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Sample records for cultured human brain

  1. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cells in human postmortem brain tissue slices remain alive for several weeks in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Hermens, Wim T. J. M. C.; Dijkhuizen, PaulaA; ter Brake, Olivier; Baker, Robert E.; Salehi, Ahmad; Sluiter, Arja A.; Kok, Marloes J. M.; Muller, Linda J.; Verhaagen, Joost; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for human neurological and psychiatric diseases only partially mimic the underlying pathogenic processes. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of cultured postmortem brain tissue from adult neurological patients and controls. The present study shows that human brain tissue

  3. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  4. Social learning, culture and the 'socio-cultural brain' of human and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; van de Waal, Erica

    2017-11-01

    Noting important recent discoveries, we review primate social learning, traditions and culture, together with associated findings about primate brains. We survey our current knowledge of primate cultures in the wild, and complementary experimental diffusion studies testing species' capacity to sustain traditions. We relate this work to theories that seek to explain the enlarged brain size of primates as specializations for social intelligence, that have most recently extended to learning from others and the cultural transmission this permits. We discuss alternative theories and review a variety of recent findings that support cultural intelligence hypotheses for primate encephalization. At a more fine-grained neuroscientific level we focus on the underlying processes of social learning, especially emulation and imitation. Here, our own and others' recent research has established capacities for bodily imitation in both monkeys and apes, results that are consistent with a role for the mirror neuron system in social learning. We review important convergences between behavioural findings and recent non-invasive neuroscientific studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962): A pioneer in human brain tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2018-05-16

    The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. Research with the developmental biologist Theodor Boveri (1862-1915) in Würzburg, Germany, resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Hogue transitioned from studying protozoa to the culture of human brain tissue in the 1940s and 1950s, when she was one of the first to culture cells from human fetal, infant, and adult brain explants. We review Hogue's pioneering contributions to the study of human brain cells in culture, her putative identification of progenitor neuroblast and/or glioblast cells, and her use of the cultures to study the cytopathogenic effects of poliovirus. We also put Hogue's work in perspective by discussing how other women pioneers in tissue culture influenced Hogue and her research.

  6. Astrocyte cultures derived from human brain tissue express angiotensinogen mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milsted, A.; Barna, B.P.; Ransohoff, R.M.; Brosnihan, K.B.; Ferrario, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have identified human cultured cell lines that are useful for studying angiotensinogen gene expression and its regulation in the central nervous system. A model cell system of human central nervous system origin expressing angiotensinogen has not previously been available. Expression of angiotensinogen mRNA appears to be a basal property of noninduced human astrocytes, since astrocytic cell lines derived from human glioblastomas or nonneoplastic human brain tissue invariably produced angiotensinogen mRNA. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that angiotensinogen mRNA production was not limited to a subpopulation of astrocytes because >99% of cells in these cultures contained angiotensinogen mRNA. These cell lines will be useful in studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling angiotensin synthesis and the role of biologically active angiotensin in the human brain by allowing the authors to examine regulation of expression of the renin-angiotensin system in human astrocyte cultures

  7. Comparative Analysis of Human and Rodent Brain Primary Neuronal Culture Spontaneous Activity Using Micro-Electrode Array Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    Electrical activity in embryonic brain tissue has typically been studied using Micro Electrode Array (MEA) technology to make dozens of simultaneous recordings from dissociated neuronal cultures, brain stem cell progenitors, or brain slices from fetal rodents. Although these rodent neuronal primary culture electrical properties are mostly investigated, it has not been yet established to what extent the electrical characteristics of rodent brain neuronal cultures can be generalized to those of humans. A direct comparison of spontaneous spiking activity between rodent and human primary neurons grown under the same in vitro conditions using MEA technology has never been carried out before and will be described in the present study. Human and rodent dissociated fetal brain neuronal cultures were established in-vitro by culturing on a glass grid of 60 planar microelectrodes neurons under identical conditions. Three different cultures of human neurons were produced from tissue sourced from a single aborted fetus (at 16-18 gestational weeks) and these were compared with seven different cultures of embryonic rat neurons (at 18 gestational days) originally isolated from a single rat. The results show that the human and rodent cultures behaved significantly differently. Whereas the rodent cultures demonstrated robust spontaneous activation and network activity after only 10 days, the human cultures required nearly 40 days to achieve a substantially weaker level of electrical function. These results suggest that rat neuron preparations may yield inferences that do not necessarily transfer to humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic...

  9. Brain, body and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach...... uniquely accommodates contemporary cultural and neurobiological sciences. Since the challenge that the study of religion faces, in my opinion, is at the interstices of these sciences, I have tried to develop a theory of religion which acknowledges the fact. My hope is that the theory can be of use...

  10. Cultural differences in human brain activity: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2014-10-01

    Psychologists have been trying to understand differences in cognition and behavior between East Asian and Western cultures within a single cognitive framework such as holistic versus analytic or interdependent versus independent processes. However, it remains unclear whether cultural differences in multiple psychological processes correspond to the same or different neural networks. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of 35 functional MRI studies to examine cultural differences in brain activity engaged in social and non-social processes. We showed that social cognitive processes are characterized by stronger activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, lateral frontal cortex and temporoparietal junction in East Asians but stronger activity in the anterior cingulate, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral insula in Westerners. Social affective processes are associated with stronger activity in the right dorsal lateral frontal cortex in East Asians but greater activity in the left insula and right temporal pole in Westerners. Non-social processes induce stronger activity in the left inferior parietal cortex, left middle occipital and left superior parietal cortex in East Asians but greater activations in the right lingual gyrus, right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus in Westerners. The results suggest that cultural differences in social and non-social processes are mediated by distinct neural networks. Moreover, East Asian cultures are associated with increased neural activity in the brain regions related to inference of others' mind and emotion regulation whereas Western cultures are associated with enhanced neural activity in the brain areas related to self-relevance encoding and emotional responses during social cognitive/affective processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture modulates the brain response to human expressions of emotion: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Altered Loyalties of Neuronal Markers in Cultured Slices of Resected Human Brain Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Sluiter, Arja A.; Balesar, Rawien A.; Baayen, Johannes C.; Speijer, Dave; Idema, Sander; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Organotypic cultures from normal neocortical tissue obtained at epilepsy surgery show a severe injury response. This response involves both neuronal degeneration and the proliferation of reactive cells. A salient feature of the reactive cells is the co-expression of microglial and astrocytic

  13. Specific accumulation of 18F-deoxyglucose in three-dimensional long-term cultures of human and rodent brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocke, C.; Prante, O.; Kuwert, T.; Bluemcke, I.; Jeske, I.; Romstoeck, J.; Stefan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Organotypic slice cultures (OSC) of human brain specimens represent an intriguing experimental model for translational studies addressing, e.g., stem cell transplantation in neurodegenerative diseases or targeting invasion by malignant glioma ex vivo. However, long-term viability and phenomena of structural reorganization of human OSC remain to be further characterized. Here, we report the use of 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG) for evaluating the viability of brain slice preparations obtained either from postnatal rats or human hippocampal specimens. Methods: Anatomically well preserved human hippocampi obtained from epilepsy surgery and rat hippocampus slice cultures obtained from six day old Wistar rats were dissected into horizontal slices. The slices were incubated with FDG in phosphate buffered saline up to 1 h, either with or without supplementation of glucose at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. Radioactivity within the medium or slice cultures was measured using a gamma-counter. In addition, distribution of radioactivity was autoradiographically visualized and quantified as counts per mm 2 . Results: In rat hippocampal slices, FDG accumulated with 1 300 000 ± 68 000 counts/mm 2 , whereas the incorporation of the radioactive label in human slices was in the order of 1 500 000 ± 370 000 counts/mm 2 . The elevation of glucose concentration within the medium led to a significant three-fold decrease of FDG accumulation in rat slices and to a 2.4-fold decrease in human specimens. Conclusions: FDG accumulated in organotypic brain cultures of human or rodent origin. FDG is thus suited to investigate the viability of OSC. Furthermore, these preparations open new ways to study the factors governing cerebral FDG uptake in brain tissue ex vivo. (orig.)

  14. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  15. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Tripathi

    Full Text Available The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (U373-MG cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, cyclophosphamide (CPA, ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabolism. Applications of proton and sup 13 C NMR to the study of glutamate metabolism in cultured glial cells and human brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portais, J.C.; Pianet, I.; Merle, M.; Raffard, G.; Biran, M.; Labouesse, J.; Canioni, P. (Bordeaux-2 Univ., 33 (FR)); Allard, M.; Kien, P.; Caille, J.M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 33 Bordeaux (FR))

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the metabolism of cells from the central nervous system both in vitro on perchloric acid extracts obtained either from cultured tumoral cells (C6 rat glioma) or rat astrocytes in primary culture, and in vivo within the human brain. Analysis of carbon 13 NMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts prepared from cultured cells in the presence of NMR (1-{sup 13}C) glucose as substrate allowed determination of the glutamate and glutamine enrichments in both normal and tumoral cells. Preliminary results indicated large changes in the metabolism of these amino acids (and also of aspartate and alanine) in the C6 cell as compared to its normal counterpart. Localized proton NMR spectra of the human brain in vivo were obtained at 1.5 T, in order to evaluate the content of various metabolites, including glutamate, in peritumoral edema from a selected volume of 2 x 2 x 2 cm{sup 3}. N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate, phosphocreatine, creatine, choline and inositol derivative resonances were observed in 15 min spectra. N-acetyl-aspartate was found to be at a lower level in contrast to glutamate which was detected at a higher level in the injured area as compared to the controlateral unaffected side.

  17. Adaptation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from human brain to different cell cultures induces multiple genomic substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Eugenia P; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Mikryukova, Tamara P; Protopopova, Elena V; Gladysheva, Anastasia V; Shvalov, Alexander N; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Chausov, Eugene V; Loktev, Valery B

    2017-10-01

    The C11-13 strain from the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was isolated from human brain using pig embryo kidney (PEK), 293, and Neuro-2a cells. Analysis of the complete viral genome of the C11-13 variants during six passages in these cells revealed that the cell-adapted C11-13 variants had multiple amino acid substitutions as compared to TBEV from human brain. Seven out of eight amino acids substitutions in the high-replicating C11-13(PEK) variant mapped to non-structural proteins; 13 out of 14 substitutions in the well-replicating C11-13(293) variant, and all four substitutions in the low-replicating C11-13(Neuro-2a) variant were also localized in non-structural proteins, predominantly in the NS2a (2), NS3 (6) and NS5 (3) proteins. The substitutions NS2a 1067 (Asn → Asp), NS2a 1168 (Leu → Val) in the N-terminus of NS2a and NS3 1745 (His → Gln) in the helicase domain of NS3 were found in all selected variants. We postulate that multiple substitutions in the NS2a, NS3 and NS5 genes play a key role in adaptation of TBEV to different cells.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS Accumulates in Neocortical Neurons of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD Brain and Impairs Transcription in Human Neuronal-Glial Primary Co-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several independent laboratories have recently reported the detection of bacterial nucleic acid sequences or bacterial-derived neurotoxins, such as highly inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS, within Alzheimer’s disease (AD affected brain tissues. Whether these bacterial neurotoxins originate from the gastrointestinal (GI tract microbiome, a possible brain microbiome or some dormant pathological microbiome is currently not well understood. Previous studies indicate that the co-localization of pro-inflammatory LPS with AD-affected brain cell nuclei suggests that there may be a contribution of this neurotoxin to genotoxic events that support inflammatory neurodegeneration and failure in homeostatic gene expression. In this report we provide evidence that in sporadic AD, LPS progressively accumulates in neuronal parenchyma and appears to preferentially associate with the periphery of neuronal nuclei. Run-on transcription studies utilizing [α-32P]-uridine triphosphate incorporation into newly synthesized total RNA further indicates that human neuronal-glial (HNG cells in primary co-culture incubated with LPS exhibit significantly reduced output of DNA transcription products. These studies suggest that in AD LPS may impair the efficient readout of neuronal genetic information normally required for the homeostatic operation of brain cell function and may contribute to a progressive disruption in the read-out of genetic information.

  19. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  20. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  1. Dissociated cultures of newborn mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, U.N.; Hofmann, K.; Burkhart, T.; Herschkowitz, N.

    1975-01-01

    The metabolism of 35 SO 4 -sulfated lipids and mucopolysaccharides was studied in dissociated brain cell cultures from newborn albino mouse brains. The cultures were maintained under an atmosphere of 40% O 2 and 5% CO 2 in apparent good health up to 30 days. Early morphological examination of the dissociated cells demonstrated an initial partial reaggregation of the cells, which later settled and became confluent bilayered cultures. Cell proliferation measured by DNA and protein determination, morphological differentiation and biochemical differentiation took place in the dissociated brain cell cultures analogous in some respects to the in vivo situation. A timed increase in the synthesis of a myelin precursor, cerebroside 35 SO 4 , was observed after 6 to 8 days in culture (DIC). A peak of cerebroside sulfate was evident at 17 DIC. No stable sulfatide was observed at any time. Protein-bound macromolecular 35 SO 4 -MPS was synthetized and secreted from the cells into the culture medium. Maximal synthesis and secretion occurred at 8 DIC. This culture system proves to be a useful model for studying some aspects of differentiation of brain cells under external conditions. (author)

  2. Explaining brain size variation: from social to cultural brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin; Burkart, Judith M

    2012-05-01

    Although the social brain hypothesis has found near-universal acceptance as the best explanation for the evolution of extensive variation in brain size among mammals, it faces two problems. First, it cannot account for grade shifts, where species or complete lineages have a very different brain size than expected based on their social organization. Second, it cannot account for the observation that species with high socio-cognitive abilities also excel in general cognition. These problems may be related. For birds and mammals, we propose to integrate the social brain hypothesis into a broader framework we call cultural intelligence, which stresses the importance of the high costs of brain tissue, general behavioral flexibility and the role of social learning in acquiring cognitive skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Rights and Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Stewart Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal human rights and particular cultural identities, which are relativistic by nature, seem to stand in conflict with each other. It is commonly suggested that the relativistic natures of cultural identities undermine universal human rights and that human rights might compromise particular cultural identities in a globalised world. This article examines this supposed clash and suggests that it is possible to frame a human rights approach in such a way that it becomes the starting point and constraining framework for all non-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.

  4. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  5. Phosphatidylserine and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Michael J; Smith, Kyl

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the roles and importance of phosphatidylserine (PS), an endogenous phospholipid and dietary nutrient, in human brain biochemistry, physiology, and function. A scientific literature search was conducted on MEDLINE for relevant articles regarding PS and the human brain published before June 2014. Additional publications were identified from references provided in original papers; 127 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. A large body of scientific evidence describes the interactions among PS, cognitive activity, cognitive aging, and retention of cognitive functioning ability. Phosphatidylserine is required for healthy nerve cell membranes and myelin. Aging of the human brain is associated with biochemical alterations and structural deterioration that impair neurotransmission. Exogenous PS (300-800 mg/d) is absorbed efficiently in humans, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and safely slows, halts, or reverses biochemical alterations and structural deterioration in nerve cells. It supports human cognitive functions, including the formation of short-term memory, the consolidation of long-term memory, the ability to create new memories, the ability to retrieve memories, the ability to learn and recall information, the ability to focus attention and concentrate, the ability to reason and solve problems, language skills, and the ability to communicate. It also supports locomotor functions, especially rapid reactions and reflexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TECHNICAL CULTURE AND HUMAN AXJOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    ­Krystyna Chałas

    2014-01-01

    Technical culture is the value of each historical period. It is the subject of the ongoing development. While it is a value which is associated with different categories of values, mainly material, cognitive, social. Between culture and these three categories of values ​ there is a cognitive effect. Technical culture determines the quality of human axjosphere. The aim of this study is to show the relationships and dependencies between technical culture and the structures in which a person liv...

  7. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Sluiter, Arja A.; Balesar, Rawien A.; Baaijen, Johannes C.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by

  8. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  9. TECHNICAL CULTURE AND HUMAN AXJOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ­Krystyna Chałas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technical culture is the value of each historical period. It is the subject of the ongoing development. While it is a value which is associated with different categories of values, mainly material, cognitive, social. Between culture and these three categories of values ​ there is a cognitive effect. Technical culture determines the quality of human axjosphere. The aim of this study is to show the relationships and dependencies between technical culture and the structures in which a person lives and works. It is mainly about the answer to the question of which values of technical culture are closely related to and what are the inter dependencies? The primary task is to define the concept of the technical culture and to show its teaching essence. The second task boils down to indicate the range of values ​​inherent in the culture of technology, determining the value of the technological culture and values, which are developed by the technical culture. Indication of the interaction between the technical culture and values ​​is the third task.

  10. Sexual differences of human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades there has been an increasing interest in studying the differences between males and females. These differences extend from behavioral to cognitive to micro- and macro- neuro-anatomical aspects of human biology. There have been many methods to evaluate these differences and explain their determinants. The most studied cause of this dimorphism is the prenatal sex hormones and their organizational effect on brain and behavior. However, there have been new and recent attentions to hormone's activational influences in puberty and also the effects of genomic imprinting. In this paper, we reviewed the sex differences of brain, the evidences for possible determinants of these differences and also the methods that have been used to discover them. We reviewed the most conspicuous findings with specific attention to macro-anatomical differences based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data. We finally reviewed the findings and the many opportunities for future studies.

  11. Products of cells from gliomas: VIII. Multiple-well immunoperoxidase assay of immunoreactivity of primary hybridoma supernatants with human glioma and brain tissue and cultured glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, P E; Wahl, R L; Shakui, P; Jackson, G A; Letica, L H; Liebert, M; Taren, J A; Beierwaltes, W H; Hoff, J T

    1990-06-01

    To test the feasibility of primary screening of hybridoma supernatants against human glioma tissue, over 5000 combinations of hybridoma supernatants with glioma tissue, cultured glioma cells, and normal central neural tissue were screened with a new multiple-well (M-well) screening system. This is an immunoperoxidase assay system with visual endpoints for screening 20-30 hybridoma supernatants per single microscope slide. There were extensive differences between specificities to tissue and to cultured glioma cells when both were screened with M-wells and when cultured cells were screened with standard semi-automated fluorescence. Primary M-well screening with glioma tissue detected seven hybridoma supernatants that specifically identified parenchymal cells of glioma tissue and that were not detected with cultured cells. Immunoreactivities of individual supernatants for vascular components (nine supernatants), necrosis (five supernatants), and nuclei (three supernatants) were detected. Other supernatants bound multiple sites on glioma tissue and/or subpopulations of neurons and glia of normal tissue. The results show that primary screening with glioma tissue detects a number of different specificities of hybridoma supernatants to gliomas not detected by conventional screening with cultured cells. These are potentially applicable to diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain sli...

  13. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  14. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender) and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver) relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus). The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  15. Radiosensitivity in cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.; Masson, W.K.

    1980-01-01

    Caution is urged in the use of freshly isolated cultures of human diploid fibroblasts for quantitative studies of radiosensitivity. The distribution of x ray sensitivities of 'normal' human fibroblast cultures of foetal origin (10 subjects, skin or lung biopsy) and post-foetal origin (34 subjects, skin biopsy) are compared with the distribution in 12 patients with ataxia telangiectasia (probability of including any one of these in a normal post-foetal distribution is 0.01%). Cultures from nominally normal subjects showed a broad distribution of D 0 range of 98 +- 160 rad and assuming normal distribution, a mean +- one standard deviation of 122 +- 17 rad. Mean D 0 values for foetal origin cultures were 117 +- 12; values for post-foetal cultures D 0 were 124 +- 18. No systematic variation in D 0 was observed for age of donor, number of cell divisions in culture or for cloning efficiency. For ataxia telangiectasia D 0 values were 46 +- 7 rad. (U.K.)

  16. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  17. Lipid transport and human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-07-01

    How the human brain rapidly builds up its lipid content during brain growth and maintains its lipids in adulthood has remained elusive. Two new studies show that inactivating mutations in MFSD2A, known to be expressed specifically at the blood-brain barrier, lead to microcephaly, thereby offering a simple and surprising solution to an old enigma.

  18. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  19. Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Shi, Feng; Smith, Jeffrey Keith; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-02-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, we analyzed development patterns of brain anatomical networks derived from morphological correlations of brain regional volumes. The results show that the brain network of 1-month-olds has the characteristically economic small-world topology and nonrandom modular organization. The network's cost efficiency increases with the brain development to 1 year and 2 years, so does the modularity, providing supportive evidence for the hypothesis that the small-world topology and the modular organization of brain networks are established during early brain development to support rapid synchronization and information transfer with minimal rewiring cost, as well as to balance between local processing and global integration of information. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  1. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback. ISBN 9781109025370.

  2. The blood-brain barrier in vitro using primary culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    The brain is protected from the entry of unwanted substances by means of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the brain microvasculature. This BBB is composed of non-fenestrated brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) with their intermingling tight junctions. The presence of the BBB is a huge...... obstacle for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, as many potentially CNS active drugs are unable to reach their site of action within the brain. In vitro BBB models are, therefore, being developed to investigate the BBB permeability of a drug early in its development. The first part...... of the thesis involves the establishment and characterization of an in vitro BBB models based on primary cells isolated from the rat brain. Co-culture and triple culture models with astrocytes and pericytes were found to be the superior to mono cultured BCECs with respect to many important BBB characteristics...

  3. Culture, mind, and the brain: current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Uskul, Ayse K

    2011-01-01

    Current research on culture focuses on independence and interdependence and documents numerous East-West psychological differences, with an increasing emphasis placed on cognitive mediating mechanisms. Lost in this literature is a time-honored idea of culture as a collective process composed of cross-generationally transmitted values and associated behavioral patterns (i.e., practices). A new model of neuro-culture interaction proposed here addresses this conceptual gap by hypothesizing that the brain serves as a crucial site that accumulates effects of cultural experience, insofar as neural connectivity is likely modified through sustained engagement in cultural practices. Thus, culture is "embrained," and moreover, this process requires no cognitive mediation. The model is supported in a review of empirical evidence regarding (a) collective-level factors involved in both production and adoption of cultural values and practices and (b) neural changes that result from engagement in cultural practices. Future directions of research on culture, mind, and the brain are discussed.

  4. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  5. Embodied Brains, Social Minds, Cultural Meaning: Integrating Neuroscientific and Educational Research on Social-Affective Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Social-affective neuroscience is revealing that human brain development is inherently social--our very nature is organized by nurture. To explore the implications for human development and education, we present a series of interdisciplinary studies documenting individual and cultural variability in the neurobiological correlates of emotional…

  6. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  8. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  9. Tolerances of the human brain to concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-01

    The report reviews the pertinent literature and adds additional evidence indicating that the human brain may be able to tolerate head impact forces in the range of 300 to 400 g's without evidence of concussion or other detectable neurologic sequelae,...

  10. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions....

  11. Ionising radiation and the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of radiation exposure of the developing human brain. Much of the evidence has come from the prenatally exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The effects on development age, mental retardation, head size, neuromuscular performance, intelligence tests, school performance and the occurrence of convulsions are discussed. Other topics covered include the biological nature of the damage to the brain, risk estimates in human and problems in radiation protection. (UK)

  12. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  13. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  14. The evolution of modern human brain shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Simon; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Modern humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and early postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils ( N = 20) from different time periods. Our data show that, 300,000 years ago, brain size in early H. sapiens already fell within the range of present-day humans. Brain shape, however, evolved gradually within the H. sapiens lineage, reaching present-day human variation between about 100,000 and 35,000 years ago. This process started only after other key features of craniofacial morphology appeared modern and paralleled the emergence of behavioral modernity as seen from the archeological record. Our findings are consistent with important genetic changes affecting early brain development within the H. sapiens lineage since the origin of the species and before the transition to the Later Stone Age and the Upper Paleolithic that mark full behavioral modernity.

  15. The evolution of modern human brain shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Simon; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Modern humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and early postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils (N = 20) from different time periods. Our data show that, 300,000 years ago, brain size in early H. sapiens already fell within the range of present-day humans. Brain shape, however, evolved gradually within the H. sapiens lineage, reaching present-day human variation between about 100,000 and 35,000 years ago. This process started only after other key features of craniofacial morphology appeared modern and paralleled the emergence of behavioral modernity as seen from the archeological record. Our findings are consistent with important genetic changes affecting early brain development within the H. sapiens lineage since the origin of the species and before the transition to the Later Stone Age and the Upper Paleolithic that mark full behavioral modernity. PMID:29376123

  16. Culture Wires the Brain: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Denise C; Huang, Chih-Mao

    2010-07-01

    There is clear evidence that sustained experiences may affect both brain structure and function. Thus, it is quite reasonable to posit that sustained exposure to a set of cultural experiences and behavioral practices will affect neural structure and function. The burgeoning field of cultural psychology has often demonstrated the subtle differences in the way individuals process information-differences that appear to be a product of cultural experiences. We review evidence that the collectivistic and individualistic biases of East Asian and Western cultures, respectively, affect neural structure and function. We conclude that there is limited evidence that cultural experiences affect brain structure and considerably more evidence that neural function is affected by culture, particularly activations in ventral visual cortex-areas associated with perceptual processing. © The Author(s) 2010.

  17. Culture and attention: evidence from brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Aron, Arthur; Hedden, Trey

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that our experiences, including the culture in which we are raised, shape how we attend to and perceive the world. Behavioral studies have found that individuals raised in Western cultures tend toward analytic processing and prefer tasks emphasizing independent contexts rather than tasks emphasizing interdependent contexts. The opposite is true for individuals raised in East Asian cultures, who tend toward holistic processing and prefer tasks emphasizing interdependent contexts. Recently, cognitive neuroscientists have extended these behavioral findings to examine the brain activity of individuals from different cultures during the performance of cognitive tasks. Results from these initial studies indicate that culture may shape how the brain processes even very abstract stimuli and may influence the features of the environment to which individuals attend. The present chapter reviews evidence that culture influences attention and related systems, which, in turn, impact other cognitive and social processes and their neural correlates.

  18. Human Possibilities: The Interaction of Biology and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the two main strands of a new unified theory about human nature and human possibilities: cultural transformation theory and bio-culturalism. Bio-culturalism combines findings from neuroscience about how our brains develop in interaction with our environments with findings from the study of relational dynamics, a new method of social analysis focusing on what kinds of relations—from intimate to international—a particular culture or subculture supports. Bio-culturalism recognizes that our species has a vast spectrum of genetic capacities, ranging from consciousness, caring, empathy, cooperation, and creativity to insensitivity, cruelty, exploitation, and destructiveness, and proposes that which of these capacities are expressed or inhibited largely hinges on the nature of our cultural environments. Cultural transformation theory looks at the whole span of human cultural evolution from the perspective of the tension between the contrasting configurations of the partnership system and the domination system as two underlying possibilities for structuring beliefs, institutions, and relationships. The article describes the core components of partnership- and domination-oriented societies, provides examples of each, and proposes that our future hinges on accelerating the cultural transformation from domination to partnership in our time of nuclear and biological weapons and the ever more efficient despoliation of nature, when high technology guided by an ethos of domination and conquest could take us to an evolutionary dead end.

  19. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  20. The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up......)] from a resting value of 6 to exercise, cerebral activation associated with mental activity, or exposure to a stressful situation. The CMR decrease is prevented with combined beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor...

  2. Neural stem cells improve neuronal survival in cultured postmortem brain tissue from aged and Alzheimer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Sluiter, A.A.; Guo, Ho Fu; Balesar, R. A.; Swaab, D. F.; Zhou, Jiang Ning; Verwer, R. W H

    Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive and incurable and are becoming ever more prevalent. To study whether neural stem cell can reactivate or rescue functions of impaired neurons in the human aging and neurodegenerating brain, we co-cultured postmortem slices from Alzheimer patients and control

  3. Wanted: Tesseract. One Hypothesis on Languages, Cultures, and Ethics for Mind, Brain, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Chiesa, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    For potential consideration by the Mind, Brain, and Education community, here is a modest but provocative hypothesis regarding the relationships between acquisition of languages, awareness of cultures, and development of ethics in human beings. Starting from the basic idea according to which "a fish does not know what water is," and using both…

  4. Neuroanthropology: a humanistic science for the study of the culture-brain nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Duque, Juan F; Turner, Robert; Lewis, E Douglas; Egan, Gary

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we argue that a combined anthropology/neuroscience field of enquiry can make a significant and distinctive contribution to the study of the relationship between culture and the brain. This field, which can appropriately be termed as neuroanthropology, is conceived of as being complementary to and mutually informative with social and cultural neuroscience. We start by providing an introduction to the culture concept in anthropology. We then present a detailed characterization of neuroanthropology and its methods and how they relate to the anthropological understanding of culture. The field is described as a humanistic science, that is, a field of enquiry founded on the perceived epistemological and methodological interdependence of science and the humanities. We also provide examples that illustrate the proposed methodological model for neuroanthropology. We conclude with a discussion about specific contributions the field can make to the study of the culture-brain nexus.

  5. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C.; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  6. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M.L.; Newman-Norlund, S.E.; Ruiter, J.P.A. de; Hagoort, P.; Levinson, S.C.; Toni, I.

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  7. Visual Culture, Art History and the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    This essay will discuss the need for the humanities to address visual culture studies as part of its interdisciplinary mission in today's university. Although mostly unnoticed in recent debates in the humanities over historical and theoretical frameworks, the relatively new field of visual culture has emerged as a corrective to a growing…

  8. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  9. Permeability of PEGylated immunoarsonoliposomes through in vitro blood brain barrier-medulloblastoma co-culture models for brain tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehri, Abdulghani; Favretto, Marco E; Ioannou, Panayiotis V; Romero, Ignacio A; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Weksler, Babette Barbash; Parker, Terry L; Kallinteri, Paraskevi

    2015-03-01

    Owing to restricted access of pharmacological agents into the brain due to blood brain barrier (BBB) there is a need: 1. to develop a more representative 3-D-co-culture model of tumor-BBB interaction to investigate drug and nanoparticle transport into the brain for diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation. 2. to address the lack of new alternative methods to animal testing according to replacement-reduction-refinement principles. In this work, in vitro BBB-medulloblastoma 3-D-co-culture models were established using immortalized human primary brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). hCMEC/D3 cells were cultured in presence and in absence of two human medulloblastoma cell lines on Transwell membranes. In vitro models were characterized for BBB formation, zonula occludens-1 expression and permeability to dextran. Transferrin receptors (Tfr) expressed on hCMEC/D3 were exploited to facilitate arsonoliposome (ARL) permeability through the BBB to the tumor by covalently attaching an antibody specific to human Tfr. The effect of anticancer ARLs on hCMEC/D3 was assessed. In vitro BBB and BBB-tumor co-culture models were established successfully. BBB permeability was affected by the presence of tumor aggregates as suggested by increased permeability of ARLs. There was a 6-fold and 8-fold increase in anti-Tfr-ARL uptake into VC312R and BBB-DAOY co-culture models, respectively, compared to plain ARLs. The three-dimensional models might be appropriate models to study the transport of various drugs and nanocarriers (liposomes and immunoarsonoliposomes) through the healthy and diseased BBB. The immunoarsonoliposomes can be potentially used as anticancer agents due to good tolerance of the in vitro BBB model to their toxic effect.

  10. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  11. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  12. Revisiting Glycogen Content in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, Gülin; DiNuzzo, Mauro; Kumar, Anjali; Moheet, Amir; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Glycogen provides an important glucose reservoir in the brain since the concentration of glucosyl units stored in glycogen is several fold higher than free glucose available in brain tissue. We have previously reported 3-4 µmol/g brain glycogen content using in vivo (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with [1-(13)C]glucose administration in healthy humans, while higher levels were reported in the rodent brain. Due to the slow turnover of bulk brain glycogen in humans, complete turnover of the glycogen pool, estimated to take 3-5 days, was not observed in these prior studies. In an attempt to reach complete turnover and thereby steady state (13)C labeling in glycogen, here we administered [1-(13)C]glucose to healthy volunteers for 80 h. To eliminate any net glycogen synthesis during this period and thereby achieve an accurate estimate of glycogen concentration, volunteers were maintained at euglycemic blood glucose levels during [1-(13)C]glucose administration and (13)C-glycogen levels in the occipital lobe were measured by (13)C MRS approximately every 12 h. Finally, we fitted the data with a biophysical model that was recently developed to take into account the tiered structure of the glycogen molecule and additionally incorporated blood glucose levels and isotopic enrichments as input function in the model. We obtained excellent fits of the model to the (13)C-glycogen data, and glycogen content in the healthy human brain tissue was found to be 7.8 ± 0.3 µmol/g, a value substantially higher than previous estimates of glycogen content in the human brain.

  13. Culture-sensitive neural substrates of human cognition: a transcultural neuroimaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2008-08-01

    Our brains and minds are shaped by our experiences, which mainly occur in the context of the culture in which we develop and live. Although psychologists have provided abundant evidence for diversity of human cognition and behaviour across cultures, the question of whether the neural correlates of human cognition are also culture-dependent is often not considered by neuroscientists. However, recent transcultural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that one's cultural background can influence the neural activity that underlies both high- and low-level cognitive functions. The findings provide a novel approach by which to distinguish culture-sensitive from culture-invariant neural mechanisms of human cognition.

  14. A Triple Culture Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Porcine Brain Endothelial cells, Astrocytes and Pericytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Burkhart, Annette; Moos, Torben

    2015-01-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary brain endothelial cells (BECs) cultured as monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are useful for studying many properties of the BBB. The BECs retain their expression of tight junction proteins and efflux transporters leading to high trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER) and low passive paracellular permeability. The BECs, astrocytes and pericytes are often isolated from small rodents. Larger species as cows and pigs however, reveal a higher yield, are readily available and have a closer resemblance to humans, which make them favorable high-throughput sources for cellular isolation. The aim of the present study has been to determine if the preferable combination of purely porcine cells isolated from the 6 months old domestic pigs, i.e. porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) in co-culture with porcine astrocytes and pericytes, would compare with PBECs co-cultured with astrocytes and pericytes isolated from newborn rats with respect to TEER value and low passive permeability. The astrocytes and pericytes were grown both as contact and non-contact co-cultures as well as in triple culture to examine their effects on the PBECs for barrier formation as revealed by TEER, passive permeability, and expression patterns of tight junction proteins, efflux transporters and the transferrin receptor. This syngenic porcine in vitro BBB model is comparable to triple cultures using PBECs, rat astrocytes and rat pericytes with respect to TEER formation, low passive permeability, and expression of hallmark proteins signifying the brain endothelium (tight junction proteins claudin 5 and occludin, the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (PgP) and breast cancer related protein (BCRP), and the transferrin receptor).

  15. A Triple Culture Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Porcine Brain Endothelial cells, Astrocytes and Pericytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Bohn Thomsen

    Full Text Available In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB models based on primary brain endothelial cells (BECs cultured as monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are useful for studying many properties of the BBB. The BECs retain their expression of tight junction proteins and efflux transporters leading to high trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER and low passive paracellular permeability. The BECs, astrocytes and pericytes are often isolated from small rodents. Larger species as cows and pigs however, reveal a higher yield, are readily available and have a closer resemblance to humans, which make them favorable high-throughput sources for cellular isolation. The aim of the present study has been to determine if the preferable combination of purely porcine cells isolated from the 6 months old domestic pigs, i.e. porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs in co-culture with porcine astrocytes and pericytes, would compare with PBECs co-cultured with astrocytes and pericytes isolated from newborn rats with respect to TEER value and low passive permeability. The astrocytes and pericytes were grown both as contact and non-contact co-cultures as well as in triple culture to examine their effects on the PBECs for barrier formation as revealed by TEER, passive permeability, and expression patterns of tight junction proteins, efflux transporters and the transferrin receptor. This syngenic porcine in vitro BBB model is comparable to triple cultures using PBECs, rat astrocytes and rat pericytes with respect to TEER formation, low passive permeability, and expression of hallmark proteins signifying the brain endothelium (tight junction proteins claudin 5 and occludin, the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (PgP and breast cancer related protein (BCRP, and the transferrin receptor.

  16. Issues of cultural diversity in acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerica, Anthony; Krch, Denise

    2014-01-01

    With the general population in the United States becoming increasingly diverse, it is important for rehabilitation professionals to develop the capacity to provide culturally sensitive treatment. This is especially relevant when working with minority populations who have a higher risk for brain injury and poorer rehabilitation outcomes. This article presents a number of clinical vignettes to illustrate how cultural factors can influence behavior in patients recovering from brain injury, as well as rehabilitation staff. The main objectives are to raise awareness among clinicians and stimulate research ideas by highlighting some real world examples of situations where a specialized, patient-centered approach needs to consider factors of cultural diversity. Because one's own world view impacts the way we see the world and interpret behavior, it is important to understand one's own ethnocentrism when dealing with a diverse population of patients with brain injury where behavioral sequelae are often expected. Being able to see behavior after brain injury with an open mind and taking into account cultural and contextual factors is an important step in developing culturally competent rehabilitation practices.

  17. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  18. Imaging visual function of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marg, E.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging of human brain structure and activity with particular reference to visual function is reviewed along with methods of obtaining the data including computed tomographic (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET). The literature is reviewed and the potential for a new understanding of brain visual function is discussed. PET is reviewed from basic physical principles to the most recent visual brain findings with oxygen-15. It is shown that there is a potential for submillimeter localization of visual functions with sequentially different visual stimuli designed for the temporal separation of the responses. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a less expensive substitute for PET, is also discussed. MRS is covered from basic physical principles to the current state of the art of in vivo biochemical analysis. Future possible clinical applications are discussed. Improved understanding of the functional neural organization of vision and brain will open a window to maps and circuits of human brain function.119 references

  19. [Evolution of human brain and intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, László; Janka, Zoltán

    2008-07-30

    The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are

  20. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Connectome imaging for mapping human brain pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Toga, A W

    2017-09-01

    With the fast advance of connectome imaging techniques, we have the opportunity of mapping the human brain pathways in vivo at unprecedented resolution. In this article we review the current developments of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the reconstruction of anatomical pathways in connectome studies. We first introduce the background of diffusion MRI with an emphasis on the technical advances and challenges in state-of-the-art multi-shell acquisition schemes used in the Human Connectome Project. Characterization of the microstructural environment in the human brain is discussed from the tensor model to the general fiber orientation distribution (FOD) models that can resolve crossing fibers in each voxel of the image. Using FOD-based tractography, we describe novel methods for fiber bundle reconstruction and graph-based connectivity analysis. Building upon these novel developments, there have already been successful applications of connectome imaging techniques in reconstructing challenging brain pathways. Examples including retinofugal and brainstem pathways will be reviewed. Finally, we discuss future directions in connectome imaging and its interaction with other aspects of brain imaging research.

  2. A porcine astrocyte/endothelial cell co-culture model of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeliazkova-Mecheva, Valentina V; Bobilya, Dennis J

    2003-10-01

    A method for the isolation of porcine atrocytes as a simple extension of a previously described procedure for isolation of brain capillary endothelial cells from adolescent pigs [Methods Cell Sci. 17 (1995) 2] is described. The obtained astroglial culture purified through two passages and by the method of the selective detachment was validated by a phase contrast microscopy and through an immunofluorescent assay for the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Porcine astrocytes were co-cultivated with porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC) for the development of an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. The model was visualized by an electron microscopy and showed elevated transendothellial electrical resistance and reduced inulin permeability. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the establishment of a porcine astrocyte/endothelial cell co-culture BBB model, which avoids interspecies and age differences between the two cell types, usually encountered in the other reported co-culture BBB models. Considering the availability of the porcine brain tissue and the close physiological and anatomical relation between the human and pig brain, the porcine astrocyte/endothelial cell co-culture system can serve as a reliable and easily reproducible model for different in vitro BBB studies.

  3. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  4. Comparative study of four immortalized human brain capillary endothelial cell lines, hCMEC/D3, hBMEC, TY10, and BB19, and optimization of culture conditions, for an in vitro blood-brain barrier model for drug permeability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, Daniela E; Xue, Gongda; Kim, Kwang S; Moses, Ashlee V; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2013-11-22

    Reliable human in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models suitable for high-throughput screening are urgently needed in early drug discovery and development for assessing the ability of promising bioactive compounds to overcome the BBB. To establish an improved human in vitro BBB model, we compared four currently available and well characterized immortalized human brain capillary endothelial cell lines, hCMEC/D3, hBMEC, TY10, and BB19, with respect to barrier tightness and paracellular permeability. Co-culture systems using immortalized human astrocytes (SVG-A cell line) and immortalized human pericytes (HBPCT cell line) were designed with the aim of positively influencing barrier tightness. Tight junction (TJ) formation was assessed by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements using a conventional epithelial voltohmmeter (EVOM) and an automated CellZscope system which records TEER and cell layer capacitance (CCL) in real-time.Paracellular permeability was assessed using two fluorescent marker compounds with low BBB penetration (sodium fluorescein (Na-F) and lucifer yellow (LY)). Conditions were optimized for each endothelial cell line by screening a series of 24-well tissue culture inserts from different providers. For hBMEC cells, further optimization was carried out by varying coating material, coating procedure, cell seeding density, and growth media composition. Biochemical characterization of cell type-specific transmembrane adherens junction protein VE-cadherin and of TJ proteins ZO-1 and claudin-5 were carried out for each endothelial cell line. In addition, immunostaining for ZO-1 in hBMEC cell line was performed. The four cell lines all expressed the endothelial cell type-specific adherens junction protein VE-cadherin. The TJ protein ZO-1 was expressed in hCMEC/D3 and in hBMEC cells. ZO-1 expression could be confirmed in hBMEC cells by immunocytochemical staining. Claudin-5 expression was detected in hCMEC/D3, TY10, and at a very low level

  5. Differing levels of excision repair in human fetal dermis and brain cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; D'Ambrosio, S.M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1982-01-01

    The levels of DNA excision repair, as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and the UV-endonuclease sensitive site assay, were compared in cells derived from human fetal brain and dermal tissues. The level of UDS induced following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was found to be lower (approx. 60%) in the fetal brain cells than in fetal dermal cells. It was determined, using the UV-endonuclease sensitive site assay to confirm the UDS observation, that 50% of the dimers induced by UV in fetal dermal cells were repaired in 8 h. while only 15% were removed in the fetal brain cells during the same period of time. Even after 24 h. only 44% of the dimers induced by UV in the fetal brain cells were repaired, while 65% were removed in the dermal cells. These data suggest that cultured human fetal brain cells exhibit lower levels of excision repair compared to cultured human fetal dermal cells. (author)

  6. Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

    2002-05-01

    Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

  7. Human embryo culture media comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Thomas B; Schoolfield, John; Han, David

    2012-01-01

    Every program of assisted reproduction strives to maximize pregnancy outcomes from in vitro fertilization and selecting an embryo culture medium, or medium pair, consistent with high success rates is key to this process. The common approach is to replace an existing medium with a new one of interest in the overall culture system and then perform enough cycles of IVF to see if a difference is noted both in laboratory measures of embryo quality and in pregnancy. This approach may allow a laboratory to select one medium over another but the outcomes are only relevant to that program, given that there are well over 200 other variables that may influence the results in an IVF cycle. A study design that will allow for a more global application of IVF results, ones due to culture medium composition as the single variable, is suggested. To perform a study of this design, the center must have a patient caseload appropriate to meet study entrance criteria, success rates high enough to reveal a difference if one exists and a strong program of quality assurance and control in both the laboratory and clinic. Sibling oocytes are randomized to two study arms and embryos are evaluated on day 3 for quality grades. Inter and intra-observer variability are evaluated by kappa statistics and statistical power and study size estimates are performed to bring discriminatory capability to the study. Finally, the complications associated with extending such a study to include blastocyst production on day 5 or 6 are enumerated.

  8. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, L M

    2014-04-03

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our human biology are adaptive and evolutionary while others are pathological. What changes in human biology may be wrought by the modern urban environment? One significant new change in the environment is the introduction of pollutants largely through urbanization. Pollutants can affect human biology in myriad ways. Evidence shows that human growth, reproduction, and cognitive functioning can be altered by some pollutants, and altered in different ways depending on the pollutant. Thus, pollutants have significance for human biologists and anthropologists generally. Further, they illustrate the bio-cultural interaction characterizing human change. Humans adapt by changing the environment, a cultural process, and then change biologically to adjust to that new environment. This ongoing, interactive process is a fundamental characteristic of human change over the millennia.

  9. Accumulation of silver nanoparticles by cultured primary brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Eva M; Koehler, Yvonne; Dringen, Ralf [Center for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, University of Bremen, PO Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany); Diendorf, Joerg; Epple, Matthias, E-mail: ralf.dringen@uni-bremen.de [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 5-7, D-45117 Essen (Germany)

    2011-09-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are components of various food industry products and are frequently used for medical equipment and materials. Although such particles enter the vertebrate brain, little is known on their biocompatibility for brain cells. To study the consequences of an AgNP exposure of brain cells we have treated astrocyte-rich primary cultures with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP. The incubation of cultured astrocytes with micromolar concentrations of AgNP for up to 24 h resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of silver, but did not compromise the cell viability nor lower the cellular glutathione content. In contrast, the incubation of astrocytes for 4 h with identical amounts of silver as AgNO{sub 3} already severely compromised the cell viability and completely deprived the cells of glutathione. The accumulation of AgNP by astrocytes was proportional to the concentration of AgNP applied and significantly lowered by about 30% in the presence of the endocytosis inhibitors chloroquine or amiloride. Incubation at 4 {sup 0}C reduced the accumulation of AgNP by 80% compared to the values obtained for cells that had been exposed to AgNP at 37 {sup 0}C. These data demonstrate that viable cultured brain astrocytes efficiently accumulate PVP-coated AgNP in a temperature-dependent process that most likely involves endocytotic pathways.

  10. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  11. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets

  12. The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control and non-GB...

  13. Human cultural diversity in prehistoric Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan E. Cochrane

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote islands and their human, animal and plant populations have long fascinated archaeologists, biologists and geographers. In this article, the chronology, diversity and interactions of human cultures in some small islands of the Fiji archipelago are explored, particularly through the application of sophisticated chemical analyses of the composition of prehistoric pottery.

  14. Islam, brain death, and transplantation: culture, faith, and jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Richard; AlGhamdi, Hanan Mesfer Saad; Peters, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A significant gap exists between availability of organs for transplant and patients with end-stage organ failure for whom organ transplantation is the last treatment option. Reasons for this mismatch include inadequate approach to potential donor families and donor loss as a result of refractory cardiopulmonary instability during and after brainstem herniation. Other reasons include inadequate cultural competence and sensitivity when communicating with potential donor families. Clinicians may not have an understanding of the cultural and religious perspectives of Muslim families of critically ill patients who may be approached about brain death and organ donation. This review analyzes Islamic cultural and religious perspectives on organ donation, transplantation, and brain death, including faith-based directives from Islamic religious authorities, definitions of death in Islam, and communication strategies when discussing brain death and organ donation with Muslim families. Optimal family care and communication are highlighted using case studies and backgrounds illustrating barriers and approaches with Muslim families in the United States and in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that can improve cultural competence and family care as well as increase organ availability within the Muslim population and beyond.

  15. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  16. Radiation effects on the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The developing human brain has been shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. Mental retardation has been observed in the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan exposed in utero during sensitive periods, and clinical studies of pelvically irradiated pregnant women have demonstrated damaging effects on the fetus. In this annex the emphasis is on reviewing the results of the study of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan, although the results of other human epidemiological investigations and of pertinent experimental studies are also considered. Refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  17. [Isolation and identification of brain tumor stem cells from human brain neuroepithelial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-sheng; Deng, Yong-wen; Li, Ming-chu; Chen, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yan-jin; Lu, Ming; Fang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Yang, Zhuan-yi; Zhou, Xang-yang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Cheng

    2007-01-30

    To establish a simplified culture system for the isolation of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) from the tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue, to observe the growth and differentiation pattern of BTSCs, and to investigate their expression of the specific markers. Twenty-six patients with brain neuroepithelial tumors underwent tumor resection. Two pieces of tumor tissues were taken from each tumor to be dissociated, triturated into single cells in sterile DMEM-F12 medium, and then filtered. The tumor cells were seeded at a concentration of 200,000 viable cells per mL into serum-free DMEM-F12 medium simply supplemented with B27, human basic fibroblast growth factor (20 microg/L), human epidermal growth factor (20 microg /L), insulin (4 U/L), L-glutamine, penicillin and streptomycin. After the primary brain tumor spheres (BTSs) were generated, they were triturated again and passed in fresh medium. Limiting dilution assay was performed to observe the monoclone formation. 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation test was performed to observe the proliferation of the BTS. The BTSCs were cultured in mitogen-free DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum to observe their differentiation. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of CD133 and nestin, specific markers of BTSC, and the rate of CD133 positive cells. Only a minority of subsets of cells from the tumors of neuroepithelial tissue had the capacity to survive, proliferate, and generate free-floating neurosphere-like BTSs in the simplified serum-free medium. These cells attached to the poly-L-lysine coated coverslips in the serum-supplemented medium and differentiated. The BTSCs were CD133 and nestin positive. The rate of CD133 positive cells in the tumor specimens was (21 +/- 6.2)% - (38 +/- 7.0)%. A new simplified culture system for the isolation of BTSCs is established. The tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue contain CD133 and nestin positive tumor stem cells which can be isolated

  18. Towards Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eCao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and

  19. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental

  20. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental

  1. Comparative study of four immortalized human brain capillary endothelial cell lines, hCMEC/D3, hBMEC, TY10, and BB19, and optimization of culture conditions, for an in vitro blood–brain barrier model for drug permeability studies

    OpenAIRE

    Eigenmann, Daniela E; Xue, Gongda; Kim, Kwang S; Moses, Ashlee V; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reliable human in vitro blood brain barrier (BBB) models suitable for high throughput screening are urgently needed in early drug discovery and development for assessing the ability of promising bioactive compounds to overcome the BBB. To establish an improved human in vitro BBB model we compared four currently available and well characterized immortalized human brain capillary endothelial cell lines hCMEC/D3 hBMEC TY10 and BB19 with respect to barrier tightness and paracellular p...

  2. Brain structures in the sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    The areas of academic interest (sciences or humanities) and area of study have been known to be associated with a number of factors associated with autistic traits. However, despite the vast amount of literature on the psychological and physiological characteristics associated with faculty membership, brain structural characteristics associated with faculty membership have never been investigated directly. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV)/regional white matter volume (rWMV) between science and humanities students to test our hypotheses that brain structures previously robustly shown to be altered in autistic subjects are related to differences in faculty membership. We examined 312 science students (225 males and 87 females) and 179 humanities students (105 males and 74 females). Whole-brain analyses of covariance revealed that after controlling for age, sex, and total intracranial volume, the science students had significantly larger rGMV in an anatomical cluster around the medial prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar area, whereas the humanities students had significantly larger rWMV in an anatomical cluster mainly concentrated around the right hippocampus. These anatomical structures have been linked to autism in previous studies and may mediate cognitive functions that characterize differences in faculty membership. The present results may support the ideas that autistic traits and characteristics of the science students compared with the humanities students share certain characteristics from neuroimaging perspectives. This study improves our understanding of differences in faculty membership which is the link among cognition, biological factors, disorders, and education (academia).

  3. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Roger

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give.

  4. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Roger

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give

  5. Anatomy, technology, art, and culture: toward a realistic perspective of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Feindel, William; Goodrich, James T; Dagi, T Forcht; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Preul, Mark C

    2009-09-01

    In the 15th century, brain illustration began to change from a schematic system that involved scant objective rendering of the brain, to accurate depictions based on anatomical dissections that demanded significant artistic talent. Notable examples of this innovation are the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci (1498-1504), Andreas Vesalius' association with the bottega of Titian to produce the drawings of Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica (1543), and Christopher Wren's illustrations for Thomas Willis' Cerebri Anatome (1664). These works appeared during the Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment, when advances in brain imaging, or really brain rendering, reflected not only the abilities and dedications of the artists, but also the influences of important cultural and scientific factors. Anatomy and human dissection became popular social phenomena as well as scholarly pursuits, linked with the world of the fine arts. The working philosophy of these artists involved active participation in both anatomical study and illustration, and the belief that their discoveries of the natural world could best be communicated by rendering them in objective form (that is, with realistic perspective). From their studies emerged the beginning of contemporary brain imaging. In this article, the authors examine how the brain began to be imaged in realism within a cultural and scientific milieu that witnessed the emergence of anatomical dissection, the geometry of linear perspective, and the closer confluence of art and science.

  6. Deconstructing Anger in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilam, Gadi; Hendler, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Anger may be caused by a wide variety of triggers, and though it has negative consequences on health and well-being, it is also crucial in motivating to take action and approach rather than avoid a confrontation. While anger is considered a survival response inherent in all living creatures, humans are endowed with the mental flexibility that enables them to control and regulate their anger, and adapt it to socially accepted norms. Indeed, a profound interpersonal nature is apparent in most events which evoke anger among humans. Since anger consists of physiological, cognitive, subjective, and behavioral components, it is a contextualized multidimensional construct that poses theoretical and operational difficulties in defining it as a single psychobiological phenomenon. Although most neuroimaging studies have neglected the multidimensionality of anger and thus resulted in brain activations dispersed across the entire brain, there seems to be several reoccurring neural circuits subserving the subjective experience of human anger. Nevertheless, to capture the large variety in the forms and fashions in which anger is experienced, expressed, and regulated, and thus to better portray the related underlying neural substrates, neurobehavioral investigations of human anger should aim to further embed realistic social interactions within their anger induction paradigms.

  7. Modeling human disease using organotypic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Pawel J; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. However, it has been exceedingly difficult to model disease at the tissue level. Since recently, the gap between cell line studies and in vivo modeling has been narrowing thanks to progress in biomaterials and stem cell research. Development of reliable 3D...... culture systems has enabled a rapid expansion of sophisticated in vitro models. Here we focus on some of the latest advances and future perspectives in 3D organoids for human disease modeling....

  8. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  9. Time to take human embryo culture seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Arne; Brison, Daniel; Dumoulin, John; Harper, Joyce; Lundin, Kersti; Magli, M Cristina; Van den Abbeel, Etienne; Veiga, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Is it important that end-users know the composition of human embryo culture media? We argue that there is as strong case for full transparency concerning the composition of embryo culture media intended for human use. Published data suggest that the composition of embryo culture media may influence the phenotype of the offspring. A review of the literature was carried out. Data concerning the potential effects on embryo development of culture media were assessed and recommendations for users made. The safety of ART procedures, especially with respect to the health of the offspring, is of major importance. There are reports from the literature indicating a possible effect of culture conditions, including culture media, on embryo and fetal development. Since the introduction of commercially available culture media, there has been a rapid development of different formulations, often not fully documented, disclosed or justified. There is now evidence that the environment the early embryo is exposed to can cause reprogramming of embryonic growth leading to alterations in fetal growth trajectory, birthweight, childhood growth and long-term disease including Type II diabetes and cardiovascular problems. The mechanism for this is likely to be epigenetic changes during the preimplantation period of development. In the present paper the ESHRE working group on culture media summarizes the present knowledge of potential effects on embryo development related to culture media, and makes recommendations. There is still a need for large prospective randomized trials to further elucidate the link between the composition of embryo culture media used and the phenotype of the offspring. We do not presently know if the phenotypic changes induced by in vitro embryo culture represent a problem for long-term health of the offspring. Published data indicate that there is a strong case for demanding full transparency concerning the compositions of and the scientific rationale behind the

  10. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  11. Medical humanities as expressive of Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Claire; Noonan, Estelle

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we articulate a growing awareness within the field of the ways in which medical humanities could be deemed expressive of Western cultural values. The authors suggest that medical humanities is culturally limited by a pedagogical and scholarly emphasis on Western cultural artefacts, as well as a tendency to enact an uncritical reliance upon foundational concepts (such as 'patient' and 'experience') within Western medicine. Both these tendencies within the field, we suggest, are underpinned by a humanistic emphasis on appreciative or receptive encounters with 'difference' among patients that may unwittingly contribute to the marginalisation of some patients and healthcare workers. While cultural difference should be acknowledged as a central preoccupation of medical humanities, we argue that the discipline must continue to expand its scholarly and critical engagements with processes of Othering in biomedicine. We suggest that such improvements are necessary in order to reflect the cultural diversification of medical humanities students, and the geographical expansion of the discipline within non-Western and/or non-Anglophone locations.

  12. Impact of commercial cigarette smoke condensate on brain tissue co-cultured with astrocytes and blood-brain barrier endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Bong; Kim, Ju-Hyeong; Cho, Myung-Haing; Choe, Eun-Sang; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of two commercial cigarette smoke condensates (CCSC) on oxidative stress and cell cytotoxicity in human brain (T98G) or astrocytes (U-373 MG) in the presence of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Cell viability of mono-culture of T98G or U-373 MG was markedly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and T98G was more susceptible than U-373 MG to CCSC exposure. Cytotoxicity was less prominent when T98G was co-cultured with HBMEC than when T98G was co-cultured with U-373 MG. Significant reduction in trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER), a biomarker of cellular integrity was noted in HBMEC co-cultured with T98G (HBMEC-T98G co-culture) and U-373 MG co-cultured with T98G (U-373 MG-T98G co-culture) after 24 or 48 hr CCSC exposure, respectively. TEER value of U-373 MG co-cultured with T98G (79-84%) was higher than HBMEC co-cultured with T98G (62-63%) within 120-hr incubation with CCSC. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by CCSC in mono-culture of T98G and U-373 MG reached highest levels at 4 and 16 mg/ml, respectively. ROS production by T98G fell when co-cultured with HBMEC or U-373MG. These findings suggest that adverse consequences of CCSC treatment on brain cells may be protected by blood-brain barrier or astrocytes, but with chronic exposure toxicity may be worsened due to destruction of cellular integrity.

  13. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  14. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  16. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcendor Donald J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV, microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC. However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited

  17. Loss of Brain Aerobic Glycolysis in Normal Human Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Blazey, Tyler M; Su, Yi; Couture, Lars E; Durbin, Tony J; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L-S; Morris, John C; Raichle, Marcus E

    2017-08-01

    The normal aging human brain experiences global decreases in metabolism, but whether this affects the topography of brain metabolism is unknown. Here we describe PET-based measurements of brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in cognitively normal adults from 20 to 82 years of age. Age-related decreases in brain glucose uptake exceed that of oxygen use, resulting in loss of brain aerobic glycolysis (AG). Whereas the topographies of total brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow remain largely stable with age, brain AG topography changes significantly. Brain regions with high AG in young adults show the greatest change, as do regions with prolonged developmental transcriptional features (i.e., neoteny). The normal aging human brain thus undergoes characteristic metabolic changes, largely driven by global loss and topographic changes in brain AG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Company culture and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.

    1999-01-01

    Human beings constitute an important factor for smooth operation and fulfilment of special safety requirements in the workplace environment of a nuclear power station. It is therefore important to carry out investigations and continual checks in order to prevent routine complacency of the employees, not only for their respective tasks but also with regard to the structure of the plant. Frantisek Rerucha reports on the investigation of procedural approaches, the methods thereby involved and the results obtained in the nuclear power station Dukovany. The investigation came to the conclusion that communication and information problems exist in many areas. The company goals are communicated inadequately, especially on the lower and middle levels, with the result that employees do not always comply exactly with the directives. On the other hand, the employees are often overstressed with additional, often useless, information. However, willingness to communicate is mostly absent, and the employees have a feeling that personal relationships in general tend to be unsatisfactory in the nuclear power station. Management personnel is experienced as highly qualified experts without qualifications for leadership. But the study came to the conclusion that communication on the operative sector functions very well, by virtue of a well-established personal network. (orig.) [de

  19. Culture and Human Rights: The Wroclaw Commentaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesand, A.J.; Chainoglou, K.; Śledzińska-Simon, A.; Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The City of Wroclaw, in cooperation with the National Cultural Centre (Warsaw), has asked Andreas Joh. Wiesand to prepare, together with experts from many different countries, a basic handbook which cover all relevant legal questions as well as main political consequences related to human rights and

  20. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  1. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without

  2. Effectiveness of mesenchymal stems cells cultured by hanging drop vs. conventional culturing on the repair of hypoxic-ischemic-damaged mouse brains, measured by stemness gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Lou Yongli; Guo Dewei; Zhang Hui; Song Laijun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) cultured by hanging drop and conventional culturing methods on cerebellar repair in hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injured mice. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to analyze the expression levels of three stemness genes, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, and the migration related gene CXCR4. MSC prepared by hanging drop or conventional techniques were adminis...

  3. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  5. Culture modulates brain activity during empathy with anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greck, Moritz; Shi, Zhenhao; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Xiangyu; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-02-01

    Interdependent cultures (such as the Chinese) and independent cultures (such as the German) differ in their attitude towards harmony that is more valued in interdependent cultures. Interdependent and independent cultures also differ in their appreciation of anger--an emotion that implies the disruption of harmony. The present study investigated if interdependent and independent cultures foster distinct brain activity associated with empathic processing of familiar angry, familiar neutral, and unfamiliar neutral faces. Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese and German healthy subjects during an intentional empathy task, a control task (the evaluation of skin color), and a baseline condition. The subject groups were matched with regard to age, gender, and education. Behaviorally, Chinese subjects described themselves as significantly more interdependent compared to German subjects. The contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline' revealed several regions, including the left inferior frontal cortex, the left supplementary motor area, and the left insula, that showed comparable hemodynamic responses in both groups. However, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had stronger hemodynamic responses in Chinese subjects in the contrast 'intentional empathy for familiar angry'>'baseline'. Germans, in contrast, showed stronger hemodynamic responses in the right temporo-parietal junction, right inferior and superior temporal gyrus, and left middle insula for the same contrast. Hemodynamic responses in the latter three brain regions correlated with interdependences scores over all subjects. Our results suggest that enhanced emotion regulation during empathy with anger in the interdependent lifestyle is mediated by the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Increased tolerance towards the expression of anger in the independent lifestyle, in contrast, is associated with increased activity of the right inferior and superior temporal gyrus and the left middle

  6. Modelling glioblastoma tumour-host cell interactions using adult brain organotypic slice co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs. Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human. Unfortunately, these approaches are expensive, time-consuming, low-throughput and ill-suited for monitoring live cell behaviours. Here, we explored whole adult brain coronal organotypic slices as an alternative model. Mouse adult brain slices remain viable in a serum-free basal medium for several weeks. GSCs can be easily microinjected into specific anatomical sites ex vivo, and we demonstrate distinct responses of engrafted GSCs to diverse microenvironments in the brain tissue. Within the subependymal zone – one of the adult neural stem cell niches – injected tumour cells could effectively engraft and respond to endothelial niche signals. Tumour-transplanted slices were treated with the antimitotic drug temozolomide as proof of principle of the utility in modelling responses to existing treatments. Engraftment of mouse or human GSCs onto whole brain coronal organotypic brain slices therefore provides a simplified, yet flexible, experimental model. This will help to increase the precision and throughput of modelling GSC-host brain interactions and complements ongoing in vivo studies. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  7. [Neuroethics: Ethical Endowments of Human Brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of Neuroethics. Neurosciences demonstrate which cerebral areas are active and inactive whilst people decide how to act when facing a moral dilemma; in this way we know the correlation between determined cerebral areas and our human acts. We can explain how the ″ethical endowments″ of each person, common to all human beings, is ″embedded″ in the dynamic of cerebral flows. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. The outcome of man's natural inclinations is on one hand linked to instinctive systems of animal survival and to basic emotions, and on the other, to the life of each individual human uninhibited by automatism of the biological laws, because he is governed by the laws of freedom. The capacity to formulate an ethical judgement is an innate asset of the human mind.

  8. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    -brain barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  9. Human Behavioral Representations with Realistic Personality and Cultural Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachary, Wayne; Le Mentec, Jean-Christopher; Miller, Lynn; Read, Stephen; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2005-01-01

    ...) with pre-defined and specific personality traits and cultural characteristics. This capability meets a current and growing need for human models that exhibit personality and cultural variability...

  10. Left Brain to Right Brain: Notes from the Human Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumli, Francis

    1982-01-01

    Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)

  11. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various diagnostic...

  12. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  13. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  14. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  15. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR eSANIOTIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  16. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  17. Transfection of brain capillary endothelial cells in primary culture with defined blood-brain barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Annette; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Lichota, Jacek; Fazakas, Csilla; Krizbai, István; Moos, Torben

    2015-08-07

    Primary brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are a promising tool to study the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro, as they maintain many important characteristics of the BBB in vivo, especially when co-cultured with pericytes and/or astrocytes. A novel strategy for drug delivery to the brain is to transform BCECs into protein factories by genetic modifications leading to secretion of otherwise BBB impermeable proteins into the central nervous system. However, a huge challenge underlying this strategy is to enable transfection of non-mitotic BCECs, taking a non-viral approach. We therefore aimed to study transfection in primary, non-mitotic BCECs cultured with defined BBB properties without disrupting the cells' integrity. Primary cultures of BCECs, pericytes and astrocytes were generated from rat brains and used in three different in vitro BBB experimental arrangements, which were characterised based on a their expression of tight junction proteins and other BBB specific proteins, high trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and low passive permeability to radiolabeled mannitol. Recombinant gene expression and protein synthesis were examined in primary BCECs. The BCECs were transfected using a commercially available transfection agent Turbofect™ to express the red fluorescent protein HcRed1-C1. The BCECs were transfected at different time points to monitor transfection in relation to mitotic or non-mitotic cells, as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis after 5-and 6-carboxylfluorescein diacetate succinidyl ester incorporation. The cell cultures exhibited important BBB characteristics judged from their expression of BBB specific proteins, high TEER values, and low passive permeability. Among the three in vitro BBB models, co-culturing with BCECs and astrocytes was well suited for the transfection studies. Transfection was independent of cell division and with equal efficacy between the mitotic and non-mitotic BCECs. Importantly

  18. Influence of organizational culture on human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.A.; Evans, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Much has been written in contemporary business literature during the last decade describing the role that corporate culture plays in virtually every aspect of a firm's success. In 1990 Kotter and Heskett wrote, open-quotes We found that firms with cultures that emphasized all of the key managerial constituencies (customers, stockholders, and employees) and leadership from managers at all levels out-performed firms that did not have those cultural traits by a huge margin. Over an eleven year period, the former increased revenues by an average of 682 percent versus 166 percent for the latter, expanded their workforce by 282 percent versus 36 percent, grew their stock prices by 901 percent versus 74 percent, and improved their net incomes by 756 percent versus 1 percent.close quotes Since the mid-1980s, several electric utilities have documented their efforts to undertake strategic culture change. In almost every case, these efforts have yielded dramatic improvements in the open-quotes bottom-lineclose quotes operational and financial results (e.g., Western Resources, Arizona Public Service, San Diego Gas ampersand Electric, and Electricity Trust of South Australia). Given the body of evidence that indicates a relationship between high-performing organizational culture and the financial and business success of a firm, Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light Company undertook a study to identify the relationship between organizational culture and the frequency, severity, and nature of human error at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. The underlying proposition for this asssessment is that organizational culture is an independent variable that transforms external events into organizational performance

  19. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  20. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B

    2008-11-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.

  2. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  3. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Flavian Clipa; Raluca Irina Clipa

    2009-01-01

    When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  4. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it "implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms." The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, adopted in 2005, states that "cultural diversity can be protected and promoted only if human rights and fundamental freedoms … are guaranteed" (Article 2[1]). The precise relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, however, is not clarified and thus leaves room for further exploration. This contribution analyses the issues surrounding the relationship between cultural diversity and human rights, in particular cultural rights. Firstly, it addresses general human rights issues such as universality and cultural relativism and the principles of equality and non-discrimination. Secondly, it explores the scope of cultural rights, as well as the cultural dimension of human rights. Thirdly, several cases are discussed in which human rights were invoked to protect cultural interests, confirming the value of cultural diversity. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented, indicating which areas require attention in order to further improve the promotion and protection of human rights in relation to cultural diversity.

  5. Uptake of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals in neocortical brain cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, B.M. de; Royen, E.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The uptake, retention and uptake antagonism of /sup 201/Tl-DDC, /sup 201/Tl-Cl, /sup 123/I-IMP, /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ were compared in rat neocortex cultures. /sup 201/Tl-DDC and /sup 123/I-IP revealed the highest uptake of radioactivity in the cultures. /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 123/I-IMP showed the highest retention of radioactivity within the tissue in washout experiments. Blocking of bioelectric activity by tetrodotoxin did not significantly affect the uptake of the radiopharmaceuticals (RPHA). Inhibition of Na K ATPase by ouabain inhibited the uptake of /sup 201/Tl-Cl (77%) and /sup 201/Tl-DDC (27%). Imipramine showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect on /sup 123/I-IMP uptake in comparison with the effect on other RPHA. /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ was not concentrated within the cultured tissue. Under the in vitro conditions used in this study, the various RPHA were characterised by distinct differences in their interaction with cortical brain tissue.

  6. Macroscopic networks in the human brain: mapping connectivity in healthy and damaged brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain contains a network of interconnected neurons. Recent advances in functional and structural in-vivo magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) techniques have provided opportunities to model the networks of the human brain on a macroscopic scale. This dissertation investigates the

  7. Transcriptional profiling of human brain endothelial cells reveals key properties crucial for predictive in vitro blood-brain barrier models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Urich

    Full Text Available Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BEC constitute the blood-brain barrier (BBB which forms a dynamic interface between the blood and the central nervous system (CNS. This highly specialized interface restricts paracellular diffusion of fluids and solutes including chemicals, toxins and drugs from entering the brain. In this study we compared the transcriptome profiles of the human immortalized brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and human primary BEC. We identified transcriptional differences in immune response genes which are directly related to the immortalization procedure of the hCMEC/D3 cells. Interestingly, astrocytic co-culturing reduced cell adhesion and migration molecules in both BECs, which possibly could be related to regulation of immune surveillance of the CNS controlled by astrocytic cells within the neurovascular unit. By matching the transcriptome data from these two cell lines with published transcriptional data from freshly isolated mouse BECs, we discovered striking differences that could explain some of the limitations of using cultured BECs to study BBB properties. Key protein classes such as tight junction proteins, transporters and cell surface receptors show differing expression profiles. For example, the claudin-5, occludin and JAM2 expression is dramatically reduced in the two human BEC lines, which likely explains their low transcellular electric resistance and paracellular leakiness. In addition, the human BEC lines express low levels of unique brain endothelial transporters such as Glut1 and Pgp. Cell surface receptors such as LRP1, RAGE and the insulin receptor that are involved in receptor-mediated transport are also expressed at very low levels. Taken together, these data illustrate that BECs lose their unique protein expression pattern outside of their native environment and display a more generic endothelial cell phenotype. A collection of key genes that seems to be highly regulated by the local

  8. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  9. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  10. Analysis of brain CT on 120 patients of human cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; To, R.; Ri, T.; Ra, S.; Inomata, Taiten; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Tomoo.

    1990-01-01

    A study on brain CT was made in 120 patients of human cysticercosis, which is a rare disease in Japan and clinical symptoms and laboratory data for the diagnosis were also discussed. From the point of therapeutic view, we proposed a new differentiation on brain CT of human cysticercosis, which is divided into two groups according to the alve or dead parasite. Furthermore, we proposed a new type named multiple large and small cysts type on brain CT. The idea of diagnostic standard was made integrating brain CT image, clinical symptoms and labolatory data. (author)

  11. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. The progress of radiosensitive genes of human brain glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xi; Liu Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Human gliomas are one of the most aggressive tumors in brain which grow infiltrativly. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. But as the tumor could not be entirely cut off, it is easy to relapse. Radiotherapy plays an important role for patients with gliomas after surgery. The efficacy of radiotherapy is associated with radio sensitivity of human gliomas. This paper makes a summary of current situation and progress for radiosensitive genes of human brain gliomas. (authors)

  13. From Brain-Environment Connections to Temporal Dynamics and Social Interaction: Principles of Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta

    2017-06-07

    Experimental data about brain function accumulate faster than does our understanding of how the brain works. To tackle some general principles at the grain level of behavior, I start from the omnipresent brain-environment connection that forces regularities of the physical world to shape the brain. Based on top-down processing, added by sparse sensory information, people are able to form individual "caricature worlds," which are similar enough to be shared among other people and which allow quick and purposeful reactions to abrupt changes. Temporal dynamics and social interaction in natural environments serve as further essential organizing principles of human brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints...... individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships...... in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/....

  15. Astrocyte calcium signal and gliotransmission in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Marta; Perea, Gertrudis; Maglio, Laura; Pastor, Jesús; García de Sola, Rafael; Araque, Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    Brain function is recognized to rely on neuronal activity and signaling processes between neurons, whereas astrocytes are generally considered to play supportive roles for proper neuronal function. However, accumulating evidence indicates that astrocytes sense and control neuronal and synaptic activity, indicating that neuron and astrocytes reciprocally communicate. While this evidence has been obtained in experimental animal models, whether this bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons occurs in human brain remains unknown. We have investigated the existence of astrocyte-neuron communication in human brain tissue, using electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging techniques in slices of the cortex and hippocampus obtained from biopsies from epileptic patients. Cortical and hippocampal human astrocytes displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) elevations that were independent of neuronal activity. Local application of transmitter receptor agonists or nerve electrical stimulation transiently elevated Ca(2+) in astrocytes, indicating that human astrocytes detect synaptic activity and respond to synaptically released neurotransmitters, suggesting the existence of neuron-to-astrocyte communication in human brain tissue. Electrophysiological recordings in neurons revealed the presence of slow inward currents (SICs) mediated by NMDA receptor activation. The frequency of SICs increased after local application of ATP that elevated astrocyte Ca(2+). Therefore, human astrocytes are able to release the gliotransmitter glutamate, which affect neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors in neurons. These results reveal the existence of reciprocal signaling between neurons and astrocytes in human brain tissue, indicating that astrocytes are relevant in human neurophysiology and are involved in human brain function.

  16. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : A Cross-Cultural Managerial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anyangwe, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the thesis was to examine the impact of the concepts of culture, human resource management and strategic human resource management. A man without a culture is like a man with no identity, so the identity of people needs to be identified for effective unity in diversity. The findings of the thesis show that cultural diversity is an inclusive aspect of almost all communities and countries in the world. The richness of these cultures in terms of cultural values, languages, intera...

  17. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  18. A critical review of cell culture strategies for modelling intracortical brain implant material reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, A D; Woolley, A J; Poole-Warren, L A; Thomson, C E; Green, R A

    2016-06-01

    The capacity to predict in vivo responses to medical devices in humans currently relies greatly on implantation in animal models. Researchers have been striving to develop in vitro techniques that can overcome the limitations associated with in vivo approaches. This review focuses on a critical analysis of the major in vitro strategies being utilized in laboratories around the world to improve understanding of the biological performance of intracortical, brain-implanted microdevices. Of particular interest to the current review are in vitro models for studying cell responses to penetrating intracortical devices and their materials, such as electrode arrays used for brain computer interface (BCI) and deep brain stimulation electrode probes implanted through the cortex. A background on the neural interface challenge is presented, followed by discussion of relevant in vitro culture strategies and their advantages and disadvantages. Future development of 2D culture models that exhibit developmental changes capable of mimicking normal, postnatal development will form the basis for more complex accurate predictive models in the future. Although not within the scope of this review, innovations in 3D scaffold technologies and microfluidic constructs will further improve the utility of in vitro approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coupling of organotypic brain slice cultures to silicon-based arrays of electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Henrik; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Thiébaud, P

    1999-01-01

    Fetal or early postnatal brain tissue can be cultured in viable and healthy condition for several weeks with development and preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization as so-called organotypic brain slice cultures. Here we demonstrate and describe how it is possible to establish...

  20. Physiology and culture of the human blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David K; Lane, Michelle; Schoolcraft, William B

    2002-01-01

    The human embryo undergoes many changes in physiology during the first 4 days of life as it develops and differentiates from a fertilized oocyte to the blastocyst stage. Concomitantly, the embryo is exposed to gradients of nutrients within the female reproductive tract and exhibits changes in its own nutrient requirements and utilization. Determining the nature of such nutrient gradients in the female tract and the changing requirements of the embryo has facilitated the formulation of stage-specific culture media designed to support embryo development throughout the preimplantation period. Resultant implantation rates attained with the culture and transfer of human blastocysts are higher than those associated with the transfer of cleavage stage embryos to the uterus. Such increases in implantation rates have facilitated the establishment of high pregnancy rates while reducing the number of embryos transferred. With the introduction of new scoring systems for the blastocyst and the non-invasive assessment of metabolic activity of individual embryos, it should be possible to move to single blastocyst transfer for the majority of patients.

  1. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder...

  2. Towards Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Miao eCao; Hao eHuang; Hao eHuang; Yun ePeng; Qi eDong; Yong eHe

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders...

  3. Glucose-coated gold nanoparticles transfer across human brain endothelium and enter astrocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Gromnicova

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier.

  4. The Complex Functioning of the Human Brain: The Two Hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Cristina Timofti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals just a glimpse of the possible functions and reactions that the human brain can have. I considered as good examples different situations characteristic both of a normal person and a split-brain one. These situations prove that the brain, although divided in two, works as a unit, as an amazing computer that has data processing as a main goal.

  5. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin are new members of the heme-globin family. Both globins are primarily expressed in neurons of the brain and retina. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin have been suggested as novel therapeutic targets in various neurodegenerative diseases based on their oxygen binding and cell...... protecting properties. However, findings in Neuroglobin-deficient mice question the endogenous neuroprotective properties. The expression pattern of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the rodent brain is also in contradiction to a major role of neuronal protection. In a recent study, Neuroglobin was ubiquitously...... expressed and up-regulated following stroke in the human brain. The present study aimed at confirming our previous observations in rodents using two post-mortem human brains. The anatomical localization of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the human brain is much like what has been described for the rodent...

  6. Neuronal Culture and labelling of receptors of rat brain by a radioactive molecule labelled with technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, C; Mejri, N.; Saidi, M.; Coulais, Y.; Dunia, D.; Masmoudi, O.; Amri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain which causes progressive and irreversible loss of mental function. It is characterized by a decrease of serotoninergic neurons that carry the 5HT1A receptors. In our study, we performed cultures of hippocampal and cortical neurons from brains of young rats. After the differentiation of these neurons, some wells of cell culture were incubated with 8 OH DPAT, a 5HT1A agonist of serotonin, which are located on the surface of neurons.The neurons were then incubated with a molecule labelled with technetium 99m Tc. These neurons are lysed and the radioactivity is read. The results show that for the culture of neurons in the hippocampus, we have levels of radioactivity of cells treated with agonist, below the level of radioactivity of cells treated with the radioactive molecule. Cortical neurons show the same level of radioactivity of cells treated with agonist and for cells treated only with the labelled molecule. Our results show a decrease in the fixation of the labelled molecule on serotoninergic neurons in the hippocampus compared to neurons in the cortex. This work will be continued in humans in order to achieve early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

  7. Measurement of P-31 MR relaxation times and concentrations in human brain and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, K.; Naruse, S.; Hubesch, B.; Gober, I.; Lawry, T.; Boska, M.; Matson, G.B.; Weiner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of high-energy phosphates and pH were made in human brain and brain tumors using P-31 MR imaging. Using a Philips Gyroscan 1.5-T MRMRS, MR images were used to select a cuboidal volume of interest and P-31 MR spectra were obtained from that volume using the ISIS technique. An external quantitation standard was used. T 1 s were measured by inversion recovery. Quantitative values for metabolites were calculated using B 1 field plot of the head coil. The results for normal brain phosphates are as follows; adenosine triphosphate, 2.2 mM; phosphocreatin, 5.3 mM; inorganic phosphate, 1.6 mM. Preliminary studies with human brain tumors show a decrease of all phosphate compounds. These experiments are the first to quantitate metabolites in human brain

  8. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, D.P.; Stein, J.L.; Renteria, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Desrivières, S.; Jahanshad, N.; Toro, R.; Wittfeld, K.; Abramovic, L.; Andersson, M.; Aribisala, B.S.; Armstrong, N.J.; Bernard, M.; Bohlken, M.M.; Biks, M.P.; Bralten, J.; Brown, A.A.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Chen, Q.; Ching, C.R.K.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; den Braber, A.; Giddaluru, S.; Goldman, A.L.; Grimm, O.; Guadalupe, T.; Hass, J.; Woldehawariat, G.; Holmes, A.J.; Hoogman, M.; Janowitz, D.; Jia, T.; Kim, S.; Klein, M.; Kraemer, B.; Lee, P.H.; Olde Loohuis, L.M.; Luciano, M.; Macare, C.; Mather, K.A.; Mattheisen, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Nho, K.; Papmeyer, M.; Ramasamy, A.; Risacher, S.L.; Roiz-Santiañez, R.; Rose, E.J.; Salami, A.; Sämann, P.G.; Schmaal, L.; Schork, A.J.; Shin, J.; Strike, L.T.; Teumer, A.; Donkelaar, M.M.J.; van Eijk, K.R.; Walters, R.K.; Westlye, L.T.; Welan, C.D.; Winkler, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Alhusaini, S.; Athanasiu, L.; Ehrlich, S.; Hakobjan, M.M.H.; Hartberg, C.B.; Haukvik, U.K.; Heister, A.J.G.A.M.; Hoehn, D.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Liewald, D.C.M.; Lopez, L.M.; Makkinje, R.R.; Matarin, M.; Naber, M.A.M.; Reese McKay, D.; Needham, M.; Nugent, A.C.; Pütz, B.; Royle, N.A.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Trabzuni, D.; van der Marel, S.S.L.; van Hulzen, K.J.E.; Walton, E.; Wolf, C.; Almasy, L.; Ames, D.; Arepalli, S.; Assareh, A.A.; Bastin, M.E.; Brodaty, H.; Bulayeva, K.B.; Carless, M.A.; Cichon, S.; Corvin, A.; Curran, J.E.; Czisch, M.; de Zubicaray, G.I.; Dillman, A.; Duggirala, R.; Dyer, T.D.; Erk, S.; Fedko, I.O.; Ferrucci, L.; Foroud, T.M.; Fox, P.T.; Fukunaga, M.; Gibbs, J.R.; Göring, H.H.H.; Green, R.C.; Guelfi, S.; Hansell, N.K.; Hartman, C.A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Heinz, A.; Hernandez, D.G.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Holsboer, F.; Homuth, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Ikeda, M.; Jack, C.R., Jr.; Jenkinson, M.; Johnson, R.; Kanai, R.; Keil, M.; Kent, J.W. Jr.; Kochunov, P.; Kwok, J.B.; Lawrie, S.M.; Liu, X.; Longo, D.L.; McMahon, K.L.; Meisenzahl, E.; Melle, I.; Mohnke, S.; Montgomery, G.W.; Mostert, J.C.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Nalls, M.A.; Nichols, T.E.; Nilsson, L.G.; Nöthen, M.M.; Ohi, K.; Olvera, R.L.; Perez-Iglesias, R.; Pike, G.B.; Potkin, S.G.; Reinvang, I.; Reppermund, S.; Rietschel, M.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, N.; Rosen, G.D.; Rujescu, D.; Schnell, K.; Schofield, P.R.; Smith, C.; Steen, V.M.; Sussmann, J.E.; Thalamuthu, A.; Toga, A.W.; Traynor, B.J.; Troncoso, J.; Turner, J.A.; Valdés Hernández, M.C.; van t Ent, D.; van der Brug, M.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; van Tol, M.J.; Veltman, D.J.; Wassink, T.H.; Westmann, E.; Zielke, R.H.; Zonderman, A.B.; Ashbrook, D.G.; Hager, R.; Lu, L.; McMahon, F.J.; Morris, D.W.; Williams, R.W.; Brunner, H.G.; Buckner, R.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cahn, W.; Calhoun, V.D.; Cavalleri, G.L.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Dale, A.M.; Davies, G.E.; Delanty, N.; Depondt, C.; Djurovic, S.; Drevets, W.C.; Espeseth, T.; Gollub, R.L.; Ho, B.C.; Hoffmann, W.; Hosten, N.; Kahn, R.S.; Le Hellard, S.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Nauck, M.; Nyberg, L.; Pandolfo, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Roffman, J.L.; Sisodiya, SM; Smoller, J.W.; van Bokhoven, H.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Völzke, H.; Walter, H.; Weiner, M.W.; Wen, W.; White, T.; Agartz, I.; Andreassen, O.A.; Blangero, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Brouwer, R.M.; Cannon, D.M.; Cookson, M.R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Deary, I.J.; Donohoe, G.; Fernandez, G.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.; Glahn, D.C.; Grabe, H.J.; Gruber, O.; Hardy, J.; Hashimoto, R.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Jönsson, E.G.; Kloszewska, I.; Lovestone, S.; Mattay, V.S.; Mecocci, P.; McDonald, C.; McIntosh, A.M.; Ophoff, R.A.; Paus, T.; Pausova, Z.; Ryten, M.; Sachdev, P.S.; Saykin, A.J.; Simmons, A.; Singleton, A.; Soininen, H.; Wardlaw, J.M.; Weale, M.E.; Weinberger, D.R.; Adams, H.H.H.; Launer, L.J.; Seiler, S.; Schmidt, R.; Chauhan, G.; Satizabal, C.L.; Becker, J.T.; Yanek, L.; van der Lee, S.J.; Ebling, M.; Fischl, B.; Longstreth, Jr. W.T.; Greve, D.; Schmidt, H.; Nyquist, P.; Vinke, L.N.; van Duijn, C.M.; Xue, L.; Mazoyer, B.; Bis, J.C.; Gudnason, V.; Seshadri, S.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Martin, N.G.; Wright, M.J.; Schumann, G.; Franke, B.; Thompson, P.M.; Medland, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common

  9. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  10. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  11. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the

  12. Do cultural diversity and human rights make a good match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The link between cultural diversity and human rights was clearly established by the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted by the member states of UNESCO in 2001, which holds that "the defence of cultural diversity is … inseparable from respect for human dignity" and that it " implies

  13. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...

  14. Long-term Culture of Human iPS Cell-derived Telencephalic Neuron Aggregates on Collagen Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Haga, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    It takes several months to form the 3-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain. Therefore, establishing a long-term culture method for neuronal tissues derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is very important for studying human brain development. However, it is difficult to keep primary neurons alive for more than 3 weeks in culture. Moreover, long-term adherent culture to maintain the morphology of telencephalic neuron aggregates induced from human iPS cells is also difficult. Although collagen gel has been widely used to support long-term culture of cells, it is not clear whether human iPS cell-derived neuron aggregates can be cultured for long periods on this substrate. In the present study, we differentiated human iPS cells to telencephalic neuron aggregates and examined long-term culture of these aggregates on collagen gel. The results indicated that these aggregates could be cultured for over 3 months by adhering tightly onto collagen gel. Furthermore, telencephalic neuronal precursors within these aggregates matured over time and formed layered structures. Thus, long-term culture of telencephalic neuron aggregates derived from human iPS cells on collagen gel would be useful for studying human cerebral cortex development.Key words: Induced pluripotent stem cell, forebrain neuron, collagen gel, long-term culture.

  15. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains (“female brain” or “male brain”). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only “male” or only “female” features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the “maleness-femaleness” continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique “mosaics” of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain. PMID:26621705

  16. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  17. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    projections were reconstructed for both species and results compared to identify similarities or differences in tract anatomy (i.e., trajectories and cortical projections). In addition, post-mortem dissections were performed in a human brain. The largest tract identified in both human and monkey brains...... and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobule in humans but only to the supramarginal gyrus in the monkey brain. The third tract connects the postcentral gyrus to the anterior region of the superior parietal lobule and is more prominent in monkeys compared to humans. Finally, short U-shaped fibres...... and monkeys with some differences for those areas that have cytoarchitectonically distinct features in humans. The overall pattern of intraparietal connectivity supports the special role of the inferior parietal lobule in cognitive functions characteristic of humans....

  18. Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0491 TITLE: Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer R...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Default, Cognitive and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Tinnitus is a major health problem among those currently and formerly in military

  19. Significance of MDR1 and multiple drug resistance in refractory human epileptic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Gabriele

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs can act as substrates for MDR1, the enhanced expression/function of this protein may increase their active extrusion from the brain, resulting in decreased responsiveness to AEDs. Methods Human drug resistant epileptic brain tissues were collected after surgical resection. Astrocyte cell cultures were established from these tissues, and commercially available normal human astrocytes were used as controls. Uptake of fluorescent doxorubicin and radioactive-labeled Phenytoin was measured in the two cell populations, and the effect of MDR1 blockers was evaluated. Frozen human epileptic brain tissue slices were double immunostained to locate MDR1 in neurons and glia. Other slices were exposed to toxic concentrations of Phenytoin to study cell viability in the presence or absence of a specific MDR1 blocker. Results MDR1 was overexpressed in blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons in human epileptic drug-resistant brain. In addition, MDR1-mediated cellular drug extrusion was increased in human 'epileptic' astrocytes compared to 'normal' ones. Concomitantly, cell viability in the presence of cytotoxic compounds was increased. Conclusions Overexpression of MDR1 in different cell types in drug-resistant epileptic human brain leads to functional alterations, not all of which are linked to drug pharmacokinetics. In particular, the modulation of glioneuronal MDR1 function in epileptic brain in the presence of toxic concentrations of xenobiotics may constitute a novel cytoprotective mechanism.

  20. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...... of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability of focal WM is unknown. Similarly, it is unresolved whether there is a common genetic origin of focal GM and WM structures with intelligence. We explored the genetic influence on focal GM and WM densities in magnetic resonance brain images...

  1. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  2. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reflectance diffuse optical tomography. Its application to human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    We report the successful application of reflectance diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared light with the new reconstruction algorithm that we developed to the observation of regional hemodynamic changes in the brain under specific mental tasks. Our results reveal the heterogeneous distribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, showing complementary images of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin changes in certain regions. We conclude that our reflectance DOT has practical potential for human brain mapping, as well as in the diagnostic imaging of brain diseases. (author)

  4. Initial Attempts of Development and Characterization of an In Vitro Blood Brain Barrier Model Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Hall, Vanessa Jane

    The human blood brain barrier has yet to be successfully replicated as an in vitro model. One of the more promising approaches has been to develop an in vitro model derived from human pluripotent stem cells. However, as promising as this model may be, a successful replication of the differentiation...... method on different kinds of pluripotent stem cell lines have yet to be accomplished. We try to approach the promising method as described by Stebbins et al. (2015) to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells into brain like endothelial cells (BECs). Five different human pluripotent stem cell lines...... configurations (mono culture, non-contact co-culture and contact co-culture) with primary rat astrocytes to induce barrier-like properties. Endothelial cell media supplemented with retinoic acid were then applied to the cells to ensure selective expansion of BECs. The different culture configurations were...

  5. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Because human amniotic fluid is a physiological, balanced ultrafiltrate, it has been considered as an inexpensive alternative culture medium in. IVF. A study of the development of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid was undertaken to assess the suitability of this as an optional culture medium in human ...

  6. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans....... This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. METHODS: Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general...... anesthesia were included. Prior to surgery (baseline), at postoperative days 3 to 4, and after 3 months, patients were examined using [11C]PBR28 brain PET imaging to assess brain immune cell activation. Concurrently, systemic inflammatory biomarkers, ex vivo blood tests on immunoreactivity...

  7. Family needs after brain injury: A cross cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norup, Anne; Perrin, Paul B; Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Anke, Audny; Andelic, Nada; Doyle, Sarah T; Cristina Quijano, Maria; Caracuel, Alfonso; Mar, Dulce; Guadalupe Espinosa Jove, Irma; Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore differences by country in the importance of family needs after traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as differences in met/unmet needs. Two hundred and seventy-one family members of an individual with TBI in Mexico, Colombia, Spain, Denmark, and Norway completed the Family Needs Questionnaire. Eight of the ten needs rated as most important globally were from the Health Information subscale. Importance ratings on the Health Information, Professional Support, and Involvement With Care subscales were similar across countries, but Mexican family members rated Instrumental Support needs as less important than Colombian, Spanish, and Danish family members, and also rated their Community Support needs as less important than Danish and Spanish family members. Mexican family member's rated emotional support needs as less important than Colombian, Spanish, and Danish family members. Globally, the needs rated as most often met were from the Health Information subscale, and the most unmet needs were from the Emotional Support subscale. Despite some similarities across countries several differences were identified, and these can help professionals to provide more culturally appropriate rehabilitation services for family members in order to improve informal care for TBI.

  8. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  10. Human Sexual Conflict from Molecules to Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Coevolutionary arms races between males and females have equipped both sexes with mutually manipulative and defensive adaptations. These adaptations function to benefit individual reproductive interests at the cost of the reproductive interests of opposite-sex mates, and arise from evolutionary dynamics such as parental investment (unequal reproductive costs between the sexes and sexual selection (unequal access to opposite-sex mates. Individuals use these adaptations to hijack others' reproductive systems, psychological states, and behaviors—essentially using other individuals as extended phenotypes of themselves. Such extended phenotypic manipulation of sexual rivals and opposite-sex mates is enacted by humans with the aid of hormones, pheromones, neurotransmitters, emotions, language, mind-altering substances, social institutions, technologies, and ideologies. Furthermore, sexual conflict may be experienced at an individual level when maternal genes and paternal genes are in conflict within an organism. Sexual conflict may be physically and emotionally destructive, but may also be exciting and constructive for relationships. By extending the biological concept of sexual conflict into social and cultural domains, scholars may successfully bridge many of the interdisciplinary gaps that separate the sciences from the humanities.

  11. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K

    2011-12-15

    Coevolutionary arms races between males and females have equipped both sexes with mutually manipulative and defensive adaptations. These adaptations function to benefit individual reproductive interests at the cost of the reproductive interests of opposite-sex mates, and arise from evolutionary dynamics such as parental investment (unequal reproductive costs between the sexes) and sexual selection (unequal access to opposite-sex mates). Individuals use these adaptations to hijack others' reproductive systems, psychological states, and behaviors--essentially using other individuals as extended phenotypes of themselves. Such extended phenotypic manipulation of sexual rivals and opposite-sex mates is enacted by humans with the aid of hormones, pheromones, neurotransmitters, emotions, language, mind-altering substances, social institutions, technologies, and ideologies. Furthermore, sexual conflict may be experienced at an individual level when maternal genes and paternal genes are in conflict within an organism. Sexual conflict may be physically and emotionally destructive, but may also be exciting and constructive for relationships. By extending the biological concept of sexual conflict into social and cultural domains, scholars may successfully bridge many of the interdisciplinary gaps that separate the sciences from the humanities.

  12. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  13. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  14. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5 mediates the immune quiescence of the human brain endothelial barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Doorn Ruben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P receptor modulator FTY720P (Gilenya® potently reduces relapse rate and lesion activity in the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis. Although most of its efficacy has been shown to be related to immunosuppression through the induction of lymphopenia, it has been suggested that a number of its beneficial effects are related to altered endothelial and blood–brain barrier (BBB functionality. However, to date it remains unknown whether brain endothelial S1P receptors are involved in the maintenance of the function of the BBB thereby mediating immune quiescence of the brain. Here we demonstrate that the brain endothelial receptor S1P5 largely contributes to the maintenance of brain endothelial barrier function. Methods We analyzed the expression of S1P5 in human post-mortem tissues using immunohistochemistry. The function of S1P5 at the BBB was assessed in cultured human brain endothelial cells (ECs using agonists and lentivirus-mediated knockdown of S1P5. Subsequent analyses of different aspects of the brain EC barrier included the formation of a tight barrier, the expression of BBB proteins and markers of inflammation and monocyte transmigration. Results We show that activation of S1P5 on cultured human brain ECs by a selective agonist elicits enhanced barrier integrity and reduced transendothelial migration of monocytes in vitro. These results were corroborated by genetically silencing S1P5 in brain ECs. Interestingly, functional studies with these cells revealed that S1P5 strongly contributes to brain EC barrier function and underlies the expression of specific BBB endothelial characteristics such as tight junctions and permeability. In addition, S1P5 maintains the immunoquiescent state of brain ECs with low expression levels of leukocyte adhesion molecules and inflammatory chemokines and cytokines through lowering the activation of the transcription factor NFκB. Conclusion Our

  15. Cyto- and receptor architectonic mapping of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the human brain is more than the generation of an atlas-based parcellation of brain regions using histologic or histochemical criteria. It is the attempt to provide a topographically informed model of the structural and functional organization of the brain. To achieve this goal a multimodal atlas of the detailed microscopic and neurochemical structure of the brain must be registered to a stereotaxic reference space or brain, which also serves as reference for topographic assignment of functional data, e.g., functional magnet resonance imaging, electroencephalography, or magnetoencephalography, as well as metabolic imaging, e.g., positron emission tomography. Although classic maps remain pioneering steps, they do not match recent concepts of the functional organization in many regions, and suffer from methodic drawbacks. This chapter provides a summary of the recent status of human brain mapping, which is based on multimodal approaches integrating results of quantitative cyto- and receptor architectonic studies with focus on the cerebral cortex in a widely used reference brain. Descriptions of the methods for observer-independent and statistically testable cytoarchitectonic parcellations, quantitative multireceptor mapping, and registration to the reference brain, including the concept of probability maps and a toolbox for using the maps in functional neuroimaging studies, are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Allen Q; Ajilore, Olusola A; Conte, Giorgio; GadElkarim, Johnson; Thomas-Ramos, Galen; Zhan, Liang; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Magin, Richard L; G Forbes, Angus; Leow, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for constructing the intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome using dimensionality-reduction techniques. We posit that the high-dimensional, complex geometry that represents this intrinsic topology can be mathematically embedded into lower dimensions using coupling patterns encoded in the corresponding brain connectivity graphs. We tested both linear and nonlinear dimensionality-reduction techniques using the diffusion-weighted structural connectome data acquired from a sample of healthy subjects. Results supported the nonlinearity of brain connectivity data, as linear reduction techniques such as the multidimensional scaling yielded inferior lower-dimensional embeddings. To further validate our results, we demonstrated that for tractography-derived structural connectome more influential regions such as rich-club members of the brain are more centrally mapped or embedded. Further, abnormal brain connectivity can be visually understood by inspecting the altered geometry of these three-dimensional (3D) embeddings that represent the topology of the human brain, as illustrated using simulated lesion studies of both targeted and random removal. Last, in order to visualize brain's intrinsic topology we have developed software that is compatible with virtual reality technologies, thus allowing researchers to collaboratively and interactively explore and manipulate brain connectome data.

  17. Ecology of the aging human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnen, Joshua A; Santa Cruz, Karen; Hemmy, Laura S; Woltjer, Randall; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Kathleen S; Jack, Clifford R; Kaye, Jeffrey; Lim, Kelvin; Larson, Eric B; White, Lon; Montine, Thomas J

    2011-08-01

    Alzheimer disease, cerebral vascular brain injury, and isocortical Lewy body disease (LBD) are the major contributors to dementia in community- and population-based studies. To estimate the prevalence of clinically silent forms of these diseases in cognitively normal (CN) adults. Autopsy study. Community- and population based. A total of 1672 brain autopsies from the Adult Changes in Thought study, Honolulu-Asia Aging Study, Nun Study, and Oregon Brain Aging Study, of which 424 met the criteria for CN. Of these, 336 cases had a comprehensive neuropathologic examination of neuritic plaque density, Braak stage for neurofibrillary tangles, LB distribution, and number of cerebral microinfarcts. Forty-seven percent of CN cases had moderate or frequent neuritic plaque density; of these, 6% also had Braak stage V or VI for neurofibrillary tangles. Fifteen percent of CN cases had medullary LBD; 8% also had nigral and 4% isocortical LBD. The presence of any cerebral microinfarcts was identified in 33% and of high-level cerebral microinfarcts in 10% of CN individuals. Overall, the burden of lesions in each individual and their comorbidity varied widely within each study but were similar across studies. These data show an individually varying complex convergence of subclinical diseases in the brain of older CN adults. Appreciating this ecology should help guide future biomarker and neuroimaging studies and clinical trials that focus on community- and population-based cohorts.

  18. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  19. Cognitive genomics: Linking genes to behavior in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Konopka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of genetic variation in DNA with functional brain activity have already provided a starting point for delving into human cognitive mechanisms. However, these analyses do not provide the specific genes driving the associations, which are complicated by intergenic localization as well as tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. The use of brain-derived expression datasets could build upon the foundation of these initial genetic insights and yield genes and molecular pathways for testing new hypotheses regarding the molecular bases of human brain development, cognition, and disease. Thus, coupling these human brain gene expression data with measurements of brain activity may provide genes with critical roles in brain function. However, these brain gene expression datasets have their own set of caveats, most notably a reliance on postmortem tissue. In this perspective, I summarize and examine the progress that has been made in this realm to date, and discuss the various frontiers remaining, such as the inclusion of cell-type-specific information, additional physiological measurements, and genomic data from patient cohorts.

  20. Interrelationships between climate and human cultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolitschka, B.

    2010-03-01

    Human influence on the environment increased continuously during the late Holocene and often interferes with the reconstruction of climatic fluctuations in natural archives. However, for the first millennium BC there exist convincing evidences of a climatic deterioration determined by geological, geomorphological, paleoecological and archaeological records from Europe and beyond. A fluctuation in the -14C record from tree rings indicates that this climatic setback seems to be of a global character which would support its solar origin. Geochemical and physical data of very well-dated lacustrine sediments from a German maar (Lake Holzmaar, West Eifel Volcanic Field) records a dramatic environmental change which coincides with or follows this climatic deterioration at 800 BC. These changes are related to a conspicuous shift towards an increased erosion of the soils in the catchment area. Thus sediment yields of the lacustrine system more than quadruple from the low mean mid-Holocene (7900-800 BC) level of 1.5 t km-2 yr-1 to values of 6.3 t km-2 yr-1 for the last centuries of the first millennium BC, i.e. until the start of the Roman occupation in the West Eifel region around 50 BC. Still, this elevated sediment yield value is rather low compared to 19 t km-2 yr-1 reached during the period of the Roman Empire (50 BC-400 AD) or even to 25 t km-2 yr-1 that were gained during the Middle Ages (11th to 13th century). During the Migration Period and the early Middle Ages, however, sediment yield data decreased again to almost mid-Holocene values of 2.3 t km-2 yr-1. Whether the shift in ecosystem stability following immediately after 800 BC was triggered by a solar-induced climatic change cannot absolutely be excluded but must be cast into doubt. Intensive deforestation indicated by pollen analyses suggests that human cultural development from the late Bronze Age to the early Iron Age, accompanied by the introduction of iron tools, was the reason for this alteration. Using

  1. Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

    2012-05-11

    Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro models of the blood–brain barrier: An overview of commonly used brain endothelial cell culture models and guidelines for their use

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Hans C; Abbott, N Joan; Burek, Malgorzata; Cecchelli, Romeo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Deli, Maria A; Förster, Carola; Galla, Hans J; Romero, Ignacio A; Shusta, Eric V; Stebbins, Matthew J; Vandenhaute, Elodie; Weksler, Babette; Brodin, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells lining the brain capillaries separate the blood from the brain parenchyma. The endothelial monolayer of the brain capillaries serves both as a crucial interface for exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolites between blood and brain, and as a barrier for neurotoxic components of plasma and xenobiotics. This “blood-brain barrier” function is a major hindrance for drug uptake into the brain parenchyma. Cell culture models, based on either primary cells or immortalized br...

  3. Gene expression in the aging human brain: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Adith; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Baune, Bernhard T; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-03-01

    The review aims to provide a summary of recent developments in the study of gene expression in the aging human brain. Profiling differentially expressed genes or 'transcripts' in the human brain over the course of normal aging has provided valuable insights into the biological pathways that appear activated or suppressed in late life. Genes mediating neuroinflammation and immune system activation in particular, show significant age-related upregulation creating a state of vulnerability to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease in the aging brain. Cellular ionic dyshomeostasis and age-related decline in a host of molecular influences on synaptic efficacy may underlie neurocognitive decline in later life. Critically, these investigations have also shed light on the mobilization of protective genetic responses within the aging human brain that help determine health and disease trajectories in older age. There is growing interest in the study of pre and posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, and the role of noncoding RNAs in particular, as mediators of the phenotypic diversity that characterizes human brain aging. Gene expression studies in healthy brain aging offer an opportunity to unravel the intricately regulated cellular underpinnings of neurocognitive aging as well as disease risk and resiliency in late life. In doing so, new avenues for early intervention in age-related neurodegenerative disease could be investigated with potentially significant implications for the development of disease-modifying therapies.

  4. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Development of Human Brain Structural Networks Through Infancy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  6. BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingrui; Wang, Jinhui; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI), we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/).

  7. BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui Xia

    Full Text Available The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI, we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/.

  8. Developing Cultural Competence in Human Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R.; And Others

    Cultural competence assumes greater importance in the United States as international relations shift and the United States changes its own demographic makeup. Hispanics have significant health care needs and cultural beliefs that influence their acceptance of service. As part of an effort to build cultural competence in undergraduate social work…

  9. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  10. New perspectives in EEG/MEG brain mapping and PET/fMRI neuroimaging of human pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A C

    2001-10-01

    With the maturation of EEG/MEG brain mapping and PET/fMRI neuroimaging in the 1990s, greater understanding of pain processing in the brain now elucidates and may even challenge the classical theory of pain mechanisms. This review scans across the cultural diversity of pain expression and modulation in man. It outlines the difficulties in defining and studying human pain. It then focuses on methods of studying the brain in experimental and clinical pain, the cohesive results of brain mapping and neuroimaging of noxious perception, the implication of pain research in understanding human consciousness and the relevance to clinical care as well as to the basic science of human psychophysiology. Non-invasive brain studies in man start to unveil the age-old puzzles of pain-illusion, hypnosis and placebo in pain modulation. The neurophysiological and neurohemodynamic brain measures of experimental pain can now largely satisfy the psychophysiologist's dream, unimaginable only a few years ago, of modelling the body-brain, brain-mind, mind-matter duality in an inter-linking 3-P triad: physics (stimulus energy); physiology (brain activities); and psyche (perception). For neuropsychophysiology greater challenges lie ahead: (a) how to integrate a cohesive theory of human pain in the brain; (b) what levels of analyses are necessary and sufficient; (c) what constitutes the structural organisation of the pain matrix; (d) what are the modes of processing among and across the sites of these structures; and (e) how can neural computation of these processes in the brain be carried out? We may envision that modular identification and delineation of the arousal-attention, emotion-motivation and perception-cognition neural networks of pain processing in the brain will also lead to deeper understanding of the human mind. Two foreseeable impacts on clinical sciences and basic theories from brain mapping/neuroimaging are the plausible central origin in persistent pain and integration of

  11. Rat brain sagittal organotypic slice cultures as an ex vivo dopamine cell loss system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey-Chapman, Amy; Connor, Bronwen

    2017-02-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures are a useful tool to study neurological function as they provide a more complex, 3-dimensional system than standard 2-dimensional in vitro cell cultures. Building on a previously developed mouse brain slice culture protocol, we have developed a rat sagittal brain slice culture system as an ex vivo model of dopamine cell loss. We show that rat brain organotypic slice cultures remain viable for up to 6 weeks in culture. Using Fluoro-Gold axonal tracing, we demonstrate that the slice 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture is maintained over a 4 week culturing period, with particular focus on the nigrostriatal pathway. Treatment of the cultures with 6-hydroxydopamine and desipramine induces a progressive loss of Fluoro-Gold-positive nigral cells with a sustained loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells. This recapitulates the pattern of dopaminergic degeneration observed in the rat partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model and, most importantly, the progressive pathology of Parkinson's disease. Our slice culture platform provides an advance over other systems, as we demonstrate for the first time 3-dimensional cytoarchitecture maintenance of rat nigrostriatal sagittal slices for up to 6 weeks. Our ex vivo organotypic slice culture system provides a long term cellular platform to model Parkinson's disease, allowing for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in dopaminergic neuron degeneration and the capability to study cellular integration and plasticity ex vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  13. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  14. The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Strathearn, Lane; Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Early mother-infant relationships play important roles in infants’ optimal development. New mothers undergo neurobiological changes that support developing mother-infant relationships regardless of great individual differences in those relationships. In this article, we review the neural plasticity in human mothers’ brains based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. First, we review the neural circuits that are involved in establishing and maintaining mother-infant relationships. Second, we discuss early postpartum factors (e.g., birth and feeding methods, hormones, and parental sensitivity) that are associated with individual differences in maternal brain neuroplasticity. Third, we discuss abnormal changes in the maternal brain related to psychopathology (i.e., postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse) and potential brain remodeling associated with interventions. Last, we highlight potentially important future research directions to better understand normative changes in the maternal brain and risks for abnormal changes that may disrupt early mother-infant relationships. PMID:26268151

  15. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  16. Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain*

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S.; Tomasi, Dardo

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person’s risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circ...

  17. Impaired cholesterol esterification in primary brain cultures of the lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.C.; Suresh, S.; Weintroub, H.; Brady, R.O.; Pentchev, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Esterification of cholesterol was investigated in primary neuroglial cultures obtained from newborn lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutants. An impairment in 3 H-oleic acid incorporation into cholesteryl esters was demonstrated in cultures of homozygous LCSD brain. Primary cultures derived from other phenotypically normal pups of the carrier breeders esterified cholesterol at normal levels or at levels which were intermediary between normal and deficient indicating a phenotypic expression of the LCSD heterozygote genotype. These observations on LCSD mutant brain cells indicate that the defect in cholesterol esterification is closely related to the primary genetic defect and is expressed in neuroglial cells in culture

  18. A family of hyperelastic models for human brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Budday, Silvia; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on brain samples under multiaxial loading have shown that human brain tissue is both extremely soft when compared to other biological tissues and characterized by a peculiar elastic response under combined shear and compression/tension: there is a significant increase in shear stress with increasing axial compression compared to a moderate increase with increasing axial tension. Recent studies have revealed that many widely used constitutive models for soft biological tissues fail to capture this characteristic response. Here, guided by experiments of human brain tissue, we develop a family of modeling approaches that capture the elasticity of brain tissue under varying simple shear superposed on varying axial stretch by exploiting key observations about the behavior of the nonlinear shear modulus, which can be obtained directly from the experimental data.

  19. Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-09-01

    How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  1. A method for culturing human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1981-01-01

    For the first time a method for culturing human hair follicle cells is described. The bovine eye lens capsule, a basement membrane-like structure, is used as the substrate for the cultures. In a culture medium supplemented with hydrocortisone and insulin about 70% of the original follicles will form growing colonies of diploid keratinocytes.

  2. Fundamental Dynamical Modes Underlying Human Brain Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Alvarado-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term dynamics of widely interacting cortical and subcortical networks during the wake-sleep cycle. Using large-scale intracranial recordings of epileptic patients during seizure-free periods, we investigated local- and long-range synchronization between multiple brain regions over several days. For such high-dimensional data, summary information is required for understanding and modelling the underlying dynamics. Here, we suggest that a compact yet useful representation is given by a state space based on the first principal components. Using this representation, we report, with a remarkable similarity across the patients with different locations of electrode placement, that the seemingly complex patterns of brain synchrony during the wake-sleep cycle can be represented by a small number of characteristic dynamic modes. In this space, transitions between behavioral states occur through specific trajectories from one mode to another. These findings suggest that, at a coarse level of temporal resolution, the different brain states are correlated with several dominant synchrony patterns which are successively activated across wake-sleep states.

  3. Functional organization of the transcriptome in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael C; Konopka, Genevieve; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Langfelder, Peter; Kato, Tadafumi; Horvath, Steve; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    The enormous complexity of the human brain ultimately derives from a finite set of molecular instructions encoded in the human genome. These instructions can be directly studied by exploring the organization of the brain’s transcriptome through systematic analysis of gene coexpression relationships. We analyzed gene coexpression relationships in microarray data generated from specific human brain regions and identified modules of coexpressed genes that correspond to neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. These modules provide an initial description of the transcriptional programs that distinguish the major cell classes of the human brain and indicate that cell type–specific information can be obtained from whole brain tissue without isolating homogeneous populations of cells. Other modules corresponded to additional cell types, organelles, synaptic function, gender differences and the subventricular neurogenic niche. We found that subventricular zone astrocytes, which are thought to function as neural stem cells in adults, have a distinct gene expression pattern relative to protoplasmic astrocytes. Our findings provide a new foundation for neurogenetic inquiries by revealing a robust and previously unrecognized organization to the human brain transcriptome. PMID:18849986

  4. Small-world human brain networks: Perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xuhong; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; He, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Modelling the human brain as a complex network has provided a powerful mathematical framework to characterize the structural and functional architectures of the brain. In the past decade, the combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches enable us to map human structural and functional connectivity patterns (i.e., connectome) at the macroscopic level. One of the most influential findings is that human brain networks exhibit prominent small-world organization. Such a network architecture in the human brain facilitates efficient information segregation and integration at low wiring and energy costs, which presumably results from natural selection under the pressure of a cost-efficiency balance. Moreover, the small-world organization undergoes continuous changes during normal development and ageing and exhibits dramatic alterations in neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this review, we survey recent advances regarding the small-world architecture in human brain networks and highlight the potential implications and applications in multidisciplinary fields, including cognitive neuroscience, medicine and engineering. Finally, we highlight several challenging issues and areas for future research in this rapidly growing field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A stable and reproducible human blood-brain barrier model derived from hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cecchelli

    Full Text Available The human blood brain barrier (BBB is a selective barrier formed by human brain endothelial cells (hBECs, which is important to ensure adequate neuronal function and protect the central nervous system (CNS from disease. The development of human in vitro BBB models is thus of utmost importance for drug discovery programs related to CNS diseases. Here, we describe a method to generate a human BBB model using cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The cells were initially differentiated into ECs followed by the induction of BBB properties by co-culture with pericytes. The brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs express tight junctions and transporters typically observed in brain endothelium and maintain expression of most in vivo BBB properties for at least 20 days. The model is very reproducible since it can be generated from stem cells isolated from different donors and in different laboratories, and could be used to predict CNS distribution of compounds in human. Finally, we provide evidence that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediates in part the BBB inductive properties of pericytes.

  6. NMR relaxation times in human brain tumors (preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, L.; Certaines, J. de; Chatel, M.; Menault, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since the early work of Damadian in 1971, proton NMR studies of tumors has been well documented. Present study concerns the spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times of normal dog brain according to the histological differentiation and of 35 human benignant or malignant tumors. The results principally show T 2 important variations between white and gray substance in normal brain but no discrimination between malignant and benignant tumors [fr

  7. Organotypic hippocampal slice culture from the adult mouse brain: a versatile tool for translational neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjeong; Kim, Eosu; Park, Minsun; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee

    2013-03-05

    One of the most significant barriers towards translational neuropsychiatry would be an unavailability of living brain tissues. Although organotypic brain tissue culture could be a useful alternative enabling observation of temporal changes induced by various drugs in living brain tissues, a proper method to establish a stable organotypic brain slice culture system using adult (rather than neonatal) hippocampus has been still elusive. In this study, we evaluated our simple method using the serum-free culture medium for successful adult organotypic hippocampal slice culture. Several tens of hippocampal slices from a single adult mouse (3-5 months old) were cultured in serum-free versus serum-containing conventional culture medium for 30 days and underwent various experiments to validate the effects of the existence of serum in the culture medium. Neither the excessive regression of neuronal viability nor metabolic deficiency was observed in the serum-free medium culture in contrast to the serum-containing medium culture. Despite such viability, newly generated immature neurons were scarcely detected in the serum-free culture, suggesting that the original neurons in the brain slice persist rather than being replaced by neurogenesis. Key structural features of in vivo neural tissue constituting astrocytes, neural processes, and pre- and post-synapses were also well preserved in the serum-free culture. In conclusion, using the serum-free culture medium, the adult hippocampal slice culture system will serve as a promising ex vivo tool for various fields of neuroscience, especially for studies on aging-related neuropsychiatric disorders or for high throughput screening of potential agents working against such disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  9. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  10. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  11. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Stephen J.; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Chang Lijan; Tong Junchao; Ginovart, Nathalie; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  12. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  13. Cognition beyond the brain computation, interactivity and human artifice

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Arguing that a collective dimension has given cognitive flexibility to human intelligence, this book shows that traditional cognitive psychology underplays the role of bodies, dialogue, diagrams, tools, talk, customs, habits, computers and cultural practices.

  14. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E

    2014-01-01

    cultured in 'hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. RESULTS: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis....... Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Hanging drop cultures of human testis...

  15. Beauty and the brain: culture, history and individual differences in aesthetic appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Human aesthetic processing entails the sensation-based evaluation of an entity with respect to concepts like beauty, harmony or well-formedness. Aesthetic appreciation has many determinants ranging from evolutionary, anatomical or physiological constraints to influences of culture, history and individual differences. There are a vast number of dynamically configured neural networks underlying these multifaceted processes of aesthetic appreciation. In the current challenge of successfully bridging art and science, aesthetics and neuroanatomy, the neuro-cognitive psychology of aesthetics can approach this complex topic using a framework that postulates several perspectives, which are not mutually exclusive. In this empirical approach, objective physiological data from event-related brain potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging are combined with subjective, individual self-reports. PMID:19929909

  16. Brain Aggregates: An Effective In Vitro Cell Culture System Modeling Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Misol; Kalume, Franck; Pitstick, Rose; Oehler, Abby; Carlson, George; DeArmond, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases is particularly challenging because of the discrepancies in drug effects between in vitro and in vivo studies. These discrepancies occur in part because current cell culture systems used for drug screening have many limitations. First, few cell culture systems accurately model human aging or neurodegenerative diseases. Second, drug efficacy may differ between dividing and stationary cells, the latter resembling nondividing neurons in the CNS. Brain aggregates (BrnAggs) derived from embryonic day 15 gestation mouse embryos may represent neuropathogenic processes in prion disease and reflect in vivo drug efficacy. Here, we report a new method for the production of BrnAggs suitable for drug screening and suggest that BrnAggs can model additional neurological diseases such as tauopathies. We also report a functional assay with BrnAggs by measuring electrophysiological activities. Our data suggest that BrnAggs could serve as an effective in vitro cell culture system for drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neuroscience and collective memory: memory schemas linking brain, societies and cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Nicolas; Gagnepain, Pierre; Peschanski, Denis; Eustache, Francis

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, the effect of intersubjective relationships on cognition has been an emerging topic in cognitive neurosciences leading through a so-called "social turn" to the formation of new domains integrating society and cultures to this research area. Such inquiry has been recently extended to collective memory studies. Collective memory refers to shared representations that are constitutive of the identity of a group and distributed among all its members connected by a common history. After briefly describing those evolutions in the study of human brain and behaviors, we review recent researches that have brought together cognitive psychology, neuroscience and social sciences into collective memory studies. Using the reemerging concept of memory schema, we propose a theoretical framework allowing to account for collective memories formation with a specific focus on the encoding process of historical events. We suggest that (1) if the concept of schema has been mainly used to describe rather passive framework of knowledge, such structure may also be implied in more active fashions in the understanding of significant collective events. And, (2) if some schema researches have restricted themselves to the individual level of inquiry, we describe a strong coherence between memory and cultural frameworks. Integrating the neural basis and properties of memory schema to collective memory studies may pave the way toward a better understanding of the reciprocal interaction between individual memories and cultural resources such as media or education. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  18. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented....... The positive effect of continuous flow of growth medium, and thus stability of the glucose concentration and waste removal, is simulated and compared to the effect of stagnant medium that is most often used in tissue culturing. Furthermore, placement of the tissue slices in the developed device was studied...... by numerical simulations in order to optimize the nutrient distribution. The device was tested by culturing transverse hippocampal slices from 7 days old NMRI mice for a duration of 14 days. The slices were inspected visually and the slices cultured in the fluidic system appeared to have preserved...

  19. Multilayer modeling and analysis of human brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding how the human brain is structured, and how its architecture is related to function, is of paramount importance for a variety of applications, including but not limited to new ways to prevent, deal with, and cure brain diseases, such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. The recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging, together with the increasing attitude toward interdisciplinary approaches involving computer science, mathematics, and physics, are fostering interesting results from computational neuroscience that are quite often based on the analysis of complex network representation of the human brain. In recent years, this representation experienced a theoretical and computational revolution that is breaching neuroscience, allowing us to cope with the increasing complexity of the human brain across multiple scales and in multiple dimensions and to model structural and functional connectivity from new perspectives, often combined with each other. In this work, we will review the main achievements obtained from interdisciplinary research based on magnetic resonance imaging and establish de facto, the birth of multilayer network analysis and modeling of the human brain. PMID:28327916

  20. Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; Kuijpers, Maaike; Kerkhofs, Amber; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2012-07-31

    Unlike nonhuman primates, songbirds learn to vocalize very much like human infants acquire spoken language. In humans, Broca's area in the frontal lobe and Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe are crucially involved in speech production and perception, respectively. Songbirds have analogous brain regions that show a similar neural dissociation between vocal production and auditory perception and memory. In both humans and songbirds, there is evidence for lateralization of neural responsiveness in these brain regions. Human infants already show left-sided dominance in their brain activation when exposed to speech. Moreover, a memory-specific left-sided dominance in Wernicke's area for speech perception has been demonstrated in 2.5-mo-old babies. It is possible that auditory-vocal learning is associated with hemispheric dominance and that this association arose in songbirds and humans through convergent evolution. Therefore, we investigated whether there is similar song memory-related lateralization in the songbird brain. We exposed male zebra finches to tutor or unfamiliar song. We found left-sided dominance of neuronal activation in a Broca-like brain region (HVC, a letter-based name) of juvenile and adult zebra finch males, independent of the song stimulus presented. In addition, juvenile males showed left-sided dominance for tutor song but not for unfamiliar song in a Wernicke-like brain region (the caudomedial nidopallium). Thus, left-sided dominance in the caudomedial nidopallium was specific for the song-learning phase and was memory-related. These findings demonstrate a remarkable neural parallel between birdsong and human spoken language, and they have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of auditory-vocal learning and its neural mechanisms.

  1. Data integration through brain atlasing: Human Brain Project tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Ingvild E; Øvsthus, Martin; Papp, Eszter A; Yates, Sharon C; Silvestri, Ludovico; Fiorilli, Julien; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pavone, Francesco S; Puchades, Maja A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2018-04-01

    The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain shape in human microcephalics and Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Hildebolt, Charles; Smith, Kirk; Morwood, M J; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E Wayhu; Imhof, Herwig; Seidler, Horst; Prior, Fred

    2007-02-13

    Because the cranial capacity of LB1 (Homo floresiensis) is only 417 cm(3), some workers propose that it represents a microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species. This hypothesis is difficult to assess, however, without a clear understanding of how brain shape of microcephalics compares with that of normal humans. We compare three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions of the internal braincases (virtual endocasts that reproduce details of external brain morphology, including cranial capacities and shape) from a sample of 9 microcephalic humans and 10 normal humans. Discriminant and canonical analyses are used to identify two variables that classify normal and microcephalic humans with 100% success. The classification functions classify the virtual endocast from LB1 with normal humans rather than microcephalics. On the other hand, our classification functions classify a pathological H. sapiens specimen that, like LB1, represents an approximately 3-foot-tall adult female and an adult Basuto microcephalic woman that is alleged to have an endocast similar to LB1's with the microcephalic humans. Although microcephaly is genetically and clinically variable, virtual endocasts from our highly heterogeneous sample share similarities in protruding and proportionately large cerebella and relatively narrow, flattened orbital surfaces compared with normal humans. These findings have relevance for hypotheses regarding the genetic substrates of hominin brain evolution and may have medical diagnostic value. Despite LB1's having brain shape features that sort it with normal humans rather than microcephalics, other shape features and its small brain size are consistent with its assignment to a separate species.

  3. Proposed link rates in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Michael J A M

    2003-07-15

    There is increasing experimental evidence that neuronal synchronization is necessary for the large-scale integration of distributed neuronal activity to realize various time-dependent coherent neuronal assemblies in the brain. Phase synchronization seems a promising candidate to quantify the time-dependent, frequency specific, synchrony between simultaneously recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that may partially reflect this former process. We introduce a link rate (LR) as a measure of the spatial-temporal incidence of phase synchronization and phase de-synchronization. The concept is exemplified in its application to the analysis of spontaneous phase synchronization. To this end, three scalp EEG recordings are used: a normal control, a patient suffering from epileptic seizures and a patient with diffuse brain damage due to anoxia, showing a burst-suppression EEG. In addition, the method is applied to surrogate data (white noise). We find in the normal control that LR(control)=13.90+/-0.04 (mean+/-S.E.M.), which is different from the surrogate data, where we find that LR(surr)=15.36+/-0.05. In the two pathological conditions, the LR is significantly and strongly reduced to LR(burst)=4.52+/-0.05 and LR(seizure)=5.40+/-0.08. The derived LR seems a sensitive measure to relevant changes in synchronization, as these occur in the dynamic process of generating different spatial-temporal networks, both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Message processing in the human brain. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, P

    1983-10-07

    For pt.II see ibid., no.19, p.95-100 (1983). The general problem of the possibly achievable super brain is discussed, and subtle differences between various linkages leading to selective processes, creativity decision making and speculative assessments are pointed out and translated into possible approaches to the making of machine intelligence. Generally, associative sequences for processing of large data flows cannot be attempted without the provision of generally valid linkage rules. Such coordination steps are considered first, the brain-machine simulation being built-up vertically on 6 levels and horizontally as recognition stages in an event. These six levels are: repertoire (i.e. vocabulary); definition; scene; happenings; spatial linkages; temporal linkages. Event simulation proceeds from the descriptive to the cognitive situation. Speculative discussions continue with the gradual introduction of computer hardware and software concepts to be adapted for intelligence simulation; thus, the simplest associative process could start with an adder network and proceed to a virtual expert system, which would include teaching by example, autonomous control, non-procedural language, all these governed by schedules.

  5. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes, M.; Jenkinson, M.; Valabregue, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beckmann, C.F.; Smith, S.

    2014-01-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI

  6. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  7. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  8. Thrombin binding to human brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, M.; Snider, R.M.; Richelson, E.

    1983-01-01

    Thrombin, a serine protease that regulates hemostasis, has been shown to stimulate the formation of cGMP in murine neuroblastoma cells. The nervous system in vivo thus may be postulated to respond to this blood-borne factor after it breaches the blood-brain barrier, as in trauma. Human alpha-thrombin was radiolabeled with 125I and shown to bind rapidly, reversibly, and with high affinity to human brain and spinal cord. These findings indicate the presence of specific thrombin-binding sites in nervous tissue and may have important clinical implications

  9. Simplified detection system for neuroreceptor studies in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Frost, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive dual-detector system has been developed for measurement of positronemitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of [11C]carfentanil, a high affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist indicates the potential utility of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor occupation in the human brain

  10. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand [ 3 H]DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of [ 3 H]DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas

  11. Glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaria, R.N.; Gravina, S.A.; Schmidley, J.W.; Perry, G.; Harik, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    We identified and characterized the glucose transporter in the human cerebral cortex, cerebral microvessels, and choroid plexus by specific D-glucose-displaceable [3H]cytochalasin B binding. The binding was saturable, with a dissociation constant less than 1 microM. Maximal binding capacity was approximately 7 pmol/mg protein in the cerebral cortex, approximately 42 pmol/mg protein in brain microvessels, and approximately 27 pmol/mg protein in the choroid plexus. Several hexoses displaced specific [3H]cytochalasin B binding to microvessels in a rank-order that correlated well with their known ability to cross the blood-brain barrier; the only exception was 2-deoxy-D-glucose, which had much higher affinity for the glucose transporter than the natural substrate, D-glucose. Irreversible photoaffinity labeling of the glucose transporter of microvessels with [3H]cytochalasin B, followed by solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, labeled a protein band with an average molecular weight of approximately 55,000. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific to the human erythrocyte glucose transporter immunocytochemically stained brain blood vessels and the few trapped erythrocytes in situ, with minimal staining of the neuropil. In the choroid plexus, blood vessels did not stain, but the epithelium reacted positively. We conclude that human brain microvessels are richly endowed with a glucose transport moiety similar in molecular weight and antigenic characteristics to that of human erythrocytes and brain microvessels of other mammalian species

  12. Effectiveness of mesenchymal stems cells cultured by hanging drop vs. conventional culturing on the repair of hypoxic-ischemic-damaged mouse brains, measured by stemness gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs cultured by hanging drop and conventional culturing methods on cerebellar repair in hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injured mice. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR was used to analyze the expression levels of three stemness genes, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, and the migration related gene CXCR4. MSC prepared by hanging drop or conventional techniques were administered intranasally to nine day old mice, and analyzed by MRI at day 28. Results indicate that the MSCs, especially the hanging drop cultured MSCs, significantly improved the mice’s cerebellar damage repair. MSCs derived from the hanging drop culture were smaller than those from the conventional culture. The gene expression levels were significantly increased for the MSCs derived from the hanging drop culture. The mechanism might relate to the fact that the hanging drop cultured MSCs can be kept in an undifferentiated state, resulting in its higher expression level of migration receptor of CXCR4.

  13. Investigation of cytogenetic activity of radioprotectors in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egiazaryan, S.V.; Arutyunyan, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Studied are the effects of the F-11 and F-37 indene preparations on chromosome aberrations induced in lymphocyte culture of peripheral human blood by thioTEP. Investigation into the action of the substance in euqimolar concentrations has not shown their protective effect. Indene preparations did not change the spectrum of chromosome aberrations induced by thioTEP as well as did not increase the level of chromosome aberrations in lumphocyte culture of human peripheral human blood

  14. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  15. Magnetic resonance elastography in normal human brain: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lei; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Han Jiancheng; Xi Zhinong; Shen Hao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human brain. Methods: An external force actuator was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During MRE scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the volunteers' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and generated shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence of MRE was designed. A modified gradient echo sequence was developed with motion sensitizing gradient (MSG) imposed along X, Y or Z direction. Cyclic displacement within brain tissue induced by shear waves caused a measurable phase shift in the received MR signal. From the measured phase shift, the displacement at each voxel could be calculated, and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. By adjusting the phase offset, the dynamic propagation of shear waves in a wave cycle was obtained. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity images. Shear waves at 100 Hz, 150 Hz, and 200 Hz were applied. Results: The phase images of MRE directly imaged the propagating shear waves within the brain. The direction of the propagation was from surface of the brain to the center. The wavelength of shear waves varied with the change of actuating frequency. The change of wavelength of shear waves in gray and white matter of the brain was identified. The wavelength of shear waves in gray matter was shorter than that in white matter. The elasticity image of the brain revealed that the shear modulus of the white matter was higher than that of gray matter. Conclusion: The phase images of MRE can directly visualize the propagation of shear waves in the brain tissue. The elasticity image of the brain can demonstrate the change of elasticity between gray and white matter. (authors)

  16. Measuring and Reconstructing the Brain at the Synaptic Scale: Towards a Biofidelic Human Brain in silico

    OpenAIRE

    NeuroData; CE, Priebe; Burns, R.; RJ, Vogelstein

    2015-01-01

    Vogelstein JT, Priebe CE, Burns R, Vogelstein RJ, Lichtman J. Measuring and Reconstructing the Brain at the Synaptic Scale: Towards a Biofidelic Human Brain in silico. DARPA Neural Engineering, Science and Technology Forum, 2010

  17. Neurospin Seminar: From the Proton to the Human Brain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From the Proton to the Human Brain Speaker: Prof Denis Le Bihan Abstract: The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched a program to conceive and build a “human brain explorer”, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious Iseult project, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI. In this seminar a summary of the main features of this magnet, and the neuroscience and medical targets of NeuroSpin where this outstanding instrument will be installed in 2017 will be surveyed. The unprecedented resolution and the new contrasts allowed by such UHF magnets, in combination with innovative concepts in physics and neurobiology, will allow to explore the human brain at a mesoscale at which everything remains to d...

  18. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Adams, Hieab H H; Launer, Lenore J; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L; Becker, James T; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W T; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Medland, Sarah E

    2015-04-09

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  19. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed.

  20. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Friedrich

    Full Text Available Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  1. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  2. Implantation of glioblastoma spheroids into organotypic brain slice cultures as a model for investigating effects of irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    , models for studying the effects of radiotherapy in combination with novel strategies are lacking but important since radiotherapy is the most successful non-surgical treatment of brain tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a glioblastoma spheroid-organotypic rat brain slice culture model...... comprising both tumors, tumor-brain interface and brain tissue to provide a proof of concept that this model is useful for studying effects of radiotherapy. Organotypic brain slice cultures cultured for 1-2 days or 11-16 days corresponding to immature brain and mature brain respectively were irradiated...... with doses between 10 and 50 Gy. There was a high uptake of the cell death marker propidium iodide in the immature cultures. In addition, MAP2 expression decreased whereas GFAP expression increased in these cultures suggesting neuronal death and astrogliosis. We therefore proceeded with the mature cultures...

  3. Quantifying anisotropy and fiber orientation in human brain histological sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Budde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI has provided unparalleled insight into the microscopic structure and organization of the central nervous system. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and other models of the diffusion MRI signal extract microstructural properties of tissues with relevance to the normal and injured brain. Despite the prevalence of such techniques and applications, accurate and large-scale validation has proven difficult, particularly in the human brain. In this report, human brain sections obtained from a digital public brain bank were employed to quantify anisotropy and fiber orientation using structure tensor analysis. The derived maps depict the intricate complexity of white matter fibers at a resolution not attainable with current DWI experiments. Moreover, the effects of multiple fiber bundles (i.e. crossing fibers and intravoxel fiber dispersion were demonstrated. Examination of the cortex and hippocampal regions validated specific features of previous in vivo and ex vivo DTI studies of the human brain. Despite the limitation to two dimensions, the resulting images provide a unique depiction of white matter organization at resolutions currently unattainable with DWI. The method of analysis may be used to validate tissue properties derived from DTI and alternative models of the diffusion signal.

  4. Kisspeptin modulates sexual and emotional brain processing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comninos, Alexander N; Wall, Matthew B; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J; Clarke, Sophie A; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M; Jayasena, Channa N; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C; Thomas, Sarah A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2017-02-01

    Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin's enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC).

  5. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  6. Workshop on cultural usability and human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature......, Workplace observation, Think-Aloud Usability Test, etc. These techniques often give - seemingly - similar results when applied in diverse cultural settings, but experience shows that we need a deep understanding of the cultural, social and organizational context to interpret the results, and to transform...

  7. Primitive Concepts of Number and the Developing Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    Counting is an evolutionarily recent cultural invention of the human species. In order for humans to have conceived of counting in the first place, certain representational and logical abilities must have already been in place. The focus of this article is the origins and nature of those fundamental mechanisms that promoted the emergence of the…

  8. Main-, minor- and trace elements distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Roschger, P.; Bohic, S.; Osterode, W.

    2004-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to induce adverse health effects in humans. In fact, cognitive deficits are repeatedly described with Pb exposure, but little is known about the distribution of lead in brain. Measurements of the distribution of Pb in human brain and to study if Pb is associated with the distribution of other chemical elements such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) is of great interest and could reveal some hints about the metabolism of Pb in brain. To determine the local distribution of lead (Pb) and other trace elements x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements have been performed, using a microbeam setup and highest flux synchrotron radiation. Experiments have been carried out at ID-22, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The installed microprobe setup provides a monochromatic beam (17 keV) from an undulator station focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray optics to a spot size of 5 μm x 3μm. Brain slices (20 μm thickness, imbedded in paraffin and mounted on Kapton foils) from areas of the frontal cortex, thalamus and hippocampus have been investigated. Generally no significant increase in fluorescence intensities could be detected in one of the investigated brain compartments. However Pb and other (trace) elements (e.g. S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) could be detected in all samples and showed strong inhomogeneities across the analyzed areas. While S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br could be clearly assigned to the investigated brain structures (vessels, etc.) Pb showed a very different behavior. In some cases (e.g. plexus choroidei) Pb was located at the walls of the vessel, whereas with other structures (e.g. blood vessel) this correlation was not found. Moreover, the detected Pb in different brain areas was individually correlated with various elements. The local distribution of the detected elements in various brain structures will be discussed in this work. (author)

  9. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  10. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornish, M. Lynn; Critchley, Alan T.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2017-01-01

    , and the impacts of anti-oxidant activities in neuroprotection. These elements have the capacity to help in the defense of human cognitive disorders, such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, bipolar diseases, and adverse conditions characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Psychological benefits...

  11. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  12. Simple instrument for biochemical studies of the living human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Lee, M.C.; Frost, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, relatively inexpensive radiation detection system was developed for measurement of positron-emitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high-efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of [ 11 C]-carfentanil, a high-affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist exemplifies the use of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor binding of drugs in the human brain. The instrument has also been used for measurement of the transport into the brain of other positron-emitting radiotracers, such as large neutral amino acids

  13. Graphene foam as a biocompatible scaffold for culturing human neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Cristiana; Nasr, Babak; Hudson, Emma J.; Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Chana, Gursharan; Everall, Ian P.; Dottori, Mirella; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation. PMID:29657752

  14. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  15. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain | Baichoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain.

  16. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arichi, T.; Varela, M.; Melendez-Calderon, A.; Allievi, A.; Merchant, N.; Tusor, N.; Counsell, S.J.; Burdet, E.; Beckmann, Christian; Edwards, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing

  17. Using human brain activity to guide machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ruth C; Scheirer, Walter J; Cox, David D

    2018-03-29

    Machine learning is a field of computer science that builds algorithms that learn. In many cases, machine learning algorithms are used to recreate a human ability like adding a caption to a photo, driving a car, or playing a game. While the human brain has long served as a source of inspiration for machine learning, little effort has been made to directly use data collected from working brains as a guide for machine learning algorithms. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm of "neurally-weighted" machine learning, which takes fMRI measurements of human brain activity from subjects viewing images, and infuses these data into the training process of an object recognition learning algorithm to make it more consistent with the human brain. After training, these neurally-weighted classifiers are able to classify images without requiring any additional neural data. We show that our neural-weighting approach can lead to large performance gains when used with traditional machine vision features, as well as to significant improvements with already high-performing convolutional neural network features. The effectiveness of this approach points to a path forward for a new class of hybrid machine learning algorithms which take both inspiration and direct constraints from neuronal data.

  18. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 3. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the history of technology. Alfred Gierer. Perspectives Volume 29 Issue 3 September 2004 pp 235-244. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Insights into Brain Glycogen Metabolism: THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN BRAIN GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cécile; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Ines; Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Cocaign, Angélique; Léger, Thibaut; Woffendin, Gary; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Etchebest, Catherine; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-08-26

    Brain glycogen metabolism plays a critical role in major brain functions such as learning or memory consolidation. However, alteration of glycogen metabolism and glycogen accumulation in the brain contributes to neurodegeneration as observed in Lafora disease. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism, catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycogen mobilization. Moreover, the allosteric regulation of the three GP isozymes (muscle, liver, and brain) by metabolites and phosphorylation, in response to hormonal signaling, fine-tunes glycogenolysis to fulfill energetic and metabolic requirements. Whereas the structures of muscle and liver GPs have been known for decades, the structure of brain GP (bGP) has remained elusive despite its critical role in brain glycogen metabolism. Here, we report the crystal structure of human bGP in complex with PEG 400 (2.5 Å) and in complex with its allosteric activator AMP (3.4 Å). These structures demonstrate that bGP has a closer structural relationship with muscle GP, which is also activated by AMP, contrary to liver GP, which is not. Importantly, despite the structural similarities between human bGP and the two other mammalian isozymes, the bGP structures reveal molecular features unique to the brain isozyme that provide a deeper understanding of the differences in the activation properties of these allosteric enzymes by the allosteric effector AMP. Overall, our study further supports that the distinct structural and regulatory properties of GP isozymes contribute to the different functions of muscle, liver, and brain glycogen. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. [Stem Cells in the Brain of Mammals and Human: Fundamental and Applied Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, M A; Marey, M V

    2015-01-01

    Brain stem cells represent an extremely intriguing phenomenon. The aim of our review is to present an integrity vision of their role in the brain of mammals and humans, and their clinical perspectives. Over last two decades, investigations of biology of the neural stem cells produced significant changes in general knowledge about the processes of development and functioning of the brain. Researches on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of NSC differentiation and behavior led to new understanding of their involvement in learning and memory. In the regenerative medicine, original therapeutic approaches to neurodegenerative brain diseases have been elaborated due to fundamental achievements in this field. They are based on specific regenerative potential of neural stem cells and progenitor cells, which possess the ability to replace dead cells and express crucially significant biologically active factors that are missing in the pathological brain. For the needs of cell substitution therapy in the neural diseases, adequate methods of maintaining stem cells in culture and their differentiation into different types of neurons and glial cells, have been developed currently. The success of modern cellular technologies has significantly expanded the range of cells used for cell therapy. The near future may bring new perspective and distinct progress in brain cell therapy due to optimizing the cells types most promising for medical needs.

  1. Human astrocytes: structure and functions in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Flora; Dossi, Elena; Rouach, Nathalie

    2017-07-01

    Data collected on astrocytes' physiology in the rodent have placed them as key regulators of synaptic, neuronal, network, and cognitive functions. While these findings proved highly valuable for our awareness and appreciation of non-neuronal cell significance in brain physiology, early structural and phylogenic investigations of human astrocytes hinted at potentially different astrocytic properties. This idea sparked interest to replicate rodent-based studies on human samples, which have revealed an analogous but enhanced involvement of astrocytes in neuronal function of the human brain. Such evidence pointed to a central role of human astrocytes in sustaining more complex information processing. Here, we review the current state of our knowledge of human astrocytes regarding their structure, gene profile, and functions, highlighting the differences with rodent astrocytes. This recent insight is essential for assessment of the relevance of findings using animal models and for comprehending the functional significance of species-specific properties of astrocytes. Moreover, since dysfunctional astrocytes have been described in many brain disorders, a more thorough understanding of human-specific astrocytic properties is crucial for better-adapted translational applications.

  2. From an unlicensed philosopher: reflections on brain, mind, society, culture--each other's environments with equal "ontologic standing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Philosophic conclusions drawn from work with psychologically and morally injured combat veterans include that brain, mind, society, and culture "co-evolved." The four encompass the complete human phenomenon, but not all are reducible to the physical brain. None of the four are "ontologically prior" to the others, when viewed over the entire lifecycle. All four are what I call "each other's environments," with obligatory cross-boundary flows--each with each in both directions. Rigorous, but nonreductionist interdisciplinary research, in the vein of "evo-devo" in embryology, is called for in the study of the human phenomena. On the basis of these conclusions, I offer a few practical comments on clinical work with psychologically and morally injured combat veterans. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  3. Culturing of PC12 Cells, Neuronal Cells, Astrocytes Cultures and Brain Slices in an Open Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya; Rømer Sørensen, Ane

    The brain is the center of the nervous system, where serious neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s are products of functional loss in the neural cells (1). Typical techniques used to investigate these diseases lack precise control of the cellular surroundings......, in addition to isolating the neural tissue from nutrient delivery and to creating unwanted gradients (2). This means that typical techniques used to investigate neurodegenerative diseases cannot mimic in vivo conditions, as closely as desired. We have developed a novel microfluidic system for culturing PC12...... cells, neuronal cells, astrocytes cultures and brain slices. The microfluidic system provides efficient nutrient delivery, waste removal, access to oxygen, fine control over the neurochemical environment and access to modern microscopy. Additionally, the setup consists of an in vitro culturing...

  4. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN GLOBAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterprise operations continue to be globalized through overseas expansions, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions as well as strategic relationships and partnerships transnational organizations need to give attention to issues of culture in human resource management practices as a panacea for prosperity. The global organization is competent if only it is able to bridge the gap between management and culture so that personal relationships with other peoples in the organization and society become in harmony. This is critical because cultural relativity and reality in organizations influence operations. The study was designed to explore possible relationships between cultural dimensions and global human resource management. The survey research design was employed and data generated through primary and secondary sources. The participants comprised of 385 respondents from a cross-section of the population in Nigeria. By Chi-Square test, it was found that culture has a significant positive relationship with global human resource management.

  5. Visualization of specific binding sites of benzodiazepine in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, H.; Yamasaki, T.; Inoue, O.; Itoh, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Tateno, Y.; Ikehira, H.

    1986-01-01

    Using 11C-labeled Ro15-1788 and positron emission tomography, studies of benzodiazepine binding sites in the human brain were performed on four normal volunteers. Rapid and high accumulation of 11C activity was observed in the brain after i.v. injection of [11C]Ro15-1788, the maximum of which was within 12 min. Initial distribution of 11C activity in the brain was similar to the distribution of the normal cerebral blood flow. Ten minutes after injection, however, a high uptake of 11C activity was observed in the cerebral cortex and moderate uptake was seen in the cerebellar cortex, the basal ganglia, and the thalamus. The accumulation of 11C activity was low in the brain stem. This distribution of 11C activity was approximately parallel to the known distribution of benzodiazepine receptors. Saturation experiments were performed on four volunteers with oral administration of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg of cold Ro15-1788 prior to injection. Initial distribution of 11C activity following injection peaked within 2 min and then the accumulation of 11C activity decreased rapidly and remarkably throughout the brain. The results indicated that [11C] Ro15-1788 associates and dissociates to specific and nonspecific binding sites rapidly and has a high ratio of specific receptor binding to nonspecific binding in vivo. Carbon-11 Ro15-1788 is a suitable radioligand for the study of benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in humans

  6. Complex Trajectories of Brain Development in the Healthy Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andescavage, Nickie N; du Plessis, Adre; McCarter, Robert; Serag, Ahmed; Evangelou, Iordanis; Vezina, Gilbert; Robertson, Richard; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    This study characterizes global and hemispheric brain growth in healthy human fetuses during the second half of pregnancy using three-dimensional MRI techniques. We studied 166 healthy fetuses that underwent MRI between 18 and 39 completed weeks gestation. We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the brain and calculated volumes for left and right cortical gray matter (CGM), fetal white matter (FWM), deep subcortical structures (DSS), and the cerebellum. We calculated the rate of growth for each tissue class according to gestational age and described patterns of hemispheric growth. Each brain region demonstrated major increases in volume during the second half of gestation, the most pronounced being the cerebellum (34-fold), followed by FWM (22-fold), CGM (21-fold), and DSS (10-fold). The left cerebellar hemisphere, CGM, and DSS had larger volumes early in gestation, but these equalized by term. It has been increasingly recognized that brain asymmetry evolves throughout the human life span. Advanced quantitative MRI provides noninvasive measurements of early structural asymmetry between the left and right fetal brain that may inform functional and behavioral laterality differences seen in children and young adulthood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  9. Ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Dawe, Robert J; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to (a) develop an approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, (b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and (c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in vivo and ex vivo. An approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex vivo was assessed. The relationship between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both antemortem and postmortem. This approach for ex vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than intersubject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements. Regional brain volumes measured with this approach for ex vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in vivo and ex vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that this approach captures information linked to antemortem macrostructural brain characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Regional Susceptibility to Domoic Acid in Primary Astrocyte Cells Cultured from the Brain Stem and Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Pulido

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid is a marine biotoxin associated with harmful algal blooms and is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in marine animals and humans. It is also an excitatory amino acid analog to glutamate and kainic acid which acts through glutamate receptors eliciting a very rapid and potent neurotoxic response. The hippocampus, among other brain regions, has been identified as a specific target site having high sensitivity to DOM toxicity. Histopathology evidence indicates that in addition to neurons, the astrocytes were also injured. Electron microscopy data reported in this study further supports the light microscopy findings. Furthermore, the effect of DOM was confirmed by culturing primary astrocytes from the hippocampus and the brain stem and subsequently exposing them to domoic acid. The RNA was extracted and used for biomarker analysis. The biomarker analysis was done for the early response genes including c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, Hsp-72; specific marker for the astrocytes- GFAP and the glutamate receptors including GluR 2, NMDAR 1, NMDAR 2A and B. Although, the astrocyte-GFAP and c-fos were not affected, c-jun and GluR 2 were down-regulated. The microarray analysis revealed that the chemokines / cytokines, tyrosine kinases (Trk, and apoptotic genes were altered. The chemokines that were up-regulated included - IL1-a, IL-1B, IL-6, the small inducible cytokine, interferon protein IP-10, CXC chemokine LIX, and IGF binding proteins. The Bax, Bcl-2, Trk A and Trk B were all downregulated. Interestingly, only the hippocampal astrocytes were affected. Our findings suggest that astrocytes may present a possible target for pharmacological interventions for the prevention and treatment of amnesic shellfish poisoning and for other brain pathologies involving excitotoxicity

  11. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  12. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Vértes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the timeseries of 90 stocks from the New York Stock Exchange over a three-year period, and the fMRI-derived timeseries acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10 min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimised for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph theoretically-mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  13. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Nicol, Ruth M; Chapman, Sandra C; Watkins, Nicholas W; Robertson, Duncan A; Bullmore, Edward T

    2011-01-01

    Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the time series of 90 stocks from the New York stock exchange over a 3-year period, and the fMRI-derived time series acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10-min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimized for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph-theoretically mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  14. An improved in vitro blood-brain barrier model: rat brain endothelial cells co-cultured with astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, N Joan; Dolman, Diana E M; Drndarski, Svetlana; Fredriksson, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models using primary cultured brain endothelial cells are important for establishing cellular and molecular mechanisms of BBB function. Co-culturing with BBB-associated cells especially astrocytes to mimic more closely the in vivo condition leads to upregulation of the BBB phenotype in the brain endothelial cells. Rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) are a valuable tool allowing ready comparison with in vivo studies in rodents; however, it has been difficult to obtain pure brain endothelial cells, and few models achieve a transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER, measure of tight junction efficacy) of >200 Ω cm(2), i.e. the models are still relatively leaky. Here, we describe methods for preparing high purity RBECs and neonatal rat astrocytes, and a co-culture method that generates a robust, stable BBB model that can achieve TEER >600 Ω cm(2). The method is based on >20 years experience with RBEC culture, together with recent improvements to kill contaminating cells and encourage BBB differentiation.Astrocytes are isolated by mechanical dissection and cell straining and are frozen for later co-culture. RBECs are isolated from 3-month-old rat cortices. The brains are cleaned of meninges and white matter and enzymatically and mechanically dissociated. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate is centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from other cells that stick to the myelin plug. The vessel fragments undergo a second enzyme digestion to separate pericytes from vessels and break down vessels into shorter segments, after which a Percoll gradient is used to separate capillaries from venules, arterioles, and single cells. To kill remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes, the capillary fragments are plated in puromycin-containing medium and RBECs grown to 50-60% confluence. They are then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown in the bottom of the wells. The whole procedure takes ∼2

  15. Human factors in safety assessment. Safety culture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed

  16. Traditional Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource Management Practices in ... Ghanaian worker in general and the HR manager in particular is influenced ... face -to-face interview methods were used to obtain information for the study.

  17. Immunocytochemical characterization of explant cultures of human prostatic stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kooistra (Anko); A.M.J. Elissen (Arianne ); J.J. Konig (Josee); M. Vermey; Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); J.C. Romijn (Johannes); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe study of stromal-epithelial interactions greatly depends on the ability to culture both cell types separately, in order to permit analysis of their interactions under defined conditions in reconstitution experiments. Here we report the establishment of explant cultures of human

  18. Human meniscal proteoglycan metabolism in long-term tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, G.; Verdonk, R.; Veys, E. M.; van Daele, P.; de Smet, P.; van den Abbeele, K.; Claus, B.; Baeten, D.

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of human meniscal allografting, menisci have been maintained viable in in vitro culture. The influence of long-term tissue culture on the extracellular matrix metabolism of the meniscus has been studied. Fetal calf serum (FCS) was used as a supplement for the growth factors necessary

  19. Free-energy carriers in human cultured muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; de Zwart, H. J.; Ponne, N. J.; de Jong, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Creatine phosphate (CrP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), protein, and DNA were quantified in human muscle cell cultures undergoing transition from dividing myoblasts to multinucleate myotubes. CrP is negligible in cultures grown in commonly applied media

  20. Brain lactate metabolism in humans with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Carrera, Emmanuel; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2012-05-01

    Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. Thirty-one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxic (PbtO(2) 119 μmol/L) versus nonhyperglycolytic. Median per patient samples with elevated CMD lactate was 54% (interquartile range, 11%-80%). Lactate elevations were more often attributable to cerebral hyperglycolysis (78%; interquartile range, 5%-98%) than brain hypoxia (11%; interquartile range, 4%-75%). Mortality was associated with increased percentage of samples with elevated lactate and brain hypoxia (28% [interquartile range 9%-95%] in nonsurvivors versus 9% [interquartile range 3%-17%] in survivors; P=0.02) and lower percentage of elevated lactate and cerebral hyperglycolysis (13% [interquartile range, 1%-87%] versus 88% [interquartile range, 27%-99%]; P=0.07). Cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate production predicted good 6-month outcome (odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score, 0-3 1.49; CI, 1.08-2.05; P=0.016), whereas increased lactate with brain hypoxia was associated with a reduced likelihood of good outcome (OR, 0.78; CI, 0.59-1.03; P=0.08). Brain lactate is frequently elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, predominantly because of hyperglycolysis rather than hypoxia. A pattern of increased cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate was associated with good long-term recovery. Our data suggest that lactate may be used as an aerobic substrate by the injured human brain.

  1. Cross-hemispheric functional connectivity in the human fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E; Dassanayake, Maya T; Shen, Stephen; Katkuri, Yashwanth; Alexis, Mitchell; Anderson, Amy L; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hassan, Sonia S; Studholme, Colin; Jeong, Jeong-Won; Romero, Roberto

    2013-02-20

    Compelling evidence indicates that psychiatric and developmental disorders are generally caused by disruptions in the functional connectivity (FC) of brain networks. Events occurring during development, and in particular during fetal life, have been implicated in the genesis of such disorders. However, the developmental timetable for the emergence of neural FC during human fetal life is unknown. We present the results of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging performed in 25 healthy human fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (24 to 38 weeks of gestation). We report the presence of bilateral fetal brain FC and regional and age-related variation in FC. Significant bilateral connectivity was evident in half of the 42 areas tested, and the strength of FC between homologous cortical brain regions increased with advancing gestational age. We also observed medial to lateral gradients in fetal functional brain connectivity. These findings improve understanding of human fetal central nervous system development and provide a basis for examining the role of insults during fetal life in the subsequent development of disorders in neural FC.

  2. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Duhaime A, Bullock R, Maas A, Valadka A, Manley G. Classification of traumatic brain injury for targeted therapies. J Neurotrauma. 2008;25:719–738...RDRL CIO LL IMAL HRA MAIL & RECORDS MGMT 1 GOVT PRINTG OFC (PDF) A MALHOTRA 6 DIR USARL (PDF) RDRL WML C S AUBERT R BENJAMIN

  3. Dystrophic microglia in the aging human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Sammons, Nicole W; Kuhns, Amanda J; Sparks, D Larry

    2004-01-15

    We have studied microglial morphology in the human cerebral cortex of two nondemented subjects using high-resolution LN-3 immunohistochemistry. Several abnormalities in microglial cytoplasmic structure, including deramification, spheroid formation, gnarling, and fragmentation of processes, were identified. These changes were determined to be different from the morphological changes that occur during microglial activation and they were designated collectively as microglial dystrophy. Quantitative evaluation of dystrophic changes in microglia revealed that these were much more prevalent in the older subject (68-year-old) than in the younger one (38-year-old). Thus, we conclude that microglial dystrophy is a sign of microglial cell senescence. We hypothesize that microglial senescence could be important for understanding age-related declines in cognitive function. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...... receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our...

  5. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  6. Accessible cultural mind-set modulates default mode activity: evidence for the culturally situated brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenbo; Oyserman, Daphna; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Self-construal priming modulates human behavior and associated neural activity. However, the neural activity associated with the self-construal priming procedure itself remains unknown. It is also unclear whether and how self-construal priming affects neural activity prior to engaging in a particular task. To address this gap, we scanned Chinese adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during self-construal priming and a following resting state. We found that, relative to a calculation task, both interdependent and independent self-construal priming activated the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The contrast of interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming also revealed increased activity in the dorsal MPFC and left middle frontal cortex. The regional homogeneity analysis of the resting-state activity revealed increased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the dorsal MPFC but decreased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the PCC when contrasting interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming. The functional connectivity analysis of the resting-state activity, however, did not show significant difference in synchronization of activities in remote brain regions between different priming conditions. Our findings suggest that accessible collectivistic/individualistic mind-set induced by self-construal priming is associated with modulations of both task-related and resting-state activity in the default mode network.

  7. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  8. The neural encoding of guesses in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Bogler, Carsten; Soon, Chun Siong; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2012-01-16

    Human perception depends heavily on the quality of sensory information. When objects are hard to see we often believe ourselves to be purely guessing. Here we investigated whether such guesses use brain networks involved in perceptual decision making or independent networks. We used a combination of fMRI and pattern classification to test how visibility affects the signals, which determine choices. We found that decisions regarding clearly visible objects are predicted by signals in sensory brain regions, whereas different regions in parietal cortex became predictive when subjects were shown invisible objects and believed themselves to be purely guessing. This parietal network was highly overlapping with regions, which have previously been shown to encode free decisions. Thus, the brain might use a dedicated network for determining choices when insufficient sensory information is available. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  10. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  11. Interleukin-6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 m...... influence of hyperthermia. In conclusion, IL-6 is released from the brain during prolonged exercise in humans and it appears that the duration of the exercise rather than the increase in body temperature dictates the cerebral IL-6 response....... in the brain at rest or after 15 min of exercise, but a small release of IL-6 was observed after 60 min of exercise in the first bout (0.06 +/- 0.03 ng min(-1)). This release of IL-6 from the brain was five-fold greater at the end of the second bout (0.30 +/- 0.08 ng min(-1); P

  12. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...

  13. On culture and human development: Interview with Barbara Rogoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2011-01-01

    In this interview Professor Barbara Rogoff explores the many ways in which culture shapes the course of human development, and illustrates this with several findings from her past as well as most recent work. These reveal the vital importance of growing up in a family and a community for the human...... child and participating, from early on, in their various rituals and practices. Building on and enriching cultural psychological sources, Professor Rogoff offers us a comprehensive framework with which to understand both cultural and developmental phenomena and, above all, their multiple intersections...

  14. Radiosensitivity of normal human epidermal cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, R.; Potten, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Using an in vitro culture system the authors have derived #betta#-radiation survival curves over a dose range 0-8 Gy for the clonogenic cells of normal human epidermis. The culture system used allows the epidermal cells to stratify and form a multi-layered sheet of keratinizing cells. The cultures appear to be a very good model for epidermis in vivo. The survival curves show a population which is apparently more sensitive than murine epidermis in vivo. It remains unclear whether this is an intrinsic difference between the species or is a consequence of the in vitro cultivation of the human cells. (author)

  15. Midsagittal Brain Variation among Non-Human Primates: Insights into Evolutionary Expansion of the Human Precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Rilling, James K; Chen, Xu; Preuss, Todd M; Bruner, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee. In the current shape analysis, we examine precuneus variation in non-human primates through landmark-based models, to evaluate the general pattern of variability in non-human primates, and to test whether precuneus proportions are influenced by allometric effects of brain size. Results show that precuneus proportions do not covary with brain size, and that the main difference between monkeys and apes involves a vertical expansion of the frontal and occipital regions in apes. Such differences might reflect differences in brain proportions or differences in cranial architecture. In this sample, precuneus variation is apparently not influenced by phylogenetic or allometric factors, but does vary consistently within species, at least in chimpanzees and macaques. This result further supports the hypothesis that precuneus expansion in modern humans is not merely a consequence of increasing brain size or of allometric scaling, but rather represents a species-specific morphological change in our lineage. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Culturing the Unculturable: Human Coronavirus HKU1 Infects, Replicates, and Produces Progeny Virions in Human Ciliated Airway Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyrc, Krzysztof; Sims, Amy C.; Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten; Long, Casey; Deming, Damon; Donaldson, Eric; Vabret, Astrid; Baric, Ralph; van der Hoek, Lia; Pickles, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Culturing newly identified human lung pathogens from clinical sample isolates can represent a daunting task, with problems ranging from low levels of pathogens to the presence of growth suppressive factors in the specimens, compounded by the lack of a suitable tissue culture system. However, it is

  17. Sigma and opioid receptors in human brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.; Szuecs, M.; Mamone, J.Y.; Bem, W.T.; Rush, M.D.; Johnson, F.E.; Coscia, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Human brain tumors and nude mouse-borne human neuroblastomas and gliomas were analyzed for sigma and opioid receptor content. Sigma binding was assessed using [ 3 H] 1, 3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), whereas opioid receptor subtypes were measured with tritiated forms of the following: μ, [D-ala 2 , mePhe 4 , gly-ol 5 ] enkephalin (DAMGE); κ, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) or U69,593; δ, [D-pen 2 , D-pen 5 ] enkephalin (DPDPE) or [D-ala 2 , D-leu 5 ] enkephalin (DADLE) with μ suppressor present. Binding parameters were estimated by homologous displacement assays followed by analysis using the LIGAND program. Sigma binding was detected in 15 of 16 tumors examined with very high levels found in a brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of lung and a human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC) passaged in nude mice. κ opioid receptor binding was detected in 4 of 4 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and 2 of 2 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but not in the other brain tumors analyzed

  18. Sigma and opioid receptors in human brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.E.; Szuecs, M.; Mamone, J.Y.; Bem, W.T.; Rush, M.D.; Johnson, F.E.; Coscia, C.J. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Human brain tumors and nude mouse-borne human neuroblastomas and gliomas were analyzed for sigma and opioid receptor content. Sigma binding was assessed using ({sup 3}H) 1, 3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), whereas opioid receptor subtypes were measured with tritiated forms of the following: {mu}, (D-ala{sup 2}, mePhe{sup 4}, gly-ol{sup 5}) enkephalin (DAMGE); {kappa}, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) or U69,593; {delta}, (D-pen{sup 2}, D-pen{sup 5}) enkephalin (DPDPE) or (D-ala{sup 2}, D-leu{sup 5}) enkephalin (DADLE) with {mu} suppressor present. Binding parameters were estimated by homologous displacement assays followed by analysis using the LIGAND program. Sigma binding was detected in 15 of 16 tumors examined with very high levels found in a brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of lung and a human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC) passaged in nude mice. {kappa} opioid receptor binding was detected in 4 of 4 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and 2 of 2 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but not in the other brain tumors analyzed.

  19. Distribution of cellular HSV-1 receptor expression in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathe, Richard; Haas, Juergen G

    2017-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus linked to a range of acute and chronic neurological disorders affecting distinct regions of the brain. Unusually, HSV-1 entry into cells requires the interaction of viral proteins glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) with distinct cellular receptor proteins. Several different gD and gB receptors have been identified, including TNFRSF14/HVEM and PVRL1/nectin 1 as gD receptors and PILRA, MAG, and MYH9 as gB receptors. We investigated the expression of these receptor molecules in different areas of the adult and developing human brain using online transcriptome databases. Whereas all HSV-1 receptors showed distinct expression patterns in different brain areas, the Allan Brain Atlas (ABA) reported increased expression of both gD and gB receptors in the hippocampus. Specifically, for PVRL1, TNFRFS14, and MYH9, the differential z scores for hippocampal expression, a measure of relative levels of increased expression, rose to 2.9, 2.9, and 2.5, respectively, comparable to the z score for the archetypical hippocampus-enriched mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2, z = 3.1). These data were confirmed at the Human Brain Transcriptome (HBT) database, but HBT data indicate that MAG expression is also enriched in hippocampus. The HBT database allowed the developmental pattern of expression to be investigated; we report that all HSV1 receptors markedly increase in expression levels between gestation and the postnatal/adult periods. These results suggest that differential receptor expression levels of several HSV-1 gD and gB receptors in the adult hippocampus are likely to underlie the susceptibility of this brain region to HSV-1 infection.

  20. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-06-17

    Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.

  1. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    Universality is much more than the determination by a majority at a particular moment ..... accepted human rights and not only the favourite rights of any particular .... sole breadwinners, caring for children and taking important decisions on.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of human brain structural network construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Network neuroscience leverages diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and tractography to quantify structural connectivity of the human brain. However, scientists and practitioners lack a clear understanding of the effects of varying tractography parameters on the constructed structural networks. With diffusion images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP, we characterize how structural networks are impacted by the spatial resolution of brain atlases, total number of tractography streamlines, and grey matter dilation with various graph metrics. We demonstrate how injudicious combinations of highly refined brain parcellations and low numbers of streamlines may inadvertently lead to disconnected network models with isolated nodes. Furthermore, we provide solutions to significantly reduce the likelihood of generating disconnected networks. In addition, for different tractography parameters, we investigate the distributions of values taken by various graph metrics across the population of HCP subjects. Analyzing the ranks of individual subjects within the graph metric distributions, we find that the ranks of individuals are affected differently by atlas scale changes. Our work serves as a guideline for researchers to optimize the selection of tractography parameters and illustrates how biological characteristics of the brain derived in network neuroscience studies can be affected by the choice of atlas parcellation schemes. Diffusion tractography has been proven to be a promising noninvasive technique to study the network properties of the human brain. However, how various tractography and network construction parameters affect network properties has not been studied using a large cohort of high-quality data. We utilize data provided by the Human Connectome Project to characterize the changes to network properties induced by varying the brain parcellation atlas scales, the number of reconstructed tractography tracks, and the degree of grey

  3. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel E; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Fahrbach, Susan E; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.

  5. Multiscale neural connectivity during human sensory processing in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Vladimir A.; Runnova, Anastasia E.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Makarov, Vladimir V.; Nedaivozov, Vladimir; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Pisarchik, Alexander; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2018-05-01

    Stimulus-related brain activity is considered using wavelet-based analysis of neural interactions between occipital and parietal brain areas in alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands. We show that human sensory processing related to the visual stimuli perception induces brain response resulted in different ways of parieto-occipital interactions in these bands. In the alpha frequency band the parieto-occipital neuronal network is characterized by homogeneous increase of the interaction between all interconnected areas both within occipital and parietal lobes and between them. In the beta frequency band the occipital lobe starts to play a leading role in the dynamics of the occipital-parietal network: The perception of visual stimuli excites the visual center in the occipital area and then, due to the increase of parieto-occipital interactions, such excitation is transferred to the parietal area, where the attentional center takes place. In the case when stimuli are characterized by a high degree of ambiguity, we find greater increase of the interaction between interconnected areas in the parietal lobe due to the increase of human attention. Based on revealed mechanisms, we describe the complex response of the parieto-occipital brain neuronal network during the perception and primary processing of the visual stimuli. The results can serve as an essential complement to the existing theory of neural aspects of visual stimuli processing.

  6. In Vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Suh, Tae Suk; Choi, Kyo Ho; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the spatial distribution of various proton metabolites in the human brain with use of water-suppressed in vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) technique. All of water-suppressed in vivo H MRSI were performed on 1.5 T whole-body MRI/MRS system using Stimulated Echo Acquisition Method (STEAM) Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) pulse sequence. T1-weighted MR images were used for CSI field of view (FOV; 24 cm). Voxel size of 1.5 cm 3 was designated from the periphery of the brain which was divided by 1024 X 16 X 16 data points. Metabolite images of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine/ phosphocreatine (Cr) + choline/phosphocholine (Cho), and complex of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) + glutamate (Glu) were obtained on the human brain. Our preliminary study suggests that in vivo H MRSI could provide the metabolite imaging to compensate for hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans on the basis of the metabolic informations on brain tissues. The unique ability of in vivo H MRSI to offer noninvasive information about tissue biochemistry in disease states will stimulate on clinical research and disease diagnosis

  7. Drug delivery to the human brain via the cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, L.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Material, Manufacturing Engineering and Managements, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: eaxljh@nottingham.ac.uk; Vloeberghs, M. [Queens Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This Study investigates the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) inside the human ventricular system with particular emphasis on drug path flow for the purpose of medical drug injections. The investigation is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The role of the ventricular system is very important in protecting the brain from injury by cushioning it against the cranium during sudden movements. If for any reason the passage of CSF through the ventricular system is blocked (usually by stenosis) then a condition known as Hydrocephalus occurs, where by the blocked CSF causes the Intra Cranial Pressure (ICP) inside the brain to rise. If this is not treated then severe brain damage and death can occur. Previous work conducted by the authors on this subject has focused on the technique of ventriculostomy to treat hydrocephalus. The present study carries on from the previous work but focuses on delivering medical drugs to treat brain tumors that are conventionally not accessible and which require complicated surgical procedures to remove them. The study focuses on the possible paths for delivering drugs to tumors in the human nervous system through conventionally accessible locations without major surgery. The results of the investigation have shown that it is possible to reach over 95% of the ventricular system by injection of drugs however the results also show that there are many factors that can affect the drug flow paths through the ventricular system and thus the areas reachable, by these drugs. (author)

  8. Drug delivery to the human brain via the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, L.; Aroussi, A.; Vloeberghs, M.

    2003-01-01

    This Study investigates the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) inside the human ventricular system with particular emphasis on drug path flow for the purpose of medical drug injections. The investigation is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The role of the ventricular system is very important in protecting the brain from injury by cushioning it against the cranium during sudden movements. If for any reason the passage of CSF through the ventricular system is blocked (usually by stenosis) then a condition known as Hydrocephalus occurs, where by the blocked CSF causes the Intra Cranial Pressure (ICP) inside the brain to rise. If this is not treated then severe brain damage and death can occur. Previous work conducted by the authors on this subject has focused on the technique of ventriculostomy to treat hydrocephalus. The present study carries on from the previous work but focuses on delivering medical drugs to treat brain tumors that are conventionally not accessible and which require complicated surgical procedures to remove them. The study focuses on the possible paths for delivering drugs to tumors in the human nervous system through conventionally accessible locations without major surgery. The results of the investigation have shown that it is possible to reach over 95% of the ventricular system by injection of drugs however the results also show that there are many factors that can affect the drug flow paths through the ventricular system and thus the areas reachable, by these drugs. (author)

  9. The Speculative Neuroscience of the Future Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dielenberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of our species is our ability to hybridize symbolic thinking with behavioral output. We began with the symmetrical hand axe around 1.7 mya and have progressed, slowly at first, then with greater rapidity, to producing increasingly more complex hybridized products. We now live in the age where our drive to hybridize has pushed us to the brink of a neuroscientific revolution, where for the first time we are in a position to willfully alter the brain and hence, our behavior and evolution. Nootropics, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, deep brain stimulation (DBS and invasive brain mind interface (BMI technology are allowing humans to treat previously inaccessible diseases as well as open up potential vistas for cognitive enhancement. In the future, the possibility exists for humans to hybridize with BMIs and mobile architectures. The notion of self is becoming increasingly extended. All of this to say: are we in control of our brains, or are they in control of us?

  10. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  11. Cultural Difference and Human Rights : A Philosophical-Anthropological Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kloeg (Julien)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn ‘Cultural Difference and Human Rights’, Julien Kloeg claims, with Pablo Gilabert, that theoretical attempts to justify human rights should move beyond the dichotomy of providing either a humanist or a political justification. Kloeg demonstrates how philosophical anthropology could

  12. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  13. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  14. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  15. Differences in gene expression profiles between human preimplantation embryos cultured in two different IVF culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; Eijssen, Lars M T; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Mantikou, Eleni; Jonker, Martijs J; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2015-10-01

    Is gene expression in human preimplantation embryos affected by the medium used for embryo culture in vitro during an IVF treatment? Six days of in vitro culture of human preimplantation embryos resulted in medium-dependent differences in expression level of genes involved in apoptosis, protein degradation, metabolism and cell-cycle regulation. Several human studies have shown an effect of culture medium on embryo development, pregnancy outcome and birthweight. However, the underlying mechanisms in human embryos are still unknown. In animal models of human development, it has been demonstrated that culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro affects gene expression. In humans, it has been found that culture medium affects gene expression of cryopreserved embryos that, after thawing, were cultured in two different media for 2 more days. In a multicenter trial, women were randomly assigned to two culture medium groups [G5 and human tubal fluid (HTF)]. Data on embryonic development were collected for all embryos. In one center, embryos originating from two pronuclei (2PN) zygotes that were not selected for transfer or cryopreservation on Day 2 or 3 because of lower morphological quality, were cultured until Day 6 and used in this study, if couples consented. Ten blastocysts each from the G5 and HTF study groups, matched for fertilization method, maternal age and blastocyst quality, were selected and their mRNA was isolated and amplified. Embryos were examined individually for genome-wide gene expression using Agilent microarrays and PathVisio was used to identify the pathways that showed a culture medium-dependent activity. Expression of 951 genes differed significantly (P differences observed between the study groups are caused by factors that we did not investigate. Extrapolation of these results to embryos used for transfer demands caution as in the present study embryos that were not selected for either embryo transfer or cryopreservation have been used for the

  16. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This study alters our fundamental understanding of the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain by establishing that the left and right hemispheres have qualitatively different biases in how they dynamically interact with one another. Left-hemisphere regions are biased to interact more strongly within the same hemisphere, whereas right-hemisphere regions interact more strongly with both hemispheres. These two different patterns of interaction are associated ...

  17. Investigation of G72 (DAOA expression in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Steven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms at the G72/G30 locus on chromosome 13q have been associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in more than ten independent studies. Even though the genetic findings are very robust, the physiological role of the predicted G72 protein has thus far not been resolved. Initial reports suggested G72 as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO, supporting the glutamate dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, these findings have subsequently not been reproduced and reports of endogenous human G72 mRNA and protein expression are extremely limited. In order to better understand the function of this putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, we attempted to demonstrate G72 mRNA and protein expression in relevant human brain regions. Methods The expression of G72 mRNA was studied by northern blotting and semi-quantitative SYBR-Green and Taqman RT-PCR. Protein expression in human tissue lysates was investigated by western blotting using two custom-made specific anti-G72 peptide antibodies. An in-depth in silico analysis of the G72/G30 locus was performed in order to try and identify motifs or regulatory elements that provide insight to G72 mRNA expression and transcript stability. Results Despite using highly sensitive techniques, we failed to identify significant levels of G72 mRNA in a variety of human tissues (e.g. adult brain, amygdala, caudate nucleus, fetal brain, spinal cord and testis human cell lines or schizophrenia/control post mortem BA10 samples. Furthermore, using western blotting in combination with sensitive detection methods, we were also unable to detect G72 protein in a number of human brain regions (including cerebellum and amygdala, spinal cord or testis. A detailed in silico analysis provides several lines of evidence that support the apparent low or absent expression of G72. Conclusion Our results suggest that native G72 protein is not normally present in the tissues that we analysed

  18. The genome in three dimensions: a new frontier in human brain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda C; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Whittle, Catheryne; Krueger, Winfried; Mirnics, Karoly; Hurd, Yasmin; Rasmussen, Theodore; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-06-15

    Less than 1.5% of the human genome encodes protein. However, vast portions of the human genome are subject to transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, and many noncoding regulatory DNA elements are thought to regulate the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes. For example, chromosomal "loopings" are pivotal for the orderly process of gene expression, by enabling distal regulatory enhancer or silencer elements to directly interact with proximal promoter and transcription start sites, potentially bypassing hundreds of kilobases of interspersed sequence on the linear genome. To date, however, epigenetic studies in the human brain are mostly limited to the exploration of DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of the nucleosome core histones. In contrast, very little is known about the regulation of supranucleosomal structures. Here, we show that chromosome conformation capture, a widely used approach to study higher-order chromatin, is applicable to tissue collected postmortem, thereby informing about genome organization in the human brain. We introduce chromosome conformation capture protocols for brain and compare higher-order chromatin structures at the chromosome 6p22.2-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility locus, and additional neurodevelopmental risk genes, (DPP10, MCPH1) in adult prefrontal cortex and various cell culture systems, including neurons derived from reprogrammed skin cells. We predict that the exploration of three-dimensional genome architectures and function will open up new frontiers in human brain research and psychiatric genetics and provide novel insights into the epigenetic risk architectures of regulatory noncoding DNA. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional neural cultures produce networks that mimic native brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Justin L; Quigley, Anita F; Duchi, Serena; O'Connell, Cathal D; Crook, Jeremy M; Wallace, Gordon G; Cook, Mark J; Kapsa, Robert M I

    2018-02-01

    Development of brain function is critically dependent on neuronal networks organized through three dimensions. Culture of central nervous system neurons has traditionally been limited to two dimensions, restricting growth patterns and network formation to a single plane. Here, with the use of multichannel extracellular microelectrode arrays, we demonstrate that neurons cultured in a true three-dimensional environment recapitulate native neuronal network formation and produce functional outcomes more akin to in vivo neuronal network activity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876.5885 Section 876.5885 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  1. Analysis of Neural Stem Cells from Human Cortical Brain Structures In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, M A; Poltavtseva, R A; Marei, M V; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-05-01

    Comparative immunohistochemical analysis of the neocortex from human fetuses showed that neural stem and progenitor cells are present in the brain throughout the gestation period, at least from week 8 through 26. At the same time, neural stem cells from the first and second trimester fetuses differed by the distribution, morphology, growth, and quantity. Immunocytochemical analysis of neural stem cells derived from fetuses at different gestation terms and cultured under different conditions showed their differentiation capacity. Detailed analysis of neural stem cell populations derived from fetuses on gestation weeks 8-9, 18-20, and 26 expressing Lex/SSEA1 was performed.

  2. Human hematopoietic cell culture, transduction, and analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Wirthlin, Louisa; Kohn, Donald B

    2008-01-01

    This unit provides methods for introducing genes into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Basic Protocol describes isolation of CD34(+) cells, transduction of these cells with a retroviral vector on fibronectin-coated plates, assaying the efficiency of transduction, and establishing long-te...

  3. Gender, human rights and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Marianne C

    2011-01-01

    and the elucidation of their symptom manifestations, as well as effective therapeutic interventions, which clearly show how human rights issues are linked to research and clinical psychiatry. The analyses of how different ethnic groups use psychiatric services, epitomize how important it is to pay attention to gender...

  4. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  5. “Messing with the mind”: evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understa...

  6. Cultural diversity and human resources management in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian MARINAS; Monica CONDRUZ- BACESCU

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the international dimensions of human resources management and the extension of European Union represents important premises regarding the harmonization of human resources practices at the level of the European countries. Despite this, the main characteristic of the European model of management is diversity. During the last decade, the human resource function registered profound changes, determined especially by the economic, social, cultural and political context registered a...

  7. [Characterization of epithelial primary culture from human conjunctiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, L; Blázquez, A; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; López, S; Rebolleda, G; Domínguez, F; Pérez-Esteban, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate primary cultures from human conjunctiva supplemented with fetal bovine serum, autologous serum, and platelet-rich autologous serum, over human amniotic membrane and lens anterior capsules. One-hundred and forty-eight human conjunctiva explants were cultured in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% fetal bovine serum, autologous serum and platelet-rich autologous serum. Conjunctival samples were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 and 95% HR, for 3 weeks. The typical phenotype corresponding to conjunctival epithelial cells was present in all primary cultures. Conjunctival cultures had MUC5AC-positive secretory cells, K19-positive conjunctival cells, and MUC4-positive non-secretory conjunctival cells, but were not corneal phenotype (cytokeratin K3-negative) and fibroblasts (CD90-negative). Conjunctiva epithelial progenitor cells were preserved in all cultures; thus, a cell culture in CnT50(®) supplemented with 1 to 5% autologous serum over human amniotic membrane can provide better information of epithelial cell differentiation for the conjunctival surface reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence that a synthetic amyloid-ß oligomer-binding peptide (ABP) targets amyloid-ß deposits in transgenic mouse brain and human Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Ito, Shingo; Atkinson, Trevor; Gaudet, Chantal; Ménard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Whitfield, James

    2014-03-14

    The synthetic ~5 kDa ABP (amyloid-ß binding peptide) consists of a region of the 228 kDa human pericentrioloar material-1 (PCM-1) protein that selectively and avidly binds in vitro Aβ1-42 oligomers, believed to be key co-drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not monomers (Chakravarthy et al., (2013) [3]). ABP also prevents Aß1-42 from triggering the apoptotic death of cultured human SHSY5Y neuroblasts, likely by sequestering Aß oligomers, suggesting that it might be a potential AD therapeutic. Here we support this possibility by showing that ABP also recognizes and binds Aβ1-42 aggregates in sections of cortices and hippocampi from brains of AD transgenic mice and human AD patients. More importantly, ABP targets Aβ1-42 aggregates when microinjected into the hippocampi of the brains of live AD transgenic mice. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms of Formation of Human Culture in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baboshina Helen B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research problem lies in the necessity of an axiological approach to the formation of the personality in education and the task of strengthening the ideal image of the function. The aim of this article is studying and understanding the culture of personality formation mechanisms in relation to future specialists. The leading method of research was the theoretical analysis of philosophical and cultural approaches to the cultural formation of the personality and to the content of human culture. Content analysis was based on the philosophical and cultural concepts of V. S. Bibler, M. Buber, J. G. Herder, I. Kant, L. N. Kogan, D. S. Likhachev, A. Schweitzer, M. Scheler, and others. The experiment method was the experimental realization of formation stages of the future specialist as a person of culture, which allowed revealing the positive role of cultural mechanisms in this process. The result is the stages of human culture formation as well as mechanisms for their implementation. The article may be useful for specialists of the educational sphere, social philosophers, and culturologists.

  10. Radiation effects on cultured human lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Nilsson, K.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Jakobsson, P.

    1981-01-01

    The cloning efficiency of human normal and malignant lymphoid cells is usually low. Radiation effects in vitro on such cells can therefore not be analysed with conventional cloning. However, this problem can be circumscribed by using the growth extrapolation method. A panel of human leukemia-lymphoma cell-lines representing Epstein-Barr virus carrying lymphoblastoid cells of presumed non-neoplastic derivation and neoplastic T- and B-lymphocytes was used to test the efficiency of this method. The sensitivity to radiation could be determined for all these cell types. The growth extrapolation method gave generally the same result as conventional cloning demonstrated by comparison with one exceptional cell-line with capacity for cloning in agar. The sensitivity varied largely between the different cell types. A common feature was that none of the cell lines had a good capacity to accumulate sublethal radiation injury. (Auth.)

  11. Expression and localization of claudins-3 and -12 in transformed human brain endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrade Anja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to characterize the hCMEC/D3 cell line, an in vitro model of the human Blood Brain Barrier (BBB for the expression of brain endothelial specific claudins-3 and -12. Findings hCMEC/D3 cells express claudins-3 and -12. Claudin-3 is distinctly localized to the TJ whereas claudin -12 is observed in the perinuclear region and completely absent from TJs. We show that the expression of both proteins is lost in cell passage numbers where the BBB properties are no longer fully conserved. Expression and localization of claudin-3 is not modulated by simvastatin shown to improve barrier function in vitro and also recommended for routine hCMEC/D3 culture. Conclusions These results support conservation of claudin-3 and -12 expression in the hCMEC/D3 cell line and make claudin-3 a potential marker for BBB characteristics in vitro.

  12. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Couto, R.; Stevenson, J.H.; Caprio, F.J. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-(U-14C)malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain.

  13. The cultural dimension of economic activities in international human right jurisprudence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.; Vadi, V.; de Witte, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural diversity and human rights are mutually linked: human rights protect and promote cultural diversity while cultural diversity also forms an important aspect of the enjoyment of human rights. Cultural diversity and the economy are also increasingly connected, for example through cultural

  14. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    of gestation. The brains of the treated fetuses were transferred to cell culture and underwent neoplastic transformation with a characteristic sequence of phenotypic alterations which could be divided into five different stages. During the first 40 days after explantation (stage I & II) BE induced...

  15. Glucose metabolism in cultured trophoblasts from human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, A.J.; Farmer, D.R.; Nelson, D.M.; Smith, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    The development of appropriate placental trophoblast isolation and culture techniques enables the study of pathways of glucose utilization by this important cell layer in vitro. Trophoblasts from normal term placentas were isolated and cultured 24 hours and 72 hours in uncoated polystyrene culture tubes or tubes previously coated with a fibrin matrix. Trophoblasts cultured on fibrin are morphologically distinct from those cultured on plastic or other matrices and generally resemble in vivo syncytium. Cells were incubated up to 3 hours with 14 C-labeled glucose and reactions were stopped by addition of perchloric acid. 14 CO 2 production by trophoblasts increased linearly with time however the largest accumulation of label was in organic acids. Trophoblasts cultured in absence of fibrin utilized more glucose and accumulated more 14 C in metabolic products compared to cells cultured on fibrin. Glucose oxidation to CO 2 by the phosphogluconate (PG) pathway was estimated from specific yields of 14 CO 2 from [1- 14 C]-D-glucose and [6- 14 C]-D-glucose. Approximately 6% of glucose oxidation was by the PG pathway when cells were cultured on fibrin compared to approximately 1% by cells cultured in the absence of fibrin. The presence of a fibrin growth matrix appears to modulate the metabolism of glucose by trophoblast from human placenta in vitro

  16. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant's Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results

  17. Human midsagittal brain shape variation: patterns, allometry and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Colom, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Midsagittal cerebral morphology provides a homologous geometrical reference for brain shape and cortical vs. subcortical spatial relationships. In this study, midsagittal brain shape variation is investigated in a sample of 102 humans, in order to describe and quantify the major patterns of correlation between morphological features, the effect of size and sex on general anatomy, and the degree of integration between different cortical and subcortical areas. The only evident pattern of covariation was associated with fronto-parietal cortical bulging. The allometric component was weak for the cortical profile, but more robust for the posterior subcortical areas. Apparent sex differences were evidenced in size but not in brain shape. Cortical and subcortical elements displayed scarcely integrated changes, suggesting a modular separation between these two areas. However, a certain correlation was found between posterior subcortical and parietal cortical variations. These results should be directly integrated with information ranging from functional craniology to wiring organization, and with hypotheses linking brain shape and the mechanical properties of neurons during morphogenesis. PMID:20345859

  18. A new microcontroller-based human brain hypothermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapidere, Metin; Ahiska, Raşit; Güler, Inan

    2005-10-01

    Many studies show that artificial hypothermia of brain in conditions of anesthesia with the rectal temperature lowered down to 33 degrees C produces pronounced prophylactic effect protecting the brain from anoxia. Out of the methods employed now in clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). It is finding even more extensive application in cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, neurorenimatology and many other fields of medical practice. In this study, a microcontroller-based designed human brain hypothermia system (HBHS) is designed and constructed. The system is intended for cooling and heating the brain. HBHS consists of a thermoelectric hypothermic helmet, a control and a power unit. Helmet temperature is controlled by 8-bit PIC16F877 microcontroller which is programmed using MPLAB editor. Temperature is converted to 10-bit digital and is controlled automatically by the preset values which have been already entered in the microcontroller. Calibration is controlled and the working range is tested. Temperature of helmet is controlled between -5 and +46 degrees C by microcontroller, with the accuracy of +/-0.5 degrees C.

  19. Microfluidic culture chamber for the long-term perfusion and precise chemical stimulation of organotypic brain tissue slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, H. H.; Vignes, M.; Brugg, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic perfusion-based culture system to study long-term in-vitro responses of organo-typic brain slices exposed to localized neurochemical stimulation. Using this microperfusion chamber we show that hip-pocampal organotypic brain slices cultures grown on nitrocellulose ...

  20. Improving the safety culture of human organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    Inquiries into past serious accidents, both nuclear and non-nuclear, reveal that the causes, largely attributed to human error, are also failures on the part of the institutions responsible. Conventional wisdom holds that quality assurance is an essential element for any production process, but the inquiries have not suggested applying quality assurance to the institutions themselves. The ACNS argues the need for Institutional Quality Assurance, with some illustrations of what might be involved, and proposes what should be done to achieve this end

  1. Cultural crossings of care: An appeal to the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, Julia; Moro, Marie Rose; Ødemark, John; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2018-03-01

    Modern medicine is confronted with cultural crossings in various forms. In facing these challenges, it is not enough to simply increase our insight into the cultural dimensions of health and well-being. We must, more radically, question the conventional distinction between the 'objectivity of science' and the 'subjectivity of culture'. This obligation creates an urgent call for the medical humanities but also for a fundamental rethinking of their grounding assumptions.Julia Kristeva (JK) has problematised the biomedical concept of health through her reading of the anthropogony of Cura (Care), who according to the Roman myth created man out of a piece of clay. JK uses this fable as an allegory for the cultural distinction between health construed as a 'definitive state', which belongs to biological life ( bios ), and healing as a durative 'process with twists and turns in time' that characterises human living ( zoe ). A consequence of this demarcation is that biomedicine is in constant need of 'repairing' and bridging the gap between bios and zoe, nature and culture. Even in radical versions, the medical humanities are mostly reduced to such an instrument of repairment, seeing them as what we refer to as a soft, 'subjective' and cultural supplement to a stable body of 'objective', biomedical and scientific knowledge. In this article, we present a prolegomenon to a more radical programme for the medical humanities, which calls the conventional distinctions between the humanities and the natural sciences into question, acknowledges the pathological and healing powers of culture, and sees the body as a complex biocultural fact. A key element in such a project is the rethinking of the concept of 'evidence' in healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Peter Berg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of regulations, instructions and guidelines also addressing human factors and safety culture to enhance safety. However, even though the roots of a safety culture have been established, there are still serious barriers to the breakthrough of the safety management. One of the most common deficiencies in the case of maritime transport is the respective monitoring and documentation usually lacking of adequacy and excellence. Nonetheless, the maritime area can be exemplified from other industries where activities are ongoing to foster and enhance safety culture.

  3. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T Mark; Barr, Dale J; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-08-07

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems.

  4. Radiation transformation in differentiated human cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Moriarty, M.; Malone, J.; Byrne, P.; Hennessy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A tissue culture technique is described for human thyroid tissue as an approach to studying mechanisms of human radiation carcinogenesis. Normal human tissue obtained from surgery is treated in one of two ways, depending upon size of specimen. Large pieces are completely digested in trypsin/ collagenase solution to a single cell suspension. Small pieces of tissue are plated as explants following partial digestion in trypsin/collagenase solution. Following irradiation of the primary differentiated monolayers (normally 10 days after plating), the development of transformed characteristics is monitored in the subsequent subcultures. A very high level of morphological and functional differentiation is apparent in the primary cultures. Over a period of approx. 6 months, the irradiated surviving cells continue to grow in culture, unlike the unirradiated controls which senesce after 2-3 subcultures. (UK)

  5. Micronucleus formation in cultured human keratinocytes: Involvement of intercellular bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, F N; Haring, R M; Weterings, P J

    1991-01-01

    Micronucleus formation in cultured human keratinocytes was studied after exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate without the addition of an exogenous metabolizing system. The first two agents need bioactivation by specific isoenzymes of cytochrome P-450 to form genotoxic intermediates. Benzo[a]pyrene induced the micronucleus formation in both uninduced and Aroclor 1254-pretreated cultures. Clastogenic effects of cyclophosphamide were observed only in Aroclor 1254-pretreated cells. The tumour promotor 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate did not affect the frequency of micronuclei in human keratinocytes. The data indicate that cultured human keratinocytes can be used to study the tissue-specific response to genotoxic agents as well as interindividual variation in biotransformation capacity.

  6. Selected aspects of organizational culture vs. formation of Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kisiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of employees in relation to organizational culture existing in a company and their knowledge in this subject - have a crucial meaning. In the face of intensity of transformations, constant searching for the best solutions which bring the organization closer to success seams necessary. The organizational culture can help employees among others to: engage in performance of tasks. Organizational culture helps to understand mission, strategy of the organization and assumptions carried out by it. The purpose of this paper is the description of different aspects of organizational culture with reference to actions taken in the scope of management of human resources. The nature of leadership was also stressed in shaping the organizational culture. The analysis of literature in the field of management, own experience and observation of the author in the above mentioned matter made it possible to respond to the research problem presented in this paper.

  7. Differentiation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Verhagen, H; Wirtz, P; Vermorken, A J

    1984-01-01

    The morphology of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes, cultured on the bovine eye lens capsule, is studied by light and electron microscopy. The hair follicle keratinocytes in the stratified cultures are characterized by the presence of numerous tonofilaments, desmosomes and lysosomes and by the presence of glycogen accumulations. The cells in the upper layers develop a cornified envelope. Moreover, an incomplete basal lamina is found between the capsule and the basal cells. However, some features of epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, such as keratohyalin granules and stratum corneum formation, are absent. Analysis of the polypeptides by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also reveals differences between the cultured hair follicle cells and epidermis, whilst the patterns of cultured cells and hair follicle sheaths are similar. The morphological and protein biosynthetic aspects of terminal differentiation of the keratinocytes in vitro are correlated. These results are discussed in the light of the findings with cultured epidermal keratinocytes, reported in the literature.

  8. Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    Microplastics are present throughout the marine environment and ingestion of these plastic particles (microplastics in two species of commercially grown bivalves: Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Microplastics were recovered from the soft tissues of both species. At time of human consumption, M. edulis contains on average 0.36 ± 0.07 particles g(-1) (wet weight), while a plastic load of 0.47 ± 0.16 particles g(-1) ww was detected in C. gigas. As a result, the annual dietary exposure for European shellfish consumers can amount to 11,000 microplastics per year. The presence of marine microplastics in seafood could pose a threat to food safety, however, due to the complexity of estimating microplastic toxicity, estimations of the potential risks for human health posed by microplastics in food stuffs is not (yet) possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the first...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  10. Protein biosynthesis in cultured human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1980-10-31

    A new technique has been used for culturing human keratinocytes. The cells grow on the basement membrane-like capsules of bovine lenses. Lens cells were removed from the capsules by rigid trypsinization. In order to exclude any contamination with remaining living cells the isolated capsules were irradiated with X-rays at a dose of 10,000 rad. In this way human epithelial cells can be brought in culture from individual hair follicles. Since feeder cells are not used in this culture technique, the biosynthesis of keratinocyte proteins can be studied in these cultures. The newly synthesized proteins can be separated into a water-soluble, a urea-soluble, and a urea-insoluble fraction. Product analysis has been performed on the first two fractions revealing protein patterns identical to those of intact hair follicles. Product analysis of the urea-soluble fractions of microdissected hair follicles shows that the protein pattern of the cultured keratinocytes resembles the protein pattern of the hair follicle sheath. Studies on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene revealed that the enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) is present in cultured hair follicle cells. A possible use of our culture system for eventual detection of inherited predisposition for smoking-dependent lung cancer is discussed.

  11. Insulin and C-peptide in human brain neurons (insulin/C-peptide/brain peptides/immunohistochemistry/radioimmunoassay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, A.; Bernstein, H.G.; Rinne, A.; Hahn, H.J.; Ziegler, M.

    1983-01-01

    The regional distribution and cellular localization of insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivities were studied in human cadaver brains using the indirect immunofluorescence method, the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and radioimmunoassay. Products of the immune reactions to both polypeptides were observed in most nerve cells in all areas of the brain examined. Immunostaining was mainly restricted to the cell soma and proximal dendrites. Radioimmunoassay revealed that human brain contains insulin and C-peptide in concentrations much higher than the blood, the highest being in the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that the 'brain insulin' is - at least in part - produced in the CNS. (author)

  12. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  13. Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

    2015-03-01

    Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised--spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant--it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  15. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures for studies of brain damage, neuroprotection and neurorepair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, Jens; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Slices of developing brain tissue can be grown for several weeks as so-called organotypic slice cultures. Here we summarize and review studies using hippocampal slice cultures to investigate mechanisms and treatment strategies for the neurodegenerative disorders like stroke (cerebral ischemia......), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsia. Studies of non-excitotoxic neurotoxic compounds and the experimental use of slice cultures in studies of HIV neurotoxicity, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and neurogenesis are included. For cerebral ischemia, experimental models with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD......) and exposure to glutamate receptor agonists (excitotoxins) are reviewed. For epilepsia, focus is on induction of seizures with effects on neuronal loss, axonal sprouting and neurogenesis. For Alzheimer's disease, the review centers on the use of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in different models, while the section...

  16. "Brain drain, brain gain. . . Brain sustain?" : Challenges in building Portuguese human research capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasanefendic, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic but essentially descriptive account of the policy measure of stimulating human research capacity development under the policy program "Commitment to Science" in Portugal in the period 2006-2009. It explores the conditions that contributed to the development of the

  17. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-08-01

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Microfluidic perfusion culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells under fully defined culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Ryosuke; Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kondo, Yuki; Yamada, Rotaro; Tachikawa, Saoko; Satoh, Taku; Kurisaki, Akira; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Asashima, Makoto; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source for drug screening. For this application, self-renewal or differentiation of the cells is required, and undefined factors in the culture conditions are not desirable. Microfluidic perfusion culture allows the production of small volume cultures with precisely controlled microenvironments, and is applicable to high-throughput cellular environment screening. Here, we developed a microfluidic perfusion culture system for hiPSCs that uses a microchamber array chip under defined extracellular matrix (ECM) and culture medium conditions. By screening various ECMs we determined that fibronectin and laminin are appropriate for microfluidic devices made out of the most popular material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We found that the growth rate of hiPSCs under pressure-driven perfusion culture conditions was higher than under static culture conditions in the microchamber array. We applied our new system to self-renewal and differentiation cultures of hiPSCs, and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the state of the hiPSCs was successfully controlled. The effects of three antitumor drugs on hiPSCs were comparable between microchamber array and 96-well plates. We believe that our system will be a platform technology for future large-scale screening of fully defined conditions for differentiation cultures on integrated microfluidic devices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Edaravone Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Barrier Damage in Human Brain Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Andrea E.; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Bocsik, Alexandra; Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Nagy, Lajos; Puskás, László G.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Takata, Fuyuko; Dohgu, Shinya; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Deli, Mária A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) treated with methylglyoxal. Methodology Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and β-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging. Principal Findings Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 µM resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM) provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound. Conclusion These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases. PMID:25033388

  20. Edaravone protects against methylglyoxal-induced barrier damage in human brain endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Tóth

    Full Text Available Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line treated with methylglyoxal.Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and β-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging.Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 µM resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound.These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases.

  1. Kant and the development of the human and cultural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkreel, Rudolf A

    2008-12-01

    Starting with Kant's doubts about psychology as a natural science capable of explaining human behavior, several alternative attempts to conceive of human life, culture and history are examined. Kant proposes an anthropology that will be a commonly useful human science rather than a universally valid natural science. This anthropology relates to philosophy as a mode of world-cognition. Special attention is given to how Kant's theory of right can help define our appropriate place in a communal world. The different ways in which Wilhelm Dilthey and Hermann Cohen respond to Kant's idea of legitimate appropriation are also considered. The various tasks that descriptive elucidation, explanation, reflective understanding, characterization and interpretation can perform for the human and cultural sciences are examined throughout the essay.

  2. Why our brains cherish humanity: Mirror neurons and colamus humanitatem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Skoyles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, as it were, its perceived “refl ection,” when that same thing happens or is done by another individual. Thus, mirror neurons are both activated when an individual does a particular action, and when that individual perceives that same action done by another. The discovery of mirror neurons suggests we need to radically revise our notions of human nature since they offer a means by which we may not be so separated as we think. Humans unlike other apes are adapted to mirror interact nonverbally when together. Notably, our faces have been evolved to display agile and nimble movements. While this is usually explained as enabling nonverbal communication, a better description would be nonverbal commune based upon mirror neurons. I argue we cherish humanity, colamus humanitatem, because mirror neurons and our adapted mirror interpersonal interface blur the physical boundaries that separate us.

  3. Imaging neuroreceptors in the human brain in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Frost, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    For nearly a century it has been known that chemical activity accompanies mental activity, but only recently has it been possible to begin to examine its exact nature. Positron-emitting radioactive tracers have made it possible to study the chemistry of the human brain in health and disease, using chiefly cyclotron-produced radionuclides, carbon-11, fluorine-18 and oxygen-15. It is now well established that measurable increases in regional cerebral blood flow, and glucose and oxygen metabolism accompany the mental functions of perception, cognition, emotion and motion. On 25 May 1983 the first imaging of a neuroreceptor in the human brain was accomplished with carbon-11 N-methyl spiperone, a ligand that binds preferentially to dopamine-2 receptors, 80% of which are located in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Quantitative imaging of serotonin-2, opiate, benzodiazapine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors has subsequently been accomplished. In studies of normal men and women, it has been found that dopamine and serotonin receptor activity decreases dramatically with age, such a decrease being more pronounced in men than in women and greater in the case of dopamine-2 receptors than in serotonin-2 receptors. Preliminary studies of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders suggest that dopamine-2 receptor activity is diminished in the caudate nucleus of patients with Huntington's disease. Positron tomography permits a quantitative assay of picomolar quantities of neuroreceptors within the living human brain. Studies of patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, acute and chronic pain states and drug addiction are now in progress. (author)

  4. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, C.; Adkins, S.; Chatonnet, A.; Vaughan, T.A.; Bartels, C.F.; Kott, M.; Rosenberry, T.L.; La Du, B.N.; Lockridge, O.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase. Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase rather than acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes coded for cholinesterase

  5. Interaction between oxytocin receptor polymorphism and interdependent culture values on human empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Ma, Yina; Liu, Yi; Li, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenbo; Shi, Zhenhao; Li, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) and emotion-related behavioral/psychological tendencies differs between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures. What remains unresolved is which specific dimension of cultural orientations interacts with OXTR rs53576 to shape these tendencies and whether such gene × culture interactions occurs at both behavioral and neural level. This study investigated whether and how OXTR rs53576 interacts with interdependence-a key dimension of cultural orientations that distinguish between East Asian and Western cultures-to affect human empathy that underlies altruistic motivation and prosocial behavior. Experiment 1 measured interdependence, empathy trait and OXTR rs53576 genotypes of 1536 Chinese participants. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a stronger association between interdependence and empathy trait in G allele carriers compared with A/A homozygotes of OXTR rs53576. Experiment 2 measured neural responses to others' suffering by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of OXTR rs53576 using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed stronger associations between interdependence and empathic neural responses in the insula, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus in G/G compared with A/A carriers. Our results provide the first evidence for gene × culture interactions on empathy at both behavioral tendency and underlying brain activity. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raizada, M.K.; Phillips, M.I.; Crews, F.T.; Sumners, C.

    1987-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang-II) has profound effects on the brain. Receptors for Ang-II have been demonstrated on neurons, but no relationship between glial cells and Agn-II has been established. Glial cells (from the hypothalamus and brain stem of 1-day-old rat brains) in primary culture have been used to demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors. Binding of 125 I-Ang-II to glial cultures was rapid, reversible, saturable, and specific for Ang-II. The rank order of potency of 125 I-Ang-II binding was determined. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogeneous population of high-affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 110 fmol/mg of protein. Light-microscopic autoradiography of 125 I-Ang-II binding supported the kinetic data, documenting specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells. Ang-II stimulated a dose-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols in glial cells, an effect mediated by Ang-II receptors. However, Ang-II failed to influence [ 3 H] norepinephrine uptake, and catecholamines failed to regulate Ang-II receptors, effects that occur in neurons. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells in primary cultures derived from normotensive rat brain. The receptors are kinetically similar to, but functionally distinct from, the neuronal Ang-II receptors

  7. Big brains, small worlds: material culture and the evolution of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Fiona; Gamble, Clive

    2008-06-12

    New developments in neuroimaging have demonstrated that the basic capacities underpinning human social skills are shared by our closest extant primate relatives. The challenge for archaeologists is to explain how complex human societies evolved from this shared pattern of face-to-face social interaction. We argue that a key process was the gradual incorporation of material culture into social networks over the course of hominin evolution. Here we use three long-term processes in hominin evolution-encephalization, the global human diaspora and sedentism/agriculture-to illustrate how the cultural transmission of material culture allowed the 'scaling up' of face-to-face social interactions to the global societies known today. We conclude that future research by neuroimagers and archaeologists will need to investigate the cognitive mechanisms behind human engagement with material culture as well as other persons.

  8. Development of human nervous tissue upon differentiation of embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Suter, David M; Tirefort, Diderik; Turchi, Laurent; Virolle, Thierry; Chneiweiss, Herve; Foti, Michelangelo; Lobrinus, Johannes-Alexander; Stoppini, Luc; Feki, Anis; Dubois-Dauphin, Michel; Krause, Karl Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Researches on neural differentiation using embryonic stem cells (ESC) require analysis of neurogenesis in conditions mimicking physiological cellular interactions as closely as possible. In this study, we report an air-liquid interface-based culture of human ESC. This culture system allows three-dimensional cell expansion and neural differentiation in the absence of added growth factors. Over a 3-month period, a macroscopically visible, compact tissue developed. Histological coloration revealed a dense neural-like neural tissue including immature tubular structures. Electron microscopy, immunochemistry, and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated a dense network of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes able to propagate signals. Within this tissue, tubular structures were niches of cells resembling germinal layers of human fetal brain. Indeed, the tissue contained abundant proliferating cells expressing markers of neural progenitors. Finally, the capacity to generate neural tissues on air-liquid interface differed for different ESC lines, confirming variations of their neurogenic potential. In conclusion, this study demonstrates in vitro engineering of a human neural-like tissue with an organization that bears resemblance to early developing brain. As opposed to previously described methods, this differentiation (a) allows three-dimensional organization, (b) yields dense interconnected neural tissue with structurally and functionally distinct areas, and (c) is spontaneously guided by endogenous developmental cues.

  9. The Lifespan and Turnover of Microglia in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Réu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hematopoietic system seeds the CNS with microglial progenitor cells during the fetal period, but the subsequent cell generation dynamics and maintenance of this population have been poorly understood. We report that microglia, unlike most other hematopoietic lineages, renew slowly at a median rate of 28% per year, and some microglia last for more than two decades. Furthermore, we find no evidence for the existence of a substantial population of quiescent long-lived cells, meaning that the microglia population in the human brain is sustained by continuous slow turnover throughout adult life.

  10. In vitro models of the blood–brain barrier: An overview of commonly used brain endothelial cell culture models and guidelines for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Hans C; Abbott, N Joan; Burek, Malgorzata; Cecchelli, Romeo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Deli, Maria A; Förster, Carola; Galla, Hans J; Romero, Ignacio A; Shusta, Eric V; Stebbins, Matthew J; Vandenhaute, Elodie; Weksler, Babette

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells lining the brain capillaries separate the blood from the brain parenchyma. The endothelial monolayer of the brain capillaries serves both as a crucial interface for exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolites between blood and brain, and as a barrier for neurotoxic components of plasma and xenobiotics. This “blood-brain barrier” function is a major hindrance for drug uptake into the brain parenchyma. Cell culture models, based on either primary cells or immortalized brain endothelial cell lines, have been developed, in order to facilitate in vitro studies of drug transport to the brain and studies of endothelial cell biology and pathophysiology. In this review, we aim to give an overview of established in vitro blood–brain barrier models with a focus on their validation regarding a set of well-established blood–brain barrier characteristics. As an ideal cell culture model of the blood–brain barrier is yet to be developed, we also aim to give an overview of the advantages and drawbacks of the different models described. PMID:26868179

  11. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  12. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  13. Incorporating Campus-Based Cultural Resources into Humanities Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Amy E.; Nedd, Rolecia

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the authors reviewed one effort to deepen students' connections to the humanities through the use of campus-based cultural resources at Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a minority-serving institution in one of the most diverse counties in the United States. Focusing specifically on…

  14. Cornelia Roux on Religion, Culture and Human Rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She identified human rights values as common denominators within cultural and religious spaces of fear and resistance. She also focused on interreligious and intercultural dialogue in education as a means to enhance empathetic and caring interactions with others. In recent years, Roux has initiated three projects: The first ...

  15. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H.; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J. P. L.; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain

  16. Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falaq Naz

    2012-06-29

    Jun 29, 2012 ... Genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes of oral ... catechol estrogens and quinines, via redox reactions causes oxidative damage to .... volume was prepared for each donor. About, 0.8 ml of cell sus .... duce the adverse effects of OCs, such as the reduction in the estrogen content.

  17. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber an...

  18. Unmasking Language Lateralization in Human Brain Intrinsic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Mark; Mitra, Anish; Coalson, Rebecca S.; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Keidel, James L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization of function is a fundamental feature of the human brain as exemplified by the left hemisphere dominance of language. Despite the prominence of lateralization in the lesion, split-brain and task-based fMRI literature, surprisingly little asymmetry has been revealed in the increasingly popular functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI BOLD signal (so-called resting-state fMRI). Here, we show the global signal, an often discarded component of the BOLD signal in resting-state studies, reveals a leftward asymmetry that maps onto regions preferential for semantic processing in left frontal and temporal cortex and the right cerebellum and a rightward asymmetry that maps onto putative attention-related regions in right frontal, temporoparietal, and parietal cortex. Hemispheric asymmetries in the global signal resulted from amplitude modulation of the spontaneous fluctuations. To confirm these findings obtained from normal, healthy, right-handed subjects in the resting-state, we had them perform 2 semantic processing tasks: synonym and numerical magnitude judgment and sentence comprehension. In addition to establishing a new technique for studying lateralization through functional imaging of the resting-state, our findings shed new light on the physiology of the global brain signal. PMID:25636911

  19. The structure of creative cognition in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Eugene Jung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a vast construct, seemingly intractable to scientific inquiry – perhaps due to the vague concepts applied to the field of research. One attempt to limit the purview of creative cognition formulates the construct in terms of evolutionary constraints, namely that of blind variation and selective retention (BVSR. Behaviorally, one can limit the blind variation component to idea generation tests as manifested by measures of divergent thinking. The selective retention component can be represented by measures of convergent thinking, as represented by measures of remote associates. We summarize results from measures of creative cognition, correlated with structural neuroimaging measures including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, and proton magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRS. We also review lesion studies, considered to be the gold standard of brain-behavioral studies. What emerges is a picture consistent with theories of disinhibitory brain features subserving creative cognition, as described previously (Martindale, 1981. We provide a perspective, involving aspects of the default mode network, which might provide a first approximation regarding how creative cognition might map on to the human brain.

  20. Mobile phone types and SAR characteristics of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Hong, Seon-Eui; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Hyung-Do; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Mobile phones differ in terms of their operating frequency, outer shape, and form and location of the antennae, all of which affect the spatial distributions of their electromagnetic field and the level of electromagnetic absorption in the human head or brain. For this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated for four anatomical head models at different ages using 11 numerical phone models of different shapes and antenna configurations. The 11 models represent phone types accounting for around 86% of the approximately 1400 commercial phone models released into the Korean market since 2002. Seven of the phone models selected have an internal dual-band antenna, and the remaining four possess an external antenna. Each model was intended to generate an average absorption level equivalent to that of the same type of commercial phone model operating at the maximum available output power. The 1 g peak spatial SAR and ipsilateral and contralateral brain-averaged SARs were reported for all 11 phone models. The effects of the phone type, phone position, operating frequency, and age of head models on the brain SAR were comprehensively determined.

  1. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees,...

  2. Toward "harder" medical humanities: moving beyond the "two cultures" dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polianski, Igor J; Fangerau, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Using the current international debate surrounding the incorporation of medical humanities into medical curricula as a starting point, the authors address both the legitimacy and didactics of teaching medical humanities to medical students. They highlight the paradox of the increasing prevalence of medical humanities in medical curricula and the often critical reception humanities courses receive. The alleged lack of empirical evidence linking such courses with improved patient care cannot alone explain the criticism they engender. After a short overview of the debate surrounding medical humanities and their inclusion in outcomes-based education, the authors outline the medical humanities block, "The History, Theory, and Ethics of Medicine," which is part of the German medical curriculum. A model developed at Ulm University exemplifies the integrated inclusion of the heterogeneous aspects of medical culture into medical education. This model emphasizes a reflexive approach (i.e., understanding how the humanities are manifested in medicine) as an alternative to the currently dominant narrative approach (i.e., liberal arts, moral development, and/or mental retreat), which has gradually been limited to a quasi-"secular religion" for doctors. This model uses established concepts from science and cultural studies as the "instruments" for seminars and courses; paradigms, discourses, social systems, and cosmologies constitute the tools for teaching and learning about the historical, theoretical, and ethical dimensions of medicine. The authors argue that this approach both precludes the need to justify the medical humanities and overcomes the dichotomy that has heretofore existed between the two cultures of science and the humanities in medicine.

  3. Telomere length modulation in human astroglial brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico La Torre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres alteration during carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been described in several cancer types. Telomeres length is stabilized by telomerase (h-TERT and controlled by several proteins that protect telomere integrity, such as the Telomere Repeat-binding Factor (TRF 1 and 2 and the tankyrase-poli-ADP-ribose polymerase (TANKs-PARP complex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate telomere dysfunction in astroglial brain tumors we analyzed telomeres length, telomerase activity and the expression of a panel of genes controlling the length and structure of telomeres in tissue samples obtained in vivo from astroglial brain tumors with different grade of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA, 11 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA and 11 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT were used as controls. Telomeres length was assessed through Southern Blotting. Telomerase activity was evaluated by a telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay. The expression levels of TRF1, TRF2, h-TERT and TANKs-PARP complex were determined through Immunoblotting and RT-PCR. RESULTS: LGA were featured by an up-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and by shorter telomeres. Conversely, AA and GBM were featured by a down-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and an up-regulation of both telomerase and TANKs-PARP complex. CONCLUSIONS: In human astroglial brain tumours, up-regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 occurs in the early stages of carcinogenesis determining telomeres shortening and genomic instability. In a later stage, up-regulation of PARP-TANKs and telomerase activation may occur together with an ADP-ribosylation of TRF1, causing a reduced ability to bind telomeric DNA, telomeres elongation and tumor malignant progression.

  4. Experimental studies on the radiosensitizing agents against cultured human glioblastoma and human neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawatari, Yutaka

    1976-01-01

    The radiosensitivity increasing effect of bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BUdR) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), alone and in combination, was studied comparatively using tissue culture of brain tumor cells (No. 60 cells originating in human glioblastoma and N cells originating in human neurinoma) with colony formation and growth curve as the quantitative indices and the phase contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope for morphological observation. The inhibitive effect of BUdR on growth of the N cells was above 4μg/ml, while 3000μg/ml was required in the case of the No. 60 cells. This indicates that there is a large difference between the sensitivities of these two cell types against BUdR. Increased sensitivity can be anticipated by pretreatment of the No. 60 cells or the N cells with BUdR with a dose of no growth inhibition effect. N cells have a lower radiosensitivity than No. 60 cells; but when both cells are pretreated with BUdR, N cells have a higher radiosensitivity than No. 60 cells. This increasing radiosensitivity of the N cells, which is clinically benign, suggests the possibility of wider application for radiotherapy in the future. A dose of 2μg/ml of 5-FU alone showed no growth inhibiting effect on either the N cells or the No. 60 cells, but it intensified the effect of BUdR. Using a phase contrast microscope and a scanning electron microscope for morphological observation of the No. 60 cells and the N cells which had been exposed to BUdR+5-FU+X-ray, unique findings were observed on the surface structures of these two kinds of cells. (J.P.N.)

  5. The brain's silent messenger: using selective attention to decode human thought for brain-based communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naci, Lorina; Cusack, Rhodri; Jia, Vivian Z; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-05-29

    The interpretation of human thought from brain activity, without recourse to speech or action, is one of the most provoking and challenging frontiers of modern neuroscience. In particular, patients who are fully conscious and awake, yet, due to brain damage, are unable to show any behavioral responsivity, expose the limits of the neuromuscular system and the necessity for alternate forms of communication. Although it is well established that selective attention can significantly enhance the neural representation of attended sounds, it remains, thus far, untested as a response modality for brain-based communication. We asked whether its effect could be reliably used to decode answers to binary (yes/no) questions. Fifteen healthy volunteers answered questions (e.g., "Do you have brothers or sisters?") in the fMRI scanner, by selectively attending to the appropriate word ("yes" or "no"). Ninety percent of the answers were decoded correctly based on activity changes within the attention network. The majority of volunteers conveyed their answers with less than 3 min of scanning, suggesting that this technique is suited for communication in a reasonable amount of time. Formal comparison with the current best-established fMRI technique for binary communication revealed improved individual success rates and scanning times required to detect responses. This novel fMRI technique is intuitive, easy to use in untrained participants, and reliably robust within brief scanning times. Possible applications include communication with behaviorally nonresponsive patients.

  6. Selectively altering belief formation in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharot, Tali; Kanai, Ryota; Marston, David; Korn, Christoph W.; Rees, Geraint; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Humans form beliefs asymmetrically; we tend to discount bad news but embrace good news. This reduced impact of unfavorable information on belief updating may have important societal implications, including the generation of financial market bubbles, ill preparedness in the face of natural disasters, and overly aggressive medical decisions. Here, we selectively improved people’s tendency to incorporate bad news into their beliefs by disrupting the function of the left (but not right) inferior frontal gyrus using transcranial magnetic stimulation, thereby eliminating the engrained “good news/bad news effect.” Our results provide an instance of how selective disruption of regional human brain function paradoxically enhances the ability to incorporate unfavorable information into beliefs of vulnerability. PMID:23011798

  7. Exposure of cultured astroglial and microglial brain cells to 900 MHz microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlin, Thorleif; Rouquette, Jean-Michel; Hamnerius, Yngve; Hansson, Elisabeth; Persson, Mikael; Björklund, Ulrika; Rosengren, Lars; Rönnbäck, Lars; Persson, Mikael

    2006-08-01

    The rapid rise in the use of mobile communications has raised concerns about health issues related to low-level microwave radiation. The head and brain are usually the most exposed targets in mobile phone users. In the brain, two types of glial cells, the astroglial and the microglial cells, are interesting in the context of biological effects from microwave exposure. These cells are widely distributed in the brain and are directly involved in the response to brain damage as well as in the development of brain cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 900 MHz radiation could affect these two different glial cell types in culture by studying markers for damage-related processes in the cells. Primary cultures enriched in astroglial cells were exposed to 900 MHz microwave radiation in a temperature-controlled exposure system at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 3 W/kg GSM modulated wave (mw) for 4, 8 and 24 h or 27 W/kg continuous wave (cw) for 24 h, and the release into the extracellular medium of the two pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (Il6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa) was analyzed. In addition, levels of the astroglial cell-specific reactive marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), whose expression dynamics is different from that of cytokines, were measured in astroglial cultures and in astroglial cell-conditioned cell culture medium at SARs of 27 and 54 W/kg (cw) for 4 or 24 h. No significant differences could be detected for any of the parameters studied at any time and for any of the radiation characteristics. Total protein levels remained constant during the experiments. Microglial cell cultures were exposed to 900 MHz radiation at an SAR of 3 W/kg (mw) for 8 h, and I16, Tnfa, total protein and the microglial reactivity marker ED-1 (a macrophage activation antigen) were measured. No significant differences were found. The morphology of the cultured astroglial cells and microglia was studied and appeared to be

  8. Human dignity in religion-embedded cross-cultural nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Manookian, Arpi; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-12-01

    Although human dignity is an unconditional value of every human being, it can be shattered by extrinsic factors. It is necessary to discover the authentic meaning of patients' dignity preservation from different religious perspectives to provide professional cross-cultural care in a diverse setting. This article identifies common experiences of Iranian Muslim and Armenian Christian patients regarding dignified care at the bedside. This is a qualitative study of participants' experiences of dignified care elicited by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews. A purposeful sample of 10 participants (five Iranian Muslims and five Iranian Armenians) from various private and governmental hospital settings was chosen. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All the participants were provided with information about the purpose and the nature of the study, the voluntary condition of their participation in this study, and the anonymous reporting of recorded interviews. The common experiences of Christian and Muslim patients regarding dignity preservation emerged as "exigency of respecting human nobility" and "providing person-centered care." It is essential to recognize the humanness and individuality of each patient to preserve and promote human dignity in diverse cross-cultural settings. The findings support and expand current understanding about the objective and subjective nature of dignity preservation in cross-cultural nursing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The captive brain: torture and the neuroscience of humane interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, S

    2018-02-01

    Despite it being abhorrent and illegal, torture is sometimes employed for information gathering. However, the extreme stressors employed during torture force the brain away from the relatively narrow, adaptive range of function it operates within. Torture degrades signal-to-noise ratios of information yield and increases false positive discovery rates. As a discovery methodology, torture fails basic tests of veridical, reliable and replicable information discovery. Torture fails during interrogation because it is an assault on our core integrated, social, psychological and neural functioning. There is a need for a profound cultural shift regarding torture, recognizing that torture impairs, rather than facilitates, investigations and truth-finding. Rising to this challenge will increase operational effectiveness, eliminate prisoner abuse and torment, and aid veridical and actionable information gathering. Policy regarding prisoner and detainee interrogation need to be refocused as a behavioural and brain sciences problem, and not simply treated as a legal, ethical or philosophical problem. Getting the science, ethics and practice in line is a challenge, but it can and should be done.

  10. Hypnosis and imaging of the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Mathieu; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Over more than two decades, studies using imaging techniques of the living human brain have begun to explore the neural correlates of hypnosis. The collective findings provide a gripping, albeit preliminary, account of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in hypnotic phenomena. While substantial advances lend support to different hypotheses pertaining to hypnotic modulation of attention, control, and monitoring processes, the complex interactions among the many mediating variables largely hinder our ability to isolate robust commonalities across studies. The present account presents a critical integrative synthesis of neuroimaging studies targeting hypnosis as a function of suggestion. Specifically, hypnotic induction without task-specific suggestion is examined, as well as suggestions concerning sensation and perception, memory, and ideomotor response. The importance of carefully designed experiments is highlighted to better tease apart the neural correlates that subserve hypnotic phenomena. Moreover, converging findings intimate that hypnotic suggestions seem to induce specific neural patterns. These observations propose that suggestions may have the ability to target focal brain networks. Drawing on evidence spanning several technological modalities, neuroimaging studies of hypnosis pave the road to a more scientific understanding of a dramatic, yet largely evasive, domain of human behavior.

  11. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J.; Honey, Christopher J.; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  12. Endogenous neurogenesis in the human brain following cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Stephen L; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Carta, Eloisa M; Chinoy, Amish; Perry, Robert H; Ballard, Clive G

    2007-01-01

    Increased endogenous neurogenesis has a significant regenerative role in many experimental models of cerebrovascular diseases, but there have been very few studies in humans. We therefore examined whether there was evidence of altered endogenous neurogenesis in an 84-year-old patient who suffered a cerebrovascular accident 1 week prior to death. Using antibodies that specifically label neural stem/neural progenitor cells, we examined the presence of immunopositive cells around and distant from the infarcted area, and compared this with a control, age-matched individual. Interestingly, a large number of neural stem cells, vascular endothelial growth factor-immunopositive cells and new blood vessels were observed only around the region of infarction, and none in the corresponding brain areas of the healthy control. In addition, an increased number of neural stem cells was observed in the neurogenic region of the lateral ventricle wall. Our results suggest increased endogenous neurogenesis associated with neovascularization and migration of newly-formed cells towards a region of cerebrovascular damage in the adult human brain and highlight possible mechanisms underlying this process.

  13. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-11-01

    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  14. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  15. Culture and art: Importance of art practice, not aesthetics, to early human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2018-01-01

    Art is expressed in multiple formats in today's human cultures. Physical traces of stone tools and other archaeological landmarks suggest early nonart cultural behavior and symbolic cognition in the early Homo sapiens (HS) who emerged ~300,000-200,000 years ago in Africa. Fundamental to art expression is the neural underpinning for symbolic cognition, and material art is considered its prime example. However, prior to producing material art, HS could have exploited symbolically through art-rooted biological neural pathways for social purpose, namely, those controlling interpersonal motoric coordination and sound codependence. Aesthetics would not have been the primary purpose; arguments for group dance and rhythmical musical sounds are offered here. In addition, triggers for symbolic body painting are discussed. These cultural art formats could well have preceded material art and would have enhanced unity, inclusiveness, and cooperative behavior, contributing significantly to already existing nonart cultural practices. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges in providing culturally-competent care to patients with metastatic brain tumours and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Lianne; Slater, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Being diagnosed with a metastatic brain tumour can be devastating as it is characterized by very low cure rates, as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Given the poor life expectancy and progressive disability that ensues, patients and family members experience much turmoil, which includes losses that bring about changes to family roles, routines and relationships. Crisis and conflict are common during such major disruptions to a family system, as individual members attempt to make sense of the illness experience based on cultural and spiritual beliefs, past experiences and personal philosophies. It is imperative health care providers strive towards increased awareness and knowledge of how culture affects the overall experience of illness and death in order to help create a mutually satisfactory care plan. Providing culturally-competent care entails the use of proper communication skills to facilitate the exploration of patient and family perspectives and allows for mutual decision making. A case study will illustrate the challenges encountered in providing culturally-competent care to a woman with brain cancer and her family. As the patient's health declined, the family entered into a state of crisis where communication between family members and health care professionals was strained; leading to conflict and sub-optimal outcomes. This paper will address the ethical dilemma of providing culturally-competent care when a patient's safety is at risk, and the nursing implications of upholding best practices in the context of differing beliefs and priorities.

  17. Benzodiazepine receptor turnover in embryonic chick brain and spinal cord cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The turnover (synthesis and degradation) of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZD-R) in embryonic chick brain and spinal cord cell cultures was monitored using flunitrazepam (GNZM) as a photoaffinity label. To measure BZD-R appearance, intact cell cultures were incubated with 100 nM RNZM and irradiated with ultraviolet light; this process, referred to as photoinactivation, resulted in a 75% decrease in the subsequent reversible binding of 5 nM [ 3 H]FNZM. Following photoinactivation, [ 3 H]FNZM binding sites reappeared at a rate of 6 +/- 1.5%/hour (n = 7) in brain cultures and at 8%/hour (n = 2) in spinal cord cultures. Reappearance reflects de novo receptors synthesis. To examine the degradation of existing receptors, cultures were photolabeled with 5 nM [ 3 H]FNZM, washed, and then the decrease in cell-associated radioactivity, or the efflux of radioactivity into the medium, was monitored. The released radioactivity did not comigrate with authentic FNZM on thin-layer-chromatographs, indicating that release did not represent dissociation of ligand from the photolabeled receptor. The BZD-R appears to be degraded by an energy-dependent, non-lysosomal pathway. These experiments represent the first direct examination of the turnover of a neurotransmitter receptor localized to the central nervous system; this information will be valuable in elucidating the mechanisms by which receptor levels are altered following chronic drug treatment

  18. Long distance communication in the human brain: timing constraints for inter-hemispheric synchrony and the origin of brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of corpus callosum fiber composition reveals that inter-hemispheric transmission time may put constraints on the development of inter-hemispheric synchronic ensembles, especially in species with large brains like humans. In order to overcome this limitation, a subset of large-diameter callosal fibers are specialized for fast inter-hemispheric transmission, particularly in large-brained species. Nevertheless, the constraints on fast inter-hemispheric communication in large-brained species can somehow contribute to the development of ipsilateral, intrahemispheric networks, which might promote the development of brain lateralization.

  19. The role of positron emission tomography in neuropharmacology in the living human brain and drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a powerful and innovative tool for studying the pathology of psychiatric and neurological diseases and, more recently, for studying the drugs used in their treatment. Technological advances in imaging have made it possible to noninvasively extract information from the human brain regarding a drug's mechanism and site of action. Until now, our understanding of human brain pharmacology has depended primarily on indirect assessments or models derived from animal studies. However, the advent of multiple techniques for human brain imaging allows researchers to focus directly on human pharmacology and brain function. In this review article, our PET studies on the histaminergic neuron system were presented as an example. We have developed and used the PET techniques for 10 years in order to examine the H 1 receptors in the living human brain. This review outlines available PET techniques and examine how these various methods have already been applied to the drug development process and neuropharmacology in the living human brain. (author)

  20. Differences in distribution and regulation of astrocytic aquaporin-4 in human and rat hydrocephalic brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Anders Daehli; Holst, Anders Vedel; Broholm, Helle

    2013-01-01

    findings to human pathophysiology. This study compares expression of aquaporin-4 in hydrocephalic human brain with human controls and hydrocephalic rat brain. Methods:  Cortical biopsies from patients with chronic hydrocephalus (n=29) were sampled secondary to planned surgical intervention. Aquaporin-4...

  1. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  2. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  3. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where information is provided from the abstract wholeness of the biophysical system of an organism (often called the true self, or the “soul””. We present a number of arguments in favor of this model that provide self-conscious control over the thought process or cognition. Our arguments arise from analyzing experimental data from different research fields: histology, anatomy, electroencephalography (EEG, cerebral blood flow, neuropsychology, evolutionary studies, and mathematics. We criticize the popular network theories as the consequence of a simplistic, mechanical interpretation of reality (philosophical materialism applied to the brain. We demonstrate how viewing brain functions as information-guided self-organization of neural patterns can explain the structure of conscious mentation; we seem to have a dual hierarchical representation in the cerebral cortex: one for sensation-perception and one for will-action. The model explains many of our unique mental abilities to think, memorize, associate, discriminate, and make abstractions. The presented model of the conscious brain also seems to be able to explain the function of the simpler brains, such as those of insects and hydra.

  4. Activation analysis study on subcellular distribution of trace elements in human brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jian; Zhuan Guisun; Wang Yongji; Dong Mo; Zhang Fulin

    1992-01-01

    The concentrations of up to 11 elements in subcellular fractions of human brain (normal and malignant tumor) have been determined by a combination of gradient centrifugation and INAA methods. Samples of human brain were homogenized in a glass homogenizer tube, the homogenate was separated into nuclei, mitochondrial, myelin, synaptosome fractions, and these fractions were then analyzed using the INAA method. The discussions of elemental subcelleular distributions in human brain malignant tumor are presented in this paper. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  5. Micro-engineering a platform to reconstruct physiology and functionality of the human brain microvasculature in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghighi, Yasaman; Heidari, Hossein; Taylor, Hayden

    2018-02-01

    A predominant unsolved challenge in tissue engineering is the need of a robust technique for producing vascular networks, particularly when modeling human brain tissue. The availability of reliable in vitro human brain microvasculature models would advance our understanding of its function and would provide a platform for highthroughput drug screening. Current strategies for modeling vascularized brain tissue suffer from limitations such as (1) culturing non-human cell lines, (2) limited multi-cell co-culture, and (3) the effects of neighboring physiologically unrealistic rigid polymeric surfaces, such as solid membranes. We demonstrate a new micro-engineered platform that can address these shortcomings. Specifically, we have designed and prototyped a molding system to enable the precise casting of 100μm-diameter coaxial hydrogel structures laden with the requisite cells to mimic a vascular lumen. Here we demonstrate that a fine wire with diameter 130 μm or a needle with outer diameter 300 μm can be used as a temporary mold insert, and agarose-collagen composite matrix can be cast around these inserts and thermally gelled. When the wire or needle is retracted under the precise positional control afforded by our system, a microchannel is formed which is then seeded with human microvascular endothelial cells. After seven days of culture these cells produce an apparently confluent monolayer on the channel walls. In principle, this platform could be used to create multilayered cellular structures. By arranging a fine wire and a hollow needle coaxially, three distinct zones could be defined in the model: first, the bulk gel surrounding the needle; then, after needle retraction, a cylindrical shell of matrix; and finally, after retraction of the wire, a lumen. Each zone could be independently cell-seeded. To this end, we have also successfully 3D cultured human astrocytes and SY5Y glial cells in our agarose-collagen matrix. Our approach ultimately promises scalable

  6. Modeling human gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases using microphysiological culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kira G; Bortner, James D; Falk, Gary W; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Jhala, Nirag; Yu, Jian; Martín, Martín G; Rustgi, Anil K; Lynch, John P

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal illnesses are a significant health burden for the US population, with 40 million office visits each year for gastrointestinal complaints and nearly 250,000 deaths. Acute and chronic inflammations are a common element of many gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammatory processes may be initiated by a chemical injury (acid reflux in the esophagus), an infectious agent (Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), autoimmune processes (graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation), or idiopathic (as in the case of inflammatory bowel diseases). Inflammation in these settings can contribute to acute complaints (pain, bleeding, obstruction, and diarrhea) as well as chronic sequelae including strictures and cancer. Research into the pathophysiology of these conditions has been limited by the availability of primary human tissues or appropriate animal models that attempt to physiologically model the human disease. With the many recent advances in tissue engineering and primary human cell culture systems, it is conceivable that these approaches can be adapted to develop novel human ex vivo systems that incorporate many human cell types to recapitulate in vivo growth and differentiation in inflammatory microphysiological environments. Such an advance in technology would improve our understanding of human disease progression and enhance our ability to test for disease prevention strategies and novel therapeutics. We will review current models for the inflammatory and immunological aspects of Barrett's esophagus, acute graft versus host disease, and inflammatory bowel disease and explore recent advances in culture methodologies that make these novel microphysiological research systems possible. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  7. Characterization of TEM1/endosialin in human and murine brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson-Walter, Eleanor B; Walter, Kevin A; Winans, Bethany N; Whiteman, Melissa C; Liu, Yang; Jarvela, Sally; Haapasalo, Hannu; Tyler, Betty M; Huso, David L; Johnson, Mahlon D

    2009-01-01

    TEM1/endosialin is an emerging microvascular marker of tumor angiogenesis. We characterized the expression pattern of TEM1/endosialin in astrocytic and metastatic brain tumors and investigated its role as a therapeutic target in human endothelial cells and mouse xenograft models. In situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IH) and immunofluorescence (IF) were used to localize TEM1/endosialin expression in grade II-IV astrocytomas and metastatic brain tumors on tissue microarrays. Changes in TEM1/endosialin expression in response to pro-angiogenic conditions were assessed in human endothelial cells grown in vitro. Intracranial U87MG glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts were analyzed in nude TEM1/endosialin knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice. TEM1/endosialin was upregulated in primary and metastatic human brain tumors, where it localized primarily to the tumor vasculature and a subset of tumor stromal cells. Analysis of 275 arrayed grade II-IV astrocytomas demonstrated TEM1/endosialin expression in 79% of tumors. Robust TEM1/endosialin expression occurred in 31% of glioblastomas (grade IV astroctyomas). TEM1/endosialin expression was inversely correlated with patient age. TEM1/endosialin showed limited co-localization with CD31, αSMA and fibronectin in clinical specimens. In vitro, TEM1/endosialin was upregulated in human endothelial cells cultured in matrigel. Vascular Tem1/endosialin was induced in intracranial U87MG GBM xenografts grown in mice. Tem1/endosialin KO vs WT mice demonstrated equivalent survival and tumor growth when implanted with intracranial GBM xenografts, although Tem1/endosialin KO tumors were significantly more vascular than the WT counterparts. TEM1/endosialin was induced in the vasculature of high-grade brain tumors where its expression was inversely correlated with patient age. Although lack of TEM1/endosialin did not suppress growth of intracranial GBM xenografts, it did increase tumor vascularity. The cellular localization of TEM1

  8. Evolution of brain and culture: the neurological and cognitive journey from Australopithecus to Albert Einstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean

    2016-06-20

    Fossil and comparative primatological evidence suggest that alterations in the development of prehistoric hominin infants kindled three consecutive evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) trends that, ultimately, paved the way for the evolution of the human brain and cognition. In the earliest trend, infants' development of posture and locomotion became delayed because of anatomical changes that accompanied the prolonged evolution of bipedalism. Because modern humans have inherited these changes, our babies are much slower than other primates to reach developmental milestones such as standing, crawling, and walking. The delay in ancestral babies' physical development eventually precipitated an evolutionary reversal in which they became increasing unable to cling independently to their mothers. For the first time in prehistory, babies were, thus, periodically deprived of direct physical contact with their mothers. This prompted the emergence of a second evo-devo trend in which infants sought contact comfort from caregivers using evolved signals, including new ways of crying that are conserved in modern babies. Such signaling stimulated intense reciprocal interactions between prehistoric mothers and infants that seeded the eventual emergence of motherese and, subsequently, protolanguage. The third trend was for an extreme acceleration in brain growth that began prior to the last trimester of gestation and continued through infants' first postnatal year (early "brain spurt"). Conservation of this trend in modern babies explains why human brains reach adult sizes that are over three times those of chimpanzees. The fossil record of hominin cranial capacities together with comparative neuroanatomical data suggest that, around 3 million years ago, early brain spurts began to facilitate an evolutionary trajectory for increasingly large adult brains in association with neurological reorganization. The prehistoric increase in brain size eventually caused parturition to become

  9. Primary microglia isolation from mixed glial cell cultures of neonatal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Tami T; Dalgard, Clifton Lee; Byrnes, Kimberly R

    2012-08-15

    Microglia account for approximately 12% of the total cellular population in the mammalian brain. While neurons and astrocytes are considered the major cell types of the nervous system, microglia play a significant role in normal brain physiology by monitoring tissue for debris and pathogens and maintaining homeostasis in the parenchyma via phagocytic activity. Microglia are activated during a number of injury and disease conditions, including neurodegenerative disease, traumatic brain injury, and nervous system infection. Under these activating conditions, microglia increase their phagocytic activity, undergo morpohological and proliferative change, and actively secrete reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, often activating a paracrine or autocrine loop. As these microglial responses contribute to disease pathogenesis in neurological conditions, research focused on microglia is warranted. Due to the cellular heterogeneity of the brain, it is technically difficult to obtain sufficient microglial sample material with high purity during in vivo experiments. Current research on the neuroprotective and neurotoxic functions of microglia require a routine technical method to consistently generate pure and healthy microglia with sufficient yield for study. We present, in text and video, a protocol to isolate pure primary microglia from mixed glia cultures for a variety of downstream applications. Briefly, this technique utilizes dissociated brain tissue from neonatal rat pups to produce mixed glial cell cultures. After the mixed glial cultures reach confluency, primary microglia are mechanically isolated from the culture by a brief duration of shaking. The microglia are then plated at high purity for experimental study. The principle and protocol of this methodology have been described in the literature. Additionally, alternate methodologies to isolate primary microglia are well described. Homogenized brain tissue may be separated

  10. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Deep brain stimulation, brain maps and personalized medicine: lessons from the human genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J; Shapiro, Zachary E

    2014-01-01

    Although the appellation of personalized medicine is generally attributed to advanced therapeutics in molecular medicine, deep brain stimulation (DBS) can also be so categorized. Like its medical counterpart, DBS is a highly personalized intervention that needs to be tailored to a patient's individual anatomy. And because of this, DBS like more conventional personalized medicine, can be highly specific where the object of care is an N = 1. But that is where the similarities end. Besides their differing medical and surgical provenances, these two varieties of personalized medicine have had strikingly different impacts. The molecular variant, though of a more recent vintage has thrived and is experiencing explosive growth, while DBS still struggles to find a sustainable therapeutic niche. Despite its promise, and success as a vetted treatment for drug resistant Parkinson's Disease, DBS has lagged in broadening its development, often encountering regulatory hurdles and financial barriers necessary to mount an adequate number of quality trials. In this paper we will consider why DBS-or better yet neuromodulation-has encountered these challenges and contrast this experience with the more successful advance of personalized medicine. We will suggest that personalized medicine and DBS's differential performance can be explained as a matter of timing and complexity. We believe that DBS has struggled because it has been a journey of scientific exploration conducted without a map. In contrast to molecular personalized medicine which followed the mapping of the human genome and the Human Genome Project, DBS preceded plans for the mapping of the human brain. We believe that this sequence has given personalized medicine a distinct advantage and that the fullest potential of DBS will be realized both as a cartographical or electrophysiological probe and as a modality of personalized medicine.

  12. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and

  13. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Nagai, Momoko; Tajino, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Iijima, Hirotaka; Zhang, Xiangkai; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C) for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and citrate synthase (CS), which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1) and aggrecan (ACAN), was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and chondrogenesis.

  14. Abstract representations of associated emotions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Schultz, Johannes; Rohe, Tim; Wallraven, Christian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2015-04-08

    Emotions can be aroused by various kinds of stimulus modalities. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that several brain regions represent emotions at an abstract level, i.e., independently from the sensory cues from which they are perceived (e.g., face, body, or voice stimuli). If emotions are indeed represented at such an abstract level, then these abstract representations should also be activated by the memory of an emotional event. We tested this hypothesis by asking human participants to learn associations between emotional stimuli (videos of faces or bodies) and non-emotional stimuli (fractals). After successful learning, fMRI signals were recorded during the presentations of emotional stimuli and emotion-associated fractals. We tested whether emotions could be decoded from fMRI signals evoked by the fractal stimuli using a classifier trained on the responses to the emotional stimuli (and vice versa). This was implemented as a whole-brain searchlight, multivoxel activation pattern analysis, which revealed successful emotion decoding in four brain regions: posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, MPFC, and angular gyrus. The same analysis run only on responses to emotional stimuli revealed clusters in PCC, precuneus, and MPFC. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the activation patterns revealed clear clustering of responses by emotion across stimulus types. Our results suggest that PCC, precuneus, and MPFC contain representations of emotions that can be evoked by stimuli that carry emotional information themselves or by stimuli that evoke memories of emotional stimuli, while angular gyrus is more likely to take part in emotional memory retrieval. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355655-09$15.00/0.

  15. Human Rights in the Context of Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The human rights understood in the sense of fundamental inalienable rights are therefore considered as universal – they apply to everything and egalitarian exist in two ways: as natural or legal rights, both in the rights doctrine in the international practice within the international law, the global and regional institutions, in the state policies and the activities of non from all over the world regardless of peoples’ cultures. manage the ethnic-cultural communities living on the territory of a state often contributes, in fact, to the separation and not to the reunion of peoples, the ideological and political factors acting rather as division factors whereas the affective spiritual connection exists only between the states having deep similarities. For this purpose, serving justice having as a goal the pres on the social feelings of humanity.

  16. Generation of organotypic raft cultures from primary human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Daniel; Moody, Cary

    2012-02-22

    The development of organotypic epithelial raft cultures has provided researchers with an efficient in vitro system that faithfully recapitulates epithelial differentiation. There are many uses for this system. For instance, the ability to grow three-dimensional organotypic raft cultures of keratinocytes has been an important milestone in the study of human papillomavirus (HPV)(1). The life cycle of HPV is tightly linked to the differentiation of squamous epithelium(2). Organotypic epithelial raft cultures as demonstrated here reproduce the entire papillomavirus life cycle, including virus production(3,4,5). In addition, these raft cultures exhibit dysplastic lesions similar to those observed upon in vivo infection with HPV. Hence this system can also be used to study epithelial cell cancers, as well as the effect of drugs on epithelial cell differentiation in general. Originally developed by Asselineau and Prunieras(6) and modified by Kopan et al.(7), the organotypic epithelial raft culture system has matured into a general, relatively easy culture model, which involves the growth of cells on collagen plugs maintained at an air-liquid interface (Figure 1A). Over the course of 10-14 days, the cells stratify and differentiate, forming a full thickness epithelium that produces differentiation-specific cytokeratins. Harvested rafts can be examined histologically, as well as by standard molecular and biochemical techniques. In this article, we describe a method for the generation of raft cultures from primary human keratinocytes. The same technique can be used with established epithelial cell lines, and can easily be adapted for use with epithelial tissue from normal or diseased biopsies(8). Many viruses target either the cutaneous or mucosal epithelium as part of their replicative life cycle. Over the past several years, the feasibility of using organotypic raft cultures as a method of studying virus-host cell interactions has been shown for several herpesviruses, as

  17. Examining human resources' efforts to develop a culturally competent workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V; Valpuesta, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing diversification of the nation's population poses significant challenges in providing care that meets the needs of culturally diverse patients. Human resource management plays a vital role in developing a more culturally competent workforce. This exploratory study examines current efforts by human resource directors (HRDs) in Alabama's general hospitals to recruit more diverse candidates, train staff, and make language access resources available. A questionnaire was developed based on the Office of Minority Health's Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services standards. The HRDs of the 101 Alabama general hospitals served as the study's target population. A sample of 61 responses, or 60.4% of the population, was obtained. The findings indicate that most HRDs are focusing their efforts on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse candidates and training clerical and nursing staff to care for culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Less effort is being focused on recruiting candidates who speak a different language, and only 44.3% have a trained interpreter on the staff. The HRDs who indicated that they work closely with organizations that provide support to diverse groups were more likely to recruit diverse employees and have racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in leadership positions. It is crucial that health care organizations take the necessary steps to diversify their workforce to broaden access, improve the quality and equity of care, and capture a greater market share.

  18. The functional connectivity landscape of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Mišić

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment.

  19. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834.

  20. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    the focal GM and WM densities of each twin are correlated with the psychometric intelligence quotient of his/her cotwin. Genes influenced individual differences in left and right superior occipitofrontal fascicle (heritability up to 0.79 and 0.77), corpus callosum (0.82, 0.80), optic radiation (0.69, 0.......79), corticospinal tract (0.78, 0.79), medial frontal cortex (0.78, 0.83), superior frontal cortex (0.76, 0.80), superior temporal cortex (0.80, 0.77), left occipital cortex (0.85), left postcentral cortex (0.83), left posterior cingulate cortex (0.83), right parahippocampal cortex (0.69), and amygdala (0.80, 0......Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...

  1. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response : Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for

  2. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; vanErp, Theo G.M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchón, José M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je Yeon; Zhao, Jing Jing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  3. Brain, calvarium, cladistics: A new approach to an old question, who are modern humans and Neandertals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Aurélien; Balzeau, Antoine; Caparros, Miguel; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    The evolutionary history of the genus Homo is the focus of major research efforts in palaeoanthropology. However, the use of palaeoneurology to infer phylogenies of our genus is rare. Here we use cladistics to test the importance of the brain in differentiating and defining Neandertals and modern humans. The analysis is based on morphological data from the calvarium and endocast of Pleistocene fossils and results in a single most parsimonious cladogram. We demonstrate that the joint use of endocranial and calvarial features with cladistics provides a unique means to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. The main results of this study indicate that: (i) the endocranial features are more phylogenetically informative than the characters from the calvarium; (ii) the specific differentiation of Neandertals and modern humans is mostly supported by well-known calvarial autapomorphies; (iii) the endocranial anatomy of modern humans and Neandertals show strong similarities, which appeared in the fossil record with the last common ancestor of both species; and (iv) apart from encephalisation, human endocranial anatomy changed tremendously during the end of the Middle Pleistocene. This may be linked to major cultural and technological novelties that had happened by the end of the Middle Pleistocene (e.g., expansion of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in Africa and Mousterian in Europe). The combined study of endocranial and exocranial anatomy offers opportunities to further understand human evolution and the implication for the phylogeny of our genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  5. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  6. The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2004-01-01

    Imaging studies have provided evidence of how the human brain changes as an individual becomes addicted. Here, we integrate the findings from imaging studies to propose a model of drug addiction. The process of addiction is initiated in part by the fast and high increases in DA induced by drugs of abuse. We hypothesize that this supraphysiological effect of drugs trigger a series of adaptations in neuronal circuits involved in saliency/reward, motivation/drive, memory/conditioning, and control/disinhibition, resulting in an enhanced (and long lasting) saliency value for the drug and its associated cues at the expense of decreased sensitivity for salient events of everyday life (including natural reinforcers). Although acute drug intake increases DA neurotransmission, chronic drug consumption results in a marked decrease in DA activity, associated with, among others, dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex (region involved with salience attribution) and cingulate gyrus (region involved with inhibitory control). The ensuing increase in motivational drive for the drug, strengthened by conditioned responses and the decrease in inhibitory control favors emergence of compulsive drug taking. This view of how drugs of abuse affect the brain suggests strategies for intervention, which might include: (a) those that will decrease the reward value of the drug of choice; (b) interventions to increase the saliency value of non-drug reinforcers; (c) approaches to weaken conditioned drug behaviors; and (d) methods to strengthen frontal inhibitory and executive control. Though this model focuses mostly on findings from PET studies of the brain DA system it is evident that other neurotransmitters are involved and that a better understanding of their roles in addiction would expand the options for therapeutic targets.

  7. Brain-to-brain hyperclassification reveals action-specific motor mapping of observed actions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Lachat, Fanny; Peltola, Tomi; Lahnakoski, Juha M; Koistinen, Olli-Pekka; Glerean, Enrico; Vehtari, Aki; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Seeing an action may activate the corresponding action motor code in the observer. It remains unresolved whether seeing and performing an action activates similar action-specific motor codes in the observer and the actor. We used novel hyperclassification approach to reveal shared brain activation signatures of action execution and observation in interacting human subjects. In the first experiment, two "actors" performed four types of hand actions while their haemodynamic brain activations were measured with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The actions were videotaped and shown to 15 "observers" during a second fMRI experiment. Eleven observers saw the videos of one actor, and the remaining four observers saw the videos of the other actor. In a control fMRI experiment, one of the actors performed actions with closed eyes, and five new observers viewed these actions. Bayesian canonical correlation analysis was applied to functionally realign observers' and actors' fMRI data. Hyperclassification of the seen actions was performed with Bayesian logistic regression trained on actors' data and tested with observers' data. Without the functional realignment, between-subjects accuracy was at chance level. With the realignment, the accuracy increased on average by 15 percentage points, exceeding both the chance level and the accuracy without functional realignment. The highest accuracies were observed in occipital, parietal and premotor cortices. Hyperclassification exceeded chance level also when the actor did not see her own actions. We conclude that the functional brain activation signatures underlying action execution and observation are partly shared, yet these activation signatures may be anatomically misaligned across individuals.

  8. The power of love on the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Grafton, Scott T; Ortigue, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Romantic love has been the source for some of the greatest achievements of mankind throughout the ages. The recent localization of romantic love within subcortico-cortical reward, motivation and emotion systems in the human brain has suggested that love is a goal-directed drive with predictable facilitation effects on cognitive behavior, rather than a pure emotion. Here we show that the subliminal exposure of a beloved's name (romantic prime) during a lexical decision task dramatically improves performance in women in love (Experiment 1), as the subliminal presentation of a passion's descriptive noun does (Experiment 2). The parallel between love and passion allows us to interpret these facilitation effects as corresponding to cognitive top-down processes within a motivation-enhanced neural network.

  9. Adrenergic receptors in frontal cortex in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R; Raisman, R; Ruberg, M; Agid, Y

    1985-02-05

    The binding of three adrenergic ligands ([3H]prazosin, [3H]clonidine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol) was studied in the frontal cortex of human brain. alpha 1-Receptors, labeled by [3H]prazosin, predominated. [3H]Clonidine bound to two classes of sites, one of high affinity and one of low affinity. Guanosine triphosphate appeared to lower the affinity of [3H]clonidine for its receptor. [3H]Dihydroalprenolol bound to three classes of sites: the beta 1-receptor, the beta 2-receptor and a receptor with low affinity which represented about 40% of the total binding, but which was probably a non-specific site; the beta 1/beta 2 ratio was 1/2.

  10. Exclusive neuronal expression of SUCLA2 in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Bagó, Attila G

    2015-01-01

    associated with SUCLA2 mutations, the precise localization of SUCLA2 protein has never been investigated. Here, we show that immunoreactivity of A-SUCL-β in surgical human cortical tissue samples was present exclusively in neurons, identified by their morphology and visualized by double labeling...... was absent in glial cells, identified by antibodies directed against the glial markers GFAP and S100. Furthermore, in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrated that SUCLA2 mRNA was present in Nissl-labeled neurons but not glial cells labeled with S100. Immunoreactivity of the GTP-forming β subunit (G......-SUCL-β) encoded by SUCLG2, or in situ hybridization histochemistry for SUCLG2 mRNA could not be demonstrated in either neurons or astrocytes. Western blotting of post mortem brain samples revealed minor G-SUCL-β immunoreactivity that was, however, not upregulated in samples obtained from diabetic versus non...

  11. Role of synchronized oscillatory brain activity for human pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of cortical pain processing in humans has significantly improved since the development of modern neuroimaging techniques. Non-invasive electrophysiological approaches such as electro- and magnetoencephalography have proven to be helpful tools for the real-time investigation of neuronal signals and synchronous communication between cortical areas. In particular, time-frequency decomposition of signals recorded with these techniques seems to be a promising approach because different pain-related oscillatory changes can be observed within different frequency bands, which are likely to be linked to specific sensory and motor functions. In this review we discuss the latest evidence on pain-induced time-frequency signals and propose that changes in oscillatory activity reflect an essential communication mechanism in the brain that is modulated during pain processing. The importance of synchronization processes for normal and pathological pain processing, such as chronic pain states, is discussed.

  12. Triethyllead treatment of cultured brain cells. Effect on accumulation of radioactive precursors in galactolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundt, I.K.; Ammitzboll, T.; Clausen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured cells from chick embryo brains were studied for their sensitivity to triethyllead. Triethyllead chloride (3.16 microM) was added to the nutrient medium and incubated for 48 hr with the cells. Morphological changes in light microscope and radioactive labeling of galactolipids were assayed. Triethyllead treatment reduced the number of neuronal cells with processes. Morphological changes were not observed in glial cells. The [ 35 S]sulfate labeling of sulfatides was reduced to 50%. The [ 3 H]serine labeling of cerebrosides with alpha-hydroxy fatty acids was not influenced, while the [ 3 H]serine labeling of cerebrosides with nonhydroxy fatty acids was inhibited 40% in one- and two- but not in three-week-old cultures. The results indicate that the nerve cell response to triethyllead in cultures is selective, since the neurons are more sensitive than the glia cells and the labeling of sulfatides is more sensitive than that of cerebrosides

  13. Look what the cat dragged in: do parasites contribute to human cultural diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2005-01-01

    If human culture emerges from the modal personality of a population, can global variation in parasitism that affects personality lead to cultural diversity among nations? The answer could help explain why people seem to vary so much from one land to another. Thomas et al. (2005) review how parasites manipulate behaviour, including human behaviour. To quote them, “The rabies virus lives in the brain, affording the virus ample opportunity to directly affect host behaviour. Rabid animals do show changes in behaviour, including increased aggression and biting.” Rabies affects a wide range of mammals and the aggressive biting associated with furious rabies appears to increase transmission. The personality transformation of infected humans can be horrifying, transforming loved ones into thrashing, baying beasts. Not coincidentally, in Europe, past periods of rabies outbreaks correspond to increases in werewolf trials. Although rabies can have a dramatic effect, the present rarity of human rabies cases and the availability of a vaccine, means that the behavioural effects of rabies are primarily an illustrative curiosity.

  14. Characterization of cortical neuronal and glial alterations during culture of organotypic whole brain slices from neonatal and mature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Jerome A; Alexander, Samuel R; Liu, Yao; Dickson, Tracey D; Vickers, James C

    2011-01-01

    Organotypic brain slice culturing techniques are extensively used in a wide range of experimental procedures and are particularly useful in providing mechanistic insights into neurological disorders or injury. The cellular and morphological alterations associated with hippocampal brain slice cultures has been well established, however, the neuronal response of mouse cortical neurons to culture is not well documented. In the current study, we compared the cell viability, as well as phenotypic and protein expression changes in cortical neurons, in whole brain slice cultures from mouse neonates (P4-6), adolescent animals (P25-28) and mature adults (P50+). Cultures were prepared using the membrane interface method. Propidium iodide labeling of nuclei (due to compromised cell membrane) and AlamarBlue™ (cell respiration) analysis demonstrated that neonatal tissue was significantly less vulnerable to long-term culture in comparison to the more mature brain tissues. Cultures from P6 animals showed a significant increase in the expression of synaptic markers and a decrease in growth-associated proteins over the entire culture period. However, morphological analysis of organotypic brain slices cultured from neonatal tissue demonstrated that there were substantial changes to neuronal and glial organization within the neocortex, with a distinct loss of cytoarchitectural stratification and increased GFAP expression (pglial limitans and, after 14 DIV, displayed substantial cellular protrusions from slice edges, including cells that expressed both glial and neuronal markers. In summary, we present a substantial evaluation of the viability and morphological changes that occur in the neocortex of whole brain tissue cultures, from different ages, over an extended period of culture.

  15. Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

    2014-11-01

    Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The structural, connectomic and network covariance of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D

    2013-02-01

    Though it is widely appreciated that complex structural, functional and morphological relationships exist between distinct areas of the human cerebral cortex, the extent to which such relationships coincide remains insufficiently appreciated. Here we determine the extent to which correlations between brain regions are modulated by either structural, connectomic or network-theoretic properties using a structural neuroimaging data set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes acquired from N=110 healthy human adults. To identify the linear relationships between all available pairs of regions, we use canonical correlation analysis to test whether a statistically significant correlation exists between each pair of cortical parcels as quantified via structural, connectomic or network-theoretic measures. In addition to this, we investigate (1) how each group of canonical variables (whether structural, connectomic or network-theoretic) contributes to the overall correlation and, additionally, (2) whether each individual variable makes a significant contribution to the test of the omnibus null hypothesis according to which no correlation between regions exists across subjects. We find that, although region-to-region correlations are extensively modulated by structural and connectomic measures, there are appreciable differences in how these two groups of measures drive inter-regional correlation patterns. Additionally, our results indicate that the network-theoretic properties of the cortex are strong modulators of region-to-region covariance. Our findings are useful for understanding the structural and connectomic relationship between various parts of the brain, and can inform theoretical and computational models of cortical information processing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A collaborative brain-computer interface for improving human performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Wang

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have been studied since the 1970s. Currently, the main focus of BCI research lies on the clinical use, which aims to provide a new communication channel to patients with motor disabilities to improve their quality of life. However, the BCI technology can also be used to improve human performance for normal healthy users. Although this application has been proposed for a long time, little progress has been made in real-world practices due to technical limits of EEG. To overcome the bottleneck of low single-user BCI performance, this study proposes a collaborative paradigm to improve overall BCI performance by integrating information from multiple users. To test the feasibility of a collaborative BCI, this study quantitatively compares the classification accuracies of collaborative and single-user BCI applied to the EEG data collected from 20 subjects in a movement-planning experiment. This study also explores three different methods for fusing and analyzing EEG data from multiple subjects: (1 Event-related potentials (ERP averaging, (2 Feature concatenating, and (3 Voting. In a demonstration system using the Voting method, the classification accuracy of predicting movement directions (reaching left vs. reaching right was enhanced substantially from 66% to 80%, 88%, 93%, and 95% as the numbers of subjects increased from 1 to 5, 10, 15, and 20, respectively. Furthermore, the decision of reaching direction could be made around 100-250 ms earlier than the subject's actual motor response by decoding the ERP activities arising mainly from the posterior parietal cortex (PPC, which are related to the processing of visuomotor transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that a collaborative BCI can effectively fuse brain activities of a group of people to improve the overall performance of natural human behavior.

  18. Morphology of primary human venous endothelial cell cultures before and after culture medium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Genge, A; Fuhrmann, R; Jung, F; Franke, R P

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the interaction of human, venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) with body foreign materials on the cellular level cannot be performed in vivo, but is investigated in vitro under standard culture conditions. To maintain the vitality, proliferation and morphology of HUVEC seeded on body foreign substrates over days, the cell culture medium is usually exchanged every second day. It is well known, that alterations in the microenvironment of cells bear the risk of influencing cell morphology and function. In the current study the influence of cell culture medium exchange on HUVEC cytoskeletal microfilament structure and function was investigated. HUVEC in the third passage were seeded on extracellular matrix (ECM) - which was secreted from bovine corneal endothelial cells on glass- until functional confluence was reached. The experiment started 11 days after HUVEC seeding with an exchange of the cell culture medium followed by a staining of the actin microfilaments with phalloidin-rhodamin 1.5 and 5 minutes after medium exchange. The microfilaments were documented by use of an Olympus microscope (IMT-2) equipped with a UV lamp and online connected to a TV chain (Sony XC 50 ST/monochrome) implying an OPTIMAS - Image analysis system. Prostacyclin was analysed in the cell culture supernatant. 1.5 min after culture medium exchange in the functionally confluent cultures a slight disturbance of the actin microfilament structure with a broadening of the marginal filament band, a partial disconnection of cell-cell contacts and the appearance of intercellular fenestrations were observed. 5 minutes after medium exchange a redevelopment of the slightly disturbed microfilament structure with a condensation and narrowing of the marginal filament band was seen. 12 h later a further consolidation of the microfilament structure occurred. In addition, a perturbation of the cultured HUVEC occurred after cell culture medium exchange. The prostacyclin concentration in the

  19. Supplements in human islet culture: human serum albumin is inferior to fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Scott, William E; Suszynski, Thomas M; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Nelson, Rebecca A; Rozak, Phillip R; Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A N; Ansite, Jeffrey D; Fraga, Daniel W; Friberg, Andrew S; Wildey, Gina M; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Lyons, Connor A; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2012-01-01

    Culture of human islets before clinical transplantation or distribution for research purposes is standard practice. At the time the Edmonton protocol was introduced, clinical islet manufacturing did not include culture, and human serum albumin (HSA), instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), was used during other steps of the process to avoid the introduction of xenogeneic material. When culture was subsequently introduced, HSA was also used for medium supplementation instead of FBS, which was typically used for research islet culture. The use of HSA as culture supplement was not evaluated before this implementation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 high-purity islet preparations (76 research preparations, all with FBS culture supplementation, and 27 clinical preparations, all with HSA supplementation) for oxygen consumption rate per DNA content (OCR/DNA; a measure of viability) and diabetes reversal rate in diabetic nude mice (a measure of potency). After 2-day culture, research preparations exhibited an average OCR/DNA 51% higher (p < 0.001) and an average diabetes reversal rate 54% higher (p < 0.05) than clinical preparations, despite 87% of the research islet preparations having been derived from research-grade pancreata that are considered of lower quality. In a prospective paired study on islets from eight research preparations, OCR/DNA was, on average, 27% higher with FBS supplementation than that with HSA supplementation (p < 0.05). We conclude that the quality of clinical islet preparations can be improved when culture is performed in media supplemented with serum instead of albumin.

  20. Steady-state cerebral glucose concentrations and transport in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gruetter, R.; Ugurbil, K.; Seaquist, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of brain glucose transport across the blood- brain barrier is of importance to understanding brain energy metabolism. The specific kinetics of glucose transport nave been generally described using standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These models predict that the steady- state glucose concentration approaches an upper limit in the human brain when the plasma glucose level is well above the Michaelis-Menten constant for half-maximal transport, K(t). In experiments wh...

  1. Oogenesis in cultures derived from adult human ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Michael R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten years ago, we reported that in adult human females the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is a source of germ cells. Recently, we also demonstrated that new primary follicles are formed by assembly of oocytes with nests of primitive granulosa cells in the ovarian cortex. The components of the new primary follicles, primitive granulosa and germ cells, differentiated sequentially from the OSE, which arises from cytokeratin positive mesenchymal progenitor cells residing in the ovarian tunica albuginea. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that the oocytes and granulosa cells may differentiate in cultures derived from adult human ovaries. Cells were scrapped from the surface of ovaries and cultured for 5 to 6 days, in the presence or absence of estrogenic stimuli [phenol red (PhR]. The OSE cells cultured in the medium without PhR differentiated into small (15 micron cells of granulosa phenotype, and epithelial, neural, and mesenchymal type cells. In contrast, OSE cells cultured in the presence of PhR differentiated directly into large (180 micron cells of the oocyte phenotype. Such cells exhibited germinal vesicle breakdown, expulsion of the polar body, and surface expression of zona pellucida proteins, i.e. characteristics of secondary oocytes. These in vitro studies confirm our in vivo observations that in adult human ovaries, the OSE is a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells. Development of numerous mature oocytes from adult ovarian stem cells in vitro offers new strategies for the egg preservation, IVF utilization, and treatment of female infertility. In addition, other clinical applications aiming to utilize stem cells, and basic stem cell research as well, may employ totipotent embryonic stem cells developing from fertilized oocytes.

  2. Variable ATP yields and uncoupling of oxygen consumption in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    normalized the metabolic rate to the population average of that region. Coefficients of variation ranged from 10 to 15% in the different regions of the human brain and the normalized regional metabolic rates ranged from 70% to 140% of the population average for each region, equal to a two-fold variation......The distribution of brain oxidative metabolism values among healthy humans is astoundingly wide for a measure that reflects normal brain function and is known to change very little with most changes of brain function. It is possible that the part of the oxygen consumption rate that is coupled...... to ATP turnover is the same in all healthy human brains, with different degrees of uncoupling explaining the variability of total oxygen consumption among people. To test the hypothesis that about 75% of the average total oxygen consumption of human brains is common to all individuals, we determined...

  3. Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaroni, Jacques; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L

    2009-12-01

    The relative importance of the roles of adaptation and chance in determining genetic diversity and evolution has received attention in the last 50 years, but our understanding is still incomplete. All statements about the relative effects of evolutionary factors, especially drift, need confirmation by strong demographic observations, some of which are easier to obtain in a species like ours. Earlier quantitative studies on a variety of data have shown that the amount of genetic differentiation in living human populations indicates that the role of positive (or directional) selection is modest. We observe geographic peculiarities with some Y chromosome mutants, most probably due to a drift-related phenomenon called the surfing effect. We also compare the overall genetic diversity in Y chromosome DNA data with that of other chromosomes and their expectations under drift and natural selection, as well as the rate of fall of diversity within populations known as the serial founder effect during the recent "Out of Africa" expansion of modern humans to the whole world. All these observations are difficult to explain without accepting a major relative role for drift in the course of human expansions. The increasing role of human creativity and the fast diffusion of inventions seem to have favored cultural solutions for many of the problems encountered in the expansion. We suggest that cultural evolution has been subrogating biologic evolution in providing natural selection advantages and reducing our dependence on genetic mutations, especially in the last phase of transition from food collection to food production.

  4. Regulation of human renin expression in chorion cell primary cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.G.; Haidar, M.A.; Baxter, J.D.; Reudelhuber, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    The human renin gene is expressed in the kidney, placenta, and several other sites. The release of renin or its precursor, prorenin, can be affected by several regulatory agents. In this study, primary cultures of human placental cells were used to examine the regulation of prorenin release and renin mRNA levels and of the transfected human renin promoter linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter sequences. Treatment of the cultures with a calcium ionophore alone, calcium ionophore plus forskolin (that activates adenylate cyclase), or forskolin plus a phorbol ester increased prorenin release and renin mRNA levels 1.3 endash to 6 endash fold, but several classes of steroids did not affect prorenin secretion or renin RNA levels. These results suggest that (i) the first 584 base pairs of the renin gene 5'endash flanking DNA do not contain functional glucocorticoid or estrogen response elements, (ii) placental prorenin release and renin mRNA are regulated by calcium ion and by the combinations of cAMP with either C kinase or calcium ion, and (iii) the first 100 base pairs of the human renin 5'endash flanking DNA direct accurate initiation of transcription and can be regulated by cAMP. Thus, some control of renin release in the placenta (and by inference in other tissues) occurs via transcriptional influences on its promoter

  5. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  6. TBTC induces adipocyte differentiation in human bone marrow long term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carfi, M.; Croera, C.; Ferrario, D.; Campi, V.; Bowe, G.; Pieters, R.; Gribaldo, L.

    2008-01-01

    Organotins are widely used in agriculture and the chemical industry, causing persistent and widespread pollution. Organotins may affect the brain, liver and immune system and eventually human health. Recently, it has been shown that tri-butyltin (TBT) interacts with nuclear receptors PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and RXR (retinoid x receptor) leading to adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3 cell line. Since adipocytes are known to influence haematopoiesis, for instance through the expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules, it was considered of interest to further study the adipocyte-stimulating effect of TBTC in human bone marrow cultures. Nile Red spectrofluorimetric analysis showed a significant increase of adipocytes in TBTC-treated cultures after 14 days of long term culture. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed the high expression of the specific adipocyte differentiation marker aP2 (adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein). PPARγ, but not RXR, mRNA was increased after 24 h and 48 h exposure. TBTC also induced a decrease in a number of chemokines, interleukins, and growth factors. Also the expression of leptin, a hormone involved in haematopoiesis, was down regulated by TBTC treatment. It therefore appears that TBTC induced adipocyte differentiation, whilst reducing a number of haematopoietic factors. This study indicates that TBTC may interfere in the haematopoietic process through an alteration of the stromal layer and cytokine homeostasis

  7. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Ko, E-mail: miyoshi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato [Department of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2009-10-30

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  8. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Ko; Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li 2 CO 3 were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  9. Moderate Ethanol Preconditioning of Rat Brain Cultures Engenders Neuroprotection Against Dementia-Inducing Neuroinflammatory Proteins: Possible Signaling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, Edward J.; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J.; Mitchell, Robert M.; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-01-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol “preconditioning” phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20–30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to β-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca+2]i and proinflammatory mediators—e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor → transducer → effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in “effector” heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  10. Moderate ethanol preconditioning of rat brain cultures engenders neuroprotection against dementia-inducing neuroinflammatory proteins: possible signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael A; Neafsey, Edward J; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Robert M; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-06-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol "preconditioning" phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20-30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to beta-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca(+2)](i) and proinflammatory mediators--e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor --> transducer --> effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in "effector" heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  11. The response of human glioblastoma in culture to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Koji; Aramaki, Ryoji; Takagi, Tosuke

    1980-01-01

    Cells from two human glioblastoma multiforme and one mouse glioma were grown in tissue cultures and their X-ray survival curve parameters were determined under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. These were compared with the survival parameters for mouse fibroblasts (L5) and established cell lines from human carcinoma coli (HeLa S3) irradiated under identical conditions. There was no significant difference in response among the cell lines used. Repair of potentially lethal damage for human glioblastoma and HeLa S3 was assessed by the increase in survival which occurred as the cells were held in density inhibited stationary phase. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage (slope modifying factors) for the glioblastoma and HeLa were 1.9 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

  12. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bozek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys.

  13. Evidence of native α-synuclein conformers in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Neal; Mor, Danielle E; Lightfoot, Richard; Malkus, Kristen; Giasson, Benoit; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2014-03-14

    α-Synuclein aggregation is central to the pathogenesis of several brain disorders. However, the native conformations and functions of this protein in the human brain are not precisely known. The native state of α-synuclein was probed by gel filtration coupled with native gradient gel separation, an array of antibodies with non-overlapping epitopes, and mass spectrometry. The existence of metastable conformers and stable monomer was revealed in the human brain.

  14. Somatotopic Arrangement and Location of the Corticospinal Tract in the Brainstem of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important motor pathway in the human brain. Detailed knowledge of CST somatotopy is important in terms of rehabilitative management and invasive procedures for patients with brain injuries. In this study, I conducted a review of nine previous studies of the somatotopical location and arrangement at the brainstem in the human brain. The results of this review indicated that the hand and leg somatotopies of the CST are arranged medio-laterally in the mi...

  15. Studying frequency processing of the brain to enhance long-term memory and develop a human brain protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Wernher; Du, Shengzhi; Balt, Karlien

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobe in conjunction with the hippocampus is responsible for memory processing. The gamma wave is involved with this process. To develop a human brain protocol, a better understanding of the relationship between gamma and long-term memory is vital. A more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and specific analogue waves it uses will support the development of a human brain protocol. Fifty-eight participants aged between 6 and 60 years participated in long-term memory experiments. It is envisaged that the brain could be stimulated through binaural beats (sound frequency) at 40 Hz (gamma) to enhance long-term memory capacity. EEG recordings have been transformed to sound and then to an information standard, namely ASCII. Statistical analysis showed a proportional relationship between long-term memory and gamma activity. Results from EEG recordings indicate a pattern. The pattern was obtained through the de-codification of an EEG recording to sound and then to ASCII. Stimulation of gamma should enhance long term memory capacity. More research is required to unlock the human brains' protocol key. This key will enable the processing of information directly to and from human memory via gamma, the hippocampus and the temporal lobe.

  16. Development of humanized culture medium with plant-derived serum replacement for human pluripotent stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunová, M.; Matulka, K.; Eiselleová, L.; Trčková, P.; Hampl, Aleš; Dvořák, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2010), s. 676-686 ISSN 1472-6483 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; EC FP6(XE) LSHG-CT-2006-018739 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : animal protein-free culture * high-density culture * human embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.285, year: 2010

  17. Noninvasive quantification of human brain antioxidant concentrations after an intravenous bolus of vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Until now, antioxidant based initiatives for preventing dementia have lacked a means to detect deficiency or measure pharmacologic effect in the human brain in situ. Objective: Our objective was to apply a novel method to measure key human brain antioxidant concentrations throughout the ...

  18. The human sexual response cycle : Brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, J. R.; Kringelbach, M. L.

    Sexual behavior is critical to species survival, yet comparatively little is known about the neural mechanisms in the human brain. Here we systematically review the existing human brain imaging literature on sexual behavior and show that the functional neuroanatomy of sexual behavior is comparable

  19. The future of neuroepigenetics in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda; Roussos, Panos; Peter, Cyril; Tsankova, Nadejda; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-01-01

    Complex mechanisms shape the genome of brain cells into transcriptional units, clusters of condensed chromatin, and many other features that distinguish between various cell types and developmental stages sharing the same genetic material. Only a few years ago, the field's focus was almost entirely on a single mark, CpG methylation; the emerging complexity of neuronal and glial epigenomes now includes multiple types of DNA cytosine methylation, more than 100 residue-specific posttranslational histone modifications and histone variants, all of which superimposed by a dynamic and highly regulated three-dimensional organization of the chromosomal material inside the cell nucleus. Here, we provide an update on the most innovative approaches in neuroepigenetics and their potential contributions to approach cognitive functions and disorders unique to human. We propose that comprehensive, cell type-specific mappings of DNA and histone modifications, chromatin-associated RNAs, and chromosomal "loopings" and other determinants of three-dimensional genome organization will critically advance insight into the pathophysiology of the disease. For example, superimposing the epigenetic landscapes of neuronal and glial genomes onto genetic maps for complex disorders, ranging from Alzheimer's disease to schizophrenia, could provide important clues about neurological function for some of the risk-associated noncoding sequences in the human genome.

  20. Morphometry of medial gaps of human brain artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Peter B; Finlay, Helen M

    2004-05-01

    The bifurcation regions of the major human cerebral arteries are vulnerable to the formation of saccular aneurysms. A consistent feature of these bifurcations is a discontinuity of the tunica media at the apex of the flow divider. The objective was to measure the 3-dimensional geometry of these medial gaps or "medial defects." Nineteen bifurcations and 2 junctions of human cerebral arteries branches (from 4 male and 2 female subjects) were formalin-fixed at physiological pressure and processed for longitudinal serial sectioning. The apex and adjacent regions were examined and measurements were made from high-magnification photomicrographs, or projection microscope images, of the gap dimensions at multiple levels through the bifurcation. Plots were made of the width of the media as a function of distance from the apex. The media at each edge of the medial gap widened over a short distance, reaching the full width of the media of the contiguous daughter vessel. Medial gap dimensions were compared with the planar angle of the bifurcation, and a strong negative correlation was found, ie, the acute angled branches have the more prominent medial gaps. A discontinuity of the media at the apex was seen in all the bifurcations examined and was also found in the junction regions of brain arteries. We determined that the gap width is continuous with well-defined dimensions throughout its length and average length-to-width ratio of 6.9. The gaps were generally centered on the prominence of the apical ridge.

  1. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    brain. However, most fMRI studies ignored a major part of the brain, the white-matter, discarding signals from it as arising from noise. Here we use resting-state fMRI data from 176 subjects to show that signals from the human white-matter contain meaningful information. We identify 12 functional networks composed of interacting long-distance white-matter tracts. Moreover, we show that these networks are highly correlated to resting-state gray-matter networks, highlighting their functional role. Our findings enable reinterpretation of many existing fMRI datasets, and suggest a new way to explore the white-matter role in cognition and its disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376394-14$15.00/0.

  2. Temperament, character and serotonin activity in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, L; Salo, J; Hirvonen, J

    2013-01-01

    The psychobiological model of personality by Cloninger and colleagues originally hypothesized that interindividual variability in the temperament dimension 'harm avoidance' (HA) is explained by differences in the activity of the brain serotonin system. We assessed brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT...

  3. Establishment of Cancer Stem Cell Cultures from Human Conventional Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmini, Gaia; Zonefrati, Roberto; Mavilia, Carmelo; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Luzi, Ettore; Marini, Francesca; Franchi, Alessandro; Capanna, Rodolfo; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-14

    The current improvements in therapy against osteosarcoma (OS) have prolonged the lives of cancer patients, but the survival rate of five years remains poor when metastasis has occurred. The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) theory holds that there is a subset of tumor cells within the tumor that have stem-like characteristics, including the capacity to maintain the tumor and to resist multidrug chemotherapy. Therefore, a better understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis is needed in order to advance the development of targeted therapies to eradicate this particular subset and to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients. Isolating CSCs, establishing cell cultures of CSCs, and studying their biology are important steps to improving our understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis. The establishment of human-derived OS-CSCs from biopsies of OS has been made possible using several methods, including the capacity to create 3-dimensional stem cell cultures under nonadherent conditions. Under these conditions, CSCs are able to create spherical floating colonies formed by daughter stem cells; these colonies are termed "cellular spheres". Here, we describe a method to establish CSC cultures from primary cell cultures of conventional OS obtained from OS biopsies. We clearly describe the several passages required to isolate and characterize CSCs.

  4. Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Edele; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Jürgen; Zanchi, Davide; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-10-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans. We systematically searched on PubMed database and selected studies by predefined eligibility criteria. We then assessed their quality and extracted data. We structured our effort according to the PRISMA statement. We reviewed and assessed 21 studies, 4 of which were randomised controlled trials, 12 cross-over studies (both assessed with an adapted version of the DELPHI-list), 4 were cross-sectional studies and one was a cohort study (both assessed with an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale). The average study quality as appraised by means of the DELPHI-list was good (8.06/9); the studies evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa-scale were also good (6.7/9). The reviewed studies presented evidence that green tea influences psychopathological symptoms (e.g. reduction of anxiety), cognition (e.g. benefits in memory and attention) and brain function (e.g. activation of working memory seen in functional MRI). The effects of green tea cannot be attributed to a single constituent of the beverage. This is exemplified in the finding that beneficial green tea effects on cognition are observed under the combined influence of both caffeine and l-theanine, whereas separate administration of either substance was found to have a lesser impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Human autologous serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in human Schwann cell culture.

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    Parisa Goodarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group or autologous serum (2nd group. After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35 and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32, 97/33% (SD=1.22 and 11.77 (SD=2.58 days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00, 97.55% (SD=1.33 and 10.33 days (SD=1.65 in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05. The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03. The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.

  6. Culture of human cell lines by a pathogen-inactivated human platelet lysate.

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    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Mariotti, A; Fioravanti, D; Procoli, A; Cicchetti, E; Scambia, G; Bonanno, G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-01

    Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) have been investigated to ensure xeno-free growth condition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of human platelet lysate (PL) as a substitute of FBS for the in vitro culture of some human cell lines. PL was obtained by pools of pathogen inactivated human donor platelet (PLT) concentrates. Human leukemia cell lines (KG-1, K562, JURKAT, HL-60) and epithelial tumor cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7) were cultured with either FBS or PL. Changes in cell proliferation, viability, morphology, surface markers and cell cycle were evaluated for each cell line. Functional characteristics were analysed by drug sensitivity test and cytotoxicity assay. Our results demonstrated that PL can support growth and expansion of all cell lines, although the cells cultured in presence of PL experienced a less massive proliferation compared to those grown with FBS. We found a comparable percentage of viable specific marker-expressing cells in both conditions, confirming lineage fidelity in all cultures. Functionality assays showed that cells in both FBS- and PL-supported cultures maintained their normal responsiveness to adriamycin and NK cell-mediated lysis. Our findings indicate that PL is a feasible serum substitute for supporting growth and propagation of haematopoietic and epithelial cell lines with many advantages from a perspective of process standardization, ethicality and product safety.

  7. Human rights for women: battles of culture and power.

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    Poulsen, K

    1995-06-01

    In Africa, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) focussing on human rights have mushroomed during the past 10-15 years, and, with several of these organizations run by and for women, it is possible to find free legal aid for women in almost every capital city. The collapse of the extended family and, thus, the framework for customary law has meant that women are faced with problems of maintenance and widows with problems of inheritance. Customary law and the protection it afforded women and children has also been weakened by a poverty-driven shift in urban areas from a focus on community support to a focus on individual survival. The vacuum left by this change in legal and social structure is being filled by the human rights NGOs. Paradoxically, in the face of such change, a static, communal, and neutral concept of "culture" was held out by African state representatives at the 1993 UN Conference on Human Rights to justify their opposition to the acceptance of the crosscultural legitimacy of human rights, especially for women. While these arguments were being aired at the Conference, African NGOs were vigorously using examples of the marginalization of women to promote the opposite view. The most important aspect of these conflicting views is which group has the most power and resources to voice its interpretation of the situation. With most African countries governed by a dual system of laws, customary law and common or civil law (left over from colonialism), human rights groups are working to instill human rights principles into common law through the ratification of international conventions. Thus, persons in need could be viewed not as victims but as individuals entitled to enforceable and universal rights. Misuse of the term "culture" can marginalize women even as it is being promoted as a protective device for women. A more useful view of culture is as something which transcends traditional boundaries and locates people and institutions in the global community

  8. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response: Recent Developments and Future Directions.

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    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for different phases of the sexual response, especially with regard to the wanting phase, and changes in these patterns can be linked to sexual response variations, including sexual dysfunctions. From this solid basis, connectivity studies of the human sexual response have begun to add a deeper understanding of the brain network function and structure involved. The study of "sexual" brain connectivity is still very young. Yet, by approaching the brain as a connected organ, the essence of brain function is captured much more accurately, increasing the likelihood of finding useful biomarkers and targets for intervention in sexual dysfunction.

  9. Impaired insulin action in the human brain: causes and metabolic consequences.

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    Heni, Martin; Kullmann, Stephanie; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has accumulated that the human brain is an insulin-sensitive organ. Insulin regulates activity in a limited number of specific brain areas that are important for memory, reward, eating behaviour and the regulation of whole-body metabolism. Accordingly, insulin in the brain modulates cognition, food intake and body weight as well as whole-body glucose, energy and lipid metabolism. However, brain imaging studies have revealed that not everybody responds equally to insulin and that a substantial number of people are brain insulin resistant. In this Review, we provide an overview of the effects of insulin in the brain in humans and the relevance of the effects for physiology. We present emerging evidence for insulin resistance of the human brain. Factors associated with brain insulin resistance such as obesity and increasing age, as well as possible pathogenic factors such as visceral fat, saturated fatty acids, alterations at the blood-brain barrier and certain genetic polymorphisms, are reviewed. In particular, the metabolic consequences of brain insulin resistance are discussed and possible future approaches to overcome brain insulin resistance and thereby prevent or treat obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are outlined.

  10. Brain development in rodents and humans: Identifying benchmarks of maturation and vulnerability to injury across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Blomgren, Klas; Gimlin, Kayleen; Ferriero, Donna M.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic and traumatic brain injuries are leading causes of long-term mortality and disability in infants and children. Although several preclinical models using rodents of different ages have been developed, species differences in the timing of key brain maturation events can render comparisons of vulnerability and regenerative capacities difficult to interpret. Traditional models of developmental brain injury have utilized rodents at postnatal day 7–10 as being roughly equivalent to a term human infant, based historically on the measurement of post-mortem brain weights during the 1970s. Here we will examine fundamental brain development processes that occur in both rodents and humans, to delineate a comparable time course of postnatal brain development across species. We consider the timing of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrocyte maturation and age-dependent behaviors that coincide with developmentally regulated molecular and biochemical changes. In general, while the time scale is considerably different, the sequence of key events in brain maturation is largely consistent between humans and rodents. Further, there are distinct parallels in regional vulnerability as well as functional consequences in response to brain injuries. With a focus on developmental hypoxicischemic encephalopathy and traumatic brain injury, this review offers guidelines for researchers when considering the most appropriate rodent age for the developmental stage or process of interest to approximate human brain development. PMID:23583307

  11. Rate of evolution in brain-expressed genes in humans and other primates.

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    Hurng-Yi Wang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain-expressed genes are known to evolve slowly in mammals. Nevertheless, since brains of higher primates have evolved rapidly, one might expect acceleration in DNA sequence evolution in their brain-expressed genes. In this study, we carried out full-length cDNA sequencing on the brain transcriptome of an Old World monkey (OWM and then conducted three-way comparisons among (i mouse, OWM, and human, and (ii OWM, chimpanzee, and human. Although brain-expressed genes indeed appear to evolve more rapidly in species with more advanced brains (apes > OWM > mouse, a similar lineage effect is observable for most other genes. The broad inclusion of genes in the reference set to represent the genomic average is therefore critical to this type of analysis. Calibrated against the genomic average, the rate of evolution among brain-expressed genes is probably lower (or at most equal in humans than in chimpanzee and OWM. Interestingly, the trend of slow evolution in coding sequence is no less pronounced among brain-specific genes, vis-à-vis brain-expressed genes in general. The human brain may thus differ from those of our close relatives in two opposite directions: (i faster evolution in gene expression, and (ii a likely slowdown in the evolution of protein sequences. Possible explanations and hypotheses are discussed.