomass and production, a shift that emulates the regime shift hypothesis. An abbreviated reproductive life span

  5. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  6. Morphological, nutritional and safety traits of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus reared in floating cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Poli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of fattening on morphological, nutritional and safety characteristics, two lots of bluefin tuna were sampled before (November: 2 C, 4 ? and after 5 months of fattening (April: 5 C, 5 ?. The specimens, after death, were refrigerated and analysed at different times over the period of a week for morphological and flesh physico-chemical parameters in six muscle sites. Tuna sampled in April had greater body weight (44.04 vs 36.41kg, trunk length (52.21 vs 48.22cm and minimum and maximum circumferences (13.74 vs 12.77 and 94.90 vs 89.10cm. No differences in other linear measures or body components were found. Fattening did not influence flesh colour or total lipid content, producing small differences in its chemical composition: greater C18:0, C18:1n9 and PUFAn6 percentages; higher putrescine and histamine (0.489 vs 0.335 and 0.666 vs 0.370mg/kg but lower spermine and spermidine (10.598 vs 17.387 and 2.420 vs 3.928mg/kg levels. Large differences in physico-chemical parameters were found between muscle sites and a significant interaction between sampling date and muscle site indicated non homogeneous changes in chemical composition of dorsal, ventral and red muscle after fattening. Sex only influenced fat content in viscera (C 12.84 vs ? 9.84%.

  7. Genetic Structure of Bluefin Tuna in the Mediterranean Sea Correlates with Environmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Giulia; Stagioni, Marco; Landi, Monica; Ferrara, Giorgia; Barbujani, Guido; Tinti, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Background Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT) shows complex demography and ecological variation in the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic surveys have detected significant, although weak, signals of population structuring; catch series analyses and tagging programs identified complex ABFT spatial dynamics and migration patterns. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic structure of the ABFT in the Mediterranean is correlated with mean surface temperature and salinity. Methodology We used six samples collected from Western and Central Mediterranean integrated with a new sample collected from the recently identified easternmost reproductive area of Levantine Sea. To assess population structure in the Mediterranean we used a multidisciplinary framework combining classical population genetics, spatial and Bayesian clustering methods and a multivariate approach based on factor analysis. Conclusions FST analysis and Bayesian clustering methods detected several subpopulations in the Mediterranean, a result also supported by multivariate analyses. In addition, we identified significant correlations of genetic diversity with mean salinity and surface temperature values revealing that ABFT is genetically structured along two environmental gradients. These results suggest that a preference for some spawning habitat conditions could contribute to shape ABFT genetic structuring in the Mediterranean. However, further studies should be performed to assess to what extent ABFT spawning behaviour in the Mediterranean Sea can be affected by environmental variation. PMID:24260341

  8. Into the deep blue sea: Commons theory and international governance of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to understand how to sustainably govern oceanic fisheries has become increasingly urgent as their contribution to global food security and livelihoods are threatened by declining stocks. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT is a prominent example of the complexities associated with widely distributed oceanic resources, extending in this case to include much of the North-Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. This distribution has led to limited attention from commons theorists that tend to focus on small-scale social ecological systems. Therefore in order to explore the fit between theories of the commons developed in small-scale systems, we apply the Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database (SESMAD to systematically analyze ABFT governance over a 22 year period. The results, which focus on the effects of resource characteristics, broadly correspond to the expectations of commons theory. Interestingly, however, the addition of resource storage in the form of ABFT ranches appears to be contributing to unsustainable harvests. This stands in contrast to previous findings in the commons literature that storage tends to enhance prospects for sustainable governance. Therefore several alternative hypotheses are developed by comparing and contrasting attributes of ABFT and canal irrigation storage. These hypotheses may be used in future research to evaluate the conditions in which storage enhances prospects for sustainable governance.

  9. Cultural Dynamics in a Globalized World : Proceedings of the Asia- Pacific research in Social Sciences and Humanities, Depok, Indonesia, November 7–9, 2016, Topics in arts and humanities

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The book contains essays on current issues in arts and humanities in which peoples and cultures compete as well as collaborate in globalizing the world while maintaining their uniqueness as viewed from cross- and inter-disciplinary perspectives. The book covers areas such as literature, cultural studies, archaeology, philosophy, history, language studies, information and literacy studies, and area studies. Asia and the Pacific are the particular regions that the conference focuses on as they ...

  10. Molecular and morphological identification of Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) eggs in hatchery-reared and migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forte-Gil, D.; Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Peñalver, J.; Dolores, E.M.; Muñoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 450, JAN 1 (2016), s. 58-66 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aquaculture * Atlantic bluefin tuna * Blood fluke * Cardicola * Migration * Thunnus thynnus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.570, year: 2016

  11. Organic carbon source and C/N ratio affect inorganic nitrogen profile in the biofloc-based culture media of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif Azhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic carbon source and C/N ratio play an important role in aquaculture system with biofloc technology application. Nitrogen control by adding carbohydrates to the water to stimulate heterotrophic bacterial growth by converting nitrogen into bacterial biomass. The study investigated the effect molasses, tapioca, tapioca by product and rice bran as carbon sources in a biofloc media at three different C/N ratios i.e. 10, 15, and 20 on total ammonia reduction in biofloc media. Five liters of biofloc media in a conical tank was prepared for each replicate, which consisted of 500 mL of biofloc suspension collected from a shrimp culture unit with biofloc technology application and 4.5 L seawater. Pacific white shrimp culture was performed in 40L glass aquaria at a shrimp density of 30/aquarium. There was a significant interaction between carbon source and the C/N ratio applied (P<0.05. The use of molasses resulted in the highest reduction rate irrespective to the C/N ratio. Keywords: molasses, tapioca, tapioca by product, rice bran, biofloc, total ammonia nitrogen

  12. Seasonal and geographical variability in some trace elements of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea Gigas) cultured in two different bays of Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, N.; Thieck, M.; Munoz, L.

    1991-01-01

    Chile has approximately 4,500 kilometers of continental coastline on the Pacific Ocean. It is therefore in a favorable position to develop fishing activities, since its waters contain a great variety of marine resources, namely, fish, shellfish and seaweeds. Fishing in Chile plays an important role in production. Metal contamination of the marine ecosystem is a pervasive and worldwide problem. Consequently, seafood consuming and exporting countries have gradually increased the need to improve the quality of their products in order to meet the required standards. In turn, this implies the need to adopt more efficient methods to analyze these resources by carrying out studies that will provide greater integral knowledge on the levels of essential and toxic trace elements found in seafood. In the present study, seasonal and geographical variability of some trace elements content of Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea Gigas) cultured, greatly demanded on the international market, are investigated. Samples for the analysis were collected from two different bays of Northern Chile, where heavy-metal pollution is already recognized as a problem. The trace elements content of this mollusk was studied at monthly intervals for 12 months (September 1987-August 1988). The determination of Cu was carried out using radiochemical neutron activation analysis and the other trace elements like Cd, As, Br, Na, Se, Cr, Fe, Zn and Co, were determined through neutron activation analysis in its purely instrumental form. NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to determine the accuracy of both methods. Significant differences were found comparing the content of copper and cadmium at the different seasons and locations of capture

  13. Trade-Based Estimation of Bluefin Tuna Catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagern, Antonius; van den Bergh, Jeroen; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE) has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The extent of such catch is an important piece of information in stock assessment models as well as being an indicator of the effectiveness of fisheries management. We present a model using Bluefin tuna trade data to infer actual catches. Basing our calculations on 25 countries involved in BFTE trade, we estimate that between 2005 and 2011, allowable quotas were exceeded by 44 percent. This gap between catch and quotas has slightly increased over past years, leading to estimated excess catches of 57 percent for the period between 2008 and 2011. To improve assessments, preparation and design of BFTE management, we suggest that the estimated total removals reported in this paper be included in stock assessment models for BFTE. An implication of our findings is that ICCAT member states should take stronger measures to monitor and enforce compliance with quotas. PMID:23922870

  14. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993-1995 and 1999-2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT.

  15. "When I am in Japan, I feel as though I'm not disabled": A cross-cultural adjustment study of trainees with disabilities from Asia-Pacific regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Iwakuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the cross-cultural adjustment processes of trainees with disabilities from Asia-Pacific regions, with the aim to explore factors that influence cross-cultural adjustments and uncover experiences by individuals with disabilities. We interviewed a total of 13 trainees, some of whom were interviewed multiple times. Several factors (e.g., affluence of the Japanese lifestyle, maintaining contact with home via the Internet, and/or previous knowledge of the host culture greatly affected their transitions to Japan. Notably, participant adjustments were made on several different levels, including physical, social, and attitudinal.

  16. The development of the northern European fishery for north Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus during 1900-1950

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    North Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, used to migrate to northern European waters (Norwegian Sea, North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Øresund) where it supported important commercial and sportfisheries. The species disappeared from the region in the early 1960s and the species is now still...... increasing. The species was frequently sighted while fishermen were targeting other species (herring, mackerel) and occasionally was caught as bycatch with these and other species. Information from scientifically trained observers demonstrate that tuna schools were common in the North Sea for 2–3 months...... during the summers of 1923–1931. As fishermen realized that the species had market value, new catch methods were developed and employed. These included harpoon-rifle, improved hook and line methods, and hydraulically operated purse seines. Landings rose sharply as did the number of vessels...

  17. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  18. First attempt to assess the viability of bluefin tuna spawning events in offshore cages located in an a priori favourable larval habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reglero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Atlantic bluefin tuna caught by the purse-seine fleet in the Mediterranean Sea are transferred alive into transport cages and towed to coastal facilities where they are fattened. This major fishery is targeting aggregations of reproductive bluefin tuna that continue spawning within the transport cages. Our study is the first attempt to assess the viability of the spawning events within transport cages placed offshore in a priori favourable locations for larval survival. The study was conducted in June 2010 in the Balearic Sea, a main spawning area for bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean. The location of two transport cages, one with wild and one with captive tuna, coincide with the situation of the chlorophyll front using satellite imagery as a proxy for the salinity front between resident surface waters and those of recent Atlantic origin. The results showed that bluefin tuna eggs were spawned almost every day within the two cages but few or no larvae were found. The expected larval densities estimated after applying mortality curves to the daily egg densities observed in the cages were higher than the sampled larval densities. The trajectories of the eggs after hatching estimated from a particle tracking model based on observed geostrophic currents and a drifter deployed adjacent to the cage suggest that larvae were likely to be caught close to the cages within the sampling dates. Spawning events in captive tuna in transport cages may hatch into larvae though they may experience higher mortality rates than expected in natural populations. The causes of the larval mortality are further discussed in the text. Such studies should be repeated in other spawning areas in the Mediterranean if spawning in cages located offshore in areas favourable a priori for larval survival is likely to be considered a management measurement to minimize the impact of purse-seine fishing on tuna.

  19. Discovering where bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, might go: using environmental and fishery data to map potential tuna habitat in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Damalas; Persefoni Megalofonou

    2012-01-01

    Based on a dataset derived from commercial fisheries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 1998-2005, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to investigate the relative influence of a range of environmental factors on catch rates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1785). GAM analyses were conducted by separately modelling (1) the probability of making a catch (encountering a school), and (2) the positive catch rates (school size). Results suggested intra-annual variation...

  20. Pacific ciguatoxin-1b effect over Na+ and K+ currents, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate content and intracellular Ca2+ signals in cultured rat myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Liberona, José Luis; Molgó, Jordi; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The action of the main ciguatoxin involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific region (P-CTX-1b) was studied in myotubes originated from rat skeletal muscle cells kept in primary culture. The effect of P-CTX-1b on sodium currents at short times of exposure (up to 1 min) showed a moderate increase in peak Na+ current. During prolonged exposures, P-CTX-1b decreased the peak Na+ current. This action was always accompanied by an increase of leakage currents, tail currents and outward Na+ currents, resulting in an intracellular Na+ accumulation. This effect is blocked by prior exposure to tetrodotoxin (TTX) and becomes evident only after washout of TTX. Low to moderate concentrations of P-CTX-1b (2–5 nM) partially blocked potassium currents in a manner that was dependent on the membrane potential. P-CTX-1b (2–12 nM) caused a small membrane depolarization (3–5 mV) and an increase in the frequency of spontaneous action potential discharges that reached in general low frequencies (0.1–0.5 Hz). P-CTX-1b (10 nM) caused a transient increase of intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) mass levels, which was blocked by TTX. In the presence of P-CTX-1b (10 nM) and in the absence of external Ca2+, the intracellular Ca2+ levels show a transient increase in the cytoplasm as well as in the nuclei. The time course of this effect may reflect the action of IP3 over internal stores activated by P-CTX-1b-induced membrane depolarization. PMID:12429578

  1. Levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in a random sample of Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, D.; Madigan, T.; Kiermeier, A.; Daughtry, B.; Pointon, A. [South Australian Research and Development Inst. (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    To date there has been no published information available on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii). Southern Bluefin Tuna are commercially farmed off the coast of Port Lincoln in the state of South Australia, Australia. This paper reports the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in muscle tissue samples from 11 randomly sampled aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna collected in 2003. Little published data exists on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquacultureproduced seafood. Wild tuna are first caught in the Great Australian Bight in South Australian waters, and are then brought back to Port Lincoln where they are ranched in sea-cages before being harvested and exported to Japan. The aim of the study was to identify pathways whereby contaminants such as dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs may enter the aquaculture production system. This involved undertaking a through chain analysis of the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in wild caught tuna, seafloor sediment samples from the marine environment, levels in feeds and final harvested exported product. Detailed study was also undertaken on the variation of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs across individual tuna carcases. This paper addresses the levels found in final harvested product. Details on levels found in other studies will be published elsewhere shortly.

  2. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Fuller, R C; Porfiri, M

    2014-09-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation.

  4. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Porfiri, M; Fuller, R C

    2014-01-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation. (paper)

  5. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  6. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2017-09-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  7. Dietary evidence of mesopelagic and pelagic foraging by Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Droplaug; MacKenzie, Brian; Chosson-P, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) is a large highly mobile predator fish species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Knowledge of its trophic role in marine food webs in summer feeding areas is presently based on recent (1980–2010s) sampling in the Bay of Biscay, Gulfs...... of Maine and St. Lawrence, and from historical (1950–1960s) sampling in the Norwegian-North Sea-Kattegat. No study has yet investigated the diets of ABFT in Icelandic waters, where it supported an experimental fishery during 1996–2005, nor in any region north of the Bay of Biscay since the 1960s. However......, north Atlantic temperatures and fish species distributions, including some ABFT prey species (e.g., mackerel) have been changing in the 2000s. New knowledge of ABFT diets in previously understudied parts of the species range will be useful for understanding factors affecting the trophic role, migration...

  8. Molecular Identification of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scombridae Larvae and Development of a DNA Character-Based Identification Key for Mediterranean Scombrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Neils Puncher

    Full Text Available The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, is a commercially important species that has been severely over-exploited in the recent past. Although the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock is now showing signs of recovery, its current status remains very uncertain and as a consequence their recovery is dependent upon severe management informed by rigorous scientific research. Monitoring of early life history stages can inform decision makers about the health of the species based upon recruitment and survival rates. Misidentification of fish larvae and eggs can lead to inaccurate estimates of stock biomass and productivity which can trigger demands for increased quotas and unsound management conclusions. Herein we used a molecular approach employing mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1 and ITS1, respectively to identify larvae (n = 188 collected from three spawning areas in the Mediterranean Sea by different institutions working with a regional fisheries management organization. Several techniques were used to analyze the genetic sequences (sequence alignments using search algorithms, neighbour joining trees, and a genetic character-based identification key and an extensive comparison of the results is presented. During this process various inaccuracies in related publications and online databases were uncovered. Our results reveal important differences in the accuracy of the taxonomic identifications carried out by different ichthyoplanktologists following morphology-based methods. While less than half of larvae provided were bluefin tuna, other dominant taxa were bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, albacore (Thunnus alalunga and little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus. We advocate an expansion of expertise for a new generation of morphology-based taxonomists, increased dialogue between morphology-based and molecular taxonomists and increased scrutiny of public sequence databases.

  9. Education for, by, and of Asian/Pacific Americans, I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokawa, Donald T.; Morishima, James K.

    1980-01-01

    This report discusses several perspectives on Asian/Pacific Americans and the educational issues that relate to them. It begins by providing a definition of "Asian/Pacific American," an historical account of their immigration, and a discussion of minority status and cultural relativism. A number of studies and personal experiences that…

  10. Pacific Studies: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Looking back to the past this paper discusses why Pacific studies and in particular Australasian studies became an area of interest in tertiary education in Europe. What subject areas initiated these studies, and how do past legacies shape the present? With cutbacks in higher education over the past two decades the future of interdisciplinary studies and the humanities looks bleak. At the same time due to global business and increased political communication across borders there is a vibrant interest in and need for such studies among businesses and students. For most Europeans the literature of settler countries, with their European legacy, makes access to ways of thought and culture easier than studies of countries with other mythological backgrounds. In today’s multicultural environment such studies can provide knowledge for an understanding of other cultures and increase tolerance of the ‘other’. Area studies have relevance to our situation in Europe with increased migrancy, not least as a result of Schengen and EU regulations.

  11. Rapid in vitro propagation system through shoot tip cultures of Vitex trifolia L.-an important multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rafique; Anis, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    A rapid and efficient plant propagation system through shoot tip explants was established in Vitex trifolia L., a medicinally important plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. Multiple shoots were induced directly on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium consisting of different cytokinins, 6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin) and 2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP), BA at an optimal concentration of 5.0 μM was most effective in inducing multiple shoots where 90 % explants responded with an average shoot number (4.4±0.1) and shoot length (2.0±0.1 cm) after 6 weeks of culture. Inclusion of NAA in the culture medium along with the optimum concentration of BA promoted a higher rate of shoot multiplication and length of the shoot, where 19.2±0.3 well-grown healthy shoots with an average shoot length of 4.4±0.1 cm were obtained on completion of 12 weeks culture period. Ex vitro rooting was achieved best directly in soilrite when basal portion of the shoots were treated with 500 μM indole-3-butyric acid for 15 min which was the most effective in inducing roots, as 95 % of the microshoots produced roots. Plantlets went through a hardening phase in a controlled plant growth chamber, prior to ex-vitro transfer. Micropropagated plants grew well, attained maturity and flowered with 92 % survival rate. The results of this study provide the first report on in vitro plant regeneration of Vitex trifolia L. using shoot tip explants.

  12. Asia and the Pacific: Issues of Educational Policy, Curriculum, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald C., Ed.; And Others

    The Pacific region is growing in worldwide importance in terms of politics, economics, and culture. The emergence of this area of the world provides an opportunity for new directions in social studies education. This book addresses the Pacific Rim issues from the viewpoints of educators from 9 Pacific nations: Australia, Canada, Fiji, Japan,…

  13. Traditional gift-giving and gambling amongst Pacific mothers living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perese, Lana; Gao, Wanzhen; Erick, Stephanie; Macpherson, Cluny; Cowley-Malcolm, Esther; Sundborn, Gerhard

    2011-09-01

    Cultural variables are implicated in gambling literature as playing an important role in the initiation and maintenance of gambling activity, however there remains a paucity of research that defines and investigates the association between cultural factors, gambling and problem gambling amongst different cultural groups. The first data collection point for a cohort of mothers within the longitudinal Pacific Islands Families study identified that the Pacific cultural practice of traditional gift-giving was associated with gambling activity and expenditure. In this paper, data about traditional gift-giving and gambling are presented from the third collection point within this study. The results support an association between gambling (rather than problem gambling) and traditional gift-giving. This paper contends the need to contextualise Pacific peoples gambling within Pacific cultures. Also a need is identified to examine and address the psycho-social and cultural impacts of gambling for Pacific peoples.

  14. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  15. From Theory to Practice: "Kaizen" and the Academy of the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdale, Spencer

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles the Academy of the Pacific Rim Charter Public School (Hyde Park, Massachusetts) and describes the school's culture. The school's students, who are in grades 6 through 12, are surrounded by rituals, routines, and relationship-building activities. Pacific Rim's culture stems from and supports the school's…

  16. Incorporation of habitat information in the development of indices of larval bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (2001-2005 and 2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G. Walter; Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Reglero, Patricia; Balbín, Rosa; García, Alberto; Alemany, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Fishery independent indices of bluefin tuna larvae in the Western Mediterranean Sea are presented utilizing ichthyoplankton survey data collected from 2001 through 2005 and 2012 through 2013. Indices were developed using larval catch rates collected using two different types of bongo sampling, by first standardizing catch rates by gear/fishing-style and then employing a delta-lognormal modeling approach. The delta-lognormal models were developed three ways: 1) a basic larval index including the following covariates: time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; 2) a standard environmental larval index including the following covariates: mean water temperature over the mixed layer depth, mean salinity over the mixed layer depth, geostrophic velocity, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; and 3) a habitat-adjusted larval index including the following covariates: a potential habitat variable, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year. Results indicated that all three model-types had similar precision in index values. However, the habitat-adjusted larval index demonstrated a high correlation with estimates of spawning stock biomass from the previous stock assessment model, and, therefore, is recommended as a tuning index in future stock assessment models.

  17. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  18. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  19. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  20. Push from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2018-05-01

    Enhanced upwelling and CO2 degassing from the subpolar North Pacific during a warm event 14,000 years ago may have helped keep atmospheric CO2 levels high enough to propel the Earth out of the last ice age.

  1. Unity through Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic film, Moesgård Film, Royal Anthropological Institute (59 min, 2011) Soanin Kilangit is determined to unite the people and attract international tourism through the revival of culture on Baluan Island in the South Pacific. He organizes the largest cultural festival ever held on the is......Ethnographic film, Moesgård Film, Royal Anthropological Institute (59 min, 2011) Soanin Kilangit is determined to unite the people and attract international tourism through the revival of culture on Baluan Island in the South Pacific. He organizes the largest cultural festival ever held......, performance, identity, cultural politics, exchange, and the impact of the West on traditional societies.”  — Karen Stevenson, American Anthropologist, September 2012...

  2. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  3. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0

  4. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after

  5. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  6. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason B.; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  8. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands.

  9. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.

    1996-06-01

    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  10. Nuclear activities and the Pacific islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, J. Van; Smith, K.R.; Siwatibau, S.

    1984-01-01

    Although to outsiders the Pacific islands may seem far removed from the center of activities and controversies related to nuclear energy, this area has had more direct and negative experiences with nuclear issues than any other area in the world. These experiences have led to a deep-rooted skepticism of all nuclear activities in which distinctions between civilian and military activities, weapons and power, and low-and high-level waste bear little relation to the important Pacific concerns. Antinuclear sentiments are intimately linked to anticolonialism, growing regionalism and emerging cultural pride. Opposition and concern have been expressed in a number of international, regional, national and nongovernmental forums. In this climate, arguments about the relative safety of various waste disposal operations and other nuclear activities are not likely to be meaningful. (author)

  11. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J

    2011-01-01

    , Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents......Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji....... The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic...

  12. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  13. Habitat use, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea in relation to oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the habitat utilization, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (ABFT) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, based on 36 pop-up archival tags and different environmental data sets. Tags were deployed on early mature ABFT (127-255 cm) between July and November in 2007-2014, on the shelf area off Marseille, France. The data obtained from these tags provided 1643 daily summaries of ABFT vertical behaviour over 8 years of tag deployment. Based on a hierarchical clustering of this data, we could identify four principle daily vertical behaviour types, representing surface (≦ 10 m) and subsurface (10-100 m) orientation, moderate (50-200 m) and deep (≧ 200 m) diving behaviour. These vertical behaviour types showed seasonal variations with partly opposing trends in their frequencies. Accordingly, ABFT were more surface orientated during summer, while moderate diving behaviour was more common during winter. Depth time series data further revealed inverted day-night patterns for both of these periods. Tagged ABFT frequented the surface waters more regularly during daytime and deeper waters during the night in summer, while the opposite pattern was found in winter. Seasonal changes in the vertical behaviour of ABFT were accompanied by simultaneous changes in environmental conditions (SST, chla, thermal stratification). Accordingly, surface orientation and moderate diving behaviour appeared to be triggered by the thermal stratification of the water column, though less pronounced than previously reported for ABFT in the North Atlantic, probably indicating adaptive vertical behaviour related to the availability of epipelagic food resources (anchovies and sardines). Deep diving behaviour was particularly frequent during months of high biological productivity (February-May), although one recovered tag showed periodic and unusual long spike dives during summer-autumn, in relation to

  14. Introductory essay: new horizons in cross cultural management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Ulijn, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this special issue, we present a research forum on current issues in cross cultural management in New Zealand, Australia and the Asian-Pacific Region. Our theme is new horizons in cross cultural management, which is reflected in both topic and approach. Our topics are related to the Asia Pacific

  15. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  16. Growth and reproductive investment of introduced Pacific oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Peralta, N.R.E.; Machado, J.P.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and reproductive investment of cultured Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas were studied in two south-western European estuaries: the Ria de Ribadeo in Spain and the Ria Formosa in Portugal. Developing gonads were found in individuals >23.5 mm shell length in the Ria Formosa and >27.5 mm shell

  17. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  18. Asian-Pacific Papers. Occasional Papers Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian, Ed.

    Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…

  19. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  20. The Pacific RANET Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  1. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  2. Power in the pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the fourth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference are presented, with the emphasis on opportunities for Canadian nuclear exports to the region. Japan and Korea are pressing ahead with nuclear generating programs to reduce their dependence on imported oil. Korea aims to increase the Korean content of its nuclear industry, and to participate in international ventures. China plans several nuclear power stations. In Canada and the U.S.A., no recent domestic orders have been received. Mexico is financially constrained to delay its nuclear program for about ten years. Indonesia is starting with a research reactor

  3. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  4. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Pacific madrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is one of the most widely distributed tree species native to the Pacific coast. Named for its discoverer, Archibald Menzies, a 19th century Scottish physician and naturalist, the species is called arbutus in Canada, and madrone, madroña, or madroño in the United States. The latter name is...

  5. 3 CFR 8369 - Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and... Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009 Proc. 8369 Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009By the... cultural traditions of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders continues to strengthen the fabric of American...

  6. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults: Evaluating Their Utility for Designing Culturally-Appropriate Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Rushing, Stephanie Nicole

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by high rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy, heightening their need for sexual health interventions that are aligned to their unique culture and social context. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new…

  7. Body image and its relation to obesity for Pacific minority ethnic groups in New Zealand: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teevale, Tasileta

    2011-03-01

    The stimulus behind most of the early investigations into Pacific or Polynesian peoples' body image, particularly those that looked to compare with Western or Westernised groups, is the assumption that Pacific peoples valued and therefore desired very large bodies, and in relation to obesity-risk, this is a problematic cultural feature to have. This may be driven by popular anecdotes which are captured in the title of one such study "Do Polynesians still believe that big is beautiful?" To the author's knowledge, no research in Pacific peoples' body image has been conducted in the New Zealand (NZ) context by Pacific researchers. This study makes a contribution to the literature gap and more importantly through an emic viewpoint. A critique of the current literature is provided below which calls into question the initial catalyst behind earlier investigations which have led to the perpetuation of particular types of body image research for Pacific groups. Using mixed-methods, the specific objective of this study was to describe the behaviours, beliefs and values of Pacific adolescents and their parents, that are related to body image. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 2495 Pacific students who participated in the New Zealand arm of the Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) project. Sixty-eight people (33 adolescents and 35 parents) from 30 Pacific households were interviewed in the qualitative phase of the study. This study found Pacific adolescents and their parents did not desire obesity-sized bodies but desired a range of average-sized bodies that met their Pacific-defined view of health. It is not clear whether body image research makes any meaningful contribution to obesity prevention for Pacific people, given the cultural-bounded nature of the concept "body image" which sits communication and understanding between obesity interventionists and all healthcare workers generally and Pacific communities. For obesity interventions to be

  8. Acculturation and its impact on the oral health status of Pacific children in New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Kanagaratnam, Sathananthan; Taylor, Steve; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2017-06-01

    Immigration and acculturation are increasingly recognized as important explanatory factors for health disparities, although their impact on oral health is less well understood. This study investigates the relationship between Pacific children's cultural orientation and oral health, after adjusting for potentially moderating and confounding variables. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. PIF study participants' data from their last dental examination were extracted from service records, and matched to the cohort. A bi-directional acculturation classification, derived from maternal reports, was related to children's oral health indices in crude and adjusted analyses. 1,376 children were eligible, of whom 922 (67.0 percent) had mothers born outside New Zealand. Matching was successful for 970 (70.5 percent) children, with mean age 12.2 years (range: 6.8, 15.4 years). Significant differences were found between acculturation groups for children's tooth brushing frequency and school dental service enrollments but these differences did not moderate relationships between acculturation and oral health status. Unmet treatment need was significantly different between acculturation groups, with children of mothers having higher Pacific orientation having worse unmet needs than those with lower Pacific orientation. No other significant differences were noted. Pacific children carry a disproportionate oral health burden, particularly amongst those with mothers more aligned to their Pacific culture. Strategies which enable Pacific people to re-shape their oral health understanding, together with reducing barriers to accessing dental health care, are needed to prevent a legacy of poor oral health in Pacific people within New Zealand. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. 76 FR 33641 - Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA AGENCY... support of the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display. This safety zone is established to... Purpose Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns will sponsor the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display...

  10. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  11. Visualisation and globalisation in the Asia-Pacific region: the Taipei Biennial 1996-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Whilst globalisation, urbanisation and explosive expansion of urban spaces are the most dynamic and challenging issues in the Asia-Pacific region today, modernisation and cultural re-interpretation are also taking place at a rapid speed. Asia-Pacific metropolises, combining most of their nations’ population and resources, are at the centre of its globalisation process and intend to create their own characters whilst information and fashion have been moving between territories. Taipei, being t...

  12. Culture and resource management: factors affecting forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjorie C. Falanruw

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...

  13. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  14. The sexual practices of Asian and Pacific Islander high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Nakajima, G A; Kanouse, D E

    1998-10-01

    To describe the sexual behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes of Asian and Pacific Islander California high school students and to compare them to other racial/ethnic groups. Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 ninth to 12th graders in a Los Angeles County school district; 186 of the respondents described themselves as Asian and Pacific Islander. The survey was conducted in April 1992. A higher percentage of Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents (73%) compared with African-American (28%, p masturbation of or by a partner, fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse. Few students in any group reported homosexual genital sexual activities. Asians and Pacific Islanders who had had vaginal intercourse were more likely than most other groups to have used a condom at first vaginal intercourse, but Asians and Pacific Islanders had not used condoms more consistently over the prior year. Asians and Pacific Islanders were more likely to expect parental disapproval if they had vaginal intercourse and less likely to think that their peers had had vaginal intercourse. Asian and Pacific Islander high school students in one California school district appear to be at lower sexual risk than other racial/ethnic groups. However, a large minority are engaging in activities that can transmit disease and lead to unwanted pregnancy. Therefore, current efforts to develop culturally sensitive clinical and community-based approaches to sexual risk prevention should include Asians and Pacific Islanders.

  15. A Comprehensive Approach to Risk Reduction for Asian and Pacific Islander American Women With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    As HIV incidence rises globally, Asian and Pacific Islander communities are increasingly affected. While often overlooked, Asian and Pacific Islander American women have shown the greatest percentage increase in HIV diagnosis rates. The development of a multilevel and multistrategy approach to HIV/AIDS education, prevention, and treatment among Asian and Pacific Islander females requires health care providers to identify personal and cultural barriers to prevention and treatment and implement culturally sensitive and specific measures. The purpose of this article is to illuminate barriers to HIV-related prevention, treatment, and care among Asian and Pacific Islander American females and provide practical application-based suggestions for providers, which may enhance Asian and Pacific Islander female inclusion in comprehensive HIV prevention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  17. Reducing Maori and Pacific Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    The Treasury

    2001-01-01

    Over the last fifty years the Maori and non-Maori populations have slowly and unevenly become more similar on a range of key demographic, social and economic outcomes. This has principally been driven by increased geographic and social proximity between the two groups. There is evidence that similar processes may be operating for migrant peoples from the Pacific. Many Maori and Pacific people do better than the population median. Conversely, on most outcomes, a much greater number of people o...

  18. 76 FR 6402 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee... review of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) descriptions for Pacific Coast groundfish species. Major topics of...

  19. Maternal self-report of oral health in 4-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Durward, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced.

  20. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Rebecca E; Hazen, Elliott L; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J; Foley, David G; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance.

  1. Interpersonal Influence in Cross-Cultural Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross - cultural psychology : Research and applications (Second Edition). Cambridge...Annual Review of Psychology , 51, 93–120. Matsumoto , D. (1996). Culture and psychology . Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M...interpreters. Infantry, Spring, 22–27. Shiraev, E., & Levy, D. (2004). Cross - cultural psychology : Critical thinking and contemporary applications. Boston

  2. Reconstructing marginality: a new model of cultural diversity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Margaret; Polaschek, Nick

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a new model of cultural diversity in nursing that critically reconstructs the concept of marginality that underpins other models. Rather than viewing the marginal as "other," marginality is redefined as the space in between the dominant cultural reality and the cultural realities of minority groups located within a society. Members of a minority cultural group who become skilled in the difficult process of negotiating this in-between space open the possibility of transformation within nursing education and practice. This model has been applied in a study of the experience of nursing students of Pacific ethnicity in New Zealand. Subsequently, an undergraduate Pacific nursing program was developed, with greatly increased success rates in registration of Pacific nurses. This model of cultural diversity can also be used to understand nursing practice involving people from minority cultures or other socially excluded categories. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  4. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  5. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  6. Walking backwards into the future: the need for a holistic evolutionary approach in Pacific health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Gosling, Anna L

    2018-05-01

    The Pacific region has had a complex human history. It has been subject to multiple major human dispersal and colonisation events, including some of the earliest Out-of-Africa migrations, the so-called Austronesian expansion of people out of Island Southeast Asia, and the more recent arrival of Europeans. Despite models of island isolation, evidence suggests significant levels of interconnectedness that vary in direction and frequency over time. The Pacific Ocean covers a vast area and its islands provide an array of different physical environments with variable pathogen loads and subsistence opportunities. These diverse environments likely caused Pacific peoples to adapt (both genetically and culturally) in unique ways. Differences in genetic background, in combination with adaptation, likely affect their susceptibility to non-communicable diseases. Here we provide an overview of some of the key issues in the natural and human history of the Pacific region which are likely to impact human health. We argue that understanding the evolutionary and cultural history of Pacific peoples is essential for the generation of testable hypotheses surrounding potential causes of elevated disease susceptibility among Pacific peoples.

  7. Connecting the Indies: the hispano-asian Pacific world in early Modern Global History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dominic Crewe

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reconsiders the place of colonial Latin America in global history by examining the Transpacific interactions, conflicts, and exchanges between Latin America and Asia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Setting aside earlier imperial histories that present the Pacific as a 'Spanish Lake', I conceptualize a dynamic Hispano-Asian Pacific World that was forged by a myriad of actors in and around the Pacific basin. Instead of a Pacific dominated by far-off Spain, my research reveals a Transpacific world that in fact defied imperial efforts to claim, regulate, or convert it. I structure this study along three broad lines of inquiry: the economic ties that made the Asian-Latin American 'Rim', the consequences of human transits and cultural exchanges along new Transpacific conduits, and the barriers of distance and culture that limited both cosmopolitanism and imperialism. For societies in Latin America, this Hispano-Asian Pacific world provided them with greater autonomy than the Atlantic world. They shared, alongside diverse groups in this maritime world, a common story of circumvention, of freewheeling exchanges, and of checked powers, for no single shoreline, empire, or group predominated. Ultimately, by charting the currents of Hispano-Asian interactions in the Pacific world, I provide a riposte to theories in global historiography that have situated Latin America at the periphery of Western Europe.

  8. Infecting Pacific Herring with Ichthyophonus sp. in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas; Mackenzie, Ashley; Yanney, M.L.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2015-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus sp. occurs in coastal populations of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii throughout the northeast Pacific region, but the route(s) by which these planktivorous fish become infected is unknown. Several methods for establishing Ichthyophonus infections in laboratory challenges were examined. Infections were most effectively established after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with suspended parasite isolates from culture or after repeated feedings with infected fish tissues. Among groups that were offered the infected tissues, infection prevalence was greater after multiple feedings (65%) than after a single feeding (5%). Additionally, among groups that were exposed to parasite suspensions prepared from culture isolates, infection prevalence was greater after exposure by IP injection (74%) than after exposure via gastric intubation (12%); the flushing of parasite suspensions over the gills did not lead to infections in any of the experimental fish. Although the consumption of infected fish tissues is unlikely to be the primary route of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission in wild populations of Pacific Herring, this route may contribute to abnormally high infection prevalence in areas where juveniles have access to infected offal.

  9. Infecting Pacific Herring with Ichthyophonus sp. in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P K; Hart, L M; MacKenzie, A H; Yanney, M L; Conway, C M; Elliott, D G

    2015-12-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus sp. occurs in coastal populations of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii throughout the northeast Pacific region, but the route(s) by which these planktivorous fish become infected is unknown. Several methods for establishing Ichthyophonus infections in laboratory challenges were examined. Infections were most effectively established after intraperitoneal (IP) injections with suspended parasite isolates from culture or after repeated feedings with infected fish tissues. Among groups that were offered the infected tissues, infection prevalence was greater after multiple feedings (65%) than after a single feeding (5%). Additionally, among groups that were exposed to parasite suspensions prepared from culture isolates, infection prevalence was greater after exposure by IP injection (74%) than after exposure via gastric intubation (12%); the flushing of parasite suspensions over the gills did not lead to infections in any of the experimental fish. Although the consumption of infected fish tissues is unlikely to be the primary route of Ichthyophonus sp. transmission in wild populations of Pacific Herring, this route may contribute to abnormally high infection prevalence in areas where juveniles have access to infected offal.

  10. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  11. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  12. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  13. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  14. Building tobacco cessation capacity in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Cruz, Peter J; Mercado, Susan P; Li, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands-Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a posttraining knowledge assessment exam, pre- and posttraining confidence assessments, and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the posttraining knowledge assessment exam at the first attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their second attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre- and posttraining confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials, and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations such as Pacific Islanders.

  15. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-03-06

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  16. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  17. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  18. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  19. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  20. The “Oriental Renaissance” in the Pacific: Orientalism, Language and Ethnogenesis in the British Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ballantyne

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that the “Oriental Renaissance” was a crucial, often overlooked, thread in the intellectual life of the Australasian colonies. British imperial networks, together with the circulation of learned periodicals and monographs, ensured that British Orientalism profoundly shaped the intellectual culture of nineteenth century New Zealand and that it was particularly prominent in debates over the origins and identity of Maori. Linguistic comparison provided the most important evidence for establishing the relationships between and the ultimate origins of the peoples of the Pacific. Many scholars attempted to establish that Maori belonged to the Indo-European family and that their origins could be traced back to north India while the others suggested that Maori culture was too primitive to be “Aryan” and that it exhibited greater affinities with the Dravidian cultures of South India. Ultimately these conflicting positions were synthesised in a more generalised form of Indocentric anthropology that emerged in the 1890s and focused particularly on the supposed debts of Maori religion to Hinduism.

  1. United States Pacific Command, Asia-Pacific Economic Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    export process more efficient and effective by reducing export barriers and expanding markets abroad. The strategy coordinates the U.S. Government’s...investment from Western companies, such as Boeing and Mercedes - Benz , since China opened to the outside world the late 1970s.12 North Korea’s arms... markets for American trade and investment. Expanding wealth and opportunity in many Asia-Pacific countries have facilitated a transition to greater

  2. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  3. Restructuring Vocational Special Needs Education through Interdisciplinary Team Effort: Local Motion in the Pacific Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garnett J.; Stodden, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The Restructuring through Interdisciplinary Team Effort project focuses on changing the culture and structure of vocational special needs education in the Pacific Basin. Its three dimensions are cognitive core (best practices, outcome-focused design, strategic planning); team network of stakeholders; and systemic renewal (school-to-work…

  4. Defense.gov Special Report: Asian-American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumatalolo was named head coach of the U.S. Naval Academy's football team, making him the first Samoan Heritage Month History U.S. Army Military District of Washington Bases Hold Educational, Cultural Events Veterans History Project: Stories of Asian Pacific Americans Department of Veterans Affairs- Center for

  5. Factors Contributing to the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…

  6. 78 FR 66683 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... special coral reef ecosystem fishing permit. SUMMARY: NMFS issued a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit that authorizes Kampachi Farms, LLC, to culture and harvest a coral reef ecosystem management unit...

  7. 78 FR 49258 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit that would authorize Kampachi Farms, LLC, to culture and harvest a coral reef ecosystem management unit fish species in a floating pen moored about 5.5 nm off the west coast of...

  8. The Gandhi Technique: A Biculturalization Approach for Empowering Asian and Pacific Islander Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Boyd, Carylee; Browne, Collette

    1999-01-01

    Western social-work interventions must be adapted to empower ethnic minority families. A case study of a Hawaiian family-centered, family-empowering, problem-solving intervention using the Gandhi Technique shows it to be compatible with Asian and Pacific-Islander values. Considerations for culturally competent social work practice with Asian and…

  9. 75 FR 24363 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... opportunities, and weaving their rich heritage into our cultural tapestry. During Asian American and Pacific... 100th anniversary of the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco Bay, a milestone that reminds..., unsanitary barracks. Many who were not turned back by racially prejudiced immigration laws endured hardship...

  10. Feeding a Hungry World: Focus on Rice in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Gary; And Others

    This unit introduces students to the diversity of rice culture and rice-based farming systems in Asia and the Pacific. Students examine issues related to the needs of the future global population. Six rice-producing countries are under study: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, and Thailand. The lessons include: (1) "Rice in…

  11. Proceedings, Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages, Volume 28, Part 2: Second Language Teaching 77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseller, David P., Editor

    The twenty-eight papers that make up the second part of the proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages cover a wide range of topics relating to foreign language teaching and linguistic theory: German culture and civilization; sexism in language; bilingual education; bilingualism and…

  12. Key Learning Styles of Teaching English to Students from the Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines key styles of learning English as the second language, particularly for students from Asian-Pacific countries. It deals with the methods of improving their learning skills and abilities. The most traditional and popular ways of learning styles are pointed out. The authors also discuss teaching approaches for matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures. The authors also discuss teaching approaches to matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures.

  13. Child discipline and nurturing practices among a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley-Malcolm, Esther Tumama; Fairbairn-Dunlop, Tagaloa Peggy; Paterson, Janis; Gao, Wanzhen; Williams, Maynard

    2009-02-01

    The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study is a longitudinal investigation of a cohort (N=1376) of Pacific infants born in New Zealand (NZ), and their mothers and fathers. The PIF study aimed to determine: (1) the prevalence of disciplinary and nurturing parenting practices used with children at 12 months of age, and (2) the demographic, maternal and lifestyle factors associated with parenting practices. At the 12-month measurement point, mothers (N=1207) were interviewed about their parenting practices using a modified version of the Parent Behaviour Checklist. High nurturance was significantly associated with Samoan ethnicity and post school qualifications, and low nurturance was significantly associated with post-natal depression, alcohol consumption and gambling. At the univariate level, high discipline scores were significantly associated with gambling, postnatal depression and lack of alignment to either Pacific or to European traditions. However the strongest association with discipline was the ethnicity variable with Tongan mothers reporting significantly higher disciplinary behaviours that all other ethnicities. It is clear that there are a number of common underlying lifestyle issues that need to be considered when dealing with parenting problems in families with young children. However specific to Pacific families, is Tongan ethnicity accounting for a strong cultural effect on parenting style, in particular high discipline scores relative to other Pacific groups. This important finding may be used to guide social policy and prevention programmes that are focused on the wellbeing of Pacific mothers and their children.

  14. Biology and impacts of Pacific Islands invasive species. 14. Sus scrofa the feral pig (Artiodactyla: Suidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Nathaniel H.; Hess, Steven C.; Litton, Creighton M.

    2018-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa L.) are perhaps the most abundant, widespread, and economically significant large introduced vertebrate across the Pacific island region. Unlike many other nonnative invasive species, feral pigs have both cultural and recreational importance in the region, complicating their management. Today, Pacific island feral pigs are a mixture of several strains of domestic swine, Asiatic wild boar, and European wild boar. Due to their generalist diet and rooting behavior, feral pigs alter soils and watersheds and negatively impact native and nonnative flora and fauna. As a result, feral pigs have played a role in the extinction of several species of plants and animals on Pacific islands and have negative effects on both ecotourism and agricultural industries in the region. Despite numerous published studies on feral pigs in the Pacific island region, of which the majority include systematic analyses of original empirical data, some fundamental aspects of feral pig ecology remain poorly characterized, at least partly due to the remote and inaccessible environments that they often inhabit. To address these knowledge gaps, effort should be made to integrate research conducted outside the Pacific island region into local management strategies. This review summarizes the origins, history, ecology, environmental effects, and current management of feral pigs in the Pacific island region; integrates regional scientific findings with those of other insular and continental systems; and identifies current knowledge gaps requiring further research to inform the ecology and management of this impactful invasive species.

  15. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  16. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  17. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  18. Ancient Genomics and the Peopling of the Southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Pontus; Posth, Cosimo; Sirak, Kendra; Spriggs, Matthew; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Clark, Geoffrey; Reepmeyer, Christian; Petchey, Fiona; Fernandes, Daniel; Fu, Qiaomei; Harney, Eadaoin; Lipson, Mark; Mallick, Swapan; Novak, Mario; Rohland, Nadin; Stewardson, Kristin; Abdullah, Syafiq; Cox, Murray P.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Friedlaender, Jonathan S.; Kivisild, Toomas; Koki, George; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Merriwether, D. Andrew; Ricaut, Francois-X.; Wee, Joseph T. S.; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2017-01-01

    The appearance of people associated with the Lapita culture in the South Pacific ~3,000 years ago1 marked the beginning of the last major human dispersal to unpopulated lands. However, the relationship of these pioneers to the long established Papuans of the New Guinea region is unclear. We report genome-wide ancient DNA data from four individuals from Vanuatu (~3100-2700 years before present) and Tonga (~2700-2300 years before present), and co-analyze them with 778 present-day East Asians and Oceanians. Today, indigenous peoples of the South Pacific harbor a mixture of ancestry from Papuans and a population of East Asian origin that does not exist in unmixed form today, but is a match to the ancient individuals. Most analyses have interpreted the minimum of twenty-five percent Papuan ancestry in the region today as evidence that the first humans to reach Remote Oceania, including Polynesia, were derived from population mixtures near New Guinea, prior to the further expansion into Remote Oceania2–5. However, our finding that the ancient individuals had little to no Papuan ancestry implies later human population movements that spread Papuan ancestry through the South Pacific after the islands’ first peopling. PMID:27698418

  19. A 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Bowen, Kathryn; Hanna, Elizabeth; Iddings, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Small Pacific Island countries (PICs) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the anticipated detrimental health effects of climate change. The assessment of health vulnerabilities and planning adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change on health tests traditional health governance structures and depends on strong linkages and partnerships between actors involved in these vital processes. This article reviews the actors, processes and contexts of the climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project carried out by the World Health Organization and health sector partners in three island countries in the Micronesian region of the Pacific throughout 2010 and 2011: Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Despite their shared history and cultural characteristics, the findings and implications of this article are considered to have substantial relevance and potential application to other PICs. The modified 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change and health adaptation presented in this article draws upon real-world experience and governance theory from both the health and climate change literature and, for the first time, places health systems adaptation within the vision for 'Healthy Islands' in the Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  1. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  2. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  3. Oceanographic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  4. Pacific Hake - Growth and natal origin of Pacific hake from the Georgia Basin DPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) is an abundant species residing along the Pacific coast from the Gulf of California to the Strait of Georgia. It is the most...

  5. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Pacific/ North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Pacific/ North Pacific teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  6. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  7. Non-fatal injuries among Pacific infants in Auckland: data from the Pacific Islands families first two years of life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis; Percival, Teuila

    2006-03-01

    Child injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. While Pacific infant death rates are relatively high in New Zealand, little is known about non-fatal injury rates. We seek to describe maternally reported injury in Pacific infants aged between 0-24 months. A cohort of Pacific infants born during 2000 in Auckland, New Zealand, was followed. Maternal home interviews were conducted at 6 weeks, 12 months and 24 months postpartum and injury events were recalled. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to analysis the longitudinal data. The inception cohort included 1398 infants at 6 weeks, 1241 infants at 12 months and 1161 infants at 24 months. The age-specific injury incidence per 1000 person-years exposure was estimated at 48 (95% CI: 23, 88) injuries for infants aged 0-6 weeks, 106 (95% CI: 88, 127) injuries for infants aged 7 weeks-12 months and 174 (95% CI: 151, 199) injuries for infants aged 13-24 months. In the multivariable GEE model, older infants (P culturally appropriate prevention strategies for all Pacific families with young children is required to reduce injury rates for Pacific infants in New Zealand.

  8. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17 th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 [es

  9. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  10. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  11. Communicating Volcanic Hazards in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Cunningham, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    For over 25 years, effective hazard communication has been key to effective mitigation of volcanic hazards in the North Pacific. These hazards are omnipresent, with a large event happening in Alaska every few years to a decade, though in many cases can happen with little or no warning (e.g. Kasatochi and Okmok in 2008). Here a useful hazard mitigation strategy has been built on (1) a large database of historic activity from many datasets, (2) an operational alert system with graduated levels of concern, (3) scenario planning, and (4) routine checks and communication with emergency managers and the public. These baseline efforts are then enhanced in the time of crisis with coordinated talking points, targeted studies and public outreach. Scientists naturally tend to target other scientists as their audience, whereas in effective monitoring of hazards that may only occur on year to decadal timescales, details can distract from the essentially important information. Creating talking points and practice in public communications can help make hazard response a part of the culture. Promoting situational awareness and familiarity can relieve indecision and concerns at the time of a crisis.

  12. 76 FR 55363 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) [[Page 55364... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...; telephone: (206) 526-6150. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place...

  13. 78 FR 25955 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be implemented pursuant to the precautionary management framework for North Pacific albacore...

  14. 77 FR 75614 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  15. 78 FR 27367 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be implemented pursuant to the precautionary management framework for North Pacific albacore...

  16. 75 FR 49890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... will be available at the following location: Pacific Fishery Management Council, Small Conference Room...

  17. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  18. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthippe Augerot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle - capital, connectedness, and resilience - we infer the resilience of the five fisheries based on a qualitative assessment of capital accumulation and connectedness at the regional scale. In our assessment, we evaluate natural capital and connectedness and constructed capital and connectedness. The Russian Far East fishery is the most resilient, followed by Alaska, British Columbia, Japan, and WOC. Adaptive capacity in the fisheries is contingent upon high levels of natural capital and connectedness and moderate levels of constructed capital and connectedness. Cross-scale interactions and global market demand are significant factors in reduced resilience. Greater attention to ecological functioning and cultural signification has the potential to increase resilience in Pacific salmon ecosystems.

  19. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  20. Commonwealth Local Government Forum Pacific Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Parker

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF Pacific Project works with local government and other stakeholders in nine Pacific Island countries – Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. It seeks to strengthen local democracy and good governance, and to help local governments deal with the increasing challenges of service delivery and urban management in the unique Pacific environment. Human settlement patterns in the region are changing rapidly. The Pacific has traditionally been a rural agricultural/subsistence society, but this is no longer the case. The accelerated pace of urbanisation has impacted significantly on Pacific nations and in the very near future the majority of Pacific Islanders will be found in urban areas. Already over 50% of Fiji’s population are urban dwellers. Rapid urbanisation brings with it unique challenges and opportunities. Local governments are at the forefront of this phenomenon, with the responsibility to manage urban development and the transition from rural areas to cities and towns. Their success or failure to manage urbanisation and provide the required levels of physical and social infrastructure will affect many lives in a new urban Pacific. The project now has three components – the main Pacific Regional Project and two country-specific programmes: the Honiara City Council Institutional Capacity Building Project and the Commonwealth Local Government Good Practice Scheme in Papua New Guinea.

  1. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  2. Forestry research in Asia and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Chamberlain; Erin Moore

    1992-01-01

    Much research has been done in Asia and the Pacific that might help Pacific Island countries produce more biomass and better manage their natural resources. National forestry research institutes throughout the region have examined many important aspects of forestry. Not all research findings are directly transferable between countries, but research methods and results...

  3. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the 3 Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (INFCIRC-331) adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session in Suva on 8 August 1986. The treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  4. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  5. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  6. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  7. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  8. The relationship between ethnicity and obesity in Asian and Pacific Islander populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Busch, Jessica; Hammatt, Zoë; Novotny, Rachel; Harrigan, Rosanne; Grandinetti, Andrew; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to explore the potential relationship between ethnicity and obesity, and obesity-related risks, with a particular emphasis on disparities between Asian and Pacific Islander populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of available medical literature related to the rise of obesity in the United States, factors contributing to obesity, evidence-based clinical guidelines, and obesity and related risks as they occur in Hawaii. In conducting this search, we sought to illuminate obesity rates in Asians and Pacific Islanders in connection with various factors, such as diet and lifestyle, acculturation, and body image, as they occur in diverse cultural contexts. We found that the rates of obesity and related risks were highest in Native Hawaiians and Samoans. Based upon our review of the literature, we conclude that further research is necessary to address the relationship between ethnicity and obesity risk factors in Asian and Pacific Islander populations.

  9. First record in the Tropical Eastern Pacific of the exotic species Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Bastida Zavala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exotic Indo-West-Pacific species, Ficopomatus uschakovi (Polychaeta, Serpulidae is recorded for the first time in the Tropical Eastern Pacific from two sites in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, a coastal lagoon in the Pacific south of Mexico. The means of dispersal of this serpulid species still remains unclear, as the nearest port (Puerto Chiapas is 70 km to the south, and there are no port installations or shrimp cultures in the lagoon. The record of this serpulid species, apparently widely distributed in this coastal lagoon, has implications regarding possible effects on the brackish-water ecosystem, since the invasion event very well may have occurred several years ago. It is recommended that an exhaustive study be carried out in the coastal lagoons of Chiapas to evaluate the real distribution and the effects of this invasive species on the ecosystem. A complete description, including photographs and drawings, is provided.

  10. Mexico's challenges in the Asia-Pacific region: prospects in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María Ramírez Meda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to make a count of the actions taken by Mexico for its correct insertion in the Asia Pacific region and subsequently, to assess whether these strategies have been enhanced and promoted a real membership in the region. In the first part a theoretical and conceptual count of the term "region" and "regionalism" it's done. Second section deals with the question; can Asia Pacific be considered a region by addressing economic, political, social and cultural elements? Subsequently, in a third section the question; "in which region it's Mexico located?" its answered and in this way, finally we analyze if Asia Pacific is or not a mega (macro region unlikely to Mexico, where the latter could benefit if some recommendations that are seen at the end of the present work are applied.

  11. Manganese in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruland, K.W.; Landing, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative and precise method for determination of dissolved M (nmol)/kg level in seawater has been developed and used to study the distribution of Mn in the northeast Pacific. Mn concentrations in the surface mixed layer decrease from 1.0 to 0.6 nmol/kg between the central gyre and the western boundary of the California Current, then increase to values from 2 to 6 nmol/kg near the coastal boundary (in contrast to the distribution of 210 Pb). Particulate Mn in the surface waters accounts for only about 1% of the total. Vertical distributions of Mn are characterized by surface maxima, minima near 300 m, maxima at mid-depth coinciding with the oxygen minimum and the labile nutrient maxima, and concentrations in Pacific bottom waters of approximately 0.2 nmol/kg. The oceanic distribution of Mn appears to be dominated by external inputs superimposed upon ovberall scavenging which can lead to Mn maxima in (1) the surface waters due to riverine and atmospheric sources; (2) the deep ocean as a result of hydrothermal injection and/or sediment resuspension; and (3) the oxygen minimum region resulting from in-situ breakdown of organic matter, in-situ MnO 2 reduction, and/or advective-diffusive transport of dissolved Mn from anoxic slope sediments. (orig.)

  12. Collaboration for Actionable Climate Science in Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, V. W.; Grecni, Z. N.; Helweg, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) encompass more than 2000 islands spread across millions of square miles of ocean. Islands can be high volcanic or low atolls, and vary widely in terms of geography, climate, ecology, language, culture, economies, government, and vulnerability to climate change impacts. For these reasons, meaningful collaboration across research groups and climate organizations is not only helpful, it is mandatory. No single group can address all the needs of every island, stakeholder, or sector, which has led to close collaboration and leveraging of research in the region to fill different niches. The NOAA-funded Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences & Assessments (RISA) program, DOI Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC), and the DOI LCC the Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative (PICCC) all take a stakeholder oriented approach to climate research, and have successfully collaborated on both specific projects and larger initiatives. Examples of these collaborations include comprising the core team of the Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment (PIRCA), the regional arm of the US National Climate Assessment, co-sponsoring a workshop on regional downscaling for scientists and managers, leveraging research projects across multiple sectors on a single island, collaborating on communication products such as handouts and websites to ensure a consistent message, and in the case of the Pacific RISA and the PICSC, jointly funding a PIRCA Sustained Assessment Specialist position. Barriers to collaboration have been around topics such as roles of research versus granting groups, perceived research overlap, and funding uncertainties. However, collaborations have been overwhelming positive in the Pacific Islands region due to communication, recognition of partners' strengths and expertise, and especially because of the "umbrella" organization and purpose provided by the PIRCA structure, which provides a shared platform for all

  13. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  14. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  15. Diabetic Retinopathy in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Claire Xin Ying; Wong, Tien Yin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in middle-aged and elderly in the Asia-Pacific. It has been estimated that 51% of all those with blindness due to DR globally (n = 424,400) and 56% of those with visual impairment due to DR (2.1 million) come from the Asia-Pacific. Prevalence of DR among those with diabetes ranged from 10% in India to 43% in Indonesia within the Asia-Pacific. Awareness of DR among persons with diabetes ranged from 28% to 84%. Most common modifiable risk factors for DR in the Asia-Pacific were hyperglycemia, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Implementation of systematic screening programs for DR and advancement in telemedicine screening methods have increased patient coverage and cost-effectiveness, though there are still numerous factors impeding screening uptake in the low-middle income regions of the Asia-Pacific. Management and treatment of DR in the Asia-Pacific is mainly limited to traditional laser retinopexy, but it is suboptimal despite new clinical approaches such as use of intravitreal anti.vascular endothelial growth factor and steroids due to limited resources. Further research and data are required to structure a more cost-effective public healthcare program and more awareness-building initiatives to increase the effectiveness of DR screening programs. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  16. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  17. Imperial Queerness: The U.S. Homophile Press and Constructions of Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carly

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which U.S. homophile magazines represented and constructed Asia and the Pacific from 1953 to 1964. Through an analysis of 209 items that referenced Asia and the Pacific in ONE, Mattachine Review, and the Ladder, the essay argues that U.S. homophiles referenced the region in three primary ways: first, to create relationships, allies, and exchanges with people living in the region; second, to highlight the inferiority of the East and superiority of the West; and, third, to reveal the cross-cultural and transhistorical nature of homosexuality. These references were influenced by Orientalism, colonialism, and the Cold War, which framed Asia and the Pacific as both sexually and culturally backward, but also as a potential tourist destination for gay men and lesbian women.

  18. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  19. 77 FR 45591 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Ad Hoc South of Humbug Pacific Halibut Workgroup..., monitoring, and allocation history of Pacific halibut in the area south of Humbug Mt. DATES: The conference...

  20. 76 FR 20959 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a Pacific mackerel Stock Assessment... of the meeting is to review the Pacific mackerel stock assessment for 2011, in order to inform... action under Section 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, provided the...

  1. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and tail...

  2. Cardiac surgery in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip John; Wainer, Zoe; O'Keefe, Michael; Nand, Parma

    2011-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease constitutes a significant disease burden in under-resourced communities. Recognition of the devastating impact of rheumatic heart disease has resulted in volunteer cardiac teams from Australasia providing surgical services to regions of need. The primary objective of this study was to compare New Zealand hospitals' volunteer cardiac surgical operative results in Samoa and Fiji with the accepted surgical mortality and morbidity rates for Australasia. A retrospective review from seven volunteer cardiac surgical trips to Samoa and Fiji from 2003 to 2009 was conducted. Patient data were retrospectively and prospectively collected. Preoperative morbidity and mortality risk were calculated using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE). Audit data were collated in line with the Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons guidelines. One hundred and three operations were performed over 6 years. EuroSCORE predicted an operative mortality of 3.32%. In-hospital mortality was 0.97% and post-discharge mortality was 2.91%, resulting in a 30-day mortality of 3.88%. This study demonstrated that performing cardiac surgery in Fiji and Samoa is viable and safe. However, the mortality was slightly higher than predicted by euroSCORE. Difficulties exist in predicting mortality rates in patients with rheumatic heart disease from Pacific Island nations as known risk scoring models fail to be disease, ethnically or culturally inclusive. Audit processes and risk model development and assessment are an essential part of this complex surgical charity work and will result in improved patient selection and outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.

  4. The IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) started in 1995 a five-year project 'Research on World-wide Marine Radioactivity', generously supported by the Government of Japan. In the framework of the project, IAEA-MEL conducted the 'IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean Expedition' to the NW Pacific Ocean from 21 October to 20 November, 1997. The objectives of the expedition were to provide new data on the current marine radioactivity in order to compare them with data sets obtained during national and international surveys at sites used for radioactive waste dumping or nuclear bomb testing in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

  5. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  6. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  7. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  8. 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Nuclear energy, science and technology - Pacific partnership. Proceedings Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The theme of the 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear conference held in Sydney from 1-6 May 1994, embraced the use of the atom in energy production and in science and technology. The focus was on selected topics of current and ongoing interest to countries around the Pacific Basin. The two-volume proceedings include both invited and contributed papers. They have been indexed separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Pacific partnership; perspectives on nuclear energy, science and technology in Pacific Basin countries; nuclear energy and sustainable development; economics of the power reactors; new power reactor projects; power reactor technology; advanced reactors; radioisotope and radiation technology; biomedical applications

  9. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  10. Fire social science research from the Pacific Southwest research station: studies supported by national fire plan funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; James D. Absher; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    Fire events often have a large impact on recreation and tourism, yet these issues had not been addressed from a social science perspective. To address his, the Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Work Unit (RWU) of the Pacific Southwest Research Station acquired funding through the National Fire Plan within the community assistance topic area. The three...

  11. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  12. Australia's role in Pacific energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Australia's resources and the expansion of its steaming coal exports. The author reviews Australia's development of its natural gas resources and future prospects for exporting to the Pacific region

  13. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  14. U.S. Pacific Command > Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command Search USPACOM: Search Search Search USPACOM: Search Home Leadership Directory Media Inquiries Home : Leadership Admiral Harry B. Harris, Jr., U.S. Navy Read the full biography

  15. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  16. PODs cruise - Pacific Orcinus Distrbution Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orcinus spp. occur in the Pacific Ocean throughout the West Coast of North America. Data concerning their precise locations and abundance are critical to...

  17. Out of the Pacific and back again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Morin, Phillip A.; Durban, John W.

    2011-01-01

    or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current......Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving...... divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses...

  18. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  19. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  20. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  1. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  2. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  3. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  4. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  5. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. 540pp. (DS35.2 .M65 2011) Myers, Stephen C. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address... Undesirable Multilateral Security Order?" Pacific Review 24, no. 2 (May 2011): 137-158. Taylor & Francis "The Quality of Democracy in Asia Pacific...2009): 205-219. Sage Turner, Mark, Sonam Chuki, and Jit Tshering. "Democratization by Decree: The Case of Bhutan." Democratization 18, no. 1 (February

  6. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  7. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Hofmann, H.J.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, 231 Pa and 10 Be were measured in Holocene sediments from two cores collected off the west coast of South America, two cores from the East Pacific Rise, two from the equatorial Pacific and one from the south Pacific central gyre. Our results, together with data from 5 cores reported in the literature, show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of 10 Be from the Pacific Ocean. Deposition rates of 10 Be at three margin sites are more than an order of magnitude greater than at sites of red clay accumulation in the deep central Pacific. Deposition of 231 Pa is 4 to 5-fold greater at the margin sites. The residence time of 10 Be with respect to chemical scavenging, defined as its inventory in the water column divided by its rate of removal to the sediments, varies regionally from >1000 years at the red-clay sites in the deep central Pacific to ∝100 years at the margin sites. Different factors control boundary scavenging of Pa and Be. For example, scavenging of 231 Pa is enhanced by metal-oxide coatings of particles, whereas this seems to have little influence on the scavenging of 10 Be. (orig.)

  8. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  9. 76 FR 32929 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... are revised from ``Indo-Pacific blue marlin, Makaira mazara'' to ``Pacific blue marlin, Makaira... Istiompax indica striped marlin Kajikia audax * * * * * Pacific blue marlin Makaira nigricans [[Page 32932...

  10. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  11. Pacific Utopias and National Identities in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Va'ai

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Literary representations of the Pacific invariably present images of peaceful utopias/paradises especially in tourist brochures aimed at garnering the tourist dollar. These utopias are far removed from the tensions of a world haunted by the threat of terrorist activities and destruction which undermine global peace and security, especially since September 11th 2001. However, an examination of recent creative writing from writers of Oceania illustrate that these universal pressures and fears are evident in the local setting as well. Their fiction is full of the same angst, frustrations and dilemmas regarding cultural identities and cultural nationalism as those from their metropolitan neighbours in New Zealand and Australia. This essay will examine and analyse selected fiction from two such writers with a view to highlighting the conflicts emerging, especially in regards to the issues of political and cultural identities, indigeneity and the Pacific Paradise which is so much a part of the discourse of tourism, a major money earner for Pacific economies.

  12. Beyond Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  13. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  14. Handling Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are

  15. Community experience of a Pacific Immersion Programme for medical students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauiliu, Melbourne; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Ekeroma, Alec

    2013-06-14

    To obtain the views of the Pacific community about their involvement in a Pacific Immersion Programme, to determine the programme's viability as a resource for medical education. The Pacific Immersion Programme run by the Dunedin School of Medicine had four attachments (March, April, June and September) with local Pacific communities in 2011. Community focus groups were held the week immediately after each attachment. There were two focus group sessions for each attachment, one obtained the views of adults and the other of young people. Focus groups consisted of eight participants recruited through community coordinators and were facilitated by trained research assistants. Sessions were audio recorded and analysed using a thematic framework. Sixty-four members of the community participated in the focus groups. Eight themes emerged from the discussions. The community agreed the Pacific Immersion Programme strengthened community cohesion through efforts to engage the students. There was shared learning and created opportunities for engagement between medical students and the community's younger generation. The Pacific families shared with the students about their health and context through storytelling, dancing and singing and cultural ceremonies. Participants hoped students achieved what they wanted from the programme and the experience was useful for their work in the future. Community based medical education is a unique and useful approach for teaching medical students about the health of a minority community. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the impacts on participating communities. Nurturing established relationships and providing mutual benefits for both partners will ensure this opportunity will be available as a learning resource for future medical students.

  16. The Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon Tania

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, a treaty the parties have described as comprehensive and ambitious, yet also representing a balance of competing interests. The article focuses on the TPP’s chapters relating to investment, services, intellectual property and regulatory coherence, each of which provides insight into the motivations that drove the conclusion of the TPP and the negotiating dynamics that determined its final content. In areas such as investment, the TPP takes a more balanced approach than many earlier agreements, providing greater safeguards for the regulatory autonomy of states while still embodying core protections for foreign investors. In relation to intellectual property and services, the TPP goes beyond earlier agreements in several key respects, such as preventing the imposition of local presence requirements for service providers or requiring longer copyright terms than those demanded by other international treaties. The TPP chapter on regulatory coherence is one of the most novel features of the treaty, as regulatory coherence is not frequently included in earlier trade agreements, demonstrating the increased focus of states on addressing regulatory barriers to trade and investment. While all of these elements of the TPP are interesting in their own right, given the number and size of the parties involved in the agreement, they also provide valuable guidance about the direction of other ongoing and future preferential trade agreement negotiations, such as the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP and Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA.

  17. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  18. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N L , a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N H , a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F S ; (2) N H is phase locked directly to F S while N L is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F S . At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N L since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N L is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N H component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N L can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  19. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  20. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  1. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  2. Bluefin Tuna Life History (1972-1979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Catch and size data for animals from which a collection of fish parts were done for life history studies. These samples will be used in comparison studies with more...

  3. A gift and a burden: the purchase and distribution of duty-free tobacco and its potential impact upon Pacific people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather

    2015-03-01

    High smoking rates among Pacific people living within New Zealand (26.9%) are a significant and poorly understood problem. A proposed approach to tobacco control is to enhance restrictions on or ban duty-free sales, a pertinent notion for Pacific people given their frequent travel between New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. This study examines the purchase and distribution of duty-free tobacco by Pacific people, whether it is being used as a strategy to circumvent the tobacco excise tax increases and how duty-free cigarette sales are perceived within the Pacific community. We undertook a qualitative research study using six focus groups with Pacific smokers and non-smokers aged between 18 and 54 years. Half of the focus groups consisted of smokers and half non-smokers. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify, explore and report key themes within the data. Pacific smokers and non-smokers frequently purchase duty-free tobacco when travelling, and the usage of duty-free cigarettes for gift giving is a strongly embedded cultural value for Pacific peoples. However, nearly all participants strongly supported a proposal to reduce or ban duty-free tobacco sales. The findings suggest a ban on duty-free sales could be an important measure to help achieve the smokefree 2025 goal among Pacific communities in New Zealand. This measure would eliminate duty-free tobacco as a cheap form of supply, and efforts to denormalise the practice of gifting duty-free tobacco among Pacific people may also be helpful in reducing high prevalence rates within these communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  5. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  6. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  7. The lived experience of Pacific Island women with a “big body” size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafanua Braginsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study explored the lived experience with "big body" size of Pacific Island women who migrated to Hawaii. Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized in this study. A purposive sample included six Pacific Island women. Five of the six women had migrated to Hawaii from the island nations of Micronesia. The sixth participant was a Native Hawaiian who had lived in Micronesia and had returned to Hawaii. The collection and transcription of data were done by the first author. Data were categorized into themes independently by the three authors and bracketing was maintained throughout the study. The women identified the dichotomy of "big body" versus "small body" and the connotation of each body size in how they viewed the world around them. They shared their lifestyle and transitional changes in trying to adapt and ‘fit’ into the new lifestyle in Hawaii. These changes impacted their eating habits and work schedule, level of activity, and financial security. The women identified biopsychosocial concerns in their lives and the need to re-evaluate their "big body" size in relation to their health and physical and psychosocial changes. Implications for future research are to include a diverse representation of women from island countries within the Pacific Basin. The results of this study provided valuable information related to cultural relevance and sensitivity in working with Pacific Island women in managing their health.

  8. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  9. Cultural contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cultural contains a great number of styles;culture differentiation does not depend on region differentiation.This research would interpret what difference between Hong Kong and Shenzhen.1.Food culture in china Traditional Chinese medicine suggests eating local seasonal fruit and vegetables,as they are most suitable for the body during a particular season.It is also divided food into 3 characteristics:cooling foods,warming foods and balance or

  10. Culture evolves

    OpenAIRE

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to...

  11. Developing International Managers: The Contribution of Cultural Experience to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Peter; Regan, Padraic; Li, Liang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cultural experience as a learning strategy for developing international managers. Design/methodology/approach: Using an integrated framework, two quantitative studies, based on empirical methodology, are conducted. Study 1, with an undergraduate sample situated in the Asia Pacific, aimed to examine…

  12. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  13. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  14. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P K; Gregg, J L; Hart, L M; Moffitt, S; Brenner, R; Stick, K; Coonradt, E; Otis, E O; Vollenweider, J J; Garver, K A; Lovy, J; Meyers, T R

    2016-04-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20-32% in 2007 to 0-3% during 2009-13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host-pathogen relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  16. Regional climate change for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, G.A.; Thomas, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest climate is dominated by topography and the Pacific Ocean; the forests have become adapted to the present climate. Within short distances there are large changes in precipitation and temperature, with resultant changes in ecosystems. As the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, global climate is expected to warm and precipitation to increase. Global climate model simulations show enhanced warming at high northern latitudes. For the Pacific Northwest, models show 2-6 degree C warming and increased precipitation in the winter for doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, the regional details of these models are presently not very reliable. The results and limitations of present global climate models are reviewed. The roles of the oceans, clouds, and other feedback mechanisms are described along with some of the possible impacts of climate change on forest resources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  18. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  19. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  20. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  1. 75 FR 55745 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sardine stock assessment for 2010. Other issues relevant to Coastal Pelagic Species fisheries management...

  2. 75 FR 33245 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be held at the Pacific Fishery Management Council office, Large Conference Room, 7700 NE Ambassador...

  3. 78 FR 77658 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Potential changes to management measures for the west coast drift gillnet fishery. 2. Developments to...

  4. 78 FR 56659 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...-16 groundfish harvest specifications and management measures, long-term impact analysis, and...

  5. 75 FR 80470 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  6. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  7. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  8. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  9. 76 FR 80890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Airport Hotel, 7900 NE 82nd Avenue, Portland, OR 97220. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management.... Kerry Griffin, Staff Officer, Pacific Council; (503) 820-2280. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The purpose of...

  10. 76 FR 43987 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) ad hoc groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review... of groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). DATES: The work session will be held Thursday, October 6...

  11. 78 FR 49477 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of its Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC). DATES: The meeting will be held Wednesday September 4 through...

  12. 75 FR 17901 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... June 2010 meeting of the Pacific Council. The CPSMT will also discuss the pending Essential Fish Habitat five-year review; the 2010 Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation document; Pacific mackerel...

  13. Tropical Pacific Observing for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, David M.; Hill, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    More than 60 scientists and program officials from 13 countries met at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) 2020 Workshop. The workshop, although motivated in part by the dramatic decline of NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) buoy reporting from mid-2012 to early 2014 (see http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-07/aging-el-nino-buoys-getting-fixed-as-weather-forecasts-at-risk.html), evaluated the needs for tropical Pacific observing and initiated efforts to develop a more resilient and integrative observing system for the future.

  14. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Tammi, Martti; Gribskov, Michael; Tan, Tin Wee

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-...

  15. International Business Mentoring for Development: The Importance of Local Context and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Gisela; Scheyvens, Regina

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the value of donor-funded, cross-cultural business mentoring in a development context. Following a review of the existing literature on cross-cultural mentoring, it examines the effectiveness of the Pacific Business Mentoring Programme in Samoa through interviews with 23 entrepreneurs and a survey of the New Zealand…

  16. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  17. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  18. Connecting Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  19. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  20. Boosting Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Culture makes up an indispensable part of our lives, just like material comfort. It is thought of as an important source of a nation’s vitality and creativity, and constitutes a key factor uniting the nation,while making it distinctive from other countries. It is also said culture is a productiv

  1. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  2. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  3. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  4. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  5. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  6. 76 FR 58472 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Pacific Northwest Crab Industry Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Pacific Northwest Crab Industry Advisory Committee will meet October 13, 2011 at the Leif...: (907) 271-2809. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Agenda--Alaska Department of Fish & Game/ NMFS scientists...

  7. 77 FR 53179 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    .... SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (NPFMC) Crab Plan Team (CPT) will meet in Seattle... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., WA. Council address: North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 605 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 306...

  8. 75 FR 20985 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    .... SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council's Crab Plan Team (CPT) will meet in Alaska on May 10... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Room - May 14. Council address: North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 605 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 306...

  9. 78 FR 26616 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... number) and use the access code 802-457-985 when prompted. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management...

  10. 77 FR 74469 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a week... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) 634-2000. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite 101...

  11. 76 FR 54217 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of the Stock Assessment Review... 2011 stock assessment for Pacific sardine, which will be used to develop management measures for the... 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, provided the public has been...

  12. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  13. Internet culture

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, David

    2013-01-01

    The internet has recently grown from a fringe cultural phenomenon to a significant site of cultural production and transformation. Internet Culture maps this new domain of language, politics and identity, locating it within the histories of communication and the public sphere. Internet Culture offers a critical interrogation of the sustaining myths of the virtual world and of the implications of the current mass migration onto the electronic frontier. Among the topics discussed in Internet Culture are the virtual spaces and places created by the citizens of the Net and their claims to the hotly contested notion of "virtual community"; the virtual bodies that occupy such spaces; and the desires that animate these bodies. The contributors also examine the communication medium behind theworlds of the Net, analyzing the rhetorical conventions governing online discussion, literary antecedents,and potential pedagogical applications.

  14. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...

  15. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  16. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  17. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Gorman, Emma; Hanich, Quentin; Delisle, Aurélie; Campbell, Brooke; Bell, Johann

    2016-03-24

    Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  18. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  19. Randomised controlled trial of informal team sports for cardiorespiratory fitness and health benefit in Pacific adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Mark G; Vincent, Grace; McCambridge, Alana; Britton, Gabrielle; Dewes, Ofa; Elley, C Raina; Moyes, Simon A; Edge, Johann

    2011-12-01

    Rates of obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are high among Pacific people in New Zealand. Physical activity is recommended in the prevention and management of these conditions. Community-based, 'small-sided game' group activities may be an effective and culturally appropriate way to promote physical activity within Pacific communities. To assess the effectiveness of small-sided games-based exercise on fitness and health parameters among Pacific adults over four weeks. Twenty untrained (13 female) Pacific adults were randomised to intervention or control. Intervention participants were offered 45 minutes of small-sided games three times per week for four weeks. Control participants were offered one-month gym membership after the trial. Primary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO₂peak) and leg strength (maximal concentric force of quadriceps at 60°/second) measured at baseline and four weeks. Secondary outcomes included glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and inflammatory markers. Multivariable regression models were used to assess differences between groups, adjusting for baseline values, age and gender. At baseline, mean age was 34.8 years (SD 12.6), BMI 36.3 (6.7), systolic BP 127.7 mmHg (12.1), HbA1c 6.1% (1.9), VO₂peak 2.5 L/min (0.6) and leg strength 170.0 N.m (57.4). Sixteen participants completed the trial. Change in outcomes were greater in intervention than control participants in absolute VO₂peak (0.9 L/min (p=0.003)), leg strength (17.8 N.m (p=0.04)) and HDL (0.12 mmol/L (p=0.02)). There were no other significant differences. Small-sided games appear to be a promising means for improving the health and cardiorespiratory fitness and reducing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Pacific adults.

  20. TPP: Is the best path to regional integration of Asia Pacific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carlos Martínez Jurado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia-Pacific has distinguished itself for its high levels of interdependence and its fast economic growth, however, it lacks of a strong regional institutional framework. Despite the existence of APEC as a forum which includes the region’s diversity of economic development levels and cultural differences, its voluntary approach which relays on open regionalism has not allowed member economies to advance towards its ambitious goals of trade and investment liberalization. Therefore, several of its members have decided to embrace binding schemes, at a bilateral and multilateral basis, among them the TPP, which due to its comprehensive approach, for many represents the better route to achieve regional integration. However, there are questions raised regarding the convenience for Asia-Pacific to transit from a flexible model towards a reciprocal one, and the possible costs involved in such process.

  1. Getting into trouble: perspectives on stress and suicide prevention among Pacific Northwest Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, C June; Cooper, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Suicide rates among Indian youth in the United States are two to three times the national average. Although researchers have identified related risk and protective factors, they have limited understanding of the perspectives of youth at risk. In this descriptive, ethnographic study in a Pacific Northwest tribe, the goal was to gain an understanding of the life experiences of the youth. Focus groups and observations were conducted with 30 Indian youth aged between 14 and 19 years in a Pacific Northwest tribe. Youth were asked to talk about their stressors, sense of family/community support, and hopes for the future. Youth reported major stress and noted that friends and family were both a support and also a source of stress. They hoped for strengthening of cultural values, economic development, and opportunities to give their talents to the tribe. These findings provide further insight about suicide risk among Indian youth and advance the understanding of suicide prevention in a transcultural setting.

  2. Migration for Environmentally Displaced Pacific Peoples: Legal Options in the Pacific Rim

    OpenAIRE

    Tabucanon, Gil Marvel

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the complex relationship between the environment and migration, namely the various protection options available for environmentally-displaced Pacific peoples under the laws of the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. It seeks to ascertain whether flexibility exists in these countries' domestic laws for environmental migrants from neighboring Pacific countries. It asks if humanitarian and ministerial discretion admissions and preferential admission schemes suf...

  3. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  4. The Asian-Pacific world in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzing the modern situation in the Asian-Pacific Region, with account for strategic concerns on the part of China, Japan, USSR and USA the author considers prospects for meaningful disarmament or arms-control (including nuclear weapons) negotiations in the region

  5. Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically...

  6. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  7. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  8. Modeling the population dynamics of Pacific yew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Busing; Thomas A. Spies

    1995-01-01

    A study of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) population dynamics in the mountains of western Oregon and Washington was based on a combination of long-term population data and computer modeling. Rates of growth and mortality were low in mature and old-growth forest stands. Diameter growth at breast height ranged from 0 to 3 centimeters per decade...

  9. Biogeographic congruence in the south Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seberg, Ole

    1991-01-01

    Ever since J. D. Hooker's famous 'Introductory Essay' to Flora NOVE-Zelandise, a classical problem in biogeography has been to give a casual explanation of southern hemisphere distribution patterns. An attempt is made to see whether the cladograms for the circum-Pacific areas (South America, New ...

  10. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  11. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  12. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  13. SeaWiFS: North Pacific Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An extratropical storm can be seen swirling over the North Pacific just south of Alaska. This SeaWiFS image was collected yesterday at 23:20 GMT. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Albert Einstein the roads to pacifism

    CERN Document Server

    Anta, Claudio Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is universally known as the father of the theory of relativity; however, he was also one of the most eminent pacifists of the first half of the twentieth century. Through his active, pragmatic and nuanced breed of pacifism, he sought to confront the dilemmas and problems of his time.

  15. INTELSAT et al. in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses services provided to the island countries of the South Pacific Basin by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), a 110 member-country cooperative that operates a global satellite system. The services include provision of basic satellite communications facilities, technical assistance and training, and free…

  16. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  17. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  18. A decadal tropical Pacific condition unfavorable to central Pacific El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenxiu; Zheng, Xiao-Tong; Cai, Wenju

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of central Pacific (CP) El Niño events displays strong decadal variability but the associated dynamics are unclear. The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) are two dominant modes of tropical Pacific decadal variability that can interact with high-frequency activities. Using a 500 year control integration from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, we find that the difference in mean state between the low-frequency and high-frequency CP El Niño periods is similar to the decadal background condition concurrently contributed by a negative IPO and a positive TPDV. This decadal state features strengthened trade winds west of the International Date Line and anomalous cool sea surface temperatures across the central tropical Pacific. As such, positive zonal advection feedback is difficult to be generated over the central to western tropical Pacific during the CP El Niño developing season, resulting in the low CP El Niño frequency.

  19. Pacific ethnic groups and frequent hospital presentation: A fair target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Zoe

    2016-06-01

    In New Zealand, Pacific health figures are traditionally presented for all Pacific ethnic groups combined. Use of EDs and urgent care clinics is high compared with Maori and non-Maori, non-Pacific (nMnP) use. By controlling for proximity to the hospital and socioeconomic status, we demonstrate greater variation between Pacific ethnic groups than between Pacific and nMnP, or between Maori and nMnP groups. We discuss the significance of subpopulation variation in use of urgent care services. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Aaron D.; Hatch, Douglas R.; Close, David A.

    1998-08-05

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations as well. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam.

  1. Principles of haemophilia care: The Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, S; Lam, J C M; John, M J; Wong, R S M; Tran, H; Yang, R; Nair, S C; Shima, M; Street, A; Srivastava, A

    2018-02-21

    Optimal haemophilia care is best established and implemented through a well-coordinated plan guided by clearly defined principles and priorities. A document which enunciates those details is therefore important. A successful example of this approach is the definition of principles of haemophilia care (PHC) outlined by the European Association for Haemophilia and Associated Disorders (EAHAD) and also the World Federation of Hemophilia. A similar document applicable to the Asia-Pacific region must take into account not only the highly varied healthcare systems but also the tremendous socio-economic and cultural diversities which impact provision of such care. The Asia-Pacific Haemophilia Working Group (APHWG), representing the countries in this region, has prepared this perspective of the PHC. While endorsing the overall framework outlined by EAHAD, this APHWG document emphasizes regional priorities on education and training of healthcare personnel in the diagnosis and management of hereditary bleeding disorders. Central coordinating agencies with wide stakeholder input, networks of haemophilia treatment centres and national registries as well as robust processes for procurement and distribution of safe and effective clotting factor concentrates (CFCs), implementation of prophylaxis programmes and management of patients with inhibitors should also be developed. The implementation of these strategies should lead to establishment of good comprehensive care programmes. This document should also be an advocacy tool to lobby for improved care for people with haemophilia (PWH) in the region. We urge national healthcare policy makers to consider these principles and initiate strong and decisive action to reach these goals. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  3. Paramilitary Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  4. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  5. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), indicated a broad international interest in expansion of the concept of Safety Culture, in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This report responds to that need. In its manifestation, Safety Culture has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. 1 fig

  6. The History of the Pacific Superplume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Utsunomiya, A.; Maruyama, S.

    2001-12-01

    To understand the birth place and episodic activity of the Pacific superplume, we reconstructed the paleogeograhy of continents and oceanic plates from 1.0 Ga supercontinent Rodinia until now by adopting the most confident available data set to determine paleopositions of oceanic plateaus, seamounts, and oceanic arc, in addition to major continents, by using plate trajectory for the last 150Ma and for the farther back to 1.0Ga, by the paleomagnetic constraints tied with geologic connections. Our main focus is the frequency change of ancient activity of plume rocks that are now preserved in the accretionary complex around the circum-Pacific orogenic belts. Several conclusions are led through our reconstruction. (1) Cretaceous oceanic plateaus which present widespread in western Pacific (e.g., Manihiki Plateau, Shatsky Rise, Hess Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountain, Nauru Basin) are traced back and concentrated to the present active region of the Pacific superplume. This suggests that those were once formed a huge composite volcanoes as large as 4000 km x 2400 km across during the Cretaceous by superplume activity. These are equivalent to Australia or Tharsis bulge volcanic complex on Mars. The estimated thickness of oceanic crust ca. 30-40 km suggests that major parts may have been above sea-level during the Cretaceous time. The Cretaceous global warming may be related to this hyper-active superplume event which have carried mantle CO2 to the surface of 3.2 x 1021 g, assuming 0.3 wt% x 350 million km3 (magma volume) x 3.07 g/cm3 during 150-75 Ma. This CO2 output amount occupies as much as 37 wt% among the total output from mantle estimated by using erupted basaltic volume estimated by Larson (1991, Geology, 549-550) and present output rate of CO2. The similar episodic activity of Pacific superplume seems to have occurred at 750-700 Ma, 550-500Ma, 300-250Ma by considering the frequency of occurrences of greenstones in the accretionary complexes of the world. (2) Rodinia

  7. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  8. Estimate of radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-04-01

    about the mass balance of radiocaesium injected into the North Pacific Ocean. In this study, we conducted the optimum interpolation (OI) analysis to estimate the inventory of radiocaesium in the ocean interior as well as surface sweater by using the measured activities. Furthermore, transport speed of radiocaesium in the surface layer in the North Pacific Ocean were also estimated. The data used in this study were derived from all of the available data reported by such as the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), and voluntary cargo ships. The data analysis period was until December 2015 after the FNPP1 accident. It was found that the radiocaesium across the North Pacific Ocean were reached to 180˚ E around 40˚ N latitude at July, 2012 by OI analysis. The transport speed was estimated to 8.5 cm s-1. These were reached to the coastal site of America continent and the activities were increased after the year of 2014. The transport speed across 70˚ W (40˚ N latitude) was decreased to 5.2 cm s-1. We estimated the inventory of radiocaesium in the surface seawater (depth; 0-100m) during the periods from August to December, 2012, based on the OI analysis. Amount of 134Cs inventory was estimated to 4.7 PBq with decay-corrected to 1 October 2012 (7.9 PBq at the time on 11 March 2011). (In the case of 137Cs, the inventory was estimated to 12.5 PBq with decay-corrected to 1 October 2012 and 13 PBq at the time on 11 March 2011 which includes pre-Fukushima 137Cs derived from atmospheric weapons test conducted in late 1950s and eraly 1960s). These correspond to 43-53% of the injected 134Cs in the North Pacific Ocean. It was reported that the 4.2±1.1 PBq of 134Cs were distributed in the STMW (Kaeriyama et al., 2016), which corresponds to 22-28% of the injected 134Cs in the North Pacific Ocean. Taking into account these estimation, FNPP1 derived radiocaesium existed in the CMW in the North Pacific

  9. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  10. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrohman Taufiqurrohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle trash then take advantage of it by selling the collected and the recycled trash. It makes trash have good transformation of values, repelling against the prior stereotype. Finally, by taking example from Trash Bank management at schools, human can have so cultured trash that they would not be trapped by trash culture.

  11. Neodymium isotopic variations in Northwest Pacific waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Zhang, Jing; Fukugawa, Kiyotaka; Nagai, Hisao

    2004-02-01

    Four vertical profiles of the concentration and isotopic composition of Nd in seawater were obtained in the western North Pacific. Two profiles from the Kuroshio Current regime showed congruently that although the Nd concentration increases gradually with depth, its isotopic composition varies significantly with depth depending upon the water mass occupying the water column. The high-salinity Kuroshio waters originating from the North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW) carry the least radiogenic Nd (ɛ Nd = -7.4 to -8.7) to this region at ˜250 m from the western margin continental shelves, most likely from the East China Sea. The Nd isotopic compositions in the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) that occurs at 600 to 1000 m in the subtropical region are fairly uniform at ɛ Nd = -3.7. The profile data from the ˜38° to 40°N Kuroshio/Oyashio mixed water region off Sanriku of Honshu, Japan, also suggest that the newest NPIW with ɛ Nd = -3.2 is formed there by the mixing of various source waters, and the radiogenic component of Nd is derived mainly from the Oyashio waters. In the Pacific Deep Water (PDW) below ˜1000 m, the Nd isotopic composition is neither vertically nor horizontally homogeneous, suggesting that it serves as a useful tracer for sluggish deep water circulation as well. Two profiles from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench showed a minimum ɛ Nd value at ˜2000 m, suggesting that there exists a horizontal advective flow in the vicinity of Honshu, Japan. There is some evidence from other chemical properties to support this observation. The waters below 4000 m including those within the trench in the subtropical region have ɛ Nd values of around -5, suggesting that the deep waters are fed from the south along the western boundary, ultimately from the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the South Pacific. This extends up to ˜40°N along the Japanese Islands. In the subarctic region (>˜42°N), the waters have more radiogenic Nd with ɛ Nd > -4.0 throughout the

  12. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  13. Culture, Structure and Leadership Impacts on Gender Inclusion in the Security Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Culture, structure and leadership impacts on gender inclusion in the security sector 1 DANIEL K. INOUYE ASIA PACIFIC CENTER FOR SECURITY...STUDIES OCCASIONAL PAPER, SEPTEMBER 2017 Culture, structure and leadership impacts on gender inclusion in the security sector Canyon DV Abstract...Depending on your perspective, the primary challenge to gender inclusion is either culture, structure or leadership . The good news is that they are all

  14. The great canoes in the sky starlore and astronomy of the South Pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, Stephen Robert

    2017-01-01

    Presenting spectacular photographs of astronomical objects of the southern sky, all taken by author Stephen Chadwick, this book explores what peoples of the South Pacific see when they look up at the heavens and what they have done with this knowledge. From wives killing brothers to emus rising out of the desert and great canoes in the sky, this book offers the perfect blend of science, tradition and mythology to bring to life the most famous sights in the heavens above the southern hemisphere. The authors place this starlore in the context of contemporary understandings of astronomy. The night sky of southern societies is as rich in culture as it is in stars. Stories, myths and legends based on constellations, heavenly bodies and other night sky phenomena have played a fundamental role in shaping the culture of pre-modern civilizations throughout the world. Such starlore continues to influence societies throughout the Pacific to this day, with cultures throughout the region – from Australia and New Zealand...

  15. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  16. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  17. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains Appendices A--I which contain the following: glossary/abbreviations; scoping report; structure coordinate summary; air quality; biological resources; geology; noise; visual contrast rating forms; and cultural resources

  18. Dynamic nuclear development in Pacific Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillessen, U.

    1996-01-01

    The gigantic wave of industrialization in Pacific Asia is based on a reliable supply of electricity whose expansion is being planned long in advance. In this context, nuclear power serves to reduce the dependence on, mostly imported, fossil fuels. Seventy nuclear power plants are in operation, twelve are under construction, and at least another 65 are planned by the year 2020. Also current nuclear research programs have been designed with long term objectives in mind. In times of moratoria and intentions to opt out in Western Europe it is perhaps worthwhile to look beyond the borders of cantons and federal states. The situation of nuclear power worldwide, especially in Pacific Asia, clearly reveals one thing: There is no opting out. (orig.) [de

  19. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  20. Statistical indicators for Asia and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This quarterly publication provides up-to-date monthly data for assessing the demographic and economic trends in countries or areas in Asia and the Pacific region. Part 1 gives regional tables for populations, life expectancy, death rate, birth rate, literacy, industrial production index, index numbers of agricultural production, cereal production, international trade, and GDP. Country tables gives a finer breakdown of figures for each of 28 countries which includes production and exports of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity. The document is produced by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. It has an ISBN of 92-1-119694-9 and a UN report number ST/ESCAP/1513.

  1. Cultural Resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "Who are we?Where are we from?"Humans have been pondering these questions since the day they first came into being.One of the ways we preserve memories of the past is through our cul- tural heritage that has been passed on from generation to genera- tion.Intangible cultural heritage,as well as tangible cultural her- itage,is essential to the continuity of human civilization. Since the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)unveiled the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001,China has had Kunqu opera,Guqin and its music,the art of Uygur Muqam of Xinjiang and the traditional Mongolian folk song Long Song added to UNESCO’s protection list.It is now one of the coun-

  2. The Pacific Ventilated Thermocline and its Influence on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, L.; Schrag, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, global surface temperatures have warmed episodically despite relatively steady increases in radiative forcing. Coincident with these transitions, we identify changes in the structure of the ventilated thermocline in the Pacific as well as changes in the intensity of the equatorial undercurrent. We propose a new mechanism for the Pacific Decadal Oscillation that involves oscillations in the strength of the equatorial undercurrent and may explain multi-decadal variability of global temperatures. We suggest that the oscillation results in a greater or lesser volume of cold water reaching the eastern Pacific, which ultimately leads to a change in the heat flux out of this critical region. By varying the heat flux in the tropical Pacific in model simulations, we reproduce a stepwise pattern of warming that resembles the historical climate record without additional variability in forcing. In addition, the trajectory of the changes in thermocline structure that we now observe in the Pacific looks like it will arrive at the equator in the middle of the next decade, suggesting that the current period of reduced warming (aka "hiatus") will persist through the mid-2020s.

  3. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  4. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  5. Army Aviation Operations in the Pacific Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    security globally, we will of necessity rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific region. Our relationships with Asian allies and key partners are critical...Freedom was embarking upon an eight-month deployment to that Southeast Asian nation and making good on then-Secretary Gates’ commitment from 2011...number of armed vehicles, displaying the flexibility of helicopter operations in this particular theatre .36 A total of 22 Apache missions (49 combat

  6. Bathymetric Atlas of the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey provided nearshore from Novel Oceenoglphic Office neutical chert of various detils around islands and reefs. Nautical...Easter Islands , 1961. Middle America Trench: Topography and struc- Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 110, p. 1-44. ture, Geol. Sec. Amer. Bull., v. 72, p...of volcanic ash layers and turbidito% ini 1956. Clipperton fracture zone in the northeastern equa- the north Pacific, Gal. Soc. Amer. Bull., v. 80, p

  7. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....

  8. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....

  9. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  10. Circum-North Pacific tectonostratigraphic terrane map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Baranov, Boris B.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W.; Plafker, George; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.; Wakita, Koji

    1994-01-01

    The companion tectonostratigraphic terrane and overlap assemblage of map the Circum-North Pacific presents a modern description of the major geologic and tectonic units of the region. The map illustrates both the onshore terranes and overlap volcanic assemblages of the region, and the major offshore geologic features. The map is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists of the Russian Far East, Japanese, Alaskan, Canadian, and U.S.A. Pacific Northwest. The map is designed to be a source of geologic information for all scientists interested in the region, and is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analyses (Nokleberg and others, 1993, 1994a), petroleum analyses, neotectonic analyses, and analyses of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. This text contains an introduction, tectonic definitions, acknowledgments, descriptions of postaccretion stratified rock units, descriptions and stratigraphic columns for tectonostratigraphic terranes in onshore areas, and references for the companion map (Sheets 1 to 5). This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in the Russian Far East, Hokkaido Island of Japan, Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, and the U.S.A. Pacific Northwest in the last few decades. Geologic mapping suggests that most of this region can be interpreted as a collage of fault-bounded tectonostratigraphic terranes that were accreted onto continental margins around the Circum-

  11. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  12. The Pacific Rim and global natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    There is a growing interest in natural gas as a part of national or international strategies to moderate the environmental consequences of fuel use. Although the underutilized global gas resource justifies the interest, the future consumption of gas is likely to be constrained by the high capital costs of new transportation facilities to bring remote gas supplies into areas of growing energy demand. The Asian Pacific Rim countries include rapidly growing demand areas as well as significant reserves of gas. The region will continue to play a leading role in the evolution of a world trade in gas. Gas resources within the Asian Pacific region are adequate to serve the foreseeable demands, but historically the region has utilized liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. Financial constraints upon the gas producing countries of the region and political instability in some of them will probably continue to require the importing of sustantial quantities of gas from the Middle East and possibly from Alaska and the former USSR as the resources indigenous to the region itself are developed more slowly than demand. The financial arrangements and contractual approaches that evolve to meet the needs of the Asia Pacific Rim will shape the future of world LNG markets. (Author)

  13. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  14. Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders: Proposed recommendations for children of the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Donald; Hock, Quak Seng; Kadim, Musal; Mohan, Neelam; Ryoo, Eell; Sandhu, Bhupinder; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Jie, Chen; Hoekstra, Hans; Guarino, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were strongly recommended as adjunct treatment to oral rehydration therapy for gastroenteritis. Lactobacillus reuteri could also be considered. Probiotics may be considered for prevention of (with the indicated strains): antibiotic-associated diarrhea (LGG or Sb); Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea (Sb); nosocomial diarrhea (LGG); infantile colic (L reuteri) and as adjunct treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Sb and others). Specific probiotics with a history of safe use in preterm and term infants may be considered in infants for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. There is insufficient evidence for recommendations in other conditions. Despite a diversity of epidemiological, socioeconomical and health system conditions, similar recommendations apply well to Asia pacific countries. These need to be validated with local randomized-controlled trials. PMID:29259371

  15. Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  16. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria or other disease-causing germs grow. A gram stain may also ... any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names ... Charnot-Katsikas A. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  17. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...

  18. Grindr Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    intersections of sexuality with other socio-cultural categories such as race and migration background, but also gender and ability. I find that user experiences with exclusion and discrimination can be related to Grindr’s interface, such as its drop-down menus, the discourses circulated by Grindr users...

  19. Pacific Decadal Variability and Central Pacific Warming El Niño in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lorenzo, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-02-27

    This research aimed at understanding the dynamics controlling decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean and its interactions with global-scale climate change. The first goal was to assess how the dynamics and statistics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the modes of Pacific decadal variability are represented in global climate models used in the IPCC. The second goal was to quantify how decadal dynamics are projected to change under continued greenhouse forcing, and determine their significance in the context of paleo-proxy reconstruction of long-term climate.

  20. 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Nuclear energy, science and technology - Pacific partnership. Proceedings Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The theme of the 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference held in Sydney from 1-6 May 1994, embraced the use of atom in energy production and in science and technology. The focus was on selected topics of current and on-going interest to countries around the Pacific Basin. The two-volume proceedings include both invited and contributed papers which have been indexed separately. This document, Volume 2 covers the following topics: education and training in Nuclear Science, public acceptance, nuclear safety and radiation protection, nuclear fuel resources and their utilisation, research reactors, cyclotrons and accelerators. refs., tabs., figs., ills

  1. Animal Telemetry Network Data Assembly Center: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    sampling of the Pacific bluefin tuna data and no white shark data from TOPP, as well as a small sample of the Atlantic bluefin tuna data from TAG and...Satellite Relay Data Logger, Fastloc GPS), Wildlife Computers (SPOT and SPLASH) 2) Acoustic data ( white sharks ) via automated Iridium satellite...Computers MK10, MiniPAT) that report throughout the year (e.g. blue marlin from the IGFA Great Marlin Race), and then take approximately 20 days to

  2. An aftereffect of global warming on tropical Pacific decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Liu, Qinyu; Wang, Chuanyang

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that global warming over the past six decades can weaken the tropical Pacific Walker circulation and maintain the positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Based on observations and model simulations, another aftereffect of global warming on IPO is found. After removing linear trends (global warming signals) from observations, however, the tropical Pacific climate still exhibited some obvious differences between two IPO negative phases. The boreal winter (DJF) equatorial central-eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) was colder during the 1999-2014 period (P2) than that during 1961-1976 (P1). This difference may have been a result of global warming nonlinear modulation of precipitation; i.e., in the climatological rainy region, the core area of the tropical Indo-western Pacific warm pool receives more precipitation through the "wet-get-wetter" mechanism. Positive precipitation anomalies in the warm pool during P2 are much stronger than those during P1, even after subtracting the linear trend. Corresponding to the differences of precipitation, the Pacific Walker circulation is stronger in P2 than in P1. Consequent easterly winds over the equatorial Pacific led to a colder equatorial eastern-central Pacific during P2. Therefore, tropical Pacific climate differences between the two negative IPO phases are aftereffects of global warming. These aftereffects are supported by the results of coupled climate model experiments, with and without global warming.

  3. Introduction to Northeast Pacific Shark Biology, Ecology, and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Dayv; Larson, Shawn E

    Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean and, as a result, they have featured prominently in the mythology, history, and fisheries of diverse human cultures around the world. Because of their regional significance to fisheries and ecological role as predators, and as a result of concern over long-term stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation in recent decades. This volume highlights the biodiversity and biological attributes of, and conservation efforts targeted at, populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States and Canada, one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. A companion volume addresses details of fisheries and ecotourism in the same region, as well as delving into the relationship between captive husbandry of sharks and education/outreach efforts aimed at fostering a conservation mindset in the public at large. Together, these volumes provide readers a detailed backdrop against which to consider their own actions, and those of resource managers, academics, and educators, as they relate to the long-term conservation of sharks and their relatives. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Talking Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When Danish businesses move production abroad, ‘culture’ is often seen as a huge challenge to the successful outcome of cross-border collaboration. Therefore, business leaders often seek information and guidelines of how to cope in the vast amount of literature on culture and intercultural...... communication. Much of this literature is based on functionalist approaches providing the dos and don’ts of intercultural encounters. This involves inter alia conceptualising ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous entity of values, attitudes and norms shared by members of a group, often leading readers...... to adopt dichotomised understandings and discourses about other cultures (see e.g. Hofstede 2001; Jandt 1998; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997). However, experience shows that the world in which intercultural encounters take place is not as simple and easy to categorise as these approaches may suggest...

  5. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  6. Using indicators and models for an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture management: the anchovy fishery and Pacific oyster culture in Chile: case studies Aplicación de indicadores y modelos para un enfoque ecosistémico de la pesca y la acuicultura: pesquería de anchoveta y cultivo de ostra del Pacífico en Chile: casos de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrate the use of indicators and models to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture management using two case studies in Chile: prediction of environmental variability effects upon anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery of northern Chile and prediction of suitable sites and carrying capacity of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas culture using FARM and geographic information system (GIS models in the Valdivia estuary. A three stage approach was applied: Stage 1 considers spatiotemporal ecosystem indicators (fisheries, aquaculture, environmental, and regulatory, Stage 2 uses statistical relationships between indicators, GIS, and other simulation models (e.g., artificial neural networks and FARM of environment-resources interaction, and Stage 3 is the analysis and validation of models outputs. The methodology illustrates how indicators and models may be used to assist decision-makers in developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture. The application of these approaches provides an integrative methodology for abundance prediction of anchovy and site selection for shellfish aquaculture, despite limitations in the available data.Este trabajo muestra el uso de indicadores y modelos para apoyar la aplicación del enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión de la pesca y la acuicultura, mediante dos casos de estudios en Chile: predicción de los efectos de la variabilidad ambiental en la pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile y la predicción de sitios aptos y capacidad de carga para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico (Crassostrea gigas en el estuario de Valdivia. Se aplicó un enfoque metodológico de tres etapas: etapa 1 considera indicadores espacio-temporales del ecosistema (pesca, acuicultura, medio ambiente y legislación; etapa 2 utiliza relaciones estadísticas entre los indicadores, funciones de SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica, y otros modelos de simulación (Redes

  7. Cultural neurolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area.

  8. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  9. Recalling war trauma of the Pacific War and the Japanese occupation in the oral history of Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation were traumatic periods in the lives of people now over seventy years old in Malaysia and Singapore. This study traces why individuals interviewed for oral history of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation have often been able to tell stories of trauma without being overwhelmed by their reminiscences. It emphasizes that memories of traumatic experiences of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation in Malaysia and Singapore are mediated and eased by supportive social networks that are part of the interview subject's community. The individual's personal memories of traumatic war experiences are positioned in the context of the collective memory of the group and, thus, are made easier to recall. However, for individuals whose personal memories are at variance with the collective memory of the group they belong to, recalling traumatic experiences is more difficult and alienating as they do not have the support in their community. The act of recalling traumatic memories in the context of the collective memory of a group is particularly relevant in Malaysia and Singapore. These countries have a long history of being plural societies, where although the major ethnic groups -- the Malays, Chinese, and Indians -- have lived side by side peacefully, they have lived in culturally and socially separate worlds, not interacting much with the other groups. The self -- identity of many older people who lived through the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation is inextricably bound up with their ethnicity. Oral history on war trauma strongly reflects these identities.

  10. Unprecedented 2015/2016 Indo-Pacific Heat Transfer Speeds Up Tropical Pacific Heat Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Alonso Balmaseda, Magdalena; Haimberger, Leopold

    2018-04-01

    El Niño events are characterized by anomalously warm tropical Pacific surface waters and concurrent ocean heat discharge, a precursor of subsequent cold La Niña conditions. Here we show that El Niño 2015/2016 departed from this norm: despite extreme peak surface temperatures, tropical Pacific (30°N-30°S) upper ocean heat content increased by 9.6 ± 1.7 ZJ (1 ZJ = 1021 J), in stark contrast to the previous strong El Niño in 1997/1998 (-11.5 ± 2.9 ZJ). Unprecedented reduction of Indonesian Throughflow volume and heat transport played a key role in the anomalous 2015/2016 event. We argue that this anomaly is linked with the previously documented intensified warming and associated rising sea levels in the Indian Ocean during the last decade. Additionally, increased absorption of solar radiation acted to dampen Pacific ocean heat content discharge. These results explain the weak and short-lived La Niña conditions in 2016/2017 and indicate the need for realistic representation of Indo-Pacific energy transfers for skillful seasonal-to-decadal predictions.

  11. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  12. Anthropogenic Pu distribution in Tropical East Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sumi, Takahiro; Takimoto, Kiyotaka; Nagaoka, Mika; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the anthropogenic radionuclides 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in the Tropical East Pacific in 2003 was studied from the viewpoint of material migration. We measured the contents of Pu isotopes in seawater and in sediment from the sea bottom. The distributions of Pu isotopes, together with those of coexisting nitrate and phosphate species and dissolved oxygen, are discussed in relation to the potential temperature and potential density (sigma-θ). The Pu contents in sediment samples were compared with those in the seawater. Horizontal migration across the Equator from north to south was investigated at depths down to ∼ 800 m in the eastern Pacific. The Pu distribution at 0-400 m correlated well with the distribution of potential temperature. Maximum Pu levels were observed in the subsurface layer at 600-800 m, corresponding to the depth where sigma-θ ∼ 27.0. It is suggested that the Pu distribution depends on the structure of the water mass and the particular temperature and salinity. The water column/sediment column inventory ratio and the vertical distribution of Pu may reflect the efficiency of scavenging in the relevant water areas. Research Highlights: → Geographical distributions of Pu isotopes were investigated from viewpoint of material migration. → Horizontal migration from north to south was found at depths down to ∼800 m in the eastern Pacific. → Pu distribution at 0-400 m was correlated with water temperature. → The distribution at 600-800 m correlated with water mass structure. → Pu in seawater and sediment gave information about efficiency of scavenging.

  13. British megaton bomb trials in the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Two remote islands in the Pacific Ocean were used by Britain to test thermonuclear weapons in 1957 and 1958. Nine tests, under the name 'Operation GRAPPLE', were carried out, after which Britain stopped atmospheric testing. Subsequent tests were carried out jointly with the USA, underground. This book tells, through postal history, the story of Britain's involvement in nuclear weapons testing on Christmas Island. Covers of official and private mail have been collected and are used to illustrate the planning and implementation of 'Operation GRAPPLE' which involved Royal Engineers, the Royal Air Force, the Royal Navy and the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. (UK)

  14. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  15. Towards a Fiscally Constrained Pacific Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    joint press conference with Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard , President Obama emphasized U.S. intent in the Asia Pacific region when he... gillard -australia-joint-press (accessed February 5, 2012). 5 Laura MacInnis and Caren Bohan, “Obama seeks to hitch U.S. economy to Asian growth,” Reuters...November 16, 2011. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/11/16/remarks-president-obama-and-prime- minister- gillard -australia-joint-press

  16. On the trail of the Pacific Teal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The passage of the Pacific Teal, a ship specially designed to transport high level radioactive wastes, from France to Japan aroused some opposition within New Zealand. While Greenpeace persisted in referring to it as a p lutonium ship , it was in fact carrying vitrified waste. The media discussion about this type of shipment is based largely upon misinformation. The risks of human exposure and environmental damage posed by shipments of HLW cargoes are miniscule in relation to those posed by the more frequent and familiar transportation of oil cargoes. (author)

  17. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  18. Pacific Northwest geothermal 1977 review - 1978 outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W

    1978-06-01

    A survey covers some of the more important geothermal exploration and development activity in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in 1977, including a projection of what may be expected in these areas in 1978 and the Pacific Northwest extensive young volcanic terrain as a prime exploration target; continuing investment by the geothermal industry; and recommendations that access should be provided to public lands which hold much of this resource, that it should be recognized that the hydrologic systems which bring this energy to the well bore in economic quantities can be depleted, and that taxation should account for this depletion.

  19. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  20. 78 FR 34347 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale AGENCY: National Marine... Recovery Plan (Plan) for the North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica). ADDRESSES: Electronic copies...

  1. The Transcultural Wellness Center: rehabilitation and recovery in Asian and Pacific Islander mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Ton, Hendry; Yang, Cynthia; Endriga, Marya C; Lan, Mei-Fang; Koike, Alan K

    2008-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the "model minority" and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated within existing systems of care. Passage of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 created the opportunity for Sacramento County to fund a full-service mental health clinic designed to meet the needs of the APIA community. The process by which this clinic, the Transcultural Wellness Center, was conceptualized, advocated for, and launched is described. This clinic is considered a best practice model within the MHSA system redesign effort.

  2. La arquitectura cultural. / Cultural architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobos, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo releva la Arquitectura Cultural, que es plural y diversa en términos estéticos y conceptuales. Sugiere la apertura a otras dinámicas de comprensión de lo arquitectónico, a otras lógicas de construcción de las ciudades. Para aclarar el concepto se expone un breve ejemplo práctico./This article points out the "cultural architecture", which is plural and diverse in concept and aesthetic terms. It suggests the opening to other dinamics of comprehention of the architectural issue and the building of cities. The article presents a brief empirical example that clarifies the conceptual approach.

  3. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  4. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Samani; Elham Saadatian; Natalie Pang; Doros Polydorou; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Ryohei Nakatsu; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  5. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  6. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  7. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999-2000. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin.

  8. 78 FR 70283 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Online Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council's) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC... cabezon, and other business in preparation for the SSC's March 2014 meeting. The online SSC Groundfish....m. PST, Wednesday, December 11, 2013 and continue until 4 p.m. or as necessary to complete business...

  9. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2236; MB Docket No. 10-108] Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction, Iowa, because the record in this...

  10. Governance, corruption, and trade in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  11. 77 FR 6786 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... meeting dates and times. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) announces... Merizo Community Meeting 6 p.m.-9 p.m., Wednesday, February 29, 2012 1. Introduction 2. Community Based...

  12. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  13. Indo-Pacific sea level variability during recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Nakano, H.; Urakawa, S. L.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Decadal variability of sea level in the Indo-Pacific region is investigated using a historical OGCM simulation. The OGCM driven by the atmospheric forcing removing long-term trends clearly exhibits decadal sea level variability in the Pacific Ocean, which is associated with eastern tropical Pacific thermal anomalies. During the period of 1977-1987, the sea level anomalies are positive in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show deviations from a north-south symmetric distribution, with strongly negative anomalies in the western tropical South Pacific. During the period of 1996-2006, in contrast, the sea level anomalies are negative in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show a nearly north-south symmetric pattern, with positive anomalies in both hemispheres. Concurrently, sea level anomalies in the south-eastern Indian Ocean vary with those in the western tropical Pacific. These sea level variations are closely related to large-scale wind fields. Indo-Pacific sea level distributions are basically determined by wind anomalies over the equatorial region as well as wind stress curl anomalies over the off-equatorial region.

  14. IFRS adoption in Pacific Island Economies: A political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Boolaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new paradigm on the adoption of IFRS in island economies specifically in the pacific region. The adapted Scott (2001 institutional pressure framework on IFRS adoption addresses the political independence and political dependence of pacific island economies at three levels namely high, second and low.

  15. 75 FR 81971 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...., Carlsbad, CA 92011; telephone: (760) 431-9440. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE...

  16. 77 FR 21972 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... work sessions will be held at Large Conference Room, Pacific Fishery Management Council Office, 7700 NE...

  17. 77 FR 57558 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR 97220-1384. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. Getting to Know Education in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific region is comprised of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI); the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)-Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap; Guam; Hawai'i; the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and the Republic of Palau. This document begins by providing a map of the REL Pacific region overlaid on a map of…

  19. 76 FR 13604 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    .... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a Western Pacific Stock... councils and NOAA Fisheries to conduct a review and revision of the EFH components of fisheries management... and enhancement of EFH for each Fishery Management Plan. The Act requires that both steps of the...

  20. Olfactory sensitivity of Pacific Lampreys to lamprey bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Sorensen, Peter W.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Seelye, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata are in decline throughout much of their historical range in the Columbia River basin. In support of restoration efforts, we tested whether larval and adult lamprey bile acids serve as migratory and spawning pheromones in adult Pacific lampreys, as they do in sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The olfactory sensitivity of adult Pacific lampreys to lamprey bile acids was measured by electro-olfactogram recording from the time of their capture in the spring until their spawning in June of the following year. As controls, we tested L-arginine and a non-lamprey bile acid, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLS). Migrating adult Pacific lampreys were highly sensitive to petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone) and 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey sex pheromone) when first captured. This sensitivity persisted throughout their long migratory and overwinter holding period before declining to nearly unmeasurable levels by the time of spawning. The absolute magnitudes of adult Pacific lamprey responses to lamprey bile acids were smaller than those of the sea lamprey, and unlike the sea lamprey, the Pacific lamprey did not appear to detect TLS. No sexual dimorphism was noted in olfactory sensitivity. Thus, Pacific lampreys are broadly similar to sea lampreys in showing sensitivity to the major lamprey bile acids but apparently differ in having a longer period of sensitivity to those acids. The potential utility of bile acid-like pheromones in the restoration of Pacific lampreys warrants their further investigation in this species.

  1. 76 FR 70042 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Pacific Aerospace Limited Model FU24 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing... Schletzbaum, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  2. 78 FR 9781 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for all Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes. This AD results... Aerospace Limited, Hamilton Airport, Private Bag, 3027 Hamilton, New Zealand; telephone: +64 7 843 6144; fax...

  3. Assimilation of Long-Range Lightning Data over the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    convective rainfall analyses over the Pacific, and (iii) to improve marine prediction of cyclogenesis of both tropical and extratropical cyclones through...data over the North Pacific Ocean, refine the relationships between lightning and storm hydrometeor characteristics, and assimilate lightning...unresolved storm -scale areas of deep convection over the data-sparse open oceans. Diabatic heating sources, especially latent heat release in deep

  4. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  5. Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific - University of Guam Skip to main entered the website of the Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific (WERI) at the CNMI and the FSM. Research Programs Weather and Climate Surface Water & Watersheds Groundwater &

  6. 75 FR 51240 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 5. Salmon Essential Fish Habitat Review D. Pacific Halibut Management 1. 2010 Pacific Halibut... Management 1. Ecosystem Fishery Management Plan I. Groundfish Management 1. Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat... the Groundfish Fisheries E. Habitat 1. Current Habitat Issues 2. National Marine Fisheries Service...

  7. 76 FR 36902 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... continue the periodic review of essential fish habitat (EFH) identification and descriptions for species... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will hold a meeting of its Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC). The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The CPSMT meeting will be held...

  8. 76 FR 52640 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) ad hoc groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC) will hold a conference call to continue the periodic review of groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). DATES: The conference call will be held Friday, September 9, 2011 from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m...

  9. 78 FR 20616 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meeting of its Pelagics Plan... the Council Pelagics Conference Room to discuss the following agenda items: Tuesday, April 23, 2013, 8...

  10. 77 FR 22286 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Pelagics Plan... pelagics annual report module changes 4. American Samoa annual report module changes 5. Summary of current...

  11. 76 FR 60004 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Species with MSY, Existing Quota, or Reference Points (Tier 3 and 4). a. Coastal Pelagics in Hawaii. b...'s Report. 5. Agency Reports. A. National Marine Fisheries Service. 1. Pacific Islands Regional...

  12. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  13. Culture Jamming Versus Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardia Acynthia Putri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This literature study researched Adbusters, the anti-commercial organization, and described the organization’s activities and media usage, mainly in the period of 2007-2010, which critized the populer culture. Adbusters is an organization which performs “Culture Jamming”; a rebellious act reacting towards commercialism domination in many aspects including popular culture. Compared to other similar organizations, Adbusters has been executing more various activisms using several media which other organizations do not use. This study used the Adbusters’ official website and blogs as main data sources. The data of Adbusters’ activities and media usage were categorized and analyzed, thus the tendency of its development can be described. This study also analyzed Adbusters’ activity using Media Hegemony Theory and Political Economy Media Theory. The media has been dominated by a certain group that owns politic and economic power, so the information flow has been dominated by them. Media and its contents have been commercialized, thus capitalism and commercialism have been considered as a common system that should run the world. Adbusters has been trying to stop the domination and change the society’s way of thinking into a more critical way of thinking.   Abstrak: Studi literatur ini meneliti tentang Adbusters, sebuah organisasi anti komersial, dengan mendeskripsikan aktivitas serta penggunaan media organisasi tersebut dari tahun 2007-2010 dalam mengkritisi budaya populer. Adbusters adalah organisasi yang melakukan Culture Jamming, aksi perlawanan terhadap dominasi komersialisme di segala aspek termasuk popular culture. Dibandingkan dengan organisasi lain yang serupa, aktivitas Adbusters lebih bervariasi dan menggunakan media-media yang tidak biasa digunakan organisasi lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan situs online resmi Adbusters sebagai sumber data utama. Data mengenai aktivitas dan

  14. Reconnaissance of contaminants in larval Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) tissues and habitats in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Hapke, Whitney B.; McIlraith, Brian; Markovchick, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) have resided in the Columbia River Basin for millennia and have great ecological and cultural importance. The role of habitat contamination in the recent decline of the species has rarely been studied and was the main objective of this effort. A wide range of contaminants (115 analytes) was measured in sediments and tissues at 27 sites across a large geographic area of diverse land use. This is the largest dataset of contaminants in habitats and tissues of Pacific lamprey in North America and the first study to compare contaminant bioburden during the larval life stage and the anadromous, adult portion of the life cycle. Bioaccumulation of pesticides, flame retardants, and mercury was observed at many sites. Based on available data, contaminants are accumulating in larval Pacific lamprey at levels that are likely detrimental to organism health and may be contributing to the decline of the species.

  15. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  16. Pacific region influenza surveillance for oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather B; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Whelen, A Christian

    2012-05-01

    Hawaii and the United States-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI) host over 8 million travelers annually, most of whom originate in Asia, Australia, and the Americas where prevalence of oseltamivir resistance in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has been reported to be 2.5-3.5%. To survey a collection of samples from Hawaii and the USAPI that had tested positive for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by RTI-PCR to assess whether antiviral resistance emerged in these island communities during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We examined RNA extracted from Hawaiian and USAPI cases for the neuraminidase H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance by pyrosequencing. Two hundred and sixty-three (263) 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) positive specimens were tested and 263/263 (100%) were shown to lack the mutation most commonly associated with oseltamivir resistance. There was no evidence of oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2009 pandemic in the Pacific islands despite considerable travel exposure. Geographic isolation, the lack of a "second wave" of pandemic influenza, judicious antiviral use, aggressive vaccination, and below average tourism due to the global economic crisis may have been contributing factors. Continued surveillance and vigilance is necessary to monitor unpredictable influenza activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  18. Asia-Pacific POPIN workshop on Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This brief article announces the accomplishments of the ESCAP Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (DESIPA) in conjunction with the Asia-Pacific POPIN Internet (Information Superhighway) Training Workshop in popularizing useful new computer information technologies. A successful workshop was held in Bangkok in November 1996 for 18 people from 8 countries in the Asian and Pacific region, many of whom were from population information centers. Participants were taught some techniques for disseminating population data and information through use of the Internet computer facility. Participants learned 1) how to use Windows software in the ESCAP local area network (LAN), 2) about concepts such as HTML (hypertext mark-up language), and 3) detailed information about computer language. Computer practices involved "surfing the Net (Internet)" and linking with the global POPIN site on the Internet. Participants learned about computer programs for information handling and learned how to prepare documents using HTML, how to mount information on the World Wide Web (WWW) of the Internet, how to convert existing documents into "HTML-style" files, and how to scan graphics, such as logos, photographs, and maps, for visual display on the Internet. The Workshop and the three training modules was funded by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The POPIN Coordinator was pleased that competency was accomplished in such a short period of time.

  19. Penetration of tritium into the Tropical Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, R.A.; Peterson, W.H.; Ostlund, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of subsurface tritium maxima coincident with the Equatorial Currents is used to show that advection along isopycnals by the mean wind-driven circulation is the dominant process in the at most 14-year time scale for the penetration of high northern latitude water to the equator (above 26.2 sigma-theta). Ventilation of the equatorial Pacific thermocline from the north contrasts sharply with the equatorial Atlantic thermocline which is ventilated from the south. The most striking manifestation of the North Pacific circulation is evidenced by a tritium maximum and salinity minimum at the equator between 145 0 and 125 0 W located above 25.6 sigma-theta. It shows that regardless of time of sampling the easter/central equator has received the highest latitude water, probably as a consequence of recirculation by the Equatorial Currents. Between the same meridians there is a tritium maximum on and north of the equator at the surface, which is interpreted as an expression of upwelling. Its coincidence with the cool tongue (Wyrtki) provides direct evidence that the upwelling process plays a dominant role in its maintenance on a decadal time scale

  20. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  1. Microbial diversity in subseafloor fluids from Explorer Ridge, Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S.; Huber, J. A.; Embley, R.; Butterfield, D. A.; Baross, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Gorda, Juan de Fuca and Explorer Ridges are first order spreading centers located in the northeast Pacific. While the Gorda and Juan de Fuca Ridges have been extensively sampled for chemical and microbiological analyses, what little is known about the Explorer Ridge is from preliminary observations made in the mid-1980's. A cruise in 2002 revisited the area and discovered vigorous hydrothermal activity at Magic Mountain, a site located outside the primary rift valley. Explorer Ridge is an important site to compare with other well-described vent sites on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Our research has focused on describing the phylogenetic and physiological diversity of bacteria and archaea in low temperature hydrothermal fluids in an effort to identify subseafloor indicator organisms and to use the physiological characteristics of these organisms to help constrain subseafloor habitat characteristics. We have previously established that there are microbial taxa that are unique to subseafloor habitats associated with diffuse flow fluids at Axial Seamount and at Endeavour both located on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These included cultured anaerobic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic heterotrophs, methanogens and sulfur metabolizers. Moreover, results from molecular phylogeny analyses using the 16S rRNA sequences identified a phylogenetically diverse group of bacteria belonging to the epsilon-proteobacteria. While anaerobic hyperthermophiles were cultured from some diffuse-flow vent sites at Explorer, they were less abundant than at Axial Volcano and Endeavour, and curiously, no methanogens were cultured or detected in 16S rRNA clonal libraries. Like Axial, a diverse group of epsilon-proteobacterial clones were found with many similar to those identified from Axial Seamount and other hydrothermal vent sites, although there appears to be some unique species. The overall bacterial diversity at Explorer appears different than at Axial, possibly linked to temperature or chemical

  2. [Cranial trepanation in primitive cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Darder, José Manuel

    A review is presented on cranial trepanations performed by primitive cultures. The scientific interest in this topic began after the discovery in 1965 by Ephraim G. Squier of a pre-Columbian trepanated skull, and studied by Paul Broca in Paris. Pseudotrepanation and other types of cranial manipulation are reviewed. The techniques, technology, and instruments for every type of trepanation are well known. There are a surprisingly high percentage of cases showing signs of post-trepanation survival. Indications for trepanation are speculative, perhaps magic. Although trepanation in primitive cultures is widespread around the world, and throughout time, the main fields of interest are the Neolithic Period in Europe, the pre-Columbian Period in Andean South America, and some contemporaneous Pacific and African tribes. This particular trepanation procedure has no relationship with modern Neurosurgery, or with trepanations with therapeutic purposes performed since the Greco-Roman period in Europe, and afterwards around the world. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematics and culture in Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. (Sandy Dawson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wheatley and Frieze‟s book, Walk Out Walk On, provides the conceptual framework for an examination of Project MACIMISE, a National Science Foundation funded project that focused on the languages and cultural practices of nine Pacific islands and the state of Hawai„i. MACIMISE, pronounced as if spelled „maximize‟, is a 5-year Project. The Project‟s task is the development of elementary school mathematics curriculum units sensitive to local mathematical thought and experience. There were twenty-one participants (who call themselves the Macimisers in the Project. The participants were educated in ethnographic and anthropological research strategies to enable them to retrieve/uncover cultural practices extant in the communities where they lived. This academics work was accomplished partially via distance learning when the participants were registered in advanced degree programs at the University of Hawai„i—Mānoa. In this paper, the Project is analyzed in terms of the concepts (scaling across, start anywhere—follow it everywhere, intervention to friendship, the art of hosting and the use of circle advanced by Wheatley and Frieze.

  4. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data Cultural Competency Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff ... Health Initiatives Reentry Resources Trauma Resources Zika Resources Center for Linguistic and Cultural Competency in Health Care National CLAS Standards Think ...

  5. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data Cultural Competency Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff ... Health Initiatives Reentry Resources Trauma Resources Zika Resources Center for Linguistic and Cultural Competency in Health Care National CLAS Standards Think ...

  6. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Search: About OMH What We Do Resource Center Policy and Data Cultural Competency Funding and Programs History Leadership Regional Staff ... Health Initiatives Reentry Resources Trauma Resources Zika Resources Center for Linguistic and Cultural Competency in Health Care National CLAS Standards Think ...

  7. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna) from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsken, Thomas; Keyse, Jude; Liggins, Libby; Penny, Shane; Treml, Eric A; Riginos, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Giant clams (genus Tridacna) are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea), whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  9. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huelsken

    Full Text Available Giant clams (genus Tridacna are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S and nuclear (ITS sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea, whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  10. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  11. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  12. Culture-lovers and Culture-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the

  13. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  14. FROM CULTURAL IMPOTENCE TO CULTURAL AMPUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Vyacheslav Vladimirovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural space of any state is formed by a population that is within its borders. In this article, the author introduces a new cultural definitions «cultural impotence» and «cultural amputation», justifying their use, both in terms of population of the Russian Federation and the European Union and America. The article analyzes the state of society and the cultural factors that influence the development of society in Russia, there are options to bring the country out of a deep cultural crisis. Also established a close relationship between the domestic policy of the state and development of culture.

  15. Cultural Internationalism at the Cite Universitaire: International Education between the First and Second World Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Jehnie I.

    2010-01-01

    In the 1920s, French scholars and bureaucrats created the Cite Universitaire in Paris. The institution housed university students from around the world. The Cite founders formulated a model for the Cite that reflected ideological concerns in interwar Europe with a focus on pacifism, international education and cultural internationalism. The…

  16. Socio-cultural studies of indigenous agricultural systems: the case for applied research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall L. Workman

    1993-01-01

    Agroforestry has the potential to contribute greatly to Pacific island development efforts. However, success will depend on fully realizing the social implications of agricultural research on island cultures. Agroforesters must recognize their role as "agents of change." Because of this, they must strive for the involvement of the community in all stages of...

  17. The Coconut Wireless Project: Sharing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy through the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise; Wenn, Richard

    Beginning in the 1997-98 school year, WestEd staff, with the support of the Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), worked intensively with a group of five Chamorro teachers from Rota Elementary School (Hawaii) to develop culturally responsive, standards-based science units. The larger goal was to develop Web-based case examples of…

  18. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  19. Air-sea interaction in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L. J.; Steranka, J.; Holub, R. J.; Hansen, J.; Godshall, F. A.; Prabhakara, C.

    1972-01-01

    Charts of 3-month sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean were produced for the period 1949 to 1970. The anomalies along the United States and South American west coasts and in the eastern tropical Pacific appeared to be oscillating in phase during this period. Similarly, the satellite-derived cloudiness for each of four quadrants of the Pacific Ocean (130 deg E to 100 deg W, 30 deg N to 25 deg S) appeared to be oscillating in phase. In addition, a global tropical cloudiness oscillation from 30 deg N to 30 deg S was noted from 1965 to 1970, by using monthly satellite television nephanalyses. The SST anomalies were found to have a good degree of correlation both positive and negative with the following monthly geophysical parameters: (1) satellite-derived cloudiness, (2) strength of the North and South Pacific semipermanent anticyclones, (3) tropical Pacific island rainfall, and (4) Darwin surface pressure. Several strong direct local and crossequatorial relationships were noted. In particular, the high degree of correlation between the tropical island rainfall and the SST anomalies (r = +0.93) permitted the derivation of SST's for the tropical Pacific back to 1905. The close occurrence of cold tropical SST and North Pacific 700-mb positive height anomalies with central United States drought conditions was noted.

  20. The Asia/Pacific chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.

    1993-01-01

    The year of the Rooster may herald interesting change for the Asia/Pacific region. Local dynamics are shifting away from Japan, the traditional motor of the region, now in recession toward China, which is increasingly catching the imagination of investors. Japan's lead in major petrochemicals has eroded since restructuring of domestic industry. Ten years ago Japan was the location for 76% of Asian ethylene capacity, according to Chem Systems. It also held 89% of styrene capacity, 69% of polyolefins, and 62% of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Today it accounts for only 46% of Asian ethylene, 53% of styrene, 40% of polyolefin, and 37% of PVC capacity. Another country to watch is Vietnam many companies are waiting for sanctions to lift on US investment. When they do, this country of rich oil reserves but per capita income of only $200, will look to petrochemicals as a source of foreign investment

  1. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  2. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  3. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  4. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to upgrading security education programs at facilities across the country. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a Laboratory-wide Safeguard Awareness Training Program has been established in order to raise the cognizance of the entire staff with regard to safeguards issues and concerns. This aggressive safeguards program involves a strong interface of physical security measure and material control and accountability systems. Within PNL, four distinct audiences were defined and a needs assessment analysis performed for each to determine specific training requirements. The target audiences identified were: material balance area (MBA) custodians, managers of material balance areas, material handlers, and new employees. Five safeguards training courses were created to meet the needs of those audiences. This paper discusses the development of the Safeguards Awareness Program at PNL and its benefits to the Laboratory

  5. Gout: an Asia-Pacific update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Binoy J; James, Reeta

    2017-04-01

    Even though, Hippocrates recognized gout as an affection of older men and a product of high living long back in 5th century BC, this painful condition promises to accompany humanity to the 21st century. The incidence is progressively rising and females are also affected in the modern era. There are also regional and ethnic variations in the incidence, the genetics of which is being studied. The recommended best therapy for the acute attacks and long term prophylaxis has improved remarkably in the recent years. However, patients are often treated inadequately and risk factors for their disease are not well explored in daily practice. Although well designed long term studies of current and newer treatment are welcomed, educating doctors especially the primary care physicians who manage majority of gout cases, in optimizing the currently available management options would improve the present care. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  7. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren

    2006-01-01

    satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. Onthe other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect......A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...... they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. Fromthis annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution...

  8. Lagrangian mixed layer modeling of the western equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.

  9. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

  10. Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander: Moving Beyond Cultural Awareness into Culture-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karcanes, James A

    2007-01-01

    .... Understanding the different levels of cultural awareness -- cultural consideration, cultural understanding, and cultural competence -- will help usher in a new focus on culture-centric warfare...

  11. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links ...

  13. Energy and Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.

    1998-01-01

    Asia in the Asia Pacific region will face a scarcity of energy supply and an environmental pollution in the near future. On the other hand, development demands an increasing standard of living for a large number of, and still growing, population. Nuclear energy utilization is to be one of the logical alterative to overcome those problems. From the economical point of view, Asia has been ready to introduce the nuclear energy utilization. Asia should establish the cooperation in all aspects such as in politics, economics and human resources through multilateral agreement between countries to enable the introduction successfully. Although the beginning of the introduction, the selection of the reactor types and the nuclear fuel cycle utilized are limited, but eventually the nuclear fuel cycle chosen should be the one of a better material usage as well as non proliferation proof. The fuel reprocessing and spent fuel storage may become the main technological and political issues. The radioactive waste management technology however should not be a problem for a country starting the nuclear energy utilization, but a sound convincing waste management programme is indispensable to obtained public acceptance. The operating nuclear power countries can play important roles in various aspects such as problem solving in waste management, disseminating nuclear safety experiences, conducting education and training, developing the advanced nuclear fuel cycle for better utilization of nuclear fuels, and enhancing as well as strengthening the non-proliferation. It has to be remembered that cooperation in human resources necessitates the important of maintaining and improving the safety culture, which has been already practiced during the last 4 decades by nuclear community

  14. Socioeconomic impacts and management ciguatera in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R J

    1992-01-01

    The inshore fisheries resource is important to the health and culture of many of the inhabitants of Pacific Island countries (PIC). Ciguateric fishes (mainly demersal reef fishes) cause a range of distressing and often debilitating gastrointestinal neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Consequently, ciguatera limits the utilisation of this otherwise over-exploited resource. For many victims, the symptoms suffered during the chronic phase of ciguatera (lasting weeks, months and occasionally years) are exacerbated upon consumption of certain foods, particularly non-toxic fishes. After each outbreak, victims and members of their social-network experience a transient increase in perception of the risk of eating reef fish. The impact of ciguatera is greatest in atoll island countries where fish is the primary source of protein (it also has a major impact and to facilitate the management of ciguatera in PIC, regular information is required that quantifies: (i) the true incidence of ciguatera; (ii) the extent and way in which different communities avoid ciguatera; and (iii) the adverse impact ciguatera has on health, the workforce, trade and tourism. Over the last 15 years (based on SPEHIS data to 1990), some countries recorded a decrease in the ciguatera problem (New Caledonia, Marshall Is.), other countries an increase (Kirbati, Tuvalu, French Polynesia), while still other countries recorded an increase followed by a decrease in ciguatera (Tokelau, American Samoa, Western Samoa, Fiji and Vanuatu). There may also be seasonal trends in the incidence of ciguatera in some countries e.g. Fiji. Management options presently implementable in PIC include: (i) treatment with i.v. mannitol; (ii) provision of timely advise on the location and status of ciguatera "hot spots" in each country that would allow affected communities to react objectively to the risk posed by ciguatera; and (iii) modification of human behaviour and aspirations to reduce the impact of increasing

  15. Thorium content in bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, E.G.; Lisitsyn, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of 232 Th distribution study in different substance-genetic types of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans. Th content determination has been carried out by the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Th distribution maps in the surface layer of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans are drawn. It is noted that Indian ocean sediments are much richer with Th moreover Th distribution in different types of sediments is very non-uniform. Non-uniformity of Th distribution in different types of Pacific ocean sediments is considerably less than that of Indian ocean and exceeds it only in red oozes

  16. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumasa Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  17. Tissue banking in Asia Pacific region: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Mandy, Foong Shi Yun; Ning, Tan; Kaiying, Wang

    2018-04-25

    Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific regions is driven by two main forces-firstly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via Regional Co-operative Agreement projects and secondly by the Asia Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB). This overview is written in three sections: (1) History of tissue banking in individual country in the region. (2) History of APASTB. (3) History of IAEA programme in Asia Pacific region. The current status and future of the tissue banking programme in the region will be discussed.

  18. Asian/Pacific Islander women in medical education: personal and professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.

  19. CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMICS, CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Valiyev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, culture is one of the main feeble factors of economic development.  The leading role of culture in economic development should be argued as multiplied: so, on firstly, as domestic value, on secondly, as a main factor of regional economic development advanced to raised gravity of different regions for residents, tourists and investors, on thirdly, as major parameters of social development based on tolerance, creativity and knowledge. To the different international experiences, culture is main part of economic development in our life. Cultural diversities are combined into a main reason economic development model. The article consist of explainations about the understanding of culture, cultural diplomacy and economics, approach on conflicts between culture and economics, to find how affecting of culture to economic development, the role of culture in economic development of Azerbaijan. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  20. Cultural Humility and Hospital Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Boan, David; Davis, Don E; Aten, Jamie D; Ruiz, John M; Maryon, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i.e., mistakes of staff are not held against them), handoffs and transitions, and organizational learning. The cultural humility of one's organization may be an important factor to help improve hospital safety culture. We conclude by discussing potential directions for future research.