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Sample records for cultured nitrosomonas europaea

  1. MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors

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    Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

    Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the

  2. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

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    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are

  3. Responses and recovery assessment of continuously cultured Nitrosomonas europaea under chronic ZnO nanoparticle stress: Effects of dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junkang; Chang, Yan; Gao, Huan; Liang, Geyu; Yu, Ran; Ding, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Although the antibacterial performances of emerging nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively explored in the nitrifying systems, the impacts of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on their bio-toxicities to the nitrifiers and the impaired cells' recovery potentials have seldom been addressed yet. In this study, the physiological and transcriptional responses of the typical ammonia oxidizers - Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat to the chronic ZnO NP exposure under different DO conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the cells in steady-growth state in the chemostat were more persevering than batch cultured ones to resist ZnO NP stress despite the dose-dependent NP inhibitory effects were observed. In addition, the occurred striking over-expressions of amoA and hao genes at the initial NP exposure stage suggested the cells' self-regulation potentials at the transcriptional level. The low DO (0.5 mg/L) cultured cells displayed higher sensitivity to NP stress than the high DO (2.0 mg/L) cultured ones, probably owning to the inefficient oxygen-dependent electron transfer from ammonia oxidation for energy conversion/production. The following 12-h NP-free batch recovery assays revealed that both high and low DO cultured cells possessed the physiological and metabolic activity recovery potentials, which were in negative correlation with the NP exposure time. The duration of NP stress and the resulting NP dissolution were critical for the cells' damage levels and their performance recoverability. The membrane preservation processes and the associated metabolism regulations were expected to actively participate in the cells' self-adaption to NP stress and thus be responsible for their metabolic activities recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of an integrated statistical design for optimization of culture condition for ammonium removal by Nitrosomonas europaea.

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    Yingling Bao

    Full Text Available Statistical methodology was applied to the optimization of the ammonium oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea for biomass concentration (C(B, nitrite yield (Y(N and ammonium removal (R(A. Initial screening by Plackett-Burman design was performed to select major variables out of nineteen factors, among which NH4Cl concentration (C(N, trace element solution (TES, agitation speed (AS, and fermentation time (T were found to have significant effects. Path of steepest ascent and response surface methodology was applied to optimize the levels of the selected factors. Finally, multi-objective optimization was used to obtain optimal condition by compromise of the three desirable objectives through a combination of weighted coefficient method coupled with entropy measurement methodology. These models enabled us to identify the optimum operation conditions (C(N= 84.1 mM; TES = 0.74 ml; AS= 100 rpm and T = 78 h, under which C(B= 3.386×10(8 cells/ml; Y(N= 1.98 mg/mg and R(A = 97.76% were simultaneously obtained. The optimized conditions were shown to be feasible through verification tests.

  5. Nitrite as a stimulus for ammonia-starved Nitrosomonas europaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laanbroek, H.J.; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.; Hoogveld, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia-starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea are able to preserve a high level of ammonia-oxidizing activity in the absence of ammonium. However, when the nitrite-oxidizing cells that form part of the natural nitrifying community do not keep pace with the ammonia-oxidizing cells, nitrite

  6. Gene expression profiles of Nitrosomonas europaea, an obligate chemolitotroph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J Arp

    2005-06-15

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic lithoautotrophic bacterium that uses ammonia (NH3) as its energy source. As a nitrifier, it is an important participant in the nitrogen cycle, which can also influence the carbon cycle. The focus of this work was to explore the genetic structure and mechanisms underlying the lithoautotrophic growth style of N. europaea. Whole genome gene expression. The gene expression profile of cells in exponential growth and during starvation was analyzed using microarrays. During growth, 98% of the genes increased in expression at least two fold compared to starvation conditions. In growing cells, approximately 30% of the genes were expressed eight fold higher, Approximately 10% were expressed more than 15 fold higher. Approximately 3% (91 genes) were expressed to more than 20 fold of their levels in starved cells. Carbon fixation gene expression. N. europaea fixes carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle via a type I ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). This study showed that transcription of cbb genes was up-regulated when the carbon source was limited, while amo, hao and other energy harvesting related genes were down-regulated. Iron related gene expression. Because N. europaea has a relatively high content of hemes, sufficient Fe must be available in the medium for it to grow. The genome revealed that approximately 5% of the coding genes in N. europaea are dedicated to Fe transport and assimilation. Nonetheless, with the exception of citrate biosynthesis genes, N. europaea lacks genes for siderophore production. The Fe requirements for growth and the expression of the putative membrane siderophore receptors were determined. The N. europaea genome has over 100 putative genes ({approx}5% of the coding genes) related to Fe uptake and its siderophore receptors could be grouped phylogenetically in four clusters. Fe related genes, such as a number of TonB-dependent Fe-siderophore receptors for ferrichrome and

  7. Gene expression profiles of Nitrosomonas europaea, an obligate chemolitotroph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Arp

    2005-05-25

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic lithoautotrophic bacterium that uses ammonia (NH3) as its energy source. As a nitrifier, it is an important participant in the nitrogen cycle, which can also influence the carbon cycle. The focus of this work was to explore the genetic structure and mechanisms underlying the lithoautotrophic growth style of N. europaea. Whole genome gene expression: The gene expression profile of cells in exponential growth and during starvation was analyzed using microarrays. During growth, 98% of the genes increased in expression at least two fold compared to starvation conditions. In growing cells, approximately 30% of the genes were expressed eight fold higher, Approximately 10% were expressed more than 15 fold higher. Approximately 3% (91 genes) were expressed to more than 20 fold of their levels in starved cells. Carbon fixation gene expression: N. europaea fixes carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle via a type I ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). This study showed that transcription of cbb genes was up-regulated when the carbon source was limited, while amo, hao and other energy harvesting related genes were down-regulated. Iron related gene expression: Because N. europaea has a relatively high content of hemes, sufficient Fe must be available in the medium for it to grow. The genome revealed that approximately 5% of the coding genes in N. europaea are dedicated to Fe transport and assimilation. Nonetheless, with the exception of citrate biosynthesis genes, N. europaea lacks genes for siderophore production. The Fe requirements for growth and the expression of the putative membrane siderophore receptors were determined. The N. europaea genome has over 100 putative genes ({approx}5% of the coding genes) related to Fe uptake and its siderophore receptors could be grouped phylogenetically in four clusters. Fe related genes, such as a number of TonB-dependent Fe-siderophore receptors for ferrichrome and

  8. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by the ammonia- oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    OpenAIRE

    Vannelli, T; Logan, M; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B

    1990-01-01

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the ammonia-stimulated aerobic transformation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds dichloromethane, dibromomethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), bromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, monochloroethylene (vinyl chloride), gem-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, cis-dibromoethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride),...

  9. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by the ammonia- oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannelli, T; Logan, M; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B

    1990-01-01

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the ammonia-stimulated aerobic transformation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds dichloromethane, dibromomethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), bromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, monochloroethylene (vinyl chloride), gem-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, cis-dibromoethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride), tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), and trans-dibromoethylene were not degraded. PMID:2339874

  10. AAU-Specific RNA Cleavage Mediated by MazF Toxin Endoribonuclease Conserved in Nitrosomonas europaea

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    Tatsuki Miyamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrosomonas europaea carries numerous toxin-antitoxin systems. However, despite the abundant representation in its chromosome, studies have not surveyed the underlying molecular functions in detail, and their biological roles remain enigmatic. In the present study, we found that a chromosomally-encoded MazF family member, predicted at the locus NE1181, is a functional toxin endoribonuclease, and constitutes a toxin-antitoxin system, together with its cognate antitoxin, MazE. Massive parallel sequencing provided strong evidence that this toxin endoribonuclease exhibits RNA cleavage activity, primarily against the AAU triplet. This sequence-specificity was supported by the results of fluorometric assays. Our results indicate that N. europaea alters the translation profile and regulates its growth using the MazF family of endoribonuclease under certain stressful conditions.

  11. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

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    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  12. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  13. Impacts of ammonia on zinc oxide nanoparticle toxicity to Nitrosomonas europaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junkang; Chang, Yan; Gao, Huan; Yu, Ran

    2017-05-01

    A Although the toxicity effects of engineering nanoparticles (NPs) in biological wastewater nitrogen removal (BNR) system have been extensively attracted, the impacts of co-existing contaminants from wastewater on NP toxicity have been less addressed. In this study, the effects of ammonia on ZnO NP toxicity to typical ammonia oxidizing bacteria-Nitrosomonas europaea were investigated, as indicated by the cell density, membrane integrity, ammonia oxidation rate, and AMO activity. After 6-h’s exposure to 10 mg/L ZnO NPs, the cell density, membrane integrity, ammonia oxidation rate, and AMO activity was dramatically suppressed despite of the increasing ammonia loading. Ammonia at varying concentrations did not obviously affect ZnO NPs toxicity to cell density. The presence of ammonia at 100 or 200 mg/L significantly alleviated the antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs on cells. The reduction of the concentration of released Zn2+ might be responsible for the compromised ZnO NPs toxicity. However, the presence of extremely dosed ammonia at 200 mg/L imposed restrictions on further alleviation of ZnO NPs toxicities probably due to the production of free ammonia and acclamation of nitrite. All these findings would provide new insights for risk assessment of the combined effects of NPs with other co-existing contaminants in the BNR system.

  14. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Kristen; Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.; Yeager, Chris; Hyman, Michael R.; Löffler, F. E.

    2016-01-29

    Nitrosomonas europaeais an aerobic nitrifying bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2) through the sequential activities of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (HAO). Many alkynes are mechanism-based inactivators of AMO, and here we describe an activity-based protein profiling method for this enzyme using 1,7-octadiyne (17OD) as a probe. Inactivation of NH4+-dependent O2uptake byN. europaeaby 17OD was time- and concentration-dependent. The effects of 17OD were specific for ammonia-oxidizing activity, andde novoprotein synthesis was required to reestablish this activity after cells were exposed to 17OD. Cells were reacted with Alexa Fluor 647 azide using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (click) reaction, solubilized, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) scanning. A fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was observed for cells previously exposed to 17OD but not for cells treated with either allylthiourea or acetylene prior to exposure to 17OD or for cells not previously exposed to 17OD. The fluorescent polypeptide was membrane associated and aggregated when heated with β-mercaptoethanol and SDS. The fluorescent polypeptide was also detected in cells pretreated with other diynes, but not in cells pretreated with structural homologs containing a single ethynyl functional group. The membrane fraction from 17OD-treated cells was conjugated with biotin-azide and solubilized in SDS. Streptavidin affinity-purified polypeptides were on-bead trypsin-digested, and amino acid sequences of the peptide fragments were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Peptide fragments from AmoA were the predominant peptides detected in 17OD-treated samples. In-gel digestion and

  15. Genome-Scale, Constraint-Based Modeling of Nitrogen Oxide Fluxes during Coculture of Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi.

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    Mellbye, Brett L; Giguere, Andrew T; Murthy, Ganti S; Bottomley, Peter J; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Chaplen, Frank W R

    2018-01-01

    Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, emits nitrogen (N) oxide gases (NO, NO 2 , and N 2 O), which are potentially hazardous compounds that contribute to global warming. To better understand the dynamics of nitrification-derived N oxide production, we conducted culturing experiments and used an integrative genome-scale, constraint-based approach to model N oxide gas sources and sinks during complete nitrification in an aerobic coculture of two model nitrifying bacteria, the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea and the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi . The model includes biotic genome-scale metabolic models (iFC578 and iFC579) for each nitrifier and abiotic N oxide reactions. Modeling suggested both biotic and abiotic reactions are important sources and sinks of N oxides, particularly under microaerobic conditions predicted to occur in coculture. In particular, integrative modeling suggested that previous models might have underestimated gross NO production during nitrification due to not taking into account its rapid oxidation in both aqueous and gas phases. The integrative model may be found at https://github.com/chaplenf/microBiome-v2.1. IMPORTANCE Modern agriculture is sustained by application of inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer in the form of ammonium (NH 4 + ). Up to 60% of NH 4 + -based fertilizer can be lost through leaching of nitrifier-derived nitrate (NO 3 - ), and through the emission of N oxide gases (i.e., nitric oxide [NO], N dioxide [NO 2 ], and nitrous oxide [N 2 O] gases), the latter being a potent greenhouse gas. Our approach to modeling of nitrification suggests that both biotic and abiotic mechanisms function as important sources and sinks of N oxides during microaerobic conditions and that previous models might have underestimated gross NO production during nitrification.

  16. Distribution of Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi in an autotrophic nitrifying biofilm reactor as depicted by molecular analyses and mathematical modelling.

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    Montràs, Anna; Pycke, Benny; Boon, Nico; Gòdia, Francesc; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Pérez, Julio

    2008-03-01

    The autotrophic two-species biofilm from the packed bed reactor of a life-support system, containing Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718 and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC 25391, was analysed after 4.8 years of continuous operation performing complete nitrification. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to quantify N. europaea and N. winogradskyi along the vertical axis of the reactor, revealing a spatial segregation of N. europaea and N. winogradskyi. The main parameters influencing the spatial segregation of both nitrifiers along the bed were assessed through a multi-species one-dimensional biofilm model generated with AQUASIM software. The factor that contributed the most to this distribution profile was a small deviation from the flow pattern of a perfectly mixed tank towards plug-flow. The results indicate that the model can estimate the impact of specific biofilm parameters and predict the nitrification efficiency and population dynamics of a multispecies biofilm.

  17. Effect of Low-Density Static Magnetic Field on the Oxidation of Ammonium by Nitrosomonas europaea and by Activated Sludge in Municipal Wastewater

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    Filipič, Jasmina; Kraigher, Barbara; Tepuš, Brigita; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ammonium removal is a key step in biological wastewater treatment and novel approaches that improve this process are in great demand. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that ammonium removal from wastewater can be stimulated by static magnetic fields. This was achieved by analysis of the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) on the growth and activity of Nitrosomonas europaea, a key ammonia-oxidising bacterium, where increased growth and increased ammonia oxidation rate were detected when bacteria were exposed to SMF at 17 mT. Additionally, the effect of SMF on mixed cultures of ammonia oxidisers in activated sludge, incubated in sequencing batch bioreactors simulating wastewater treatment process, was assessed. SMFs of 30 and 50 mT, but not of 10 mT, increased ammonium oxidation rate in municipal wastewater by up to 77% and stimulated ammonia oxidiser growth. The results demonstrate the potential for use of static magnetic fields in increasing ammonium removal rates in biological wastewater treatment plants. PMID:27904349

  18. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with a small metal-binding protein from Nitrosomonas europaea.

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    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli is still the preferred organism for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The use of fusion proteins has helped considerably in enhancing the solubility of heterologous proteins and their purification with affinity chromatography. Here, the use of a small metal-binding protein (SmbP) from Nitrosomonas europaea is described as a new fusion protein for protein expression and purification in E. coli. Fluorescent proteins tagged at the N-terminal with SmbP showed high levels of solubility, compared with those of maltose-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase, and low formation of inclusion bodies. Using commercially available IMAC resins charged with Ni(II), highly pure recombinant proteins were obtained after just one chromatography step. Proteins may be purified from the periplasm of E. coli if SmbP contains the signal sequence at the N-terminal. After removal of the SmbP tag from the protein of interest, high-yields are obtained since SmbP is a protein of just 9.9 kDa. The results here obtained suggest that SmbP is a good alternative as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term effects of TiO2, CeO2, and ZnO nanoparticles on metabolic activities and gene expression of Nitrosomonas europaea.

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    Yu, Ran; Fang, Xiaohua; Somasundaran, Ponisseril; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-06-01

    Nanosized TiO2 (n-TiO2), CeO2 (n-CeO2), and ZnO (n-ZnO) and bulk ZnO were chosen for a 4-h exposure study on a model ammonia oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea. n-ZnO displayed the most serious cytotoxicity while n-TiO2 was the least toxic one. The change of cell morphologies, the retardance of specific oxygen uptake rates and ammonia oxidation rates, and the depression of amoA gene expressions under NP stresses were generally observed when the cell densities and membrane integrities were not significantly impaired yet. The TEM imaging and the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of the NPs impacted cells revealed the increase of the corresponding intracellular Ti, Ce or Zn contents and suggested the intracellular NP accumulation. The elevation of intracellular S contents accompanied with higher K contents implied the possible activation of thiol-containing glutathione and thioredoxin production for NP stress alleviation. The NP cytotoxicity was not always a function of NP concentration. The 200 mg L(-1) n-TiO2 or n-CeO2 impacted cells displayed the similar ammonia oxidation activities but higher amoA gene expression levels than the 20 mg L(-1) NPs impacted ones. Such phenomenon further indicated the possible establishment of an anti-toxicity mechanism in N. europaea at the genetic level to redeem the weakened AMO activities along with the NP aggregation effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The 1.3-A resolution structure of Nitrosomonas europaea Rh50 and mechanistic implications for NH3 transport by Rhesus family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Domenico; Li, Xiao-Dan; Durand, Anne; Tomizaki, Takashi; Cherif-Zahar, Baya; Matassi, Giorgio; Merrick, Mike; Winkler, Fritz K

    2007-12-04

    The Rhesus (Rh) proteins are a family of integral membrane proteins found throughout the animal kingdom that also occur in a number of lower eukaryotes. The significance of Rh proteins derives from their presence in the human red blood cell membrane, where they constitute the second most important group of antigens used in transfusion medicine after the ABO group. Rh proteins are related to the ammonium transport (Amt) protein family and there is considerable evidence that, like Amt proteins, they function as ammonia channels. We have now solved the structure of a rare bacterial homologue (from Nitrosomonas europaea) of human Rh50 proteins at a resolution of 1.3 A. The protein is a trimer, and analysis of its subunit interface strongly argues that all Rh proteins are likely to be homotrimers and that the human erythrocyte proteins RhAG and RhCE/D are unlikely to form heterooligomers as previously proposed. When compared with structures of bacterial Amt proteins, NeRh50 shows several distinctive features of the substrate conduction pathway that support the concept that Rh proteins have much lower ammonium affinities than Amt proteins and might potentially function bidirectionally.

  1. Production of triterpene acids by cell suspension cultures of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimaru, Hiroshi; Orihara, Yutaka; Tansakul, Pimpimon; Kang, Young-Hwa; Shibuya, Masaaki; Ebizuka, Yutaka

    2007-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) contains large quantity of triterpene acids including oleanolic acid (6) as a major one. Varieties of biological activities exhibited by triterpene acids attracted our attentions, especially from pharmaceutical viewpoints. Cell culture of olive plant was induced and its triterpene constituents were studied. From the cell suspension cultures, six ursane type triterpene acids; ursolic acid (9), pomolic acid (10), rotundic acid (11), tormentic acid (12), 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid (13) and 19alpha-hydroxyasiatic acid (14), and two oleanane type acids; oleanolic acid and maslinic acid (7), have been isolated. Quantity of ursane type triterpene acids produced by cell cultures was larger than that of oleanane type. Further, a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) named OEA was cloned by homology based PCRs from the same cultured cells. Major product of OEA is alpha-amyrin (ursane skeleton), showing good accordance to higher content of ursane-type triterpene acids in the cultured cells, and strongly suggesting OEA to be a major contributor OSC for their production.

  2. Ecophysiology and Comparative Genomics of Nitrosomonas mobilis Ms1 Isolated from Autotrophic Nitrifying Granules of Wastewater Treatment Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoeMyat Thandar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB, which oxidize ammonia to nitrite in the first step of nitrification, play an important role in biological wastewater treatment systems. Nitrosomonas mobilis is an important and dominant AOB in various wastewater treatment systems. However, the detailed physiological and genomic properties of N. mobilis have not been thoroughly investigated because of limited success isolating pure cultures. This study investigated the key physiological characteristics of N. mobilis Ms1, which was previously isolated into pure culture from the nitrifying granules of wastewater treatment bioreactor. The pure culture of N. mobilis Ms1 was cultivated in liquid mineral medium with 30 mg-N L-1 (2.14 mM of ammonium at room temperature under dark conditions. The optimum growth of N. mobilis Ms1 occurred at 27°C and pH 8, with a maximum growth rate of 0.05–0.07 h-1, which corresponded to a generation time of 10–14 h. The half saturation constant for ammonium uptake rate and the maximum ammonium uptake rate of N. mobilis Ms1 were 30.70±0.51 μM NH4+ and 0.01±0.002 pmol NH4+ cells-1 h-1, respectively. N. mobilis Ms1 had higher ammonia oxidation activity than N. europaea in this study. The oxygen uptake activity kinetics of N. mobilis Ms1 were K_(m(O_2= 21.74±4.01 μM O2 and V_(max⁡(O_2= 0.06±0.02 pmol O2 cells-1 h-1. Ms1 grew well at ammonium and NaCl concentrations of up to 100 mM and 500 mM, respectively. The nitrite tolerance of N. mobilis Ms1 was extremely high (up to 300 mM compared to AOB previously isolated from activated sludge and wastewater treatment plants. The average nucleotide identity between the genomes of N. mobilis Ms1 and other Nitrosomonas species indicated that N. mobilis Ms1 was distantly related to other Nitrosomonas species. The organization of the genes encoding protein inventory involved in ammonia oxidation and nitrifier denitrification processes were different from other Nitrosomonas species. The

  3. Fauna Europaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding...... density, and the more fertile habitats are extensively cultivated. This has undoubtedly increased the extinction risk for numerous species of brachyceran flies, yet with the recent re-discovery of Thyreophoracynophila (Panzer), there are no known cases of extinction at a European level. However, few...

  4. Kinetic parameter estimation in N. europaea biofilms using a 2-D reactive transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchnor, Ellen G; Semprini, Lewis; Wood, Brian D

    2015-06-01

    Biofilms of the ammonia oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea were cultivated to study microbial processes associated with ammonia oxidation in pure culture. We explored the hypothesis that the kinetic parameters of ammonia oxidation in N. europaea biofilms were in the range of those determined with batch suspended cells. Oxygen and pH microelectrodes were used to measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH above and inside biofilms and reactive transport modeling was performed to simulate the measured DO and pH profiles. A two dimensional (2-D) model was used to simulate advection parallel to the biofilm surface and diffusion through the overlying fluid while reaction and diffusion were simulated in the biofilm. Three experimental studies of microsensor measurements were performed with biofilms: i) NH3 concentrations near the Ksn value of 40 μM determined in suspended cell tests ii) Limited buffering capacity which resulted in a pH gradient within the biofilms and iii) NH3 concentrations well below the Ksn value. Very good fits to the DO concentration profiles both in the fluid above and in the biofilms were achieved using the 2-D model. The modeling study revealed that the half-saturation coefficient for NH3 in N. europaea biofilms was close to the value measured in suspended cells. However, the third study of biofilms with low availability of NH3 deviated from the model prediction. The model also predicted shifts in the DO profiles and the gradient in pH that resulted for the case of limited buffering capacity. The results illustrate the importance of incorporating both key transport and chemical processes in a biofilm reactive transport model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nitrosomonas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stolz, A. 2001. Basic and applied aspects in the microbial degradation of azo dyes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56:69-80. Tan, N.C.G., and J. A. Field.2000. Biodegradation of sulfonated aromatic compounds. In: Environmental Technologies to Treat. Sulfur Pollution: Principles and I. Engineering. Lens, P. and Hulshoff Pol, L.

  6. Encyclopaedia Europaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gert

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  7. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.

  8. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, R.; de Jong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  9. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.-G.; Bohn, H.; Haas, F.; Willemse, F.; de Jong, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region),

  10. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.

    -, č. 2 (2014), e1060 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Fauna Europaea – Orthopteroid orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The “Orthopteroid orders“ is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper. PMID:27660531

  12. Acetylene and oxygen as inhibitors of nitrous oxide production in Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira briensis: a cautionary tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrage, N.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a by-product of nitrification or as an intermediate of nitrifier denitrification. In soil incubations, acetylene (C2H2) and large partial pressures of oxygen (O-2) are used to distinguish between these sources. C2H2 inhibits

  13. Acetylene and oxygen as inhibitors of nitrous oxide production in Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira briensis: a cautionary tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrage, N.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a by-product of nitrification or as an intermediate of nitrifier denitrification. In soil incubations, acetylene (C2H2) and large partial pressures of oxygen (O2) are used to distinguish between these sources. C2H2 inhibits

  14. OXIDATION OF METHYL FLUORIDE AND DIMETHYL ETHER BY AMMONIA MONOOXYGENASE IN NITROSOMONAS EUROPAEA. (R825689C009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  16. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Yde; Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260...

  17. Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiti, Naïm; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée

    2012-01-01

    Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. PMID:22523691

  18. Complete genome sequence of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium adapted to low ammonium concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bollmann, A.; Sedlacek, C.J.; Norton, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.; Suwa, Y.; Stein, L.Y.; Klotz, M.G.; Arp, D.; Sayavedra-Soto, L.; Lu, M.; Bruce, D.; Detter, C.; Tapia, R.; Han, J.; Woyke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 is a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium that belongs to the family Nitrosomonadaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. Ammonia oxidation is the first step of nitrification, an important process in the global nitrogen cycle ultimately resulting in the production of nitrate. Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 is an ammonia oxidizer of high interest because it is adapted to low ammonium and can be found in freshwater environments around the world. The 3,783,444-bp chromos...

  19. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  20. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine.

  1. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  2. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five

  3. Fauna Europaea – all European animal species on the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yde de Jong

    2014-09-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web portal at faunaeur.org with links to other key biodiversity services, is installed as a taxonomic backbone in wide range of biodiversity services and actively contributes to biodiversity informatics innovations in various initiatives and EC programs.

  4. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Exhibits Potent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity and Attenuates Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide- Stimulated Microglial Cells. M-S Kim, S Koppula, S-H Jung, J-Y Kim, H-R Lee, S-R Lee, Y-D Park, K-A Lee, T-K Park, H Kang ...

  5. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Suppresses Sterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) fruit pulp extract (OPF) in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Methods: HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentration of OPF (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml) ...

  6. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica detected using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Frane Strikic1*, Dunja Bandelj Mavsar2, Slavko Perica1, Zlatko Cmelik3, Zlatko Satovic3 and. Branka Javornik4. 1Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation ...

  7. Modeling the low pH limit of Nitrosomonas eutropha in high-strength nitrogen wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumasoli, Alexandra; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2015-10-15

    In wastewater treatment, the rate of ammonia oxidation decreases with pH and stops very often slightly below a pH of 6. Free ammonia (NH3) limitation, inhibition by nitrous acid (HNO2), limitation by inorganic carbon or direct effect of high proton concentrations have been proposed to cause the rate decrease with pH as well as the cessation of ammonia oxidation. In this study, we compare an exponential pH term common for food microbiology with conventionally applied rate laws based on Monod-type kinetics for NH3 limitation and non-competitive HNO2 inhibition as well as sigmoidal pH functions to model the low pH limit of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). For this purpose we conducted well controlled batch experiments which were then simulated with a computer model. The results showed that kinetics based on NH3 limitation and HNO2 inhibition can explain the rate decrease of ammonia oxidation between pH 7 and 6, but fail in predicting the pH limit of Nitrosomonas eutropha at pH 5.4 and rates close to that limit. This is where the exponential pH term becomes important: this term decreases the rate of ammonia oxidation to zero, as the pH limit approaches. Previously proposed sigmoidal pH functions that affect large pH regions, however, led to an overestimation of the pH effect and could therefore not be applied successfully. We show that the proposed exponential pH term can be explained quantitatively with thermodynamic principles: at low pH values, the energy available from the proton motive force is too small for the NADH production in Nitrosomonas eutropha and related AOB causing an energy limited state of the bacterial cell. Hence, energy limitation and not inhibition or limitation of enzymes is responsible for the cessation of the AOB activity at low pH values. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Spiders in Fauna Europaea: dual use of the database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helsdingen, Peter J. van

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The history and current work of the project Fauna Europaea is outlined. The different sources used for building up the database and the efforts to keep it updated are described. Available models of national checklists are discussed and the ideal checklist is described. The double use of the database as a matrix behind the official site of Fauna Europaea – as well as a directly visible document on the website of the European Society of Arachnology – are indicated and the differences in transparency, links to literature sources, and facilities such as distribution maps and calculations of numbers of scores per species or of species per country are discussed. The future of the project is briefly outlined. The need for a European identification tool for spiders is stressed.

  9. Biological Significance of Seed Oil and Polyphenolic of Olea europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asif

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree Olea europaea have beneficial properties. Mainly used parts of the olive tree are fruits and seeds. Seeds oil of olive is used as a major component of the “diet.” Chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, polyphenolics and squalene. These main phenolic components are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest amounts in virgin olive oil and have antioxidant properties. Olive oil has shown activity in against canc...

  10. Genome sequence of the olive tree, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernando; Julca, Irene; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Loska, Damian; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Cano, Emilio; Galán, Beatriz; Frias, Leonor; Ribeca, Paolo; Derdak, Sophia; Gut, Marta; Sánchez-Fernández, Manuel; García, Jose Luis; Gut, Ivo G; Vargas, Pablo; Alioto, Tyler S; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-06-27

    The Mediterranean olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was one of the first trees to be domesticated and is currently of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The molecular bases underlying the phenotypic differences among domesticated cultivars, or between domesticated olive trees and their wild relatives, remain poorly understood. Both wild and cultivated olive trees have 46 chromosomes (2n). A total of 543 Gb of raw DNA sequence from whole genome shotgun sequencing, and a fosmid library containing 155,000 clones from a 1,000+ year-old olive tree (cv. Farga) were generated by Illumina sequencing using different combinations of mate-pair and pair-end libraries. Assembly gave a final genome with a scaffold N50 of 443 kb, and a total length of 1.31 Gb, which represents 95 % of the estimated genome length (1.38 Gb). In addition, the associated fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was partially sequenced. Genome annotation, assisted by RNA sequencing from leaf, root, and fruit tissues at various stages, resulted in 56,349 unique protein coding genes, suggesting recent genomic expansion. Genome completeness, as estimated using the CEGMA pipeline, reached 98.79 %. The assembled draft genome of O. europaea will provide a valuable resource for the study of the evolution and domestication processes of this important tree, and allow determination of the genetic bases of key phenotypic traits. Moreover, it will enhance breeding programs and the formation of new varieties.

  11. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive tree (Olea europaea L.) with a focus on the Mediterranean Basin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadine; Chapuis, Elodie; Tavoillot, Johannes; Mateille, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea.) is one of the most ancient cultivated trees. It is an emblematic species owing to its ecological, economic and cultural importance, especially in the Mediterranean Basin. Plant-parasitic nematodes are major damaging pests on olive trees, mainly in nurseries. They significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive-producing countries in the world. However, the damages they induce in orchards and nurseries are specifically documented only in a few countries. This review aims to update knowledge about the olive-nematode pathosystem by: (1) updating the list of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees; (2) analysing their diversity (taxonomic level, trophic groups, dominance of taxa), which allowed us (i) to assess the richness observed in each country, and (ii) to exhibit and describe the most important taxa able to induce damages on olive trees such as: Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Tylenchulus, Rotylenchulus, Heterodera (distribution especially in the Mediterranean Basin, pathogenicity and reactions of olive trees); (3) describing some management strategies focusing on alternative control methods; (4) suggesting new approaches for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on the management of the diversity of their communities, which are structured by several environmental factors such as olive diversity (due to domestication of wild olive in the past, and to breeding now), cropping systems (from traditional to high-density orchards), irrigation, and terroirs. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots.

  13. The effectiveness of the use of filter on the tilapia growth performance, number of Nitrosomonas sp., and water quality in aquaponics systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Andriani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the most effective type of living filter media for the bacteria Nitrosomonas sp. in order to improve water quality in aquaponics systems. The method used in this study was completely randomized design, consisting of five treatments and each was repeated three times. The treatments were: A (without addition of filter media, B (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, and activated carbon, C (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, gravel, and activated carbon, D (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, rocks, and activated carbon, and E (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, bioball, and activated carbon. Parameters measured were: 1 the number of Nitrosomonas bacteria, 2 water quality (ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate; and, 3 productivity of fish and Chinese spinach. Data were analyzed using a descriptive method. The findings show that the highest number of bacteria was found in treatment E, 9.29×105 CFU/mL on the bioball filter media and 4.43×105 CFU/mL in rearing tanks. The best water quality was in treatment B, with a concentration of ammonia of 0.17 mg/L, nitrate of 0.33 mg/L, and phosphate of 0.54 mg/L. Plant productivity was the best in treatment B in which the average length and weight reach 48.1 cm and 11.1 grams of plant/week, respectively. The best fish growth was seen in treatment C with an absolute growth rate of 4.4 grams and a specific growth rate of 1.9%/day. The recommended filter was made of Arenga pinnata fibers, silica sand, gravels, and active carbon of about 2 cm thick each.The results showed that the type of filter on the aquaponic system had an effect on the amount of Nitrosomonas sp. in water, water quality, and the productivity of Chinese spinach.Keywords: aquaponics, filter, water quality, Nitrosomonas sp.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan jenis filter yang paling efektif sebagai media hidup bakteri Nitrosomonas sp. sehingga menghasilkan kualitas air yang baik dalam sistem

  14. Effect of NaCl Concentration on Productivity and Mineral Composition of Salicrnia europaea as a Plausible Representative of LSS Photosynthesizing Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S.; Kovaleva, N.; Gribovskaya, I.; Dolgushev, V.; Tikhomirova, N.

    the consumption of K and N decreased twofold. Carry -our of Ca and M g by plants decreased with salination, the lowest carry-out was observed on S. europaea grown in aqueous culture conditions. Salination had practically no effect on uptake of P and S. Thus, the use of S. europaea species in life support systems holds promise, of special interest is further research on growing these plants in aqueous culture conditions.

  15. Photosynthetic characteristics of olive tree (Olea europaea) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Manolis; Fasseas, Costas; Karabourniotis, George

    2007-07-01

    Functional and structural characteristics of corticular photosynthesis of sun-exposed bark of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) were examined. Stomata are only sporadically present during stem primary growth. Light transmission through the phellem was age dependent, decreasing rapidly in stems older than five years of age. Light transmission was also low in pubescent 1-year-old stems. Light transmission was about 50% higher in wet phellem than in dry phellem. Photosynthetic capacity on a unit area basis (measured with an oxygen disc electrode at 27 degrees C and about 5% CO(2) on chlorophyllous tissue discs isolated from the stem) was higher in 1-, 20- and 30-year-old stems compared with 2-10-year-old stems. Low chlorophyll a/b ratio and light compensation points were recorded in olive stems with low phellem light transmission, in accordance with the shade acclimation hypothesis. The intrinsic photochemical efficiency of photosystem II of all stems, especially young stems, was less than that of the leaves. Our results show that olive tree bark possesses an efficient photosynthetic mechanism that may significantly contribute not only to the reduction in concentrations of CO(2) in the inner bark, but also to whole-tree carbon balance.

  16. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants.

  17. Molecular studies in olive (Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, T; Busconi, M; Fogher, C; Sebastiani, L

    2011-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) and cultivated (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea). In spite of its economic and nutritional importance, there are few data about the genetic of olive if compared with other fruit crops. Available molecular data are especially related to the application of molecular markers to the analysis of genetic variability in Olea europaea complex and to develop efficient molecular tools for the olive oil origin traceability. With regard to genomic research, in the last years efforts are made for the identification of expressed sequence tag, with particular interest in those sequences expressed during fruit development and in pollen allergens. Very recently the sequencing of chloroplast genome provided new information on the olive nucleotide sequence, opening the olive genomic era. In this article, we provide an overview of the most relevant results in olive molecular studies. A particular attention was given to DNA markers and their application that constitute the most part of published researches. The first important results in genome analysis were reported.

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_004757 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MVPEMGDYYVPATQNNARILVRNENGIELLSNICRHRQATILEGRGSSRNIVCP 101 ... YVGHELMVPEMGDYYVPATQNNARILVRNENGIE...LLSNICRHRQATILEGRGSSRNIVCP Sbjct: 1 ... YVGHELMVPEMGDYYVPATQNNARILVRNENGIELLSNICRHRQATILEGRGSSRNIVCP 60 ... ...otein ... 2Fe-2S subunit [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] ... Length = 99 ... Query: 42 ... YVGHEL

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_004757 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] ... Length = 75 ... Query: 1 ... MNHQARMRWRCRRGMLELDIVLQRFIDNHYEQLDEH...QLELFEMLLSLSDHDLWNIIIGNT 60 ... MNHQARMRWRCRRGMLELDIVLQRFIDNHYEQLDEHQLELFEM...LLSLSDHDLWNIIIGNT Sbjct: 1 ... MNHQARMRWRCRRGMLELDIVLQRFIDNHYEQLDEHQLELFEMLLSLSDHDLWNIIIGNT 60 ...

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_004757 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] ... Length = 96 ... Query: 3 ... YLIYGEDVPDSLAQRVASRPAHLARIRELQEQGRLLLAGPCPAIDS...IDPGPAGFTGSLIV 62 ... YLIYGEDVPDSLAQRVASRPAHLARIRELQEQGRLLLAGPCPAIDS...IDPGPAGFTGSLIV Sbjct: 1 ... YLIYGEDVPDSLAQRVASRPAHLARIRELQEQGRLLLAGPCPAIDSIDPGPAGFTGSLIV 60 ...

  1. Isolation and identification of radical scavengers in olive tree (Olea europaea) wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Altarejos, J.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Several extracts of Olea europaea wood (Picual olive cultivar) were obtained with solvents of different polarity and their antioxidant activities determined. The active compounds were detected in fractions of an ethyl acetate extract using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After

  2. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki eNakahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1 a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2 a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3 a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in shoots of Salicornia europaea under different salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Fan, Pengxiang; Song, Hongmiao; Chen, Xianyang; Li, Xiaofang; Li, Yinxin

    2009-07-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is a succulent annual euhalophyte and one of the most salt tolerant plant species. The elucidation of its salt tolerance mechanism is of significance for generating salt-tolerant crops. In this study, we provided high resolution of proteome reference maps of S. europaea shoot and obtained evidence on the salt tolerance mechanism by analyzing the proteomic responses of this plant to high salinity. Our results demonstrated significant variations existed in 196 out of 1880 protein spots detected on CBB stained 2-DE gels. Of these, 111 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, the majority was energy production and conversion related proteins, followed by photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism associated enzymes. Analysis of protein expression patters revealed that energy production and ion homeostasis associated proteins played important roles for this plant salt tolerance ability. Hierarchical clustering results revealed many proteins were involved in S. europaea salt tolerance mechanism as a dynamic network. Finally, based on our proteomic results, we brought forward a possible schematic representation of mechanism associated with the systematic salt tolerance phenotype in S. europaea.

  4. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yoshiki; Sawabe, Shogo; Kainuma, Kenta; Katsuhara, Maki; Shibasaka, Mineo; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1) a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2) a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3) a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  5. Abiotic factors influencing the occurrence of Salicornia europaea in West Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hulisz, Piotr; Elvisto, Tina; Karasiewicz, Mirosław T.; Piernik, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Salicornia europaea in Western Estonia (Kassari and Topu bays) is the result of complex processes occurring in the Baltic coastal zone and conditioned by such abiotic factors as topography, lithology, hydrogeology and climate. This is reflected by very high salinity level of groundwater and soils.

  6. Headspace volatile composition of the flowers of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Della Porta, Giovanna; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2009-11-11

    The volatile constituents of the flowers of Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island were analyzed by a headspace GC method. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 41 compounds. The main components were, among the monoterpenoids, terpinolene (23.3%), alpha-terpinene (19.1%) and linalool (18.4%), whereas, among the carbonylic compounds the major constituents were heptanal (2.0%), octanoic acid (2.4%) and hexanoic acid (1.7%). The presence of a nitrogen containing compound, indole (0.8%) and of a sulphur containing compound, dimethylsulphide (t), noteworthy. The compounds found in the flowers of C. europaea have been compared with data available in the literature as regard to their odor, presence in other sapromyiophilous taxa, possible role as semiochemicals, and presence in decaying organic matter. 89.3% of total constituents have been described in other sapromyiophilous taxa. Some of the compounds are present in several types of decaying organic matter (excrements, decomposing bodies, and spoiled fish, etc). Several volatiles found in C. europaea flowers are used as semiochemicals by Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and other insects. Sixteen volatiles, accounting for 32.4% of the total constituents, are described as attractants of some Diptera families, with a biology linked to decaying organic matter. Our data thus confirm that C. europaea floral bouquet falls within the sapromyiophilous pollination syndrome.

  7. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu SAFITRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  8. Effect of NaCl concentration on productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea as a potential crop for utilization NaCl in LSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Dolgushev, V. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.

    The accumulation of solid and liquid wastes in manmade ecosystems presents a problem that has not been efficiently solved yet. Urine, containing NaCl, are part of these products. This is an obstacle to the creation of biological systems with a largely closed material cycling, because the amount of solid and liquid wastes in them must be reduced to a minimum. A possible solution to the problem is to select plant species capable of utilizing sufficiently high concentrations of NaCl, edible for humans, and featuring high productivity. Until recently, the life support systems have included the higher plants that were either sensitive to salinization (wheat, many of the legumes, carrot, potato, maize) or relatively salt-resistant (barley, sugar beet, spinach). Salicomia europaea, whose above-ground part is fully edible for humans, is one of the most promising candidates to be included in life support systems. It is reported in the literature that this plant is capable of accumulating up to 50% NaCl (dry basis). Besides, excessive accumulation of sodium ions should bring forth a decrease in the uptake of potassium ions and other biogenic elements. The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of using S. europaea plants in growth chambers to involve NaCl into material cycling. Plants were grown in vegetation chambers at the irradiance of 100 or 150 W/m 2 PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) and the air temperature 24 °C, by two methods. The first method was to grow the plants on substrate - peat. The peat was supplemented with either 3% NaCl (Variant 1) or 6% NaCl (Variant 2) of the oven-dry mass of the peat. The second method was to grow the plants in water culture, using the solution with a full complement of nutrients, which contained 0.0005% of NaCl, 1% or 2%. The study showed that the addition of NaCl to the substrate or to the solution resulted in the formation of more succulent plants, which considerably increased their biomass. The amount of NaCl uptake

  9. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L) to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Patrícia; Kasper Machado, Isabel; Garavaglia, Juliano; Zani, Valdeni Terezinha; de Souza, Daiana; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2014-12-17

    The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) confer benefits to the human health. To review the scientific literature about the benefits of the polyphenols of olive leaves to human health. Literature review in the LILACS-BIREME, SciELO and MEDLINE databases for publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish with the descriptors "Olea europaea", "olive leaves", "olive leaf", "olive leaves extracts", "olive leaf extracts", "phenolic compounds", "polyphenols", "oleuropein", "chemical composition", and "health". There were identified 92 articles, but only 38 related to the objectives of the study and 9 articles cited in the works were included due to their relevance. The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves, especially the oleuropein, are associated to antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective activity. Furthermore, studies associate the oleuropein to an anti-inflammatory effect in trauma of the bone marrow and as a support in the treatment of obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics, Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Extracts from Tunisian Chetoui Olea europaea Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Khlif; Karim Jellali; Thomas Michel; Maria Halabalaki; Alexios Leandros Skaltsounis; Noureddine Allouche

    2015-01-01

    This study selected 10 extracts from Tunisian chetoui O. europaea variety for their total phenolics, flavonoids, and phytochemical analyses as well as for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities determination. The in vitro antioxidant property was investigated using DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP), oxygen reducing antioxidant capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays while antimicrobial activity was evaluated using macrodilutions method. For all o...

  11. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_004757 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004757 gi|30250333 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_002488 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002488 gi|15837680 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_006369 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006369 gi|54293610 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_006085 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006085 gi|50842381 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_002946 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002946 gi|59800726 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_003919 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003919 gi|21242823 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_003112 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003112 gi|15676600 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_002977 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002977 gi|53803220 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_003902 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003902 gi|21231567 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_004551 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004551 gi|28572541 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_004572 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004572 gi|28493349 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_003869 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003869 gi|20807422 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_003116 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_003116 gi|15793872 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_006368 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006368 gi|54296649 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_004556 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004556 gi|28198275 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_002942 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002942 gi|52840863 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_005966 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005966 gi|50085709 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_005085 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_005085 gi|34495926 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_002516 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_002516 gi|15598180 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_006513 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006513 gi|56478742 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_006834 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006834 gi|58581923 >2bc2A 10 205 522 711 9e-06 ... ref|NP_842403.1| DNA internalization...-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718] emb|CAD86320.1| DNA ... internalizat...ion-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 ... [Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19

  13. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinbiao; Zhang, Meiru; Xiao, Xinlong; You, Jinjin; Wang, Junru; Wang, Tao; Yao, Yinan; Tian, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S) and salt-free (SeCKS) tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  14. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Ma

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000.A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S and salt-free (SeCKS tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR.Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  15. [Study on the enrichment of oleuropein from Olea europaea leaves with macroporous resin D-101].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian-zhang; Zhang, Xing-sheng; Huang, Xiao-yu; Feng, Li-xiong

    2007-04-01

    To study the conditions and parameters of the enrichment of oleuropein with macroporous resin. Aqueous extract of Olea europaea leaves prepared through microwave extraction was adsorbed directly with macroporous resin D-101 and the impurities such sugar were washed out by water then oleuropein was eluted by 70% ethanol. HPLC was used to determine the content of oleuropein. The contents of oleuropein increased from 5% to 21.6% in the solid, with 88.6% of recovery rate. Macroporous resin D-101 fits in purification of water-soluble oleuropein. The process is simple and convenient and can be used for industrial production.

  16. Extraction and Characterization of Lipids from Salicornia virginica and Salicornia europaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis,Michael J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Pham, Phong X.; Ribita, Daniela; Bomani, Bilal M. M.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2010-01-01

    The lipid content from Salicornia virginica and Salicornia europaea is investigated. The plants are leafless halophytes with seeds contained in terminal nodes. The lipids, in the form of cell membranes and oil bodies that come directly from the node cells, are observed using fluorescence microscopy. Two extraction methods as well as the results of extracting from the seeds and from the entire nodes are described. Characterization of the fatty acid components of the lipids using Gas Chromatography in tandem with Mass Spectroscopy is also described. Comparisons are made between the two methods and between the two plant materials as lipid sources.

  17. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  18. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  19. Spencermartinsiella europaea gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Trichomonascaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Gábor; Dlauchy, Dénes; Tornai-Lehoczki, Judit; Suzuki, Motofumi; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2011-04-01

    Ten strains of a novel heterothallic yeast species were isolated from rotten wood collected at different locations in Hungary. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete nuclear large subunit rRNA, nuclear small subunit rRNA and translation elongation factor 1-α, placed the novel species in the family Trichomonascaceae, but showed that it was distinct from all currently recognized genera. The name Spencermartinsiella europaea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the new genus and novel species. The novel species could be distinguished from recognized species of neighbouring genera on the basis of standard phenotypic characteristics. The type and isotype strains of Spencermartinsiella europaea are NCAIM Y.01817(T) ( = NRRL Y-48265(T) =  CBS 11730(T)) and NCAIM Y.01819(I) ( = NRRL Y-48266(I) = CBS 11731(I)), respectively.

  20. Essential oil composition of stems and fruits of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice

    2010-01-27

    The essential oil of the stems and fruits of Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analyzed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 74 volatile compounds, of which 16 were aromatic and 58 non-aromatic. Stems and fruits contained 1.4% and 2.7% of aromatic compounds respectively, while non-aromatic were 88.3% and 88.8%. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant compounds in both organs, followed by fatty acids. Data showed differences in the profiles between stems and fruits which shared only eighteen compounds; stems accounted for 38 compounds while fruits for 53. Fruits showed a higher diversity especially in aromatic compounds with twelve versus four in stems. Among the volatiles identified in stems and fruits of C. europaea 26 are present in other taxa of Apocynaceae, 52 are semiochemicals for many insects, and 21 have antimicrobial activity. The possible ecological role of the volatiles found is briefly discussed.

  1. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Dekdouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.

  2. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  3. The effect of bacterial community members on the proteome of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. Is79

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedlacek, Christopher J.; Nielsen, Susanne; Greis, Kenneth D.; Haffey, Wendy D.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ticak, Tomislav; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Bollmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms in the environment do not exist as the often-studied pure cultures but as members of complex microbial communities. Characterizing the interactions within microbial communities is essential to understand their function in both natural and engineered environments. In this study we

  4. Evaluation of the effects of Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green (Oleaceae) leaf methanol extract against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabeoku, George J; Bamuamba, Kapinga

    2010-03-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green is widely used in South Africa by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhoea. However, little is known scientifically about this South African species in the treatment of diarrhoea. The main aim of the study therefore was to investigate the antidiarrhoeal effect of the leaf methanol extract of the plant species in mice. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana was studied using a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal test. The antipropulsive activity of the plant extract was also investigated using the charcoal meal transit test. Standard methods were used to investigate the acute toxicity and effect of O. europaea subsp. africana on castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation. Leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide, a standard antidiarrhoeal drug, significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes induced by castor oil, significantly decreased the stool mass, significantly delayed the onset of the diarrhoea and protected the animals against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Both O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide significantly decreased the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation in mice. The LD50 value was found to be 3475 mg/kg (p.o.). The results obtained suggest that the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana has an antidiarrhoeal property and that, given orally, it may be non-toxic and/or safe in mice.

  5. Multiplicação in vitro de oliveira (Olea europaea L. Olive (Olea europaea L. in vitro multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Dutra

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de induzir a multiplicação em explantes de oliveira, segmentos nodais oriundos de plântulas mantidas in vitro foram excisados e inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo meio de cultura MS suplementado com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, BAP (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg L-1 e ANA (0; 0,01; 0,1 e 1 mg L-1, solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar e pH ajustado para 5,8. Durante 100 dias, os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento a 25±1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 32 µmoles.m-2.s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Não houve indução de brotações nos segmentos nodais. O maior comprimento da parte aérea foi obtido com 0,1 mg L-1 de ANA na ausência de BAP. O meio de cultura sem BAP proporcionou maior peso de matéria fresca da parte aérea.This work had the objective to induce olive multiplication. Nodal segments from in vitro plantlets were excised and inoculated in test tubes containing MS culture medium supplemented with activated charcoal (2 g L-1, BAP (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1, NAA (0; 0.01; 0.1 and 1 mg L-1, agar (6 g L-1 and pH adjusted to 5.8. The explant were maintained in growth room to 25±1°C, 32 µmoles.m-2.s-1 light intensity and 16 hours photoperiod for 100 days. There was not shoots induction in the nodal segments. Larger length of aerial part were obtained with ANA 0.1 mg L-1 in the BAP absence. Culture medium without BAP provides larger weight of fresh matter of the aerial part.

  6. Early performance of Olea europaea cv. Arbequina, Picual and Frantoio in the southern Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivars Arbequina, Picual and Frantoio of Olea europaea are cultivated in severalMediterranean countries. In 1999, these cultivars were planted at three locations in the region of Coquimbo,an arid, Mediterranean-like area in Chile. A generalized linear modeling approach was used in view of thenon-normal distribution of the agronomic data sets. Fruit yield (harvests of 2002-2003, precocity (2002 andtree survival (after four growing seasons differed significantly between the cultivars. Arbequina and Picualhad a positive effect on the yield. Picual was the earliest cultivar at two sites. The survival rate of Frantoio washigh at the three sites (90-100%, as opposed to Picual (56-83%. The approach of Generalized Linear Modelswas particularly useful where the assumption of normality was not satisfied. The selection of cultivars ispromising in this arid region of Chile, while the success will depend on the selection of well-adapted genotypesto a particular location.

  7. Olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves: potential beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Sedef N; Karakaya, Sibel

    2009-11-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Spain, Italy, France, Turkey, Israel, Morocco, and Tunisia. They have been used in the human diet as an extract, an herbal tea, and a powder, and they contain many potentially bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant, antihypertensive, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic properties. One of these potentially bioactive compounds is the secoiridoid oleuropein, which can constitute up to 6-9% of dry matter in the leaves. Other bioactive components found in olive leaves include related secoiridoids, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The evidence supporting the potentially beneficial effects of olive leaves on human health are presented in this brief review.

  8. Genetic Markers Analyses and Bioinformatic Approaches to Distinguish Between Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The genetic diversity of 22 olive tree cultivars (Olea europaea L.) sampled from different Mediterranean countries was assessed using 5 SNP markers (FAD2.1; FAD2.3; CALC; SOD and ANTHO3) located in four different genes. The genotyping analysis of the 22 cultivars with 5 SNP loci revealed 11 alleles (average 2.2 per allele). The dendrogram based on cultivar genotypes revealed three clusters consistent with the cultivars classification. Besides, the results obtained with the five SNPs were compared to those obtained with the SSR markers using bioinformatic analyses and by computing a cophenetic correlation coefficient, indicating the usefulness of the UPGMA method for clustering plant genotypes. Based on principal coordinate analysis using a similarity matrix, the first two coordinates, revealed 54.94 % of the total variance. This work provides a more comprehensive explanation of the diversity available in Tunisia olive cultivars, and an important contribution for olive breeding and olive oil authenticity.

  9. Polyploidy in the olive complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from flow cytometry and nuclear microsatellite analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besnard, G.; Garcia-Verdugo, C.; Rubio de Casas, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Phylogenetic and phylogeographic investigations have been previously performed to study the evolution of the olive tree complex (Olea europaea). A particularly high genomic diversity has been found in north-west Africa. However, to date no exhaustive study has been addressed to infer...... putative polyploidization events and their evolutionary significance in the diversification of the olive tree and its relatives. Methods: Representatives of the six olive subspecies were investigated using (a) flow cytometry to estimate genome content, and (b) six highly variable nuclear microsatellites....... Lastly, abnormalities in chromosomes inheritance leading to aneuploid formation were revealed using microsatellite analyses in the offspring from the controlled cross in subsp. maroccana. Conclusions: This study constitutes the first report for multiple polyploidy in olive tree relatives. Formation...

  10. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Recent developments in olive (Olea europaea L.) genetics and genomics: applications in taxonomy, varietal identification, traceability and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, L; Busconi, M

    2017-09-01

    The latest results in DNA markers application and genomic studies in olive. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is among the most ancient tree crops worldwide and the source of oil beneficial for human health. Despite this, few data on olive genetics are available in comparison with other cultivated plant species. Molecular information is mainly linked to molecular markers and their application to the study of DNA variation in the Olea europaea complex. In terms of genomic research, efforts have been made in sequencing, heralding the era of olive genomic. The present paper represents an update of a previous review work published in this journal in 2011. The review is again mainly focused on DNA markers, whose application still constitutes a relevant percentage of the most recently published researches. Since the olive genomic era has recently started, the latest results in this field are also being discussed.

  12. Effects of UV-B radiation on Olea europaea: comparisons between a greenhouse and a field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakoura, V.; Stavrianakou, S.; Liakopoulos, G.; Karabourniotis, G. [Athens Agricultural Univ. Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology, Athens (Greece); Manetas, Y. [Patras Univ, Dept, of Biology, Patras (Greece)

    1999-11-01

    Olea europaea plants were grown in the field with or without supplemental ultraviolet B radiation equivalent to the increase at ground level resulting from a 15 per cent depletion in stratospheric ozone concentration. After one year, their morphology, anatomy and physiology were compared with that of plants grown in a greenhouse and exposed for four months to either zero UV-B radiation or UV-B radiation equivalent to that of supplemented outdoor treatment. Results showed an increase in adaxial epidermal thickness and reduced total protein concentration in plants grown in the field, in contrast to greenhouse-grown plants which under the influence of UV-B radiation showed significant increases in abaxial cutical thickness and trichome UV-B absorbing compounds. These observations suggest that Olea europaea plants have a high UV-B tolerance and are not affected by increase in UV-B radiation. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Napiera?a, Agnieszka; M?dra, Anna; Leszczy?ska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.; Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; B?oszyk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be ...

  14. Encyclopaedia Europaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gert

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notio...... Christian Lammers, Saxo-Instituttet - Arkæologi, Etnologi, Historie og Græsk og Latin; Gert Sørensen, Institut for Engelsk, Germansk og Romansk ; Anne Ring Petersen, Institut for Kunst- og Kulturvidenskab...

  15. Aggiornamento sulla distribuzione di Talpa europaea in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L?Umbria, in ragione della sua posizione centrale nella Penisola, appare particolarmente interessante dal punto di vista biogeografico. Per quanto riguarda le talpe, ad esempio, sono presenti tutti i taxa italiani ma, essendo ancora scarse e frammentarie le informazioni sulla loro distribuzione regionale, viene intanto aggiornato lo status di T. europaea con la sintesi di alcuni dati inediti raccolti nella provincia di Perugia: Zoccolanti, Città di Castello, 300 m as pa, 13-IV-2001; Monte Maggiore, Città di Castello, 605 m bc pa vu, 13-VI-2003; San Secondo, Città di Castello, 260 m ci pb vf, 3-VI-1995 / 9-V-2001; Lugnano, Città di Castello, 260 m ci pb vf, 25-XI-1992; Niccone, Umbertide, 250 m ce pb vf 14-VI-2003; Pietralunga, 505 m as pa, 19-IV-2002; Monte Cucco, Sigillo, 1050 m bc bm vu, 5-V-2003 Castiglione, Gubbio, 840 m bc pa, 30-V-1999; Schifanoia, Valfabbrica, 350 m bc pa, 30-V-2000; Oscano, Perugia, 470 m bc pa, 2002; Monte Melino, Magione, 225 m ci ps vt, 19-I-2001; Sant?Arcangelo, Magione; 260 m zu ps vt, IV-2002; Città della Pieve, 500 m as pa, 29-VI-2001 (bc bosco di caducifoglie, ce colture estensive, ci colture intensive, as area suburbana, zu zona umida, pa piano bioclimatico altocollinare, pb piano bioclimatico bassocollinare, bm piano bioclimatico bassomontano, ps piano bioclimatico collinare submediterraneo, vu variante umida, vf variante fredda, vt variante temperata. In letteratura la specie viene segnalata anche nel Comune di Assisi. In due località dell?Umbria nord-orientale ? Pietralunga e Monte Cucco - T. europaea è risultata in parapatria con T. caeca mentre, da recentissima bibliografia, entrerebbe in contatto con T. romana nella fascia centrale della regione. Contemporaneamente si è creduto opportuno riportare notizie relative ad individui marchigiani

  16. Molecular analysis of the interaction between Olea europaea and the biotrophic fungus Spilocaea oleagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Yoselin; Botella, Miguel A; Trapero, Antonio; Alsalimiya, Mohammed; Caballero, Jose Luis; Dorado, Gabriel; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2005-07-01

    SUMMARY The mitosporic fungus Spilocaea oleagina is an obligate biotroph of olive (Olea europaea) causing a scab disease associated with leaf fall and substantial losses in production. Using differential display we have identified 162 cDNA fragments corresponding to transcripts that show altered abundance during the defence response of a resistant olive cultivar to S. oleagina. Detailed analyses of 21 selected genes by real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed different kinetics of induction. Genes involved in signalling, transcriptional control, oxidative stress, biotic and abiotic stress, and several genes with unknown function were found to be induced rapidly after infection. In contrast, genes involved in metabolism and cellular maintenance showed delayed induction. The induction of the selected genes in a susceptible cultivar was delayed and/or reduced during the response to S. oleagina. Interestingly, the basal expression of some genes in the uninfected resistant cultivar was higher than in the susceptible one, suggesting a constitutive activation of defence responses. Expression of these genes in response to salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, a mixture of both, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, menadione and wounding was also investigated. The results are discussed in relation to the molecular bases and signalling events involved in this biotrophic interaction.

  17. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L. Transcriptome in Response to Salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Bazakos

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive.

  18. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species. PMID:26709230

  19. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Transcriptome in Response to Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E; Sarropoulou, Elena; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive.

  20. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, C; Fourati, R; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment under open air conditions was carried out to investigate the uptake, accumulation and toxicity effects of fluoride in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown in a soil spiked with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Six different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM NaF) of soil spiking were applied through NaF to irrigation water. At the end of the experiment, total fluoride content in soil was 20 and 1770mgFkg(-1) soil in control and 100mM NaF treatments, respectively. The comparative distribution of fluoride partitioning among the different olive tree parts showed that the roots accumulated the most fluoride and olive fruits were minimally affected by soil NaF spiking as they had the lowest fluoride content. In fact, total fluoride concentration varied between 12 and 1070µgFg(-1) in roots, between 9 and 570µgFg(-1) in shoots, between 12 and 290µgFg(-1) in leaves, and between 10 and 29µgFg(-1) in fruits, respectively for control and 100mM NaF treatments. Indeed, the fluoride accumulation pattern showed the following distribution: roots>shoots>leaves>fruits. On the other hand, fluoride toxicity symptoms such as leaf necrosis and leaf drop appeared only in highly spiked soils (60, 80 and 100mM NaF). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-03-11

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Genetic improvement of olive (Olea europaea L.) by conventional and in vitro biotechnology methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, E; Cristofori, V; Silvestri, C

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.) traditional methods of genetic improvement have up to now produced limited results. Intensification of olive growing requires appropriate new cultivars for fully mechanized groves, but among the large number of the traditional varieties very few are suitable. High-density and super high-density hedge row orchards require genotypes with reduced size, reduced apical dominance, a semi-erect growth habit, easy to propagate, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, with reliably high productivity and quality of both fruits and oil. Innovative strategies supported by molecular and biotechnological techniques are required to speed up novel hybridisation methods. Among traditional approaches the Gene Pool Method seems a reasonable option, but it requires availability of widely diverse germplasm from both cultivated and wild genotypes, supported by a detailed knowledge of their genetic relationships. The practice of "gene therapy" for the most important existing cultivars, combined with conventional methods, could accelerate achievement of the main goals, but efforts to overcome some technical and ideological obstacles are needed. The present review describes the benefits that olive and its products may obtain from genetic improvement using state of the art of conventional and unconventional methods, and includes progress made in the field of in vitro techniques. The uses of both traditional and modern technologies are discussed with recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Observation of eight ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.) growing in the Garden of Gethsemane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Raffaella; Giordano, Cristiana; Salvatici, Maria Cristina; Capozzoli, Laura; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Pazzini, Massimo; Lain, Orietta; Testolin, Raffaele; Cimato, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    For thousands of years, olive trees (Olea europaea L.) have been a significant presence and a symbol in the Garden of Gethsemane, a place located at the foot of the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem, remembered for the agony of Jesus Christ before his arrest. This investigation comprises the first morphological and genetic characterization of eight olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane. Pomological traits, morphometric, and ultrastructural observations as well as SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) analysis were performed to identify the olive trees. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate their morphological variability. The study revealed a low morphological variability and minimal dissimilarity among the olive trees. According to molecular analysis, these trees showed the same allelic profile at all microsatellite loci analyzed. Combining the results of the different analyses carried out in the frame of the present work, we could conclude that the eight olive trees of the Gethsemane Garden have been propagated from a single genotype. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. The peculiar landscape of repetitive sequences in the olive (Olea europaea L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Giordani, Tommaso; Pindo, Massimo; Cattonaro, Federica; Scalabrin, Simone; Velasco, Riccardo; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Analyzing genome structure in different species allows to gain an insight into the evolution of plant genome size. Olive (Olea europaea L.) has a medium-sized haploid genome of 1.4 Gb, whose structure is largely uncharacterized, despite the growing importance of this tree as oil crop. Next-generation sequencing technologies and different computational procedures have been used to study the composition of the olive genome and its repetitive fraction. A total of 2.03 and 2.3 genome equivalents of Illumina and 454 reads from genomic DNA, respectively, were assembled following different procedures, which produced more than 200,000 differently redundant contigs, with mean length higher than 1,000 nt. Mapping Illumina reads onto the assembled sequences was used to estimate their redundancy. The genome data set was subdivided into highly and medium redundant and nonredundant contigs. By combining identification and mapping of repeated sequences, it was established that tandem repeats represent a very large portion of the olive genome (∼31% of the whole genome), consisting of six main families of different length, two of which were first discovered in these experiments. The other large redundant class in the olive genome is represented by transposable elements (especially long terminal repeat-retrotransposons). On the whole, the results of our analyses show the peculiar landscape of the olive genome, related to the massive amplification of tandem repeats, more than that reported for any other sequenced plant genome.

  6. Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.

  7. Nitrification by immobilized cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacteragilis are nitrifying bacteria. Subsequently they oxidize ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate. Nitrification is a key process for the removal of nitrogen compounds from

  8. Competition for Ammonium between Plant-Roots and Nitrifying and Heterotrophic Bacteria and the Effects of Protozoan Grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, F.J.M.; Laanbroek, H.J.; Woldendorp, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizing species Nitrosomonas europaea, the heterotrophic species Arthrobacter globiformis and roots of Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort plantain) was studied in a series of model systems of increasing complexity,

  9. Meloidogyne lusitanica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    de O. Abrantes, Isabel M.; de A. Santos, M. Susana N.

    1991-01-01

    A root-knot nematode from Portugal, Meloidogyne lusitanica n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Females of the new species have a characteristic perineal pattern with medium to high trapezoidal dorsal arch with distinct punctuations in the tail terminus area. The excretory pore is located posterior to the stylet, about 1.5-2.5 stylet lengths from the anterior end. The stylet is 17.1 μm long with pear-shaped knobs. Males have a round...

  10. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions.

  11. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of Nigella sativa and Olea europaea oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, M Atif Raza; Nawaz, Shazia; Gul, Sumera; Salman, Tabinda; Naqvi, Sabira; Dar, Ahsana; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2018-04-01

    In the last few decades, therapeutic uses of medicinal compounds present in food as a normal constituent has risen substantially, largely because of their fewer side effects and adequate efficacy. This study is designed to investigate a role of brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the potential nootropic, anxiolytic, and other beneficial effects of Nigella sativa (NS) and Olea europaea (OE) oil in rat models. Animals were treated with NS and OE oil orally at doses of 0.1 ml/kg and 0.25 ml/kg for 5 weeks. Food intake and body weight change, anxiety-like effects in elevated plus maze and activity in a novel and familiar environment were monitored weekly. Effects on learning and memory after 5 weeks treatment were monitored using Morris water maze test. Neurochemical analysis was carried using HPLC-ECD method. NS and OE oil administration enhanced learning and memory in Morris water maze test and the effects were greater in NS than OE oil-treated animals. Low dose of OE oil increased exploration in an open field, higher dose of OE oil and both doses of NS oil produced no consistent effect on open field exploration. Effects of both oils on anxiety-like behavior, food and water intake, and activity in activity box were either not consistent or did not occur. The treatment increased homovanillic acid (HVA). 5-HT levels increased in high dose of NS oil and low dose of OE oil-treated groups. Low dose NS oil decreased 5-HT. The present study suggests that active components in NS and OE oil may prove useful in treating impaired cognition. OE oil may produce psychostimulant-like effect. Modulation of DA and serotonin neurotransmission seems important in the pharmacological effect of these oils.

  12. Identification and characterisation of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghini, Elena; Mascagni, Flavia; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cavallini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous retrotransposons in the genome of most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, SINE identification has been carried out only in a limited number of plant species. This lack of information is apparent especially in non-model plants whose genome has not been sequenced yet. The aim of this work was to produce a specific bioinformatics pipeline for analysing second generation sequence reads of a non-model species and identifying SINEs. We have identified, for the first time, 227 putative SINEs of the olive tree (Olea europaea), that constitute one of the few sets of such sequences in dicotyledonous species. The identified SINEs ranged from 140 to 362 bp in length and were characterised with regard to the occurrence of the tRNA domain in their sequence. The majority of identified elements resulted in single copy or very lowly repeated, often in association with genic sequences. Analysis of sequence similarity allowed us to identify two major groups of SINEs showing different abundances in the olive tree genome, the former with sequence similarity to SINEs of Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae and the latter to SINEs of Salicaceae. A comparison of sequence conservation between olive SINEs and LTR retrotransposon families suggested that SINE expansion in the genome occurred especially in very ancient times, before LTR retrotransposon expansion, and presumably before the separation of the rosids (to which Oleaceae belong) from the Asterids. Besides providing data on olive SINEs, our results demonstrate the suitability of the pipeline employed for SINE identification. Applying this pipeline will favour further structural and functional analyses on these relatively unknown elements to be performed also in other plant species, even in the absence of a reference genome, and will allow establishing general evolutionary patterns for this kind of repeats in

  13. High-throughput sequencing of RNA silencing-associated small RNAs in olive (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Donaire

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.. sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive.

  14. The skeletal organic matrix from Mediterranean coral Balanophyllia europaea influences calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Goffredo

    Full Text Available Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions.

  15. The skeletal organic matrix from Mediterranean coral Balanophyllia europaea influences calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Vergni, Patrizia; Reggi, Michela; Caroselli, Erik; Sparla, Francesca; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM) of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions.

  16. The Skeletal Organic Matrix from Mediterranean Coral Balanophyllia europaea Influences Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Vergni, Patrizia; Reggi, Michela; Caroselli, Erik; Sparla, Francesca; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM) of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions. PMID:21799830

  17. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelfattah

    Full Text Available The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6% and Basidiomycota (2.8%. A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions.

  18. High-Throughput Sequencing of RNA Silencing-Associated Small RNAs in Olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Livia; Pedrola, Laia; de la Rosa, Raúl; Llave, César

    2011-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive. PMID:22140484

  19. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  20. Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bock, Martin; Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Henderson, Harold V; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic compounds derived from the olive plant (Olea europaea L.), particularly hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have many beneficial effects in vitro. Olive leaves are the richest source of olive phenolic compounds, and olive leaf extract (OLE) is now a popular nutraceutical taken either as liquid or capsules. To quantify the bioavailability and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol when taken as OLE, nine volunteers (five males) aged 42.8 ± 7.4 years were randomized to receive either capsulated or liquid OLE as a single lower (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol) or higher (76.6 mg oleuropein, 14.5 mg hydroxytyrosol) dose, and then the opposite strength (but same formulation) a week later. Plasma and urine samples were collected at fixed intervals for 24 h post-ingestion. Phenolic content was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Conjugated metabolites of hydroxytyrosol were the primary metabolites recovered in plasma and urine after OLE ingestion. Peak oleuropein concentrations in plasma were greater following ingestion of liquid than capsule preparations (0.47 versus 2.74 ng/mL; p = 0.004), but no such effect was observed for peak concentrations of conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated) hydroxytyrosol (p = 0.94). However, the latter peak was reached earlier with liquid preparation (93 versus 64 min; p = 0.031). There was a gender effect on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, with males displaying greater plasma area under the curve for conjugated hydroxytyrosol (11,600 versus 2550 ng/mL; p = 0.048). All conjugated hydroxytyrosol metabolites were recovered in the urine within 8 h. There was wide inter-individual variation. OLE effectively delivers oleuropein and hydroxytrosol metabolites to plasma in humans. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Profiling and functional classification of esterases in olive (Olea europaea) pollen during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejón, Juan D; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Castro, Antonio J

    2012-10-01

    A pollen grain contains a number of esterases, many of which are released upon contact with the stigma surface. However, the identity and function of most of these esterases remain unknown. In this work, esterases from olive pollen during its germination were identifided and functionally characterized. The esterolytic capacity of olive (Olea europaea) pollen was examined using in vitro and in-gel enzymatic assays with different enzyme substrates. The functional analysis of pollen esterases was achieved by inhibition assays by using specific inhibitors. The cellular localization of esterase activities was performed using histochemical methods. Olive pollen showed high levels of non-specific esterase activity, which remained steady after hydration and germination. Up to 20 esterolytic bands were identified on polyacrylamide gels. All the inhibitors decreased pollen germinability, but only diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP) hampered pollen tube growth. Non-specific esterase activity is localized on the surface of oil bodies (OBs) and small vesicles, in the pollen intine and in the callose layer of the pollen tube wall. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mostly observed in the apertures, exine and pollen coat, and attached to the pollen tube wall surface and to small cytoplasmic vesicles. In this work, for the first time a systematic functional characterization of esterase enzymes in pollen from a plant species with wet stigma has been carried out. Olive pollen esterases belong to four different functional groups: carboxylesterases, acetylesterases, AChEs and lipases. The cellular localization of esterase activity indicates that the intine is a putative storage site for esterolytic enzymes in olive pollen. Based on inhibition assays and cellular localization of enzymatic activities, it can be concluded that these enzymes are likely to be involved in pollen germination, and pollen tube growth and penetration of the stigma.

  2. Dental morphology of Talpa europaea and Talpa occidentalis (Mammalia: Insectivora) with a discussion of fossil Talpa in the Pleistocene of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleef-Roders, van J.T.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2001-01-01

    A description is given of the last premolar and molars of T. europaea from The Netherlands and T. occidentalis of Spain. The metrical and morphological differences between the dentitions of the two species are small. A review is given of the literature of fossil Talpa in the Pleistocene of Europe.

  3. Isolation of antioxidative secoiridoids from olive wood (Olea europaea L.) guided by on-line HPLC-DAD-radical scavenging detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Sánchez, A.; Altarejos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The woody portion of olive tree pruning is a source of natural antioxidants of potential interest for the food industry. This work deals with the isolation and identification of further antioxidants present in an ethyl acetate extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) wood. Thus, a new secoiridoid,

  4. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey

  5. Simultaneous separation and purification of flavonoids and oleuropein from Olea europaea L. (olive) leaves using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaofei; Feng, Shilan; Di, Duolong

    2011-12-01

    This study developed a feasible process to simultaneously separate and purify polyphenols, including flavonoids and oleuropein, from the leaves of Olea europaea L. Macroporous resins were used as the separation and purification materials. The performance and separation capabilities of eight resins (D101, DM130, HPD450, LSA-21, LSA-40, 07C, LSD001 and HPD600) were systematically evaluated. The contents of target polyphenols in different extracts were determined using ultraviolet (for flavonoids) and high-performance liquid chromatographic (for oleuropein) methods. The static adsorption and desorption results showed that resin LSA-21 had better adsorption properties among the eight resins. Influential factors such as extraction method, pH value of feeding solution, desorption solution, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm, etc. to the extraction and purification of these polyphenols were successively investigated on resin LSA-21. The target flavonoids and oleuropein were selectively purified using resin LSA-21. Compared with the contents in raw leaves, the contents of total flavonoids and oleuropein in the final purified products were increased 13.2-fold (from 16 to 211 g kg(-1) ) and 7.5-fold (from 120 to 902 g kg(-1) ) with recovery yields of 87.9% and 85.6%, respectively. This extraction and purification method could be used in the large-scale enrichment or purification of flavonoids, oleuropein and other polyphenols from O. europaea L. leaves or other herbal materials in industrial, food processing and medical manufacture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. H(+) -pyrophosphatase from Salicornia europaea confers tolerance to simultaneously occurring salt stress and nitrogen deficiency in Arabidopsis and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Sulian; Jiang, Ping; Nie, Lingling; Chen, Xianyang; Tai, Fang; Wang, Duoliya; Fan, Pengxiang; Feng, Juanjuan; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Yinxin

    2015-11-01

    High salinity and nitrogen (N) deficiency in soil are two key factors limiting crop productivity, and they usually occur simultaneously. Here we firstly found that H(+) -PPase is involved in salt-stimulated NO3 (-) uptake in the euhalophyte Salicornia europaea. Then, two genes (named SeVP1 and SeVP2) encoding H(+) -PPase from S. europaea were characterized. The expression of SeVP1 and SeVP2 was induced by salt stress and N starvation. Both SeVP1 or SeVP2 transgenic Arabidopsis and wheat plants outperformed the wild types (WTs) when high salt and low N occur simultaneously. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants maintained higher K(+) /Na(+) ratio in leaves and exhibited increased NO3 (-) uptake, inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent vacuolar nitrate efflux and assimilation capacity under this double stresses. Furthermore, they had more soluble sugars in shoots and roots and less starch accumulation in shoots than WT. These performances can be explained by the up-regulated expression of ion, nitrate and sugar transporter genes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our results suggest that up-regulation of H(+) -PPase favours the transport of photosynthates to root, which could promote root growth and integrate N and carbon metabolism in plant. This work provides potential strategies for improving crop yields challenged by increasing soil salinization and shrinking farmland. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparative and evaluation of anti-leech (Limnatis Nilotica effect of Olive (Olea Europaea L. with Levamisol and Tiabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Gholami-Ahangaran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Until now, there is no registered drug for treatment of complications with leech in the world. According to the available scientific evidence, Olive is an effective anti-parasitic plant. Hence, in the present experiment we studied the inhibitory and killing effect of Olive methanolic extract on Limnatis nilotica. Methods: In this study, 100 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from some wells in western area of Iran (south region in Ilam province and evaluated the antileech effects of Olive methanolic extract (Olea europaea L. in comparison with levamisole and tinidazole. Results: The results indicated no effect of tinidasole and distilled water on killing or mortality rate of the leeches but Olea europaea L. plant and levamisole have more effect on the L. nilotica. The mean death time of leech for levamisole and Olive determined 10依0.98 and 210依 24.1 minutes, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that treatments of Olive methanolic extract and levamisole have the most effects on leeches and could be used as natural anti-L. nilotica. However it is necessary to achieve further studies for confirm of this subject.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Oil, protein, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of stone from wild olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Hédia; Elfalleh, Walid; Marzouk, Sizaiem

    2013-05-01

    The wild olive trees or oleaster (var. sylvestris) and the cultivated olive trees (var. europaea) constitute the two botanical varieties of Olea europaea L. from Mediterranean. In this study, a partial chemical profile was conducted including the total lipids, the fatty acid profiles, soluble proteins, polyphenols, flavanoids contents and antioxidants activities of stone from six oleaster trees. The comparison was made by two olive cultivars cultivated in the same region. The oleaster and cultivar stones were richer in oil content having an average of 8.99 and 7.38 % dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Qualitatively, all studied oils have the same fatty acids profile with the oleic acid C18:1n-9 as the major fatty acid. The oleaster stone oils were richer in monounsaturated fatty acids having an average of 64.87%. They, also, richer in protein content with an average of 198.86 mg/g DW.The globulin is the major fraction, followed by the albumin, the prolamin and the glutemin fractions. The oleaster stone extracts contain polyphenols, flavonoids with an average of 151.14 and 11.91 mg gallic acid equivalent/100g of DW, respectively. The studied extracts showed antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH and ABTS. The unexploited oleaster stone seems to be a source of oil with good fatty acids balance, in protein and antioxidants metabolites and would be useful for the formulation of supplements and/or pharmaceutical ingredients.

  10. UV-B radiation modulates physiology and lipophilic metabolite profile in Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Dias, Maria; Pinto, Diana C G A; Correia, Carlos; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Oliveira, Helena; Freitas, Helena; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Conceição

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation plays an important role in plant photomorphogenesis. Whilst the morpho-functional disorders induced by excessive UV irradiation are well-known, it remains unclear how this irradiation modulates the metabolome, and which metabolic shifts improve plants' tolerance to UV-B. In this study, we use an important Mediterranean crop, Olea europaea, to decipher the impacts of enhanced UV-B radiation on the physiological performance and lipophilic metabolite profile. Young olive plants (cv. 'Galega Vulgar') were exposed for five days to UV-B biologically effective doses of 6.5 kJ m -2  d -1 and 12.4 kJ m -2 d -1 . Cell cycle/ploidy, photosynthesis and oxidative stress, as well as GC-MS metabolites were assessed. Both UV-B treatments impaired net CO 2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, photosynthetic pigments, and RuBisCO activity, but 12.4 kJ m -2  d -1 also decreased the photochemical quenching (qP) and the effective efficiency of PSII (Φ PSII ). UV-B treatments promoted mono/triperpene pathways, while only 12.4 kJ m -2  d -1 increased fatty acids and alkanes, and decreased geranylgeranyl-diphosphate. The interplay between physiology and metabolomics suggests some innate ability of these plants to tolerate moderate UV-B doses (6.5 kJ m -2  d -1 ). Also their tolerance to higher doses (12.4 kJ m -2  d -1 ) relies on plants' metabolic adjustments, where the accumulation of specific compounds such as long-chain alkanes, palmitic acid, oleic acid and particularly oleamide (which is described for the first time in olive leaves) play an important protective role. This is the first study demonstrating photosynthetic changes and lipophilic metabolite adjustments in olive leaves under moderate and high UV-B doses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of carbohydrate reserves in yield production of intensively cultivated oil olive (Olea europaea L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Avni, Avishai; Lavee, Shimon; Zipori, Isaac; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur A; Riov, Joseph; Dag, Arnon

    2011-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) has a very high tendency for year-to-year deviation in yield (alternate bearing), which has a negative economic impact on the olive oil industry. Among possible reasons for alternate bearing, depletion of stored carbohydrates (CHO) during the On-year (high yield) has often been mentioned. The objective of the present study was to verify the role of CHO reserves, as a cause or effect, in the alternate bearing of intensively cultivated olives. A monthly survey of soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves, branches, bark and roots of On- and Off-trees (cv. Barnea) was carried out during a complete reproductive cycle from November 2005 to October 2006. Carbohydrate concentration in the sapwood was determined in January, as well as an estimate of whole-tree biomass. The trunk and limbs possess the largest portion of CHO reserves. The influence of reduced fruit load on CHO reserves was also investigated. Starch, mannitol and sucrose concentrations increased from December to March in all tissues, and then declined along with fruit development. Leaves, branches and bark have a significant role in CHO storage, whereas roots accumulated the lowest CHO concentrations. However, fluctuations in reserve content suggested considerable involvement of roots in the CHO budget. Nevertheless, there were no meaningful differences in the annual pattern of CHO concentration between On- and Off-trees. Even a 75-100% reduction in fruit number brought about only a minor, sluggish increase in CHO content, though this was more pronounced in the roots. Carbohydrate reserves were not depleted, even under maximum demands for fruit and oil production. It is concluded that in olives, the status of CHO reserves is not a yield determinant. However, they may play a significant role in the olive's survival strategy, ensuring tree recovery in the unpredictable semiarid Mediterranean environment. This suggests that CHO reserves in olive act like an active sink

  12. EFFET HYPOUPIDEMIANT DE L'HUILE D'OLIVIER SAIWAGEOLEA EUROPAEA OLÉASTRE OU OLEA SYLVESTRIS.

    OpenAIRE

    BENDIMERAD, SORAYA

    2014-01-01

    L'Olivier sauvage (Olea europaea oléastre/sylvestris) est une espèce végétale ancêtre de l'olivier cultivé bordant le pourtourméditerranéen. L'extraction par un procédé triphasique de fruit de cet arbre donne une huile sacrée par ses multiples usages. La détermination des indices physico- chimiques a révélé que l'huile est vierge, nonsiccative, constituée de chaines moyenne d'acides gras. La composition en acides gras montre une instauration prépondérante due à la teneur élevée...

  13. Phenol metabolism in the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Francisca; Peragón, Juan

    2010-12-08

    The kinetic behavior and protein-expression level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) have been determined in the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) of cv. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio during fruit ripening. Moreover, the concentration of total phenolic compounds, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol has been also determined. This study was carried out in 20-year-old olive trees grown in Jaén (Spain). The concentration of total and specific phenols showed a specific pattern in each cultivar. Frantoio showed the highest phenol concentration followed by Arbequina, Picual, and Verdial. A coordinated response between PAL, PPO, and the concentration of total phenols in the four cultivars was found. Also, specific changes were shown over the course of ripening, indicating a regulation of PAL, PPO, and phenol concentration in the olive-tree leaves during fruit ripening.

  14. Phylogenomics of the olive tree (Olea europaea) reveals the relative contribution of ancient allo- and autopolyploidization events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julca, Irene; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Vargas, Pablo; Gabaldón, Toni

    2018-01-25

    Polyploidization is one of the major evolutionary processes that shape eukaryotic genomes, being particularly common in plants. Polyploids can arise through direct genome doubling within a species (autopolyploidization) or through the merging of genomes from distinct species after hybridization (allopolyploidization). The relative contribution of both mechanisms in plant evolution is debated. Here we used phylogenomics to dissect the tempo and mode of duplications in the genome of the olive tree (Olea europaea), one of the first domesticated Mediterranean fruit trees. Our results depict a complex scenario involving at least three past polyploidization events, of which two-at the bases of the family Oleaceae and the tribe Oleeae, respectively-are likely to be the result of ancient allopolyploidization. A more recent polyploidization involves specifically the olive tree and relatives. Our results show the power of phylogenomics to distinguish between allo- and auto polyploidization events and clarify the contributions of duplications in the evolutionary history of the olive tree.

  15. Dynamique de la conductance hydraulique chez l'olivier de table (Olea europaea L., cv Meski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechmi, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic Conductance Dynamic in Olive Table Tree (Olea europaea L. cv Meski. Cette étude expose les effets de l'aménagement des pâturages par la digue filtrante sur la dynamique de la végétation. Dans les régions sahéliennes, de nombreuses techniques sont appliquées sur les sols pour la restauration des parcours dégradés. La digue filtrante s'intéresse particulièrement aux axes de drainage ou bas-fonds en dégradation. La méthode d'étude a consisté à évaluer l'impact des digues filtrantes par l'inventaire de la végétation, la mesure de la biomasse produite, et l'analyse chimique d'échantillons de fourrage et de sol. Ces observations ont été faites à la fois sur l'espace aménagé et sur un espace témoin représentatif en deux fois durant cinq ans. Les observations sur l'espace aménagé (stations d'observation d'un ha ont été faites en fonction du gradient par rapport à la digue filtrante tandis que sur le témoin (station d'observation d'un ha, les mesures ont été homogénéisées sur l'ensemble de la parcelle. Les résultats obtenus des inventaires de végétation montrent un effet positif de l'aménagement sur la dynamique de la végétation qui se maintient après cinq années. Les effets concernent la composition floristique pour laquelle certaines espèces connaissent une amélioration. Il s'agit de Panicum laetum (+ 5,9% en 1999 et + 1,9% en 2003, Setaria pallide fusca (+ 2,4 à + 8,6%, Cassia obtusifolia (+ 13,6% à + 9,3% et Zornia glochidiata (- 2,9% à + 1,7 %. Les espèces en régression sont surtout composées de Schoenefeldia gracilis (+ 1,7% à - 12% et Microchloa indica (- 28,9% à - 12,1% entre 1999 et 2003. L'écart de recouvrement du sol entre la parcelle aménagée et le témoin a été de -0,4% en 1999 contre + 14,6% en 2003. La biomasse produite et la capacité de charge ont connu une expansion allant de 3,14 à 4,5 fois par rapport à l'espace non aménagé. Cependant, des suivis doivent

  16. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud, Douja; Krichene, Douha; Nouairi, Issam; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Olfa; Zarrouk, Wissem; Baccouri, Bechir

    2008-01-01

    A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster) was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stab...

  17. Isolation of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with the Halophyte Salicornia europaea and Evaluation of their Promoting Activity Under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Several reports have highlighted that many plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPE) can assist their host plants in coping with various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information about the PGPE colonizing in the halophytes is still scarce. This study was designed to isolate and characterize PGPE from salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion. A total of 105 isolates were obtained from the surface-sterilized roots, stems, and assimilation twigs of S. europaea. Thirty-two isolates were initially selected for their ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase as well as other properties such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and phosphate-solubilizing activities. The 16S rRNA gene-sequencing analysis revealed that these isolates belong to 13 different genera and 19 bacterial species. For these 32 strains, seed germination and seedling growth in axenically grown S. europaea seedlings at different NaCl concentrations (50-500 mM) were quantified. Five isolates possessing significant stimulation of the host plant growth were obtained. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus tequilensis, Planococcus rifietoensis, Variovorax paradoxus, and Arthrobacter agilis. All the five strains could colonize and can be reisolated from the host plant interior tissues. These results demonstrate that habitat-adapted PGPE isolated from halophyte could enhance plant growth under saline stress conditions.

  18. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  19. High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis of the Endophytic Bacterial Diversity and Dynamics in Roots of the Halophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Endophytic bacterial communities of halophyte Salicornia europaea roots were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 20,151 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained. These sequences revealed huge amounts of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), that is, 747-1405 OTUs in a root sample, at 3 % cut-off level. Root endophytes mainly comprised four phyla, among which Proteobacteria was the most represented, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant class of Proteobacteria, followed by Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Genera Pantoea, Halomonas, Azomonas, Serpens, and Pseudomonas were shared by all growth periods. A marked difference in endophytic bacterial communities was evident in roots from different host life-history stages. Gammaproteobacteria increased during the five periods, while Betaproteobacteria decreased. The richest endophytic bacteria diversity was detected in the seedling stage. Endophytic bacteria diversity was reduced during the flowering stage and fruiting stage. The five libraries contained 2321 different OTUs with 41 OTUs in common. As a whole, this study first surveys communities of endophytic bacteria by tracing crucial stages in the process of halophyte growth using high-throughput sequencing methods.

  20. Sustainability, Innovation, and Green Chemistry in the Production and Valorization of Phenolic Extracts from Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Romani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a circular economy process based on environmentally and economically sustainable procedures which was applied to the sector of olive oil processing on an industrial scale. Olea europaea L. tissues and by-products represent a renewable and low-cost source of polyphenols, in particular hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, a naturally occurring compound well known for its biological properties. Specifically, green leaves (GL, dried leaves (DL, and pitted olive pulp were treated with water in a pneumatic extractor to obtain the corresponding polyphenolic extracts. Three standardized fractions, named Soft Extract Olea GL, Soft Extract Olea DL, and Soft Extract Olea HTyr resulted after the following two steps: a separation process carried out by membrane technology, and a concentration step performed under reduced pressure and low temperature. The polyphenolic fractions showed antiradical activity and have potential industrial applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, feed, and agronomic fields. Novel functionalized extracts containing hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate (HTyr-MC were obtained from Soft Extract Olea HTyr through an innovative approach based on green chemistry procedures, which appear to be a promising tool to increase the applications of the polyphenolic extracts.

  1. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) and prevention of browning reactions in bruised olive fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A; Jarén-Galan, Manuel; García-García, Pedro; Garrido-Fernandez, Antonio

    2007-08-08

    The crude extract of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) was obtained, and its properties were characterized. The browning reaction followed a zero-order kinetic model. Its maximum activity was at pH 6.0. This activity was completely inhibited at a pH below 3.0 regardless of temperature; however, in alkaline conditions, pH inhibition depended on temperature and was observed at values above 9.0 and 11.0 at 8 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of substrate oxidation depended on pH within the range in which activity was observed. The reaction occurred according to an isokinetic system because pH affected the enzymatic reaction rate but not the energy required to carry out the reaction. In the alkaline pH region, browning was due to a combination of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions that occurred in parallel. These results correlated well with the browning behavior observed in intentionally bruised fruits at different temperatures and in different storage solutions. The use of a low temperature ( approximately 8 degrees C) was very effective for preventing browning regardless of the cover solution used.

  2. Caracterización histoquimica de la etapa temprana del desarrollo del fruto del olivo (Olea europaea L.

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    Corrêa Maria José Pinheiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el desarrollo a nivel histoquimico de la etapa temprana del fruto del olivo (Olea europaea L. variedad Picual, vigorosa y elevado rendimiento graso. Para ello, se utilizaron flores de olivo recién fecundadas y también com tres, siete y diez días tras la fecundación. Hemos utilizado tinción com "Sudan Black", para hacer un seguimiento de los lípidos en las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del fruto del olivo. Como resultado se puede decir que en la etapa temprana del desarrollo del fruto, el exocarpo se presenta rico en lípidos en todas las etapas de estudio. El mesocarpo y el embrión presentan tinción no homogénea, o sea, hay algunas regiones de ellos que presentan lipidos, mientras que la zona vascular del mesocarpo y el endocarpo se presentan libre de tinción y la zona vascular del embrión se mantiene rica en lipidos.

  3. Effet du sucre sur l'embryogenèse somatique de l'olivier (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Picholine marocaine'

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    Abousalim A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sugar on somatic embryogenesis of olive tree (Olea europaea L. cv ' Moroccan Picholine '. The somatic embryogenesis of the olive tree cv ' Moroccan Picholine ' has been until now very little studied, in spite of its importance for Morocco.Thus, our work aimed to study the effects of type and concentrations of sugar on the induction and the development of somatic embryos of this variety. Regeneration of olive plants via somatic embryogenesis has been achieved from cotyledon fragments. Embryogenic, nodular and compact calli have been induced on media supplemented with 0.5 mg.l-1 zeatin and 2 mg.l-1 NAA and different types of sugar as mannitol, saccharose and sorbitol and different saccharose concentrations (20, 30, 60 and 90 g.l-1. The highest percentage of callus induction (P < 0.001 was observed with mannitol (90.6%. Up to 37% somatic embryogenesis was obtained in the case of saccharose (P < 0.001. The best callus induction was obtained in presence of 30 g.l-1 saccharose. This concentration was the best for olive plantlets regeneration. No morphogenesis was obtained with sorbitol. Somatic embryogenesis seems to be able to constitute an interesting source of micropropagation of olive tree in Morocco.

  4. An in vitro nutritive evaluation of olive tree (Olea europaea) pruning residues as affected by cutting regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M R

    2012-01-01

    Nutritive values of the branches from Olea europaea trees cut at 25, 50, 75 or 100 cm distance from the tip were evaluated by determination of the in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy lactation (NEL), and presence nutritional and anti-nutritional components. The values of nutritive components, nitrogen forms, IVDOM, ME and NEL declined and concentrations of crude fiber and cell wall constituents increased with the increase in cutting length. Total phenols, hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins amounted to 70, 17 and 0.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) to the plant samples incubated with rumen fluid at a ratio of (2:1 PEG:substrate) increased the values of IVDOM, ME and NEL by 40 g/kg DM, 0.59 MJ/kg DM and 0.42 MJ/kg DM, respectively. IVDOM, ME and NEL were negatively correlated with crude fiber and cell wall constituents but positively correlated with nitrogen forms and non-fiber carbohydrates. Olive pruning branches in diameter<3 mm could be used as sources of feeds for small ruminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histochemical location of key enzyme activities involved in receptivity and self-incompatibility in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Irene; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-12-01

    Stigma-surface and style enzymes are important for pollen reception, selection and germination. This report deals with the histochemical location of the activity of four basic types of enzyme involved in these processes in the olive (Olea europaea L.). The detection of peroxidase, esterase and acid-phosphatase activities at the surface of the stigma provided evidence of early receptivity in olive pistils. The stigma maintained its receptivity until the arrival of pollen. Acid-phosphatase activity appeared in the style at the moment of anthesis and continued until the fertilization of the ovule. RNase activity was detected in the extracellular matrix of the styles of flowers just before pollination and became especially evident in pistils after self-pollination. This activity gradually decreased until it practically disappeared in more advanced stages. RNase activity was also detected in pollen tubes growing in pollinated pistils and appeared after in vitro germination in the presence of self-incompatible pistils. These findings suggest that RNases may well be involved in intraspecific pollen rejection in olive flowers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that evidence of enzyme activity in stigma receptivity and pollen selection has been described in this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Olea europaea L. to Identify Genes Involved in the Development of the Pollen Tube

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    Domenico Iaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In olive (Olea europaea L., the processes controlling self-incompatibility are still unclear and the molecular basis underlying this process are still not fully characterized. In order to determine compatibility relationships, using next-generation sequencing techniques and a de novo transcriptome assembly strategy, we show that pollen tubes from different olive plants, grown in vitro in a medium containing its own pistil and in combination pollen/pistil from self-sterile and self-fertile cultivars, have a distinct gene expression profile and many of the differentially expressed sequences between the samples fall within gene families involved in the development of the pollen tube, such as lipase, carboxylesterase, pectinesterase, pectin methylesterase, and callose synthase. Moreover, different genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, and growth are overrepresented. The analysis also allowed us to identify members in actin and actin depolymerization factor and fibrin gene family and member of the Ca2+ binding gene family related to the development and polarization of pollen apical tip. The whole transcriptomic analysis, through the identification of the differentially expressed transcripts set and an extended functional annotation analysis, will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the olive.

  8. Salicornia europaea L. Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L Q; Niu, Y D; Huridu, H; Hao, J F; Qi, Z; Hasi, A

    2014-07-24

    In order to obtain a salt-tolerant perennial alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we transferred the halophyte Salicornia europaea L. Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene, SeNHX1, to alfalfa by using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The transformants were confirmed by both PCR and RT-PCR analyses. Of 197 plants that were obtained after transformation, 36 were positive by PCR analysis using 2 primer pairs for the CaMV35S-SeNHX1 and SeNHX1-Nos fragments; 6 plants survived in a greenhouse. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SeNHX1 was expressed in 5 plants. The resultant transgenic alfalfa had better salt tolerance. After stress treatment for 21 days with 0.6% NaCl, the chlorophyll and MDA contents in transgenic plants were lower, but proline content and SOD, POD, and CAT activities were higher than those in wild-type plants. These results suggest that the salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa was improved by the overexpression of the SeNHX1 gene.

  9. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  10. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  11. Influence of high concentrations of mineral salts on production process and NaCl accumulation by Salicornia europaea plants as a constituent of the LSS phototroph link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    Use of halophytes (salt-tolerant vegetation), in a particular vegetable Salicornia europaea plants which are capable of utilizing NaCl in rather high concentrations, is one of possible means of NaCl incorporation into mass exchange of bioregenerative life support systems. In preliminary experiments it was shown that S. europaea plants, basically, could grow on urine pretreated with physicochemical processing and urease-enzyme decomposing of urea with the subsequent ammonia distillation. But at the same time inhibition of the growth process of the plants was observed. The purpose of the given work was to find out the influence of excessive quantities of some mineral elements contained in products of physicochemical processing of urine on the production process and NaCl accumulation by S. europaea plants. As the content of mineral salts in the human liquid wastes (urine) changed within certain limits, two variants of experimental solutions were examined. In the first variant, the concentration of mineral salts was equivalent to the minimum salt content in the urine and was: K - 1.5 g/l, P - 0.5 g/l, S - 0.5 g/l, Mg - 0.07 g/l, Ca - 0.2 g/l. In the second experimental variant, the content of mineral salts corresponded to the maximum salt content in urine and was the following: K - 3.0 g/l, P - 0.7 g/l, S - 1.2 g/l, Mg - 0.2 g/l, Ca - 0.97 g/l. As the control, the Tokarev nutrient solution containing nitrogen in the form of a urea, and the Knop nutrient solution with nitrogen in the nitrate form were used. N quantity in all four variants made up 177 mg/l. Air temperature was 24 °C, illumination was continuous. Light intensity was 690 μmol/m 2s of photosynthetically active radiation. NaCl concentration in solutions was 1%. Our researches showed that the dry aboveground biomass of an average plant of the first variant practically did not differ from the control and totaled 11 g. In the second variant, S. europaea productivity decreased and the dry aboveground biomass

  12. The first cytogenetic description of Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 from Northern Sardinia reveals the highest diploid chromosome number among sphaerodactylid geckos (Sphaerodactylidae, Squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gornung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a sphaerodactylid gecko Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 was assembled for the first time in this species. It is made of 2n = 42 gradually decreasing in size chromosomes, the highest chromosome number so far acknowledged in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The second chromosome pair of the karyotype appears slightly heteromorphic in the male individual. Accordingly, FISH with a telomeric probe revealed an uneven distribution of telomeric repeats on the two homologues of this pair, which may be indicative of an XY sex-determination system in the species, to be further investigated.

  13. Over-expressing Salicornia europaea (SeNHX1) gene in tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increase of salt tolerance in transgenics was observed both in vitro and in pot culture. When exposed to either 138 mM or 172 mM NaCl in vitro, the transgenic apical meristem and stem segments with buds exhibited stronger salt-tolerance than their wild-type counterparts. In pot soil with 10.2 mg g-1 DW Na+ stress, ...

  14. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of Olea europaea leaves against Diclofenac-induced liver damages in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussi, Rawya; Hfaiedh, Najla; Guesmi, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2018-04-20

    Historically, olive tree "Olea europaea" is one of the most important fruit trees in Mediterranean countries. Several studies suggest that olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds compared to olive oil and fruits. This study was undertaken to investigate, the protective effect of the aqueous extract of « Chemlali » olive leaves against diclofenac-induced damages in liver and haematological alterations in swiss albinos mice. For this, twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a diclofenac-treated group (2.37 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, a group orally gavaged with aqueous extract of olive leaves, (3.3g/kg) during 28 days, and a group pre-treated with aqueous extract of olive leaves during 23 days then injected with diclofenac for 5 days. Results obtained from this study revealed that administration of diclofenac alone led to disturbance of some haematological parameters including red and white blood cells (RBC), (WBC) haemoglobin (Hb) and platelets content (PLT). However, diclofenac-treated mice group showed a increasing in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Additionally we noted a state of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue indicated by the increasing of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Interstingly, pre-treatment with olive leaves extract improved the haematological parameters and minimised the adverse effect on the hepatic function markers induced by diclofenac. The beneficial effect of olive leaves could be attributed to its antioxidant components as confirmed by phytochemical analysis.

  15. Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L. through plastome sequence comparison

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    Baldoni Luciana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L. is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking.

  16. Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

  17. Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

  18. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing the historic olive trees (Olea europaea L.) of Santa Cruz with contemporaneous trees in the Santa Barbara, CA area: a case study of diversity and structure in an introduced agricultural species conserved in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic populations of crop species outside their centers of origin and diversity, like the domestic olive (Olea europaea L.) in North America, are genetic resources for contemporary agriculture, including genotypes that could be adapted to, local conditions. The primary goal of this study was to d...

  20. Growth at low ammonium concentrations and starvation response as potential factors involved in niche differentiation among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Annette; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2002-10-01

    In nature, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria have to compete with heterotrophic bacteria and plants for limiting amounts of ammonium. Previous laboratory experiments conducted with Nitrosomonas europaea suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are weak competitors for ammonium. To obtain a better insight into possible methods of niche differentiation among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, we carried out a growth experiment at low ammonium concentrations with N. europaea and the ammonia oxidizer G5-7, a close relative of Nitrosomonas oligotropha belonging to Nitrosomonas cluster 6a, enriched from a freshwater sediment. Additionally, we compared the starvation behavior of the newly enriched ammonia oxidizer G5-7 to that of N. europaea. The growth experiment at low ammonium concentrations showed that strain G5-7 was able to outcompete N. europaea at growth-limiting substrate concentrations of about 10 micro M ammonium, suggesting better growth abilities of the ammonia oxidizer G5-7 at low ammonium concentrations. However, N. europaea displayed a more favorable starvation response. After 1 to 10 weeks of ammonium deprivation, N. europaea became almost immediately active after the addition of fresh ammonium and converted the added ammonium within 48 to 96 h. In contrast, the regeneration time of the ammonia oxidizer G5-7 increased with increasing starvation time. Taken together, these results provide insight into possible mechanisms of niche differentiation for the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria studied. The Nitrosomonas cluster 6a member, G5-7, is able to grow at ammonium concentrations at which the growth of N. europaea, belonging to Nitrosomonas cluster 7, has already ceased, providing an advantage in habitats with continuously low ammonium concentrations. On the other hand, the ability of N. europaea to become active again after longer periods of starvation for ammonium may allow better exploitation of irregular pulses of ammonium in the environment.

  1. Biochemistry of Ammonia Monoxygenase from Nitrosomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Hooper

    2009-07-15

    Major results. 1. CytochromecM552, a protein in the electron transfer chain to ammonia monooxygenase. Purification, modeling of protein structure based on primary structure, characterization of 4 hemes by magnetic spectroscopy, potentiometry, ligand binding and turnover. Kim, H. J., ,Zatsman, et al. 2008). 2. Characterization of proteins which thought to be involved in the AMO reaction or to protect AMO from toxic nitrogenous intermediates such as NO. Nitrosocyanin is a protein present only in bacteria which catalyze the ammonia monoxygenase reaction (1). Cytochrome c P460 beta and cytochrome c’ beta.

  2. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  3. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui' Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Dbara

    Full Text Available The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs and improving water use efficiency (WUE. Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui' in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may

  4. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.

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    Yanik Huriye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year", followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year". Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA, being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also

  5. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Huriye; Turktas, Mine; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-15

    Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves ("on year" and "off year" leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data on the miRNA-fruit development

  6. Flowers and olive fruits (Olea Europaea l. growth under tropic conditions.

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    José Francisco García Molano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It was relatively easy the olive adaptation in tropical area for its evergreen and rustic condition where there were found trees with a very good development and production according to different studies that show the existence of some varieties of ancient trees located in villa de Leyva, Sáchica and Sutamarchán; however these varieties did not prosper as farming and they were abandoned. In the last ten years the olive farming has taken interest again and now there has been planted new crops through the existent material in the region, the production started three years later, for that reason it was taken the cultural, environmental, economic and scientific interest. This study aimed to know the performance of the development and trees growth planted take into account some edaphoclimatic conditions of the ‘Alto Ricaurte’. There were chosen thirty nine trees which the treatment one corresponded to olives of thirty years in production and the treatment two corresponded to three years plants which they had started their production. This plant material had been identified genetically by means of molecular analysis with a classification from one to ten considering that it did not correspond to the denomination that these varieties had in this region. The study shows that genotype four has trees at both ages, which the analysis of results was made take into account the age of this one, observing different behavior in flowering that it seems to be influenced because of climate conditions meanwhile that the planted development and growth did not show any difference in genotypes neither ages.

  7. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  8. De l’olivier à l’oléastre : origine et domestication de l’Olea europaea L. dans le Bassin méditerranéen

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, Catherine; Médail, Frédéric; Pinatel, Christian; Berville, Andre

    2006-01-01

    De l’olivier à l’oléastre : origine et domestication de l’Olea europaea L. dans le Bassin méditerranéen Keywords : VEGETAL PRODUCTIONS, NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTRésumé : L’olivier occupe la 24 e place des 35 espèces les plus cultivées dans le monde. La diversité phénologique des cultivars est remarquable et l’intérêt économique de l’espèce est majeur. Pourtant peu d’études ont porté sur la domestication de l’olivier et sur les relations entre l’olivier et sa forme sauvage, l’oléastre....

  9. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  10. The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster

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    Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of all the wild olive trees tested produced virgin olive oil which complies with commercial standards, as well as for their appreciable amounts of tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Tocopherol analysis by HPLC revealed the presence of α, β, γ and δ tocopherols in all the studied olive oils. Total tocopherol content was significantly influenced by the varietal factor. It ranged from 310 (SB12 to 780 mg/kg (H3. As for total tocopherols, the amount of each tocopherol varied according to genotype. α tocopherol is the most prominent, whereas β, γ and δ tocopherols are less represented. Results showed a clear influence of total phenols and o-diphenols on virgin olive oil stability (R = 0.905, 0.963 P En este trabajo se han caracterizado los aceites obtenidos a partir de siete acebuches previamente seleccionados entre varias poblaciones de Olea europea L. Subsp. oleaster. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante las campañas de producción 2003/04, 2004/05 y 2005/06.Varios parámetros analíticos fueron evaluados: composiciones en ácidos grasos, pigmentos, tocoferoles, fenoles; así mismo, se investigó la relación de estos parámetros con la estabilidad de los aceites. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que todas las muestras de frutos de acebuche produjeron aceites cuya composición de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y compuestos fenólicos cumplió las normas comerciales para aceite de oliva virgen del Comit

  13. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasites exam Alternative Names Stool culture; Culture - stool; Gastroenteritis fecal culture Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism Clostridium difficile organism References Beavis, KG, ...

  14. Polen atmosférico de Olea europaea L. en Madrid (Ciudad Universitaria y Aranjuez durante los años 1994-1997

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    Sáenz Laín, Concepción

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of four years of study (1994-1997 of the atmospheric levéis of pollen from Olea europaea L. in Madrid and Aranjuez are presented. The principal pollination period (PPP for each year and each season were calculated, using the mean daily concentrations, and fell between weeks 16 and 26, with maximum daily valúes registered between 3rd May and 7th June. The presence of olive pollen was greater in Aranjuez than in Madrid (mean 3,307 grains of pollen/year and 2,123 grains/year, respectively. The pollen season was similar in each locality. A preliminary comparison of pollen data with temperature and precipitation seems to indicates that accumulated pre-season temperatures, but not rainfall, can have decisive influence on the initiation of pollination. His nuclear what influence rainfall has on the account of pollen collected.Presentamos los resultados obtenidos durante cuatro años de estudio (1994-1997 del contenido atmosférico de polen de Olea europaea L. en Madrid (Ciudad Universitaria y en Aranjuez. A partir de las concentraciones medias diarias, hemos calculado el Período de Polinización Principal (PPP para cada año y cada estación, que se ha producido siempre entre las semanas 16 y 26, con valores máximos diarios registrados entre el 3 de mayo y el 7 de junio. La presencia del polen de olivo ha sido mayor en Aranjuez que en Madrid (media del período, 3.307 granos de polen/año y 2.123, respectivamente. Las estación polínica transcurre de forma similar en ambas localidades. De una primera comparación de los datos polínicos con los datos de temperatura y precipitación, parece deducirse que las temperaturas acumuladas durante el período preestacional pueden tener una influencia decisiva en el inicio de la polinización, no así las precipitaciones. Tampoco parece clara su influencia sobre el total anual de polen recogido.

  15. Influence of inorganic and organic amendments in the soil properties and the growth and survival of Olea Europaea var. Sylvestris in the semiarid Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Raúl; Miralles, Isabel; Anguita-Maeso, Manuel; Domene, Miguel; Soriano, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Selecting the most appropriate types of plants adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of restoring drylands is essential to success in landscape restoration. Besides improving soil quality is a key factor to consider when designing the restoration procedures. The use of organic and inorganic amendments can help with this task. On this study, we evaluated the influence of different mineral (clays) and organic (compost and poultry) amendments on the properties of a bare soil and how this influenced on the growth and survival of the Olea europaea var. sylvestrys, a perennial bush plant adapted to the Mediterranean semi-arid zone. Tests were designed and carried out in a greenhouse at the "Experimental Station of Cajamar foundation "Las Palmerillas" in El Ejido (Almería, Spain). Plants were grown in 250L pots and their substrate was bare soil and mineral and/or organic amendments. The experimental design consisted of three replicas for five treatments: 1. compost, 2. "ZeoPro", a cliptonolite commercial clay, 3. mordenite clay from local quarries plus compost, 4. cliptonolite clay from Turkey plus compost, 5. cliptonolite from Turquey plus poultry; with four levels each one: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% volume of amendment. Including three control samples without amendment total plants accounted for 63. Climatic sensors inside and outside the greenhouse permitted to establish the same meteorological conditions for the plants and only emergency watering was supplied when necessary for the survival of the plants when arid conditions were extreme. The physico-chemical soil properties of each treatment and level were analyzed before planting and the biovolume and the survival rates of the plants were measured regularly along eleven months. Statistically the best treatment for the growing of the plants was number 3 (mordenite and compost) with no deaths recorded. According to the growing rates the best level was soil with 20% of amendment. Besides we analyzed the evolution of the

  16. AcEST: DK944957 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q82Y15|ORN_NITEU Oligoribonuclease OS=Nitrosomonas europaea G... 31 1.7 sp|Q9JLC8|SACS_MOUSE Sacsi...LVVTDAQLNTLAEAPVLVVHQPDDI 54 >sp|Q9JLC8|SACS_MOUSE Sacsin OS=Mus musculus GN=Sacs PE=1 SV=2 Length = 4582 Sc

  17. Growth at low ammonium concentrations and starvation response as potential factors involved in niche differentiation among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In nature, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria have to compete with heterotrophic bacteria and plants for limiting amounts of ammonium. Previous laboratory experiments conducted with Nitrosomonas europaea suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are weak competitors for ammonium. To obtain a better

  18. Growth at low ammonium concentrations and starvation response as potential factors involved in niche differentiation among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In nature, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria have to compete with heterotrophic bacteria and plants for limiting amounts of ammonium. Previous laboratory experiments conducted with Nitrosomonas europaea suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are weak competitors for ammonium. To obtain a better insight

  19. Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G Pérez

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.. They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.

  20. The influence of field margins on the presence and spatial distribution of the European mole Talpa europaea L. within the agricultural landscape of northern Poland

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    Zurawska-Seta Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European moles are widespread in both cultivated and uncultivated areas in Poland. Their occurrence and distribution in relation to the physical and chemical characteristics of soil has been already studied in previous research. However, there is still an open question about the impact of the structure of anthropogenic habitats produced by agriculture on moles. The main aim of this study is to assess the influence of different kinds of field margins on the presence and spatial distribution of the European mole Talpa europaea L. in farmlands. Methods included the monitoring of six investigative sites in northern Poland. Observations were made during three six-month periods in 2005-2008 of the presence or absence of moles as recognized by recent molehills and surface tunnels. There was a very clear tendency by moles to occupy areas within arable fields close to field boundaries with wide verges containing ruderal and woodland communities with a spacious zone of ecotones. Narrow boundary strips were avoided by moles. In conclusion, the conducted research confirms that field margins have an impact on the presence and spatial distribution of moles within ploughed lands. Our results may be helpful in improving the relation between agricultural development and biodiversity conservation, and the rational use of nature by humankind.

  1. Spatial genetic structure in the Laperrine's olive (Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei), a long-living tree from the central Saharan mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, G; Christin, P A; Baali-Cherif, D; Bouguedoura, N; Anthelme, F

    2007-12-01

    The Laperrine's olive (Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei) is an emblematic species of the Sahelo-Saharan Mountains. Populations of this tree are locally threatened by extinction due to climatic vicissitudes and human activities, particularly in Niger and Algeria. In order to study the spatial genetic structure and the dynamics of O. e. laperrinei populations, we sampled trees in four isolated mountain ranges (Tassili n'Ajjer and Hoggar (Algeria), Tamgak and Bagzane (Niger)). A total of 237 genets were identified using nuclear microsatellites. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on plastid DNA data supported a maternal origin of O. e. laperrinei populations in South Algeria, where a higher allelic richness was observed. Based on nuclear microsatellite data, two levels of structure were revealed: first, individuals from Niger and Algeria were separated in two distinct groups; second, four less differentiated clusters corresponded to the four studied mountain ranges. These results give support to the fact that desert barriers have greatly limited long distance gene flow. Within populations, pairwise kinship coefficients were significantly correlated to geographical distance for Niger populations but not for Algerian mountains. Historical factors and habitat heterogeneity may explain the differences observed. We conclude that the Hoggar acts as an important genetic reservoir that has to be taken into account in future conservation programmes. Moreover, very isolated endangered populations (for example, Bagzane) displaying evident genetic particularities have to be urgently considered for their endemism.

  2. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Colonization of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. modified the glycolipids biosynthesis and resulted in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, Beligh; Attia, Faouzi; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization on photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, the amount of phospholipids and glycolipids in the leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees was investigated. After six months of growth, the rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, transpiration and stomatal conductance in mycorrhizal (M) plants was significantly higher than that of non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The inoculation treatment increased the foliar P and Mg but not N. The amount of glycolipids in the leaves of M plants was significantly higher than that of NM plants. However, the amount of phospholipids in the leaves of M plants was not significantly different to that in the leaves of NM plants. Also, we observed a significant increase in the level of α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) in glycolipids of M plants. This work supports the view that increased glycolipids level in the leaves of M plants could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis performance of olive trees. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of AM fungi on the amount of glycolipids in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.

  6. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A possible role for flowering locus T-encoding genes in interpreting environmental and internal cues affecting olive (Olea europaea L.) flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Amnon; Bakhshian, Ortal; Cerezo-Medina, Sergio; Paltiel, Judith; Adler, Chen; Ben-Ari, Giora; Mercado, Jose Angel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Lavee, Shimon; Samach, Alon

    2017-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) inflorescences, formed in lateral buds, flower in spring. However, there is some debate regarding time of flower induction and inflorescence initiation. Olive juvenility and seasonality of flowering were altered by overexpressing genes encoding flowering locus T (FT). OeFT1 and OeFT2 caused early flowering under short days when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of OeFT1/2 in olive leaves and OeFT2 in buds increased in winter, while initiation of inflorescences occurred i n late winter. Trees exposed to an artificial warm winter expressed low levels of OeFT1/2 in leaves and did not flower. Olive flower induction thus seems to be mediated by an increase in FT levels in response to cold winters. Olive flowering is dependent on additional internal factors. It was severely reduced in trees that carried a heavy fruit load the previous season (harvested in November) and in trees without fruit to which cold temperatures were artificially applied in summer. Expression analysis suggested that these internal factors work either by reducing the increase in OeFT1/2 expression or through putative flowering repressors such as TFL1. With expected warmer winters, future consumption of olive oil, as part of a healthy Mediterranean diet, should benefit from better understanding these factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Endophytic colonization and biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 in olive (Olea europaea L.) are determined neither by pyoverdine production nor swimming motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-González, M Mercedes; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an indigenous inhabitant of olive (Olea europaea L.) rhizosphere, able to display endophytic lifestyle in roots, to induce a wide range of defence responses upon colonization of this organ and to exert effective biological control against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) (Verticillium dahliae). We aimed to evaluate the involvement of specific PICF7 phenotypes in olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol effectiveness by generating mutants impaired in swimming motility (fliI) or siderophore pyoverdine production (pvdI). Besides, the performance of mutants with diminished in vitro growth in potato dextrose agar medium (gltA) and cysteine (Cys) auxotrophy was also assessed. Results showed that olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol ability of the fliI, pvdI and gltA mutants did not significantly differ from that displayed by the parental strain PICF7. Consequently, altered in vitro growth, swimming motility and pyoverdine production contribute neither to PICF7 VWO suppressive effect nor to its colonization ability. In contrast, the Cys auxotroph mutant showed reduced olive root colonization capacity and lost full biocontrol efficacy. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that all mutants tested were able to endophytically colonize root tissue to the same extent as wild-type PICF7, discarding these traits as relevant for its endophytic lifestyle. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  10. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  11. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  12. A de novo transcriptomic approach to identify flavonoids and anthocyanins switch-off in olive (Olea europaea L. drupes at different stages of maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico eIaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During ripening, the fruits of the olive tree (Olea europaea L. undergo a progressive chromatic change characterized by the formation of a red-brown spot which gradually extends on the epidermis and in the innermost part of the mesocarp. This event finds an exception in the Leucocarpa cultivar, in which we observe a destabilized equilibrium between the metabolisms of chlorophyll and other pigments, particularly the anthocyanins whose switch-off during maturation promotes the white coloration of fruits. Despite its importance, genomic information on the olive tree is still lacking. Different RNA-seq libraries were generated from drupes of ‘Leucocarpa’ and ‘Cassanese’ olive genotypes, sampled at 100 and 130 days after flowering (DAF, and were used in order to identify transcripts involved in the main phenotypic changes of fruits during maturation and their corresponding expression patterns. A total of 103,359 transcripts were obtained and 3792 and 3064 were differentially expressed in ‘Leucocarpa’ and ‘Cassanese’ genotypes, respectively, during 100-130 DAF transition. Among them flavonoid and anthocyanin related transcripts such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavonol 3’-hydrogenase (F3'H, flavonol 3’5’-hydrogenase (F3'5'H, flavonol synthase (FLS, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, UDP-glucose:anthocianidin:flavonoid glucosyltransferase (UFGT were identified.These results contribute to reducing the current gap in information regarding metabolic processes, including those linked to fruit pigmentation in the olive.

  13. Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using olea europaea leaf extract and evaluation of their toxicity activities: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ghassan M; Tawfeeq, Amer T; Jaaffer, Marwa D

    2018-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CUNPs) were synthesized using Olea europaea leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The formation of nanoparticles was observed through a color change from yellowish to brownish black. The CUNPs were confirmed with UV-Vis spectrophotometer, which revealed a peak absorbance at 289 nm. The synthesized CUNPs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. The XRD pattern revealed that CUNPs were crystalline in nature with a diameter around 20 nm. FTIR spectral analysis showed that CUNPs were capped with plant constituents. From SEM and TEM analyses, the CUNPs were generally found to be spherical in shape, and the size range was 20-50 nm. Free radical scavenging potential of CUNPs against DPPH was confirmed by its stable antioxidant effects. In addition, the toxicity of CUNPs in mice was also assessed by body weight and weights of liver, kidneys, spleen, and thymus. The immune response in mice was signaled through an obvious change in spleen and thymus index, with a decrease of ADA enzyme activity in serum, spleen, and thymus after CUNPs treatment. The CUNPs were found to exert cell growth arrest against AMJ-13 and SKOV-3 cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce cell death by apoptosis. Less significant cytotoxic effect was observed in normal dermal fibroblast cells. These findings suggest that CUNPs may have the potential to be anticancer agents. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:218-230, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf methanolic extract prevents HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis in rats by attenuating inflammation and augmenting antioxidant enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Othman, Mohamed S; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2017-07-01

    Gastritis is preponderantly characterized by inflammation of the lining epithelial layer and the chronic gastritis is considered as a pre-cancer lesion. For many centuries olive (Olea europaea) leaf has been used for its putative health potential, nonetheless, to date, the gastroprotective effects of olive leaves have not been studied yet. Hence, in this study we investigated whether olive leaf extract (OLE) could protect gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Hcl/ethanol administration caused significant damage to the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by gastric ulcer index and histological evaluation. However, this damage was largely prevented by pre-administering 20mg/kg omeprazole or 100mg/kg OLE. Interestingly, the damage was completely prevented by pre-administering 200 and 300mg/kg OLE. Moreover, OLE attenuated the inflammatory response by decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expressions, and down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective mechanism of OLE involved the promotion of enzymatic and nonenzymatic molecules (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione reduced form), promoting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, halting lipid peroxidation and preventing the overproduction of nitric oxide. Together, our findings clearly demonstrated that OLE could prevent HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis by attenuating inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Indeed, OLE could potentially be useful as a natural therapy for gastritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatiotemporal variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in olive (Olea europaea L.) roots across a broad mesic-xeric climatic gradient in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddad-Hamza, Amel; Hamza, Nabila; Neffar, Souad; Beddiar, Arifa; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of root colonization and spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the rhizosphere of olive trees (Olea europaea) with different plantation ages and under different climatic areas in Algeria. Soil and root samples were seasonally collected from three olive plantations of different ages. Other samples were carried out in productive olive orchards cultivated under a climatic gradient (desertic, semi-arid, subhumid, and humid). The olive varieties analysed in this study were Blanquette, Rougette, Chemlel and the wild-olive. Spore density, mycorrhization intensity (M%), spore diversity and the most probable number (MPN) were determined. Both the intensity of mycorrhizal colonization and spore density increased with the increase of seasonal precipitation and decreased with the increase of air temperature regardless of the climatic region or olive variety. The variety Rougette had the highest mycorrhizal levels in all plantation ages and climates. Spore community was composed of the genera Rhizophagus, Funneliformis, Glomus, Septoglomus, Gigaspora, Scutellospora and Entrophospora. The genus Glomus, with four species, predominated in all climate regions. Spores of Gigaspora sp. and Scutellospora sp. were the most abundant in desertic plantations. Statistical models indicated a positive relationship between spore density and M% during spring and winter in young seedlings and old plantations. A significant positive relationship was found between MPN and spore density under different climates. For a mycotrophic species, the rhizosphere of olive trees proved to be poor in mycorrhiza in terms of mycorrhizal colonization and numbers of the infective AMF propagules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS based metabolic profiling of the potential Olea europaea by-product "wood" and its comparison with leaf counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Sonda; Contreras, Maria Del Mar; Gargouri, Boutheina; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Olea europaea L. organs such as leaves, stems and roots have been associated with numerous in vivo and in vitro biological activities and used for traditional medicinal purposes. However, tree wood is an untapped resource with little information about their chemical composition. That is why, the objective of this study is to increase the knowledge about phytochemicals from 'Chemlali' olive wood by means of mass spectrometry-based analyses. Its comparison with by-products derived from leaves was also studied. Hydromethanol extracts from wood and leaves with stems of 'Chemlali' olive cultivar were analysed using reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to two detection systems: diode-array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) in negative ion mode. Tandem MS experiments were performed to establish the chemical structure of olive phytochemicals. A total of 85 compounds were characterised in the studied olive parts and classified as: sugars (3), organic acids (5), one phenolic aldehyde, simple phenolic acids (6), simple phenylethanoids (5), flavonoids (14), coumarins (3), caffeoyl phenylethanoid derivatives (6), iridoids (5), secoiridoids (32), and lignans (5). To our knowledge, the major part of these metabolites was not previously reported in olive tree wood, and 10 olive chemical constituents were identified for the first time in the Oleaceae family. The results presented here demonstrated the usefulness of the methodology proposed, based on RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS and MS/MS, to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling and to recover new biologically active compounds in olive wood with pharmacologic and cosmetic potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. On the use of leaf spectral indices to assess water status and photosynthetic limitations in Olea europaea L. during water-stress and recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengsen Sun

    Full Text Available Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC, pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, mesophyll conductance (gm, total conductance (gt, photochemical reflectance index (PRI, water index (WI and relative depth index (RDI closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI and structural independent pigment index (SIPI showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2 was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress.

  18. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  19. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  20. Neuroprotection by Combined Administration with Maslinic Acid, a Natural Product from Olea europaea, and MK-801 in the Cerebral Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisong Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is a major cause of ischemic brain damage. MK-801 confers neuroprotection by attenuating the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, but it failed in clinical use due to the short therapeutic window. Here we aim to investigate the effects of maslinic acid, a natural product from Olea europaea, on the therapeutic time window and dose range for the neuroprotection of MK-801. Rats were administered with maslinic acid intracerebroventricularly and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO followed by reperfusion. MK-801 was administered at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h after ischemia, respectively. The cerebral infarct volume was determined by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining, neuronal damage was assessed by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E staining, and the expression of glial glutamate transporters and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot post-ischemia. Results showed that the presence of maslinic acid extended the therapeutic time window for MK-801 from 1 h to 3 h. Co-treatment of maslinic acid and MK-801 at a subthreshold dosage obviously induced neuroprotection after ischemia. The combination of these two compounds improved the outcome in ischemic rats. Moreover, maslinic acid treatment promoted the expression of GLT-1 and GFAP post-ischemia. These data suggest that the synergistic effect of maslinic acid on neurological protection might be associated with the improvement of glial function, especially with the increased expression of GLT-1. The combination therapy of maslinic acid and MK-801 may prove to be a potential strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke.

  1. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The influence of light, temperature and feeding on the growth of the Coras cladocora caespitosa and Balanophyllia europaea; L'influenza di luce, temperatura e alimentazione sulla crescita dei coralli mediterranei Cladocora caespitosa e Balanophyllia europaea. Risultati preliminari di una sperimentazione in ambiente controllato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Abbate, M.; Peirano, A. [ENEA, Divisione Ambiente Globale e Mediterraneo, Centro Ricerche S. Teresa, La Spezia (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the course of the environmental studies, carried out by ENEA-CRAM Center of S. Teresa near La Spezia, research has been performed about bioconstructional organisms in the Mediterranean Sea. To understand how these organisms respond to environmental parameters an experiment has been carried out in aquaria. Specimens of the Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa and Balanophyllia europaea has been maintained in 80 independent aquaria for four months. Growth rates, pigments concentration and asexual reproduction of the corals were compared in experimental procedures with controlled conditions of light, temperature and food. Environmental parameters have been set out to simulate natural (winter and summer) ambient in the Ligurian Sea. Heterotrophic and autotrophic abilities of the corals have been compared. Results show different growth rates between the two species but similar heterotrophic growth patterns. Summer temperature largely influences growth rates and asexual reproduction of the species while light influence is small. [Italian] Nell'ambito delle ricerche svolte dall'ENEA sullo studio degli organismi biocostruttori nell'ambiente marino, e' stata svolta una sperimentazione al fine di valutare l'influenza di alcuni parametri ambientali (luce, temperatura e alimentazione), impostati in modo da simulare la naturale stagionalita' (inverno ed estate), sulla crescita e sulla riproduzione asessuale dei coralli mediterranei Cladocora caespitosa e Balanophyllia europaea. Queste sperimentazioni sono state condotte, per un periodo di circa quattro mesi, in ottanta acquari indipendenti caratterizzati da differenti livelli di luce, temperatura e alimentazione. Le valutazioni degli incrementi di peso e della crescita lineare sono state eseguite utilizzando differenti metodiche note in letteratura. Soprattutto la tecnica del Peso Galleggiante (Buoyant Weight) si e' dimostrata molto sensibile ed efficace. La capacita' (eterotrofia

  3. Culture matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment.

  4. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  5. Cultural Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  6. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  7. Physiological Response of Common Glasswort (Salicornia europaea L. to Potassium Nano-Particles Grown in Saline Soils around the Lake Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pirzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of spraying potassium nano-particles on the osmolytes, photosynthetic pigments, total carotenoids and nutrients of aerial parts of common glasswort (Salicornia europaea L., a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the marginal lands of Lake Urmia in 2012. The treatments consisted of application of potassium nano-particle concentrations at five levels (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/l of K nano-particles applied, once, twice and three times. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that there were significant interaction between the levels and concentrations of potassium nano-particles sprayings on aerial parts with respect to their contents proline, total soluble carbohydrates, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, total carotenoids (xanthophyll and carotene and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sodium. The highest levels of proline (1.84 mg/g dry weight at one time spraying 4 g/l of K, total soluble carbohydrates (66.9 mg/g dry weight at three times spraying 4 g/l, total chlorophyll (26.23 mg/g fresh weight and chlorophyll b (22.85 mg/g fresh weight at two times of water spraying, and chlorophyll a (9.93 mg/g fresh weight at three times of 4g/l of potassium nano-particles sprayings were obtained. The highest nitrogen (0.95 % of aerial parts and phosphorus (2.99 g/kg dry weight of aerial parts contents were obtained from three times water spraying. However, the highest amounts of aerial plant part of potassium (65.08 g/kg dry weight and sodium (403 g/kg dry weight belonged to the two times, and calcium (29.23 g/kg dry weight to the three times spraying of 4 g/l nano-potassium. Despite of the high concentration of osmolytes by potassium spraying, the nutrient accumulations levels were not significantly different from each other.

  8. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debashree L; Johnson, Joshua C

    2014-05-18

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across

  9. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  10. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...

  11. Selective isolation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from autotrophic nitrifying granules by applying cell-sorting and sub-culturing of microcolonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotsugu eFujitani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrification is a key process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and biological wastewater treatment that consists of two stepwise reactions, ammonia oxidation by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB or archaea followed by nitrite oxidation by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. One of the representative of the AOB group is Nitrosomonas mobilis species. Although a few pure strains of this species have been isolated so far, approaches to their preservation in pure culture have not been established. Here, we report isolation of novel members of the N. mobilis species from autotrophic nitrifying granules used for ammonia-rich wastewater treatment. We developed an isolation method focusing on microcolonies formation of nitrifying bacteria. Two kinds of distinctive light scattering signatures in a cell-sorting system enabled to separate microcolonies from single cells and heterogeneous aggregates within granule samples. Inoculation of a pure microcolony into 96-well microtiter plates led to successful sub-culturing and increased probability of isolation. Obtained strain Ms1 is cultivated in the liquid culture with relatively high ammonia or nitrite concentration, not extremely slow growing. Considering environmental clones that were closely related to N. mobilis and detected in various environments, the availability of this novel strain would facilitate to reveal this member’s ecophysiology in a variety of habitats.

  12. Quantificação dos níveis endógenos de auxinas e da actividade enzimática das polifenoloxidases em oliveira (Olea europaea L. Quantification of endogenous auxin levels and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity in olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Serra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A actividade enzimática de polifenoloxidases foi avaliada em folhas e na zona apical, média e basal de ramos de duas cultivares de oliveira (Olea europaea L., comuns no Alentejo (‘Galega vulgar’ e ‘Cobrançosa’, mostrando que a actividade enzimática nas folhas foi muito superior à encontrada em tecidos de ramos do ano. Maior actividade enzimática foi também detectada na variedade ‘Cobrançosa’ versus ‘Galega vulgar’. As condições óptimas para a determinação da actividade enzimática foram: pH= 5.5 e T= 40 ºC, com 20 mM de 4-metilcatecol em tampão acetato. Nestas condições o KM determinado foi: 2,60 e 3,48 mM com o método de Michaelis-Menten e Lineweaver-Burk, respectivamente. A melhor recuperação das auxinas AIA (ácido indol-3-acético e AIB (ácido indolbutírico em material vegetal foi conseguida através da extracção das amostras com acetona. A separação, identificação e quantificação do AIA e AIB em padrões, material vegetal dopado (tecidos de oliveira dopados com uma concentração conhecida de padrão e não dopado, foi efectuada por técnicas cromatográficas (HPLC-DAD e LCMS, mostrando os resultados taxas de recuperação superiores a 40% para o AIA e 60% para o AIB.The poliphenoloxidase enzymatic activity was evaluated in two olive cultivars (Olea europaea L. widespread in Alentejo (‘Galega vulgar and ‘Cobrançosa. Leaves and apical, medium and basal regions of the year stems were used as sample material. When compared with the different regions of the year stem, the results have shown that enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the leaves of both cultivars. Between cultivars, it was observed that ‘Cobrançosa’ presented higher enzymatic activity than ‘Galega vulgar’. The pH at 5.5 and 40 ºC temperature, using 20 mM of 4methylcatecol in acetate buffer were the optimized conditions for the enzymatic analysis. Under these conditions, the measured KM was 2,60 and 3,48 m

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of 29 Olive (Olea europaea L. Cultivars for Production and Alternate Bearing, in the Huasco Valley, Northern Chile Evaluación Preliminar de la Produción y Añerismo en 29 Variedades de Olivo (Olea europaea L. en el Valle del Huasco, Norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tapia C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the development of intensively managed olive orchards (Olea europaea L. in northern Chile. The selection of specific varieties that perform well on a particular site is considered crucial to maximizing productivity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the productive performance of 29 varieties of olive in the Huasco Valley (28°34' S, 70°47' W, Northern Chile.The traits evaluated were: mean olive production per tree considering a longitudinal (PML analysis over a period of five years, 2003 to 2007, total olive production in the same period (PA03-07 and alternate bearing index (ABI. The effect of variety was highly significant (p En el norte de Chile existe un creciente interés en el desarrollo de huertos de olivo (Olea europaea L. manejados intensivamente. La selección de variedades específicas que han respondido bien en un sitio en particular es considerada clave para la maximización de la productividad. El presente estudio fue realizado para evaluar el desempeño de algunas características agronómicas en 29 variedades de olivo, en el Valle del Huasco (28°34' S, 70°47' O, norte de Chile. Las características analizadas correspondieron a producción de frutos promedio por árbol (PML en un análisis longitudinal durante un período de 5 años, 2003 a 2007, producción acumulada del mismo período (PA03-07 y el índice de alternancia de producción (ABI. El efecto debido a la variedad fue altamente significativo (p < 0,01 para las tres características. El ABI fue moderado (0,52, con una PML de 37,37 kg árbol-1 y PA03-07 de 186 kg árbol-1. Correlaciones de Spearman entre los ranking de cada característica fueron positivas y significativamente diferentes de cero (p < 0,05. ‘Leccino’ tuvo la mejor respuesta considerando únicamente la producción de frutos. ‘Arbequina’, ‘Picholine’, ‘Manzanilla Racimo’, ‘Picual’, ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’, ‘Frantoio’ y

  14. Influência do número de nós em estacas semilenhosas de oliveira (Olea europaea L. no enraizamento sob câmara de nebulização Influence the number of nodes on semi-woody cuttings of olive tree (Olea europaea L. on the rooting in misty room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Francisco de Oliveira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de oliveira (Olea europaea L. com diferentes números de nós, foi conduzido no Centro de Investigación y Formación Agraria - CIFA "Alameda del Obispo" de Córdoba - Espanha, experimento sob condições de câmara de nebulização intermitente. As estacas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutítico (AIB na concentração de 3.000 mg.L-1, antes da instalação do ensaio, submergindo durante cinco segundos as suas bases, aproximadamente 2,5 centímetros, em solução contendo o produto. Utilizaram-se estacas medianas, que foram coletadas de plantas em desenvolvimento vegetativo contínuo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em fatorial 2 x 5, sendo respectivamente duas variedades, Picual e Arbequina, e cinco tamanhos de estacas: dois nós com duas folhas, três nós com duas folhas, três nós com quatro folhas, quatro nós com quatro folhas e cinco nós com quatro folhas. Utilizaram-se quatro repetições com parcelas experimentais constituídas por trinta estacas plantadas em substrato de perlita, em mesas suspensas, com aquecimento controlado. Avaliaram-se aos 75 dias porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, mortas e número e comprimento médio de raízes. Observou-se que, entre estacas de quatro nós e cinco nós, com quatro folhas, não houve diferença nos parâmetros considerados; estacas com três nós, com duas e quatro folhas também não diferenciaram. Estacas com dois nós e duas folhas, de ambas as variedades, apresentaram maior mortalidade.With the objective of assessing the rooting efficiency of semi-woody cuttings of olive tree (Olea europaea L., with different nodes, an experiment under intermittent misty room conditions and with the use of IBA at the concentration of 3000 mg L-1 was run at the Centro de Investigación y Formación Agraria 'Alameda del Obispo' in Cordoba, Spain. The cuttings were treated before the establishment of the trial

  15. Culture evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  16. Culture evolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A; Laland, Kevin N; Stringer, Christopher B

    2011-04-12

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.

  17. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil from Olea europaea L. by HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS. Identification of a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Parella, Teodor

    2010-08-25

    The phenolic fraction of a monovarietal extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Olea europaea L. var. Cornezuelo was studied by the hyphenated HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS techniques. This survey led to the identification of 25 main compounds. One was identified as a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (AOA) and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The relative configuration of this new AOA was determined as 5R*,8S*,9S* on the basis of the results obtained from the combination of NOE experiments and Monte Carlo conformational search calculations. Assuming, as for the described diastereoisomers, that the new AOA comes from the natural oleuropein aglycone (OA), the absolute configuration was proposed as 5S,8R,9R.

  18. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  19. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  20. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  1. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  2. Connecting Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  3. Culture Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    by certain representations and embedded in certain norms and values. The analytical framework is applied on a case of cultural urban branding. The case is the harbour front in Aalborg, Denmark where a number of flagship architecture projects and cultural institutions are being planned. It is shown how...

  4. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  5. Culture Clash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Sheila; Olson, Hope

    1996-01-01

    Discusses two basic cultures within the library science field, one that emphasizes "soft-edged" traditional service and the other newer culture which has evolved around information technology and entrepreneurial drive. Topics include historical background; university pressures on library schools to be "tech-oriented";…

  6. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...... and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2...

  7. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  8. Can nitrification bring us to Mars? The role of microbial interactions on nitrogen recovery in life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Lasseur, Christophe; Clauwaert, Peter; Boon, Nico; Ilgrande, Chiara; Vlaeminck, Siegfried

    2016-07-01

    Human habitation in space requires artificial environment recirculating fundamental elements to enable the highest degree of autonomy . The European Space Agency, supported by a large consortoium of European organisationsdevelop the Micro-Ecological Life Support System (MELiSSA) to transform the mission wastes waste (a.o. organic fibers, CO2, and urine) into water, oxygen, and food (Lasseur et al., 2010). Among these wastes, astronauts' urine has a high potential to provide nitrogen as a fertilizer for food production. As higher plant growth in space is typically proposed to be performed in hydroponics, liquid fertilizer containing nitrates is preferred. An Additional Unit for Water Treatment is developed for urine nitrification by means of a synthetic microbial community. The key players in this consortium are ureolytic bacteria to hydrolyse the main nitrogen source in urine, urea, to ammonium and carbon dioxide as well as oxidation of organic compounds present in urine, ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to convert ammonium to nitrite (nitritation), and the nitrate oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to produce nitrate (nitratation). Pure AOB strains Nitrosomonas ureae Nm10 and Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718, pure NOB strains Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255 and Nitrobacter vulgaris Z, and interactions within synthetic consortia of one AOB and one NOB or all together were tested. As the initial salinity of fresh urine can be as high as 30 mS/cm, the functionality of selected pure strains and synthetic consortia was evaluated by means of the nitritation and nitratation activity at varying NaCl salinities (5, 10, and 30 mS/cm). The nitritation activity of pure AOB strains was compared with the synthetic consortia. Both N. ureae and Ns. europaea benefit from the presence of Nb. winogradskyi as the ammonium oxidation rates of 1.7 ± 0.7 and 6.4 ± 0.6 mg N/L.d at 5 mS/cm, respectively, doubled. These results are in line with the findings of Perez et al (2015) observing a lower

  9. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  10. Digging culture and doing culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan; Frank Huysmans

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Cultuurbewonderaars en cultuurbeoefenaars. There are people who love art and culture and there are people who practise it; people who enjoy it and people who are themselves creative in their leisure time. Who are these culture-lovers and practitioners? How has participation in

  11. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  12. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  13. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  14. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  15. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illness by producing toxins . These bacteria may be cultured , but many of the tests used to detect ... been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, such as undercooked meat or raw eggs, or the same food that ...

  16. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  17. Efecto vasodilatador e inhibidor de vasoconstricción del extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europaea (olivo sobre anillos aórticos de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Nexar-QH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto vasodilatador, la inhibición de la vasoconstricción, así como el mecanismo responsable, del extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europaea (olivo, sobre anillos aórticos en ratas. Diseño: Experimental. Lugar: Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Científico, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Material biológico: Hojas de Olea europea y anillos aórticos de Rattus norvegicus, variedad albina swiss. Intervenciones: Se obtuvo un extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas de Olea europaea. Se usó anillos aórticos de rata en cámara de órganos aislados y se registró la actividad vasomotora con un transductor de tensión isométrica. Se produjo contracción basal máxima con CaCl2 6 mM y se determinó el efecto vasodilatador con dosis de 25, 50 y 100 mg/mL de extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas de Olea europaea. Se usó 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3 alquinoxalin-1-one] (ODQ y nifedipino para determinar el mecanismo de acción. Se comparó la inhibición de la vasoconstricción tras la incubación durante 30 minutos con extracto 100 mg/mL y con captopril 10 µM. Principales medidas de resultados: Porcentaje de vasodilatación y de vasoconstricción. Resultados: Se obtuvo una vasodilatación de 7,20 ± 1,49%, 9,84 ± 1,42% y 12,31 ± 1,16% para las dosis de 25, 50 y 100 mg/mL, respectivamente, siendo significativa con la dosis de 100 mg/mL. La vasodilatación se incrementó tras la administración de ODQ 100 mM. La vasodilatación se inhibió tras la incubación con ODQ 100 mM más nifedipino 5 µM. No se encontró diferencia significativa entre la inhibición de la vasoconstricción con captopril 10µM y extracto a 100 mg/mL. Conclusiones: El extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europea, a una dosis de 100 mg/mL, tiene efecto vasodilatador sobre anillos aórticos de ratas, mediado por el bloqueo de canales de calcio; además, posee efecto inhibidor de la

  18. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  19. Advertising cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malefyt, Timothy de Waal; Moeran, Brian

    to the relationship between advertizing and anthropology. The link between them may come as a surprise to those who consider advertizing to be firmly rooted in commerce and anthropology in culture. Through the lens of anthropologists, this book not only shows how anthropology and advertizing are connected...... and how anthropology can be used to give an informed cultural understanding of the consumer. From constructing a "Japaneseness" that appeals to two very different Western audiences, to tracking the changes, in the post World War II period, in advertizing, and considering how people can be influenced...... by language and symbols, this book is an innovative mix of business strategy and cultural theory. Its pioneering work should provide a valuable guide to consumer behaviour for practitioners and students alike, and should pave the way for a new and exciting area of research....

  20. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    , the notion of aesthetics (taken in the original signification of aisthesis: sensory perception) helped to map the relations between city, human experience, and various forms of art and culture. Delving into our simultaneously optical and tactical reception of space (a dialectics pointed out by Walter...... Benjamin), studies in urbanity and aesthetics may highlight mul-tisensory everyday practices that pass unnoticed in the current era of visual domination. A humanistic approach to urban and spatial cultures should also learn from German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel’s hypothesis of a modern need......: Memory”, and ”Staging and Interpretation: Places”....

  1. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....

  2. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...

  3. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...... relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way...

  4. Cultural Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Multicultural education has at least two faces--an academic one and an ideological one. Encouraging the balkanization of U.S. culture threatens to undermine the academic integrity of the social studies curriculum. Offers suggestions to make sure that schools are offering an academically rigorous multicultural curriculum, not political…

  5. Grindr Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    intersections of sexuality with other socio-cultural categories such as race and migration background, but also gender and ability. I find that user experiences with exclusion and discrimination can be related to Grindr’s interface, such as its drop-down menus, the discourses circulated by Grindr users...

  6. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  7. Culture Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  8. callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    capacity in comparison to those of grown on 75%. NH4NO3 depleted media under the same light regime. Light dependent secondary metabolite production. Initially, we have cultured wounded grape leaf explants in the dark for callus induction and monitoring possible pigmentation and phenolics accumulation. Supplemen-.

  9. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...

  10. Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  11. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Taufiqurrohman, Taufiqurrohman; Utomo, Setyo; Wibowo, Purwo Adi

    2017-01-01

    As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle...

  12. Essais de prolifération et d'enracinement de matériel issu de rajeunissement par bouturage d'oliviers adultes (Olea europaea L. et de germination in vitro : effets de cytokinine et d'auxines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walali Loudiyi D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation and rooting of juvenile and adult olive explants (Olea europaea L.: effects of cytokinin and auxins. The micropropagation trials conducted concerned juvenile and adult material from the ‘Moroccan Picholine’ olive cultivar. Zeatin, added to the proliferation medium, was tested at 0, 1, 5, 10 et 20 mg/l. Root induction was performed on media contaning IAA, IBA or NAA tested at 0, 0.5, 1, 2 et 4 mg/l. A significant (P<0.001 interaction exists between the explant type and the cytokinine concentration on one hand and the type and concentration of auxin on the other hand. The highest bud sprouting and shoot development were obtained on medium supplemented with 5 mg/l zeatin. For economical reasons, satisfying results can be obtained with only 1 mg/l. Rooting of microcuttings reached 100% when NAA, which proved to be the best auxin for root induction, was used at 1 mg/l. No rooting was observed in the case of adult plant material. Further investigations are being undertaken to improve the reactivity of this recalcitrant type of material.

  13. Talking Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When Danish businesses move production abroad, ‘culture’ is often seen as a huge challenge to the successful outcome of cross-border collaboration. Therefore, business leaders often seek information and guidelines of how to cope in the vast amount of literature on culture and intercultural...... communication. Much of this literature is based on functionalist approaches providing the dos and don’ts of intercultural encounters. This involves inter alia conceptualising ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous entity of values, attitudes and norms shared by members of a group, often leading readers...... to adopt dichotomised understandings and discourses about other cultures (see e.g. Hofstede 2001; Jandt 1998; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997). However, experience shows that the world in which intercultural encounters take place is not as simple and easy to categorise as these approaches may suggest...

  14. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  15. Cultural neurolinguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross...

  16. Cultural neurolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area.

  17. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  18. La arquitectura cultural. / Cultural architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobos, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo releva la Arquitectura Cultural, que es plural y diversa en términos estéticos y conceptuales. Sugiere la apertura a otras dinámicas de comprensión de lo arquitectónico, a otras lógicas de construcción de las ciudades. Para aclarar el concepto se expone un breve ejemplo práctico./This article points out the "cultural architecture", which is plural and diverse in concept and aesthetic terms. It suggests the opening to other dinamics of comprehention of the architectural issue and the building of cities. The article presents a brief empirical example that clarifies the conceptual approach.

  19. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  20. Culture Jamming Versus Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardia Acynthia Putri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This literature study researched Adbusters, the anti-commercial organization, and described the organization’s activities and media usage, mainly in the period of 2007-2010, which critized the populer culture. Adbusters is an organization which performs “Culture Jamming”; a rebellious act reacting towards commercialism domination in many aspects including popular culture. Compared to other similar organizations, Adbusters has been executing more various activisms using several media which other organizations do not use. This study used the Adbusters’ official website and blogs as main data sources. The data of Adbusters’ activities and media usage were categorized and analyzed, thus the tendency of its development can be described. This study also analyzed Adbusters’ activity using Media Hegemony Theory and Political Economy Media Theory. The media has been dominated by a certain group that owns politic and economic power, so the information flow has been dominated by them. Media and its contents have been commercialized, thus capitalism and commercialism have been considered as a common system that should run the world. Adbusters has been trying to stop the domination and change the society’s way of thinking into a more critical way of thinking.   Abstrak: Studi literatur ini meneliti tentang Adbusters, sebuah organisasi anti komersial, dengan mendeskripsikan aktivitas serta penggunaan media organisasi tersebut dari tahun 2007-2010 dalam mengkritisi budaya populer. Adbusters adalah organisasi yang melakukan Culture Jamming, aksi perlawanan terhadap dominasi komersialisme di segala aspek termasuk popular culture. Dibandingkan dengan organisasi lain yang serupa, aktivitas Adbusters lebih bervariasi dan menggunakan media-media yang tidak biasa digunakan organisasi lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan situs online resmi Adbusters sebagai sumber data utama. Data mengenai aktivitas dan

  1. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Samani, Hooman; Saadatian, Elham; Pang, Natalie; Polydorou, Doros; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Nakatsu, Ryohei; Koh, Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  2. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Culture-lovers and Culture-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the

  4. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  5. Twelve-month consumption of a polyphenol extract from olive (Olea europaea) in a double blind, randomized trial increases serum total osteocalcin levels and improves serum lipid profiles in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, R; Possemiers, S; Heyerick, A; Pinheiro, I; Raszewski, G; Davicco, M-J; Coxam, V

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by impaired bone turnover and compromised bone strength, thereby predisposing to increased risk of fracture. Preclinical research has shown that compounds produced by the olive tree (Olea europaea), may protect from bone loss, by increasing osteoblast activity at the expense of adipocyte formation. The aim of this exploratory study was to obtain a first insight on the effect of intake of an olive extract on bone turnover in postmenopausal women with decreased bone mass (osteopenia). For that, a double blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in which participants were randomly allocated to either treatment or placebo groups. 64 osteopenic patients, with a mean bone mineral density (BMD) T-score between -1.5 and -2.5 in the lumbar spine (L2-L4) were included in the study. PARTICIPANTS received for 12 months daily either 250 mg/day of olive extract and 1000 mg Ca (treatment) or 1000 mg Ca alone (placebo). Primary endpoints consisted of evaluation of bone turnover markers. Secondary endpoints included BMD measurements and blood lipid profiles. After 12 months, the levels of the pro-osteoblastic marker osteocalcin were found to significantly increase in the treatment group as compared to placebo. Simultaneously, BMD decreased in the placebo group, while remaining stable in the treatment group. In addition, improved lipid profiles were observed, with significant decrease in total- and LDL-cholesterol in the treatment group. This exploratory study supports preclinical observations and warrants further research by showing that a specific olive polyphenol extract (Bonolive®) affects serum osteocalcin levels and may stabilize lumbar spine BMD. Moreover, the improved blood lipid profiles suggest additional health benefits associated to the intake of the olive polyphenol extract.

  6. Cultural Humility and Hospital Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Boan, David; Davis, Don E; Aten, Jamie D; Ruiz, John M; Maryon, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i.e., mistakes of staff are not held against them), handoffs and transitions, and organizational learning. The cultural humility of one's organization may be an important factor to help improve hospital safety culture. We conclude by discussing potential directions for future research.

  7. CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMICS, CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Valiyev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, culture is one of the main feeble factors of economic development.  The leading role of culture in economic development should be argued as multiplied: so, on firstly, as domestic value, on secondly, as a main factor of regional economic development advanced to raised gravity of different regions for residents, tourists and investors, on thirdly, as major parameters of social development based on tolerance, creativity and knowledge. To the different international experiences, culture is main part of economic development in our life. Cultural diversities are combined into a main reason economic development model. The article consist of explainations about the understanding of culture, cultural diplomacy and economics, approach on conflicts between culture and economics, to find how affecting of culture to economic development, the role of culture in economic development of Azerbaijan. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  8. Cultural Analysis - towards cross-cultural understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestrup, Hans

    The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... an understanding of cultural complexity and cultural differences among people. Furthermore, the book provides a discussion of a number of ethical issues, which almost invariably will arise when people meet and co-act across cultural boundaries. Cultural Analysis consists of four parts. The first part offers...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...

  9. Exploring Culture : Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A unique training book containing over 100 culture awareness exercises, dialogues, stories incidents and simulations that bring to life Geert Hofstede's five dimensions of culture. These dimensions are: power distance, collectivism versus individualism, femininity versus masculinity, uncertainly

  10. Revisiting cultural awareness and cultural relevancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Hashem, Naji

    2015-10-01

    Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding critical cultural awareness. The more insights and exploration of the meaning and influence of culture we receive, the better. There is no single treatment of any personal or collective culture(s) that can be inherently complete or totally exhaustive. New hermeneutics and skills are always needed, appreciated, and refreshing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  12. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  13. Microalgal Culture Collection Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Milford Microalgal culture Collection holds over 200 live cultures representing 13 classes of of algae. The cultures are maintained in three different growing...

  14. Urethral discharge culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genital exudate culture; Culture - genital discharge or exudate; Urethritis - culture ... Augenbraun MH, McCormack WM. Urethritis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. ...

  15. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... Normal values depend on the test being performed. Normal results are reported as "no growth" and are a sign ...

  16. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  17. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  18. Routine sputum culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  19. Cross-cultural awareness

    OpenAIRE

    БУРЯК Н.Ю.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the importance of cultural awareness for businesspeople when they go abroad. It also gives some cultural advice and factors which are thought to be the most important in creating a culture.

  20. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students....... Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity...... on the deliver of culturally sensitive care. Keywords: cultural sensitivity, nursing students, empirical research, report, interviews, study abroad programmes, phenomenology...

  1. Safeguards Culture: Analogies from Safety Culture and Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.

    2013-01-01

    The terminology of 'safeguards culture' has been used loosely by safeguards experts as an essential element for establishing an organizational environment of stakeholders for the effective and efficient implementation of international safeguards. However, unlike the other two triplet brothers/ sisters of 3S's (Safety, Security, Safeguards), there is no formally established definition of safeguards culture. In the case of safety culture, INSAG (the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) has extensively dealt with its concept, elaborating its definition and key characteristics, and published its report, INSAG-4, as the IAEA Safety Series 75. On the other hand, security culture has also been defined by AdSec (the Advisory Group on Nuclear Security). In this paper, a provisional definition of safeguards culture is made on the analogies of safety culture and security culture, and an effort is made to describe essential elements of safeguards culture. It is proposed for SAGSI (the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation) to formally consider the definition of safeguards culture and its characteristics. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  2. FROM CULTURAL IMPOTENCE TO CULTURAL AMPUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Владимирович Суханов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural space of any state is formed by a population that is within its borders. In this article, the author introduces a new cultural definitions «cultural impotence» and «cultural amputation», justifying their use, both in terms of population of the Russian Federation and the European Union and America. The article analyzes the state of society and the cultural factors that influence the development of society in Russia, there are options to bring the country out of a deep cultural crisis. Also established a close relationship between the domestic policy of the state and development of culture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-1

  3. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  4. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  5. Journal of Cultural Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Cultural Studies was established in 1999 as an independent tool for research development in Africa. It is published by the Nigerian Group for the Study of African Cultures (NIGSAC), a non-profit organisation which focuses on cultural and development issues in Africa. The journal aims to explore the varied socio-cultural ...

  6. Reflections on Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisette

    1999-01-01

    Examines aspects of cross-cultural studies, delineates a concept of culture, explores the interplay of culture and ethics, and analyzes the shifting cultural and economic values as issues that either the economists or the humanists will deal with under the banner of the future global village. (Author/VWL)

  7. BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS NÃO SIMBIÓTICAS E ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS SEMILENHOSAS DE OLIVEIRA (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Filomena Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria (NSDB influence plant growth mainly through biological nitrogenfixation and production and release of plant growth-regulating substances. The effect of these bacteria on rooting of olive is not described in the international literature, which has been provided by the use of hormonal treatment based on indole butyric acid (IBA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological diversity of isolates obtained from soil samples of the Biological Reserve Serra dos Toledos, Itajubá, MG state, and of reference strains of NSDB, and their potential of substitution of IBA on rooting of olive semi-hardwood cuttings from the experimental farm ‘Maria da Fé’ (FEMF-EPAMIG. The isolates were divided into five groups (G1 to G5 according with cultural phenotypic characteristics based on color, diameter and consistence of colonies, and reference strains used were Azospirillum brasilense (BR11001 t , Azospirillum amazonense (BR11040 t , Herbaspirillum seropedicae (BR11175 t and Burkholderia brasilensis (BR11340 t . The diversity of physiological was performed using phosphate solubilization, tolerance to different conditions of temperature and pH and production of indole acetic acid (IAA. To evaluate the potential of semi-hardwood cuttings rooting in olive cultivars were used the cultivars Ascolano 315, Arbequina and Grappolo 541, from the germoplasm blank of the FEMF-EPAMIG. There were 33 treatments, and the cuttings were inoculated with the bacterial isolate groups, with the reference strains, without inoculation (control and only IBA, commercially used in rooting. Only two isolates showed ability to solubilize phosphate. Groups of isolates and of reference strains showed very similar environmental requirements, with wide ranges of optimum conditions of pH (5,0-9,0 and temperature (15-35ºC for maximum growth. The isolates and reference strains showed a production IAA ranging from 110.53 to 383.58 μg mL -1 , and

  8. Aging in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  9. Conceptualizing cultures of violence and cultural change

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J. Carter

    2007-01-01

    The historiography of violence has undergone a distinct cultural turn as attention has shifted from examining violence as a clearly defined (and countable) social problem to analysing its historically defined 'social meaning'. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the relationship between 'violence' and 'culture' is still being established. How are 'cultures of violence' formed? What impact do they have on violent behaviour? How do they change? This essay examines some of the conceptual aspects...

  10. Athletes’ careers across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia

    in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...... and, perhaps, unfamiliar intellectual traditions, perspectives and concerns, the symposium will demonstrate how local knowledge of problems enables researchers and practitioners to better understand the dynamics of cultural diversity within the topic of athlete career development and assistance....

  11. Organizational Culture and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Martinez; Nancy Beaulieu; Robert Gibbons; Peter Pronovost; Thomas Wang

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are all around us. Culture is trickier—to analyze and even to see. We consider both the effect of management on culture and the effect of culture on performance. We begin by describing an intervention that dramatically improved outcomes and conspicuously included a culture-change component. We then use details from this intervention to describe potential empirical analyses of the association between organizational culture and performance in this and similar settings. Finally, we...

  12. Family, alcohol, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L A

    1989-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s a small but rich tradition of anthropological and sociological studies of family culture, cultural context, and alcohol has developed. Ideally, ethnographic analysis of a cultural group and in-depth holistic examination of family process are incorporated in such research. In conducting family, culture, and alcohol investigations, researchers are encouraged to reexamine some conceptual assumptions: (1) their working definition of culture; (2) their relative emphasis on family culture or cultural context; (3) their attention to socialization as an active process in the transmission of culture within and across generations; and (4) their adoption of a holistic and cross-generational perspective. To apply this line of research to preventive and intervention strategies, two questions are especially relevant: Why are particular alcohol traditions established and maintained within families? What incentives and constraints from the family's cultural context help create, preserve, and/or terminate particular drinking practices?

  13. Nitrifying bacterial community structures and their nitrification performance under sufficient and limited inorganic carbon conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshikazu; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chiang, Ting-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chevalier, Lizette R; Chen, Mei-Chun; Wu, Yi-Ju

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that different inorganic carbon (IC) conditions enrich different ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) populations by operating two laboratory-scale continuous-flow bioreactors fed with 15 and 100 mg IC/L, respectively. During this study, both bioreactors maintained satisfactory nitrification performance and stably oxidized 250 mg N/L of influent ammonium without nitrite accumulation. Based on results of cloning/sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene, Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage was identified as the dominant AOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage AOB were dominant in the low-IC bioreactor. Results of real-time polymerase chain reactions for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira 16S rRNA genes indicated that Nitrospira was the predominant NOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrobacter was the dominant NOB in the low-IC bioreactor. Furthermore, batch experiment results suggest that N. europaea and Nitrobacter populations are proliferated in the low-IC bioreactor due to their higher rates under low IC conditions despite the fact that these two populations have been identified as weak competitors, compared with N. nitrosa and Nitrospira, under low ammonium/nitrite environments. This study revealed that in addition to ammonium/nitrite concentrations, limited IC conditions may also be important in selecting dominant AOB/NOB communities of nitrifying bioreactors.

  14. Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2007-01-01

    Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

  15. What Is so "Cultural" About Cultural Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Albinsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “cultural entrepreneurship” has been increasingly used during the new millennium, mirroring the rapidly growing importance of the “quaternary sector of the economy,” i.e. knowledge-based industries, including culture. Exploration of the literature in which the term “cultural entrepreneurship” is used does not bring a solid, clear-cut, and unambiguous understanding of its definition or meaning. The aim of this paper is to present various uses of the concept and to bring about some clarity in how the concept can be understood. Two overarching uses of the cultural entrepreneurship concept have been found: 1. the anthropologist’s and institutional economist’s use, which indicates the dynamic development of intangible cultural features such as symbols, myths, languages, beliefs, values, norms, rituals, and attitudes in and between societies, and 2. the arts development use, which indicates the dynamic development of cultural services, tangible goods, and individual or collective career promotion. Most authors use a cultural entrepreneurship concept without defining it. Authors could apply more precise definitions by using a quadruple bottom-line framework to position themselves in the nexus of financial, social, artistic, and cultural perspectives.

  16. Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains?

    OpenAIRE

    Andy C. Pratt

    2008-01-01

    The paper begins with a discussion of the definition of cultural industries. The paper's three main themes are concerned with, first: 1) a contestation of the generic application of the global commodity chain concept, 2) the need for a unique focus on cultural industries associated with the particular nature of its production process, and 3) the role of embedded judgments of quality is an integral part of this process. Second, the paper suggests that a restyled focus on production chains (inv...

  17. Robotic art, culture and cultural imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been an ongoing debate about the notion and (possible) function of robotic culture; with the development of the new generation of drones, as well as the advancement in social and health robotics, questions about robot culture seem to open a variety of discussions...... – beginning with the inquiry of how can we grasp the notion of culture, as an umbrella term for the range of habitual and technological practices, in relation to equally heterogeneous field of robotics. This article aims to accentuate the importance of cultural imagination of robots in situating the robotic...... research, observing it 'as a mixed register of fantasy and an actual practice' (Kakoudaki, 2007). The emphasis will be put on the robotic art which, I argue, is in the fluid state of exchange with other areas of robotic research, equally benefiting from the larger context of cultural imagination of robots...

  18. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  19. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and, ultimat......A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...

  20. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  1. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  2. Naval Aviation Culture Workshops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubio, Robert V

    2008-01-01

    .... Organizational culture impacts a unit's performance -- for better or for worse. This research defines organizational culture and describes the dynamic relationships among individuals, groups, and leaders. Two case studies (NASA and U.S. Airways...

  3. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  4. Developing Cultural Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat Altay

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at emphasizing the issue of teaching of culture in foreign languageteaching. In this respect, the reasons of teaching culture in foreign language classes arefocused on initially. So, the justifications of teaching culture are considered and explainedand by the help of a dialogue. Right after this, ways of developing cultural awareness is takeninto account. At this step, types of courses to develop cultural awareness are dealt with.Developing cultural awareness in class is another aspect to handle. Besides, ways ofdeveloping cultural awareness outside the class are worked on. Whether there are dangers ofusing culture in foreign language class is explained in dangers and problems part. In theconclusion, ideas of the writer on the subject as final remarks are clarified.

  5. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  7. Rectal culture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  8. The Politics of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview over the evolution of thinking about "culture" in the work of Raymond Williams. With the introduction of Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony culture came to be understood as consisting of not only shared, but contested meanings as well. On the basis of this redefinition by Williams, cultural studies was able to delineate culture as the production, circulation, and consumption of meanings that become embodied and embedded in social practice.

  9. Organizational culture & employee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianya

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are among the key units of the society. During their establishment and development, a specific kind of organizational culture eventually appears. The purpose of organizational culture is to improve solidarity and cohesion, and to stimulate employees' enthusiasm and creativity to improve the organization’s economic efficiency. In addition, organizational culture greatly influences employee behavior. The aim of this study is to find out how organizational culture affects employ...

  10. Urine, faeces and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, M.

    This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology.......This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology....

  11. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...

  12. Personal Space Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    —constitutes one of the main areas of interest, dividing cultures into either contact or low-contact cultures. Examples of proxetics—human spatial behavior studied in terms of universal spacing patterns and cultural similarities—are presented. Finally, future directions for the study of PS in the digital age...

  13. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  15. Sport and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek

    2016-01-01

    Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does

  16. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  17. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  18. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  19. TESOL and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1999-01-01

    Looks at the question of how culture is understood in the Teaching English as a Second/Other-Language (TESOL) profession. Examines the perspectives toward culture implicitly or explicitly expressed in recent "TESOL Quarterly" articles, and concludes that different views of culture exist in the field. (Author/VWL)

  20. Extending Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted J.; Court, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    Advocates defining cultural literacy to recognize the mass media's role in transmitting and maintaining cultural stereotypes and shaping values and beliefs. Distinguishes between ideational and material aspects of culture. Advocates teaching critical thinking and respect for persons in light of questionable moral perspectives in certain media…

  1. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate…

  2. Culture and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDiscourses on culture and development vary according to their conceptions of culture and of development and according to their standpoint. The ‘culture and development’ problematic has typically: (1) arisen from a conception of ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous set of mental

  3. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  4. Selling cultural heritage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the value of cultural and archaeological heritage through a focus on multinational corporations (MNCs) across industries and their involvement with cultural heritage. Research to date has focused mainly on industries where MNCs have a direct impact on cultural or archaeological

  5. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  6. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  7. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  8. Managing culture in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The paper...... argues that dynamic aspects of culture as enacted by key individual actors and constructed in a given context are far more relevant and critical for the joint venture’s managerial process. With evidence from four Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, the paper proposes a way of managing culture in IJVs...

  9. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  10. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  12. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Exhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 150 mM NaCl, 1 %. Triton X-100, 0.5 % sodium deoxycholate, 0.1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1 mM EDTA. (Sigma), 1% protease inhibitor cocktail, and 1 % phosphatase inhibitor cocktail (Roche). After centrifugation, the protein concentration of the supernatant was assayed using a Bio-Rad ...

  13. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different...... if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance: This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv...

  14. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Exhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-á) in rat livers were evaluated using Western blotting. Results: OFP-EA-extract markedly altered the increased plasma TC, TG, LDL ...

  15. Making Safety Culture a Corporate Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenningsson, J.

    2016-01-01

    Safety Culture is something that we have actively worked with in the nuclear industry for a long time. Formally, it has been on the agenda since the Chernobyl accident. However, the work with creating a safe organizational culture can of course be traced back even further in time. Over the years a lot has happened in how we are approaching the concept of safety culture and especially how we look upon the human being as a part of the system and how we as humans interact with the organization and technology. For an organization to have a culture that promotes safety it is essential to create an ownership of safety with all workers within the site. To create this ownership it is vital to have the undivided commitment of the management. It all starts with the fundamental values of the organization. These values must then be concluded in firm expectations of behaviors that apply to all workers and management. This could be referred to as expectation of a Professional Behavior that allows us to live up to the company values. At OKG nuclear power plant, a successful Business Improvement Program was recently carried out with intention to develop and contribute to the maturity of the organization in terms of safety. One of the sub-programs of the program was called Professional Behavior - With purpose of making safety into a corporate culture. At OKG, Safety culture is something that systematically been addressed and worked with since 2004. Even though the Safety Culture program could be considered to already have reached a certain level of maturity the Business Improvement program helped the organization to lay the foundation for further development by clarify expected behaviors that was firmly cemented in to the corporate values.

  16. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  17. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural intensifi......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  18. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  19. Cultural Influences on Intertemporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    literature (in English) on Arab culture is explored to contrast how that culture reasons about time and events, with respect to Western cultures. A number...concepts about risk that are prevalent in Western culture, and applying these concepts to existing literature (in English) on Arab culture that...identifies how cultural factors influence intertemporal reasoning, with a focus on Arab culture. Two additional cultures, Pashtun and Somali, were studied

  20. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Zadel, Zrinka; Bogdan, Sinisa

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  1. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening......, and art); and (c) an international and a local or national orientation stand out as the most important. We discuss whether these oppositions can usefully be conceptualised as cultural capital. We argue that such a conceptualisation demands, first, that cultural capital is understood in relative rather...

  2. Music, culture and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Ramadani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At the time of globalization it is difficult to pretend avoiding music culture and identity from political, cultural and social developments. Thus, it is impossible for the music to be unshakable and to represent national identity by not taking and giving nothing to culture. The dynamics of life and the rapid development of technology make it impossible for the culture to remain unaffected in terms of sharing experiences social experiences. Culture represents our current course, both in terms of politics, also in the social and human aspects. Through the technology it is possible for our children to be equal with children of all other countries, to exchange information and to connect directly with all countries of the world. Musical education is one of the main factors of cultural development and preservation of national identity. Identity consists of everything we posses and reflect. We are those who distinguish from each other and have a common denominator compared to other nations.

  3. Culture and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    INTRODUCTION The present publication deals with issues of imagination and creativity as a notion, philosophy – and social and cultural form, with point of departure in current debates on visual culture. Whereas these debates cover a large ground, spanning from media studies over design to cultural...... studies, they seldom reflect on the basic fact that visual culture in its present form indicates a huge collective creativity in some capacity, implicating the entire postwar era. From early focuses on the possible social and cultural roles of the image in the 1950s and 60s - e.g. in work of Roland...... Barthes and Daniel Boorstin - to the present day, forms of visual culture have proliferated through a variety of collective dimensions, as reflected for instance in the curriculums of visual communication within design education and studies of image representation and pictorial cognition in art history...

  4. Ethics, evolution and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality.

  5. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider......The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material...

  6. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  7. Nature/culture/seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  8. Nuclear Safeguards Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, T.

    2015-01-01

    The paper will consider safeguards culture both at the IAEA and among member states. It will do so through the lens of organizational culture theory and taking into account developments in safeguards since the Iraq case of the early 1990s. The study will seek to identify the current characteristics of safeguards culture and how it has evolved since the 93+2 programme was initiated, as well as considering the roles of the most important purveyors of such culture, including member states and their national safeguards authorities, the General Conference and Board of Governors, the Director General, the Secretariat as a whole, the Safeguards Department and the inspectorate. The question of what might be an optimal safeguards culture at the Agency and among member states will be investigated, along with the issue of how such a culture might be engendered or encouraged. (author)

  9. Bacterial cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Materials 1. Glass culture tubes with metal caps and labels - Growth medium, from media room or customized - Glass pipette tubes - Parafilm ### Equipment 1. Vortexer - Fireboy or Bunsen burner - Motorized pipette - Micropipettes and sterile tips ### Procedure For a typical liquid culture, use 5 ml of appropriate medium. The amount in each tube does not have to be exact if you are just trying to culture cells for their precious DNA. 1. Streak an a...

  10. The Absence of Culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Magnus; Jomer, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This thesis attempts to investigate if national culture still is a factor to consider for large multinational organizations when choosing a supplier, or if the global business environment due to globalization has become so standardized and homogenous that the influence of national culture differences has diminished. Existing academic literature is divided regarding this matter; some studies indicate that the influence of national culture on business relations is subtle while other argues that...

  11. Organizational culture modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Mihaela GHINEA; Constantin BRĂTIANU

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual analysis of organizational culture modeling in the framework of system dynamics. Tom Peters and Robert Waterman demonstrated through their seminal research that organizational culture constitutes one of the most important key success factors in any company trying to achieve excellence in its business. Organizational culture is a strong nonlinear integrator of the organizational intellectual capital acting especially on the emotional knowled...

  12. Esperanto & cultural identity

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Ask; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Dzieza, Malgorzata; Hansen, Nathalie Gylling

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this project is the relationship between culture, cultural identity and language, and their relationship to the ambiguous concept of neutrality. Taking a case study of Esperanto, an artificial language designed with the specific intention of being a completely neutral and nationless language, we will explore how languages relate to the world. By comparing the thoughts on culture and group identity of various authors, we will then try to explore the concept of neutrality – for can...

  13. The Culture of Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Shankha; Thompson, Jon; Yehoue, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    We study the cultural process through which a society inculcates an entrepreneurial spirit. People work for a guaranteed wage or operate a firm whose return depends on business expertise. The latter is culturally acquired, within the family or outside, and people may choose an occupation different from the one they were socialized into. We show that a cultural bias towards safer occupations from colonial and post-colonial policies leads to stagnation where entrepreneurs do not upgrade technol...

  14. Culture in global business

    OpenAIRE

    Andström, Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Cultural diversity is a question mark to many companies and some are afraid to build multicultural teams, however cultural differences can be a huge benefit to any company, especially to those working in global markets. Company management as well as the individuals within the teams need to understand what are the biggest issues within multicultural teams, how to get to know other cultures and to be aware of issues caused by stereotyping others, what to expect from others and how to overcome ...

  15. Negotiating cultures in cyberspace

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Kenneth; Macfadyen, Leah P.; Roche, Jörg; Chase, Mackie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report findings of a multidisciplinary study of online participation by culturally diverse participants in a distance adult education course offered in Canada and examine in detail three of the study's findings. First, we explore both the historical and cultural origins of "cyberculture values" as manifested in our findings, using the notions of explicit and implicit enforcement of those values and challenging the assumption that cyberspace is a culture free zone. Second, we ...

  16. Corpora and Cultural Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can be ...... is addressed. In the third part of the chapter, three case studies are presented – one from Danish and two from English – to illustrate the analysis of cultural conceptualization via corpus-linguistic techniques....

  17. Doing Cultural Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda

    What does the Walkman have to do with the 21st century? The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook takes students on a journey between past and present, giving them the skills do to cultural analysis along the way. Through the notion of the 'circuit of culture', this book teaches...... to the past - unpack the key concepts of contemporary culture, such as mobility and materiality - look with fresh eyes at today's media world and the cultural practices it gives rise to - practice their critical skills with up-to-date exercises and activities This book remains the perfect 'how to...

  18. The cultural divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...

  19. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists have studied organizations since the 1930s. In the 1980s, anthropologists' concepts of culture were instrumentalized by nonanthropologists to promote ‘organizational culture’ as a management tool. In subsequent decades, concern shifted to welding employees from different ‘national...... cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  20. Cultivating Cultural Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esprivalo, Pamela Sue; Forney, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)

  1. Runaway cultural niche construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture. PMID:21320897

  2. Culture of salmonid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stickney, Robert R

    1991-01-01

    .... In recognition of the growing concern that aquaculture development has the potential to negatively impact the natural environment, a chapter on controversies surrounding salmonid culture has been included...

  3. Cultural change that sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain.

  4. TOURISM AND CULTURAL REVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George NICULESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the tourism and the cultural revival. Cultural change is a recurrent concern in tourism studies. Host societies frequently remodel their culture following the creation of a tourist resort. But, that does not necessarily imply an acculturating process, since what actually takes place is pragmatic cultural production work in response to the touristic demands that offer consolidated economic alternatives and livelihood. Culture change has been a concern in tourism anthropology studies ever since this field of research established itself, particularly concerning the changes host societies undergo. But that does not necessarily imply the phenomenon is to be analyzed exclusively under the focus of the acculturation paradigm, since researchers often come across the production of new cultural elements of a traditional character among host populations in their attempt to occupy new spaces from which to address the world. in fact, that applies to various social situations where local actors seek to display certain lifestyles and cultural traits in order to draw attention to their ethnic, regional, or national features. Therefore, the object of study no longer focuses on the gradual loss of local and cultural (or ethnic substance, but rather on the relative ethnicity triggered by and among translocal flows that may lead to the deliberate turnaround of different cultural aspects of the host populations. Based on those premises, this article deals with the investigation of a cultural change process, making use of the historic perspective that includes an analysis of the “strategies of cultural mobilization” activated by the social subjects that are constantly recreating themselves in the tourism areas.

  5. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  6. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Kavsek, D.

    2006-01-01

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  7. Cultural Perspective on African American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  8. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  9. Conceptualizing leadership across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickson, M.W.; Castaño, N.; Magomaeva, A.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we summarize research on how the meaning of leadership varies systematically across cultures, and describe the conflict in the literature between the quest for universals and the identification of cultural contingencies in leadership theory. We review the literature on the

  10. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  11. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  12. Culture and weight consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasser, Mervat

    1997-01-01

    ... of eating disorders. This review is used to highlight the problematic areas in cross-cultural methodologies and to suggest directions for future research. The author also relates the feminist theories that have been put forward to explain the phenomenon of eating disorders in the West to the condition of modern women in many non-western cultures...

  13. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user...

  14. Cultural Keywords in Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach is used as a unifying framework for the studies. This approach offers an attractive methodology for doing explorative discourse analysis on emic and culturally-sensitive grounds. Cultural Keywords in Discourse will be of interest to researchers and students...

  15. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI

  16. Commercial cage fish culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aigbadon, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing emphasis in Nigeria on aquaculture as an alternative to dwindling artisanal fishing and scarce foreign exchange for fish import, cage fish culture, is a more profitable aquaculture practice than pond culture. It appears to be one of the most viable business ventures with minimum risks. It is a highly recommendable project

  17. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  18. MicroCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a playful learning scenario, to enhance children’s museum experience, and the design of MicroCulture, a new learning platform. MicroCulture has been developed through a participatory design process, involving around 25 children. The perspective proposed in this paper is focused...

  19. Escape From Cultural Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesao, Tadao

    1975-01-01

    On the premise that the fundamental character of international interchange lies in a cruel and merciless collision of mutually suspicious and distrustful cultures, the historical resistance of the Japanese to cultural interchange is examined, the consequences of international trade without interchange noted, and the means of escape outlined. (JT)

  20. Why Youth Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

  1. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  2. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The success of plant biotechnology relies on the fundamental techniques of plant tissue culture. Understanding basic biol- ogy of plants is a prerequisite for proper utilization of the plant system or parts thereof. Plant tissue culture helps in providing a basic understanding of physical and chemical requirements of cell, tissue, ...

  3. Pop Goes the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlansky, Mark J.

    1977-01-01

    Popular culture is defended as a solid academic entry that is a new approach to sociology, art, and literature. The contributions and theories of three professors are discussed: Arthur Asa Berger, Leslie Fiedler, and Alan Gowans. They illustrate the range and diversity in the pop culture field. (LBH)

  4. Pop Culture in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  5. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  6. Culture, technology, communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay

    The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...

  7. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  8. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...

  9. CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS ON DICTIONARIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    Abstract: This article attempts to show how culture or aspects thereof can be used to comple- ment linguistic and other information in the compilation of dictionaries of African languages. Some obstacles in the way of achieving this goal are identified and proposals made on how to deal with them. Although only some cultural ...

  10. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...

  11. FRANCHISING IN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitnitskiy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of franchise relations in the sphere of culture in Ukraine is grounded, the author definition of “franchise in culture” as an economic category is proposed and the main advantages and disadvantages of franchising in culture are systematized.

  12. A Runyakitara Culture Wiki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    ABSTRACT. Peterson Asingwire developed a Runyakitara culture framework in 2013, with the aim of using the wiki as a tool for Runyakitara culture documentation, collaboration, sharing, preservation, and revitalization. This paper discusses the implementation of his framework using the wikispaces web hosting service.

  13. Walakira culturing.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1 and diet-2. Significant growth performance was attained with diet-3. This study demonstrated that sinking fish feed pellets can be used to culture wild-caught ...... management. Kluwer Academic. Publishers, Boston, MA. Boyd, C.E. 1982. Water quality management for pond fish culture. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.

  14. The virtual culture consumer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nathalie Sonck; Jos de Haan

    2012-01-01

    Original title: De virtuele kunstkar The Dutch satisfy their interest in culture by visiting artistic institutions and exhibitions or by practising the arts themselves. They also use media to meet their cultural needs. In particular, the rise of new media such as the Internet has led to an

  15. Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Huynh Dinh

    This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…

  16. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....

  17. Unity through Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic film, Moesgård Film, Royal Anthropological Institute (59 min, 2011) Soanin Kilangit is determined to unite the people and attract international tourism through the revival of culture on Baluan Island in the South Pacific. He organizes the largest cultural festival ever held on the is......, performance, identity, cultural politics, exchange, and the impact of the West on traditional societies.”  — Karen Stevenson, American Anthropologist, September 2012......Ethnographic film, Moesgård Film, Royal Anthropological Institute (59 min, 2011) Soanin Kilangit is determined to unite the people and attract international tourism through the revival of culture on Baluan Island in the South Pacific. He organizes the largest cultural festival ever held...

  18. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  19. Culture and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Shapiro, Debra L; Lu, Shuye; McGurrin, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    We first review research on culture effects in teams, illustrating that mean levels of team cultural values have main (i.e. direct) effects, indirect effects (i.e. mediated by intervening variables), and moderating influences on team processes and outcomes. Variance in team cultural values or on country of origin (i.e. nationality diversity) also has main effects on team functioning, and we highlight contextual variables that strengthen or weaken these main effects. We next review research examining the effect of variance in team cultural values on global virtual teams, specifically. Finally, we review research on how cultural values shape employees' receptivity to empowering leadership behavior in teams. We conclude by discussing critical areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Kitsch and cultural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban area covers a high density of structures developed by man compared to the surrounding areas. Cultural tourism includes, on the one hand, cultural tourism in urban areas – particularly historical towns and cities with cultural sites such as museums or theatres – and, on the other hand, cultural tourism in rural areas – where its main goal is to focus on communities, festivals, rituals, and traditions. From the point of view of the practice of urban or rural cultural tourism, tourists are, in most cases, presented what they wish to see: thus, authenticity can turn into inauthenticity and what is promoted is vulgar art or improper beauty, surrogate art or even pseudo-art – kitsch, represented by souvenirs that have nothing to do with true art.

  1. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  2. Patient Safety Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Solvejg

    Patient safety is highly prioritised in the Danish health care system, never the less, patients are still exposed to risk and harmed every day. Implementation of a patient safety culture has been suggested an effective mean to protect patients against adverse events. Working strategically...... with assessment and development of the patient safety culture is in early days in Denmark. It depends upon valid, reliable and effective methods. The patient safety culture represents a wide range of social phenomena permeating the way of life in a health care. In essence, the safety culture is an aggregation...... of health care professional’s behaviour, habits, norms, values, and basic assumptions related to patient care; it is the way things are done. The patient safety culture guides the motivation, commitment to and know-how of the safety management, and how all members of a work place interact. This thesis...

  3. Religion and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    group breaks totally with the existing Arabic Bible translations that they were in the habit of using. In this translation, the previously strenuous relationship between culture and religion is flattened in a binary sets of oppositions between an unaltered Devine message preserved in ancient Bible...... of this paper to shed some light on Jehovah’s Witnesses theological perception of religion and culture within the context of modern Arab Christianity; a subject that has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. This paper shall also look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible Translation New World...... translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms -Jehovah’s witnesses...

  4. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...... of distinction? Cultural capital in a contemporary Danish context appears to be less related to traditional highbrow cultural consumption than in Bourdieu's studies in France some decades ago. Third, is there a rise in the omnivorousness and tolerant taste within the cultural elite? This study answers negatively...

  5. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... institutions and relying heavily on civic society enterprise. After national independence in 1918 there are growing conflicts in the cultural field and during the Cold War such conflicts take the form of an alliance of nationlism and socialism against NATO-oriented anti-communism. However, there is consensus...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  6. AccessCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtysson, Bjarki

    of the European Union, and how its cultural policy responds to the changes that the digital paradigm has brought upon the field. The self-publishing features of various Web 2.0 platforms, along with the interactive and distributional potentials that the Internet offers, have given rise to what is referred to here...... in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the notion of digital cultural...... of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Flickr, along with lesser known platforms such as the animated short film Elephants Dream, the BBC's Creative Archive, various Internet artworks and the Internet Archive. I furthermore introduce the copyright system Creative Commons in order to suggest legal, widely...

  7. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  8. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  9. Enhancing students' cultural competence using cross-cultural experiential learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Bertolo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate community health students' perceptions of their cultural competence. Little is known about students' cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills after their experience working with diverse cultural groups and language barriers. A cross-cultural experiential learning exercise was used as an educational approach. Reflective writing was used to elicit students' attitudes of the other culture and their coping skills. Three themes emerged as cultural awareness and knowledge, observation and learning, and cross-cultural communication. Results underscore the need for student academic preparation using cross-cultural educational approaches to enhance cultural competence.

  10. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  11. Organizational climate and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.

  12. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    cross-cultural awareness training in various commercial sectors, the field of cross-cultural communication (also known as intercultural communication...advanced language skills, and culture and regional expertise with the goals to promote a rethinking of culture and intercultural competence, and how... Intercultural Competence” (Center for Languages, Cultures, and Regional Studies, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY), 4. 34Headquarters

  13. Cultural Amnesia and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viðar Hreinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A few of the main concepts of cultural memory are investigated in this paper, in order to extend the idea of cultural memory to include the diversity of past cultures and cultural products. It is claimed that understanding of diversity, in a dialogue with the past, enhances cultural understanding for the benefit of sustainable development.

  14. Organizational Culture and Industrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    behaviours. In-group/out-group particularist values that have been handed over from preindustrial society tend to overlay and replace impersonal and universalistic bureaucracies and market exchange typical ofindustrial society. The paper shows how these values shape the culture of organizations in Latin......Drawing on a revised version ofHofstede's theory ofindustrialization and cultural change contained in his explanation of individualism and collectivism, the paper proposes that countries which are in the earlier stages of industrialization have a common culture that governs organizational...

  15. From Culturalism to Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Casellas López

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article places the immigrants’ integration issue within the culture-citizenship debate. In order to understand culture as something else than people’s given customs or “essence”, the text begins by analysing the essentialist notion of the term ‘culture’, pointing out some of its deficiencies and risks involved in dealing with such a notion. Drawing on the ethical relativism-universalism continuum, the authors also discuss the drawbacks they see in a culture-centred integration, suggesting instead a citizenship approach based on a multidirectional and dynamic notion –aimed at achieving equal rights for everyone involved, immigrant and native populations alike.

  16. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    artikler et forskningsfelt for rumlig kultur, hvori alskens sanse- og refleksionsformer finder sammen. Based in humanistic urban studies as practiced in the Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, SPATIAL CULTURE outlines a novel framework for understanding the social....... Considerable parts of the volume are in both English and Danish. Along with the introductory chapter by Henrik Reeh, Associate Professor of Humanistic Urban Studies and Modern Culture, University of Copenhagen, and the final essay by Albertó Pérez-Gómez, Professor of the History of Architecture, Mc...

  17. Multiculturalisme et culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    . On epistemological grounds, these approaches would assimilate cultures to closed ensembles with strictly defined contours and content. On political grounds, such a conception faces three types of objections. It would favor the propagation of stereotypes, influence the balance of power within communities and alter......This article engages the role played by culture in a part of multicultural literature. Through the study of Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka's positions, it introduces to the critique of reductionism which is addressed to approaches founded on the intrinsic or instrumental value of culture...

  18. Autonomy, culture and healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to present a theoretical view of how cultural thinking and action in meetings between patient and therapist can be analyzed with special attention to raising awareness of underlying prejudices and preconceptions in such encounters. The examples in the article are all taken from...... a Scandinavian and mostly a Danish context. A key point of the analysis indicates that a highly efficient health sector may entail an implicit duality: On the one hand, the therapist can relate pragmatically to the patient when engaging in cultural meetings. On the other hand, the therapist may be personally...... challenged when cultural thinking leads to ethical dilemmas....

  19. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...... representation in both countries, and potentially across Europe, appears to rely....

  20. Astronomy and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Edith

    2009-01-01

    While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled

  1. Organizational Culture and Industrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    Drawing on a revised version ofHofstede's theory ofindustrialization and cultural change contained in his explanation of individualism and collectivism, the paper proposes that countries which are in the earlier stages of industrialization have a common culture that governs organizational...... behaviours. In-group/out-group particularist values that have been handed over from preindustrial society tend to overlay and replace impersonal and universalistic bureaucracies and market exchange typical ofindustrial society. The paper shows how these values shape the culture of organizations in Latin...

  2. Translation as cultural mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Petcu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the role that translation plays as cultural mediator, as it already widely accepted that translation involves not just two languages, but two cultures, two worlds that are brought into close contact with each other. Obviously, between the two cultures, the two worlds that translation compares and contrasts there are both similarities and dissimilarities. What is of interest to us is the way in which dissimilarities should be approached in the process of translation, whether they should be domesticated or foreignized as Venuti put it, whether the reader should be brought closer to the text or the text closer to the reader.

  3. Multiculturalisme et culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    This article engages the role played by culture in a part of multicultural literature. Through the study of Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka's positions, it introduces to the critique of reductionism which is addressed to approaches founded on the intrinsic or instrumental value of culture....... On epistemological grounds, these approaches would assimilate cultures to closed ensembles with strictly defined contours and content. On political grounds, such a conception faces three types of objections. It would favor the propagation of stereotypes, influence the balance of power within communities and alter...

  4. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  5. Culture in constructive remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    , critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide...... an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated...

  6. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  7. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    ). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....

  8. Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Ethics is caring about people and Safety is caring that no physical harm comes to people.Therefore Safety is a type of Ethical Behavior. Culture: is The Way We Do Things Here.Safety Culture is mixture of organization traditions, values, attitudes and behaviors modeled by Its leaders and internalized by its members that serve to make nuclear safety the overriding priority. Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in Organisations and individuals which established that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance

  9. Culture in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this chapter is to discuss an approach to studying culture by drawing on the project of remembering and reconciliation from a discursive psychology perspective. I demonstrate discourse analysis from research using a case of the Anglo-Japanese reconciliation. I provide a brief...... overview of the development of discourse analysis and discursive psychology and highlight key philosophical foundations and theoretical assumptions on which discursive psychology and practice of discourse analysis are based. As the examples of discourse analysis, I will demonstrate how culture can...... be studied as a topic of members' concern. In this view, culture is not a matter of the researcher's concern to handle as a causal factor or independent variable. Discursive psychologists study culture as a resource for the participants. Finally, I will discuss the implication of the discursive approach...

  10. Social and cultural activities

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Club news : Record Club, Ski Club, Dancing Club, Orienteering Club, CERN Women's Club, Concerts Club, Russian Cultural Circle, Yachting Club. Conference : Voyage au coeur d'une flûte de champagne. Exhibition.

  11. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  12. Enterprise, Culture and Anarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Britain's proposed plans for reform of higher education are criticized for lack of historical perspective on the nature and cultivation of culture and intellect, removal of institutional autonomy, and irresponsible government intervention. (MSE)

  13. Holograms a cultural history

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Sean F

    2016-01-01

    Holograms have been in the public eye for over a half-century, but their influences have deeper cultural roots. No other visual experience is quite like interacting with holograms; no other cultural product melds the technological sublime with magic and optimism in quite the same way. As holograms have evolved, they have left their audiences alternately fascinated, bemused, inspired or indifferent. From expressions of high science to countercultural art to consumer security, holograms have represented modernity, magic and materialism. Their most pervasive impact has been to galvanize hopeful technological dreams. This book explores how holograms found a place in distinct cultural settings. Engineers, artists, hippies and hobbyists have played with, and dreamed about, holograms. This book explores the technical attractions and cultural uses of the hologram, how they were shaped by what came before them, and how they have matured to shape our notional futures. Today, holograms are in our pockets (as identity do...

  14. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  15. Culture in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means also the study of a different culture. This study focuses on the introduction of the topic of culture in language teaching into the curriculum of the subject Language Teaching Methodology for teacher trainees studying at Translation And Interpreting Studies, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Târgu-Mureş. This topic has not been treated separately so far, it has only been discussed implicitly, included in other topics. But we believe that future teachers should have a more thorough theoretical and practical training in terms of what incorporating culture into language teaching implies. For this purpose, we are going to examine and discuss some of the recommendations and principles stated in the specialized literature regarding culture in foreign language teaching and reflect on what the ideal content of a course related to the teaching of this skill should be.

  16. Culture in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Christensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    As engineers today often work in intercultural projects and contexts, intercultural competences must be part of the learning objectives in engineering educations. Cultural aspects of engineering education should not just be treated as a question of appropriate communication and teaching: cultural...... to cultural aspects in engineering education. Hence the key-question of this paper is how CDIO support the development of intercultural competences in engineering education. The paper explores the implementation of CDIO in an intercultural arctic engineering programme in Greenland that since 2001 has been...... enrolling students with special focus on developing intercultural competences. The discussion draws on the socio-technical approaches to technology and professional engineering practises [5,6]. We conclude that intercultural teaching is not just a matter of teaching in spite of cultural differences...

  17. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme...... mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...... urban site. Due to the sensitive subject matter of death and mourning, the participation of the public in general faces challenges that need attention when planning a cultural heritage programme....

  18. America's Cultural Awakening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brents, William B

    2007-01-01

    Although the collapse of the Soviet Union elevated the United States to a hyper superpower status, globalization in terms of modernity, economics, security, and culture would dramatically affect its ascendancy...

  19. Museology and Scientific Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the period of transition and self examination of the museology of science. Defines the main issues and limits of the museum as a means of transmitting a scientific culture and scientific ways. (Author/RT)

  20. Cultural realities of being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Realities of Being offers a dialogue between academic activity and everyday lives by providing an interface between several perspectives on human conduct. Very often, academic pursuits are arcane and obscure for ordinary people, this book will attempt to disentangle these dialogues, lift...... fresh light on the everyday events presented in the text. Cultural Realities of Being will be essential reading for those studying Cross Cultural Psychology as well as those interested in social representation and identity.......Cultural Realities of Being offers a dialogue between academic activity and everyday lives by providing an interface between several perspectives on human conduct. Very often, academic pursuits are arcane and obscure for ordinary people, this book will attempt to disentangle these dialogues...

  1. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  2. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism and multicultur......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...... and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...

  3. Cultural Behavior Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reece, Douglas A; Taylor, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    .... We considered different training applications and identified a "knock-and-talk" house visitation scenario as representative of scenarios that require cultural awareness on the part of a trainee, yet...

  4. Phytochemistry and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlin, Quincy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a trend in science teaching marked by shifts in philosophies and practices and by a search for science content that draws from the experiences of a culturally diverse student population. (DDR)

  5. Teaching Nazi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Lee Parmalee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazi Culture would seem at first to be a very esoteric subject to teach to the rather practical-minded and not very cosmopolitan students of a northern New Jersey state college. But of course it is really a distancing technique, a Verfremdungseffekt a la Brecht. Teaching fascism is not really teaching fascism per se, but an angle for teaching capitalism and socialism. And teaching Nazi culture is an angle for teaching some of the purposes of capitalist ideology.

  6. Departamento de Patrimonio Cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Valassina Simonetta

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available El Departamento de Patrimonio Cultural se estructura en base a dos grandes líneas docentes, la Historia de la Arquitectura y la Teoría del Urbanismo, las asignaturas que corresponden a estas líneas están asignadas al área cultural y teórica dentro del cuadro general de asignaturas del Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Arquitectura.

  7. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  8. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion ...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  9. Pleading for Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan GROSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture designates “the tools through which the human polishes himself and develops his multiple spiritual and physical gifts.” The humans interact and change opinions and become conscious that they belong to a global cultural space and are also “authors of the culture of their own community.” Through these tools human “exerts to disobey the world, humanizes social, family and physical life, through progress of mores and institutions, in the end human, expresses, communicates and keeps in its operas, during the times, its great major experiences, because them to serve the progress… of whole human people.” The human valorizes itself but also contributes to the progress of society. Today we talk about the plurality of culture through which is opened the path to the cultural dissemination and perfection. In this way, the humans get a responsibility towards the cultural progress of their community which is anchored in global community, and then appears the question: “what must be done so that all the humans of the world to participate to cultural gods? It is observed here a “spiritual and moral maturity of humans,” defined as “new humanism”. This new type of humanism is not a simple talk, but it represents a new “type of responsibility towards human and towards history.” In this way, it appears the need of a new type of education because the nowadays human must be prepared to become creator and responsible to integrate in a global culture based on values as “intelligence, will, conscience and human fraternity.”

  10. Delineating Cultural Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    Automatic Control, 49(9), 1520-1533. Olk, H. (2003). Cultural knowledge in translation. ELT Journal , 57(2), 167-174. doi:10.1093/ elt /57.2.167 Ong...culture: A model with local convergence and global polarization. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41(2), 203-226. Busemeyer, J. R., & Townsend, J. T...Deffuant, G. (2006). Comparing extremism propagation patterns in continuous opinion models. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 9(3), 8

  11. Astronomy in Aboriginal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2006-10-01

    In all probability, long before other civilizations had named the celestial objects in the night sky, the indigenous people of Australia had not only given them names but had also built an astronomical knowledge system which they incorporated into their social, cultural and religious life. Their socio-cultural astronomical knowledge system both assists and clashes with Australia's legal system, which is based on English law.

  12. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists have studied organizations since the 1930s. In the 1980s, anthropologists' concepts of culture were instrumentalized by nonanthropologists to promote ‘organizational culture’ as a management tool. In subsequent decades, concern shifted to welding employees from different ‘national...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  13. Learning Within Digital Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Anders; Schmedes, Jonathan; Gehin, Laurent; Pejtersen, Susan; Ruth, Frederik; Lindholm, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is an investigation of the correlation between digital culture and learning - if the digital culture could provide a new approach to learning in the educational system. As the basis for our analysis, we use theories on the Net Generation by Don Tapscott and Marc Prensky and theories on learning by Knud Illeris, as well as critique of the traditional educational system by James Paul Gee and David Shaffer – who also provide ideas for a new educational s...

  14. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  15. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the relationships between urbanity and aesthetics. The articles span five realms: sensory and conceptual architecture, urban spaces, aesthetic textualities, collective memory, and spatial consciousness, all of which contribute to establishing spatial culture as an important field of research within the humanities......Gill University, the substantial captions of more than 100 illustrations make SPATIAL CULTURE accessible to an international readership. All contributions contain abstracts in English....

  16. Cultural Assessments and Campaign Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, James

    2004-01-01

    .... Cultural assessment is a detailed analysis of factors that influence cultural behavior and a summary of the characteristics of the culture of a given population in relation to proposed military operations...

  17. Cultural Influences on Play Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialas, Mateusz; Tekofsky, Shoshannah; Spronck, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    In general, video game researchers do not differentiate between players’ nationalities. Cultural theories, however, show that cultural differences concern numerous values, including values associated with interaction with media. We therefore ask the question whether there exist cross-cultural

  18. Experiencing Global Culture in Vatel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Broillet, Alexandra; John, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    To explore the meaning of “global culture” in a professional communication context, this paper explores the “unsettled” global culture of Vatel, a private business school educating students from nearly 50 different countries for the hospitality industry. This paper explores the role of knowledge...... management in understanding global culture, arguing that the notion of “unsettled” cultures demonstrates how ideologies function in global settings and draw on national “settled” cultural resources. In unpacking different aspects of Vatel's culture this paper questions assumptions built into cultural frames...... of reference by offering a global culture frame, drawing on cultural resources from country based “settled” cultural contexts, and reflects on how global cultural contexts can benefit from a knowledge management approach to this dynamic between “settled” cultural contexts and “unsettled” cultural ideologies...

  19. Cultural mediation in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherghina Boda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available If we perceive the museum not only as a place of storing and conserving the patrimony, but also of transmitting it, then we can also see it as a mediator through which cultures can become collective patrimony. Tightly connected to patrimonial appropriation, mediation appears from this perspective as a process and not an end, as it manifests itself in animation, communication and making knowledge popular in relation to a precise patrimony. That is why we can see cultural mediation as a transmission, as a transformation, as an action or social project which aims at creating social bonds, the museum thus being not only a place of meeting for the public with the objects exposed, but also as a place of meeting between different cultures. Thus, cultural mediation presents itself as the most efficient means for access to culture of all categories of the public, situated as the crossroads of culture, continuous education and entertainment and is inscribed in the field of informal education.

  20. Overview of security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulanya, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear Security culture concept has been aggressively promoted over the past several years as a tool to improve the physical protection of the nuclear and radioactive materials due to growing threats of catastrophic terrorism and other new security challenges. It is obvious that, the scope of nuclear security and the associated cultures need to be extended beyond the traditional task of protecting weapons-usable materials. The role of IAEA is to strengthen the nuclear security framework globally and in leading the coordination of international activities in this field. Therefore all governments should work closely with the IAEA to take stronger measures to ensure the physical protection, the safety and security of the nuclear and radioactive materials. In the effort to reflect this new realities and concerns, the IAEA in 2008 came up with the document, the Nuclear Security Culture, Nuclear Security Series No. 7, Implementing Guide to the member states which urged every member state to take appropriate measures to promote security culture with respect to nuclear and radioactive materials. The document depicted this cultural approach as the way to protect individual, society and the environment. Among other things, the document defined nuclear security culture as characteristics and attitudes in organizations and of individuals which establishes that, nuclear security issues receives attention warranted by their significance. (au)

  1. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Robust Cultural Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Shweder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this wide ranging interview, Professor Richard A. Shweder from the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago, discusses whether it is or is not possible to be a robust cultural pluralist and a dedicated political liberal at the same time. In this discussion, Professor Shweder offers his insights - based on over 40 years of research - on issues related to the history and re-emergence of cultural psychology; moral anthropology and psychology; the experimental method in psychological investigation and its philosophical basis; contemporary and historical cultural collisions – most notably conflicting representations of female genital surgeries; cultural diversity and inequality; and the dissemination of ideas through open access publishing and Twitter. Professor Shweder ends by offering valuable advice to young researchers in the field of cultural psychology as well as a glimpse into the larger themes of his forthcoming book, which seeks to provide answers to the question of what forms of political liberalism are most compatible with robust cultural pluralism and which are not.

  3. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.

  4. Blockbusters as vehicles for cultural debate in cultural journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    cultural approach in cultural journalism since the mid-20th century. The analysis shows that the negotiation and definition of the blockbuster as cultural phenomenon has changed; whereas it was originally, critically, interpreted as a sign of cultural imperialism, Americanisation, or artistic decline......, it is increasingly viewed as a global, omnipresent cultural and industrial phenomenon with its own aesthetic, narrative, and cultural logic. In this manner, the coverage exemplifies that the blockbuster has been and continues to be negotiated as a (relevant) object of cultural journalism; that cultural journalism...... at different times provides different reflective spaces for popular culture; and that contemporary cultural journalism continues to be critical and contemplative at the same time as it provides cultural service and infotainment. Consequently, the analysis also illustrates how the role of journalists...

  5. Cultural Journalism and Cultural Critique in a Changing Media Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; From, Unni

    2015-01-01

    This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique.......” In this introduction, we highlight three issues that serve to frame the study of cultural journalism and cultural critique more generally and the eight articles of this special issue more specifically: (1) the constant challenge of demarcating cultural journalism and cultural critique, including the interrelations...... of “journalism” and “critique”; (2) the dialectic of globalisation’s cultural homogenisation, on the one hand, and the specificity of local/national cultures, on the other; and (3) the digital media landscape seen in terms of the need to rethink, perhaps even redefine cultural journalism and cultural critique...

  6. Influence des modifications de l’équilibre source-puits sur les paramètres physiologiques et biochimiques chez l'olivier (Olea europaea L.), sous bioclimat semi-aride de Tunisie

    OpenAIRE

    Haouari, Afef

    2013-01-01

    La culture de l’olivier en Tunisie est restée globalement une culture traditionnelle de faible rentabilité. Les causes de cette situation sont multiples, y compris les traitements culturaux archaïques, les cultivars inadéquats et l’alternance de production. De ce fait, une bonne connaissance des aspects physiologiques et biologiques de l’arbre, est d’une importance fondamentale pour une gestion raisonnable des pratiques agronomiques et un bon développement d’une oléiculture moderne. Il est im...

  7. Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander: Moving Beyond Cultural Awareness into Culture-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karcanes, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term "cultural awareness" serves as the new favorite Department of Defense buzzword but fails in its definition to adequately articulate the complexity of culture and the high level of cultural...

  8. Storytelling and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, C.

    2016-01-01

    The paper uses a five-part model of nuclear safety as the basis for discussion of how the oral culture in an organization contributes to (or can potentially undermine) the understanding of safety, the commitment to safe practices and the formation of group identity which is the product of effective cultural leadership. It explores some differences between oral and literate forms of expression, how these interact, and why both are essential parts of nuclear safety culture. It looks at how oral forms impact safety culture, and how by understanding the power of the oral culture leaders can be more effective in shaping people’s understanding and commitment to the essential practices of nuclear safety. Oral forms of expression in cultures are highly stable because they are repeated as “stories” and as ritualistic patterns. They are the only forms of language that “live inside us”, so they are essential for things such as communicating principles and forming a sense of group identity. Oral forms can be exceptionally long-lasting and can (and do) influence cultures sometimes decades after they first come into being. In other words, (and for good and bad) they have an exceptional ability to survive change. This is because oral stories are like magic flowers. Every time the story is told its seeds spring out and scatter, and are planted in every hearer. Then any one of those listeners can carry the story forwards into the future and retell it so another magic flower is born. Compelling stories are therefore always alive, they only die when they are replaced with a more compelling story.

  9. Madurese cultural communication approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, A.; Aji, G. G.; Mutiah

    2018-01-01

    Madura is a tribe with a cultural entity influenced by the ecological aspect and Madurese people. Assessing Madurese culture cannot be separated from the relation of society and ecological aspects that form the characteristics of Madura culture. Stereotypes of Madurese include a stubborn attitude, and carok or killing as a problem solving. On the other hand, Madurese are known to be inclusive, religious, and hardworking. The basic assumption is that the ecological conditions in Madura also shape the social and cultural life of the Madurese. Therefore, judging the Madurese cannot just be seen from a single event only. Moreover, the assessment only focuses on Madurese violence and disregards their structure and social aspects. Assessing Madura culture as a whole can explain the characteristics of Madurese community. According Hofstede culture is a characteristic mindset and perspective of individuals or groups of society in addressing a distinguished life. These differences distinguish individuals from others, or one country to the other. According to Hofstede to be able to assess the culture can be explained by four dimensions namely, individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity and power distance. The method used in this research is a case study. The Result is Madurese classified collectivism can be viewed from the pattern of settlements called kampong meji. Madurese can be classified into low and high uncertainty avoidance. the power distance for the Madurese is classified as unequally or there is a distance of power based on social groups. The element of masculinity of the Madurese is shown to be found when the earnestness of work.

  10. Cultural universals: So what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for the elusive "cultural universal s” in a variety of academic disciplines has been motivated b y the spectre of relativism in its diverse guises. The problem of relativism has been thrust upon us inter alia by the inability of our epistemological models to account for social and cultural, moral and cognitive diversity and to provide us with criteria by means of which to judge aberrations like ideologies. Contrary to the general trend I would like to argue that it is not the spectre of relativism in its various guises which necessitates the search for cultural universals, nor is this the only motivation for a Christian to argue in favour of the recognition of cultural universals. Various authors have suggested that such universal structures do exist; that they condition human and societal behaviour and that it would in principle be possible to construct a theory of these structural universals or a "biogrammar" or "geography ” of the universal cultural acquisition device of humankind (cf. Harre,1976, 32; Johnson, 1987: xxxvii ; Tige r and Fox, 1974:17,30. Cross -cu ltural research in both psychology and anthropology has pointed to the existence of such traits, and in recent philosophical discussions Apel and others have pointed to the necessity of recognizing the existence of some sort of " transcendentalia" . These arguments emphasize elements that are common to diverse approaches to the problem of cultural universals. Christian scholars could accept most of these arguments as valid and yet argue in favour of a very specifically modified version of the notion of cultural universals. This essay attempts to develop such a position.

  11. The effect of cultural interaction on cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2014-07-07

    Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

  13. Delineating Cultural Models: Extending the Cultural Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    communicate with, do business with, train, or hire members of that culture. When identifying a cultural identity, it is important to understand whether the...member of a culture to identify family relations, or rules of etiquette , or cultural icons and religious symbols, and these make up an important part of

  14. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  15. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  16. Nuclear safety culture based on the organizational and individual culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingxi; Ren Ou

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear safety culture is used increasingly and developed by countries that have nu- clear plants all over the world, since the term 'safety culture' was first introduced by IAEA in 1986. Enterprises culture reflects many terms in an enterprise, such as management level and staff quality. The safety culture is the center in a nuclear enterprises culture, and relates directly to the safety and outstanding achievement of operation. This paper discusses the nuclear safety culture from the viewpoints of the organizational and individual cultures. (authors)

  17. Teaching Japanese Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shamoon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.

  18. Culture in constructive remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced an alterna......The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced...... an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated......, critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide...

  19. Uterine culture in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, D

    1984-05-01

    A guarded, sterile swab is used to obtain samples for uterine culture. With the mare in stocks, the tail bandage and the perineum washed, the culture rod is introduced into the vagina with a gloved hand. After the rod is guided through the cervix, the guard cap is dislodged and the swab is rubbed along the endometrium, after which the rod is extracted. Samples for uterine culture should only be obtained during full estrus. Swabs should be directly plated onto agar within 2 hours of collection. Blood agar is appropriate for initial screening, but use of specialized types of agar expedites identification of microbes. Plates are incubated at 37 C and inspected for growth every 12 hours. The type and number of bacterial colonies should be coupled with the history and clinical signs in deciding on the necessity and type of treatment. Pure, heavy bacterial growth is usually accompanied by clinical signs of infection. Interpretation of the significance of moderate bacterial growth may be aided by cytologic examination of endometrial smears, made by rolling the swab onto a glass slide and staining with Diff - Quik . Large numbers of neutrophils indicate the need for antibiotic therapy. Mixed bacterial growth and variable numbers of neutrophils usually indicate faulty sampling technic. Microaerophilic or anaerobic cultures may aid diagnosis in cases of equivocal aerobic culture results.

  20. Management of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment. This presentation offers a discussion of some principles and activities used in enhancing safety performance and appropriate safety behaviour at the Krsko NPP. Over the years a number of events have occurred in nuclear industry that have involved problems in human performance. A review of these and other significant events has identified recurring weaknesses in plant safety culture and policy. Focusing attention on the strengthening of relevant processes can help plants avoid similar undesirable events. The policy of the Krsko NPP is that all employees concerned shall constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level and to achieve excellence in plant safety. The most important objective is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazard in the nuclear power plant. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems, and procedures, as well as plant personnel committed to a strong safety culture. The elements of safety culture include both organizational and individual aspects. Elements commonly included at the organizational level are senior management commitment to safety, organizational effectiveness, effective communication, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages identification and resolution of safety issues. Elements identified at the individual level include personal accountability, a questioning attitude, communication, procedural adherence, etc.(author)