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Sample records for cultured adult neural

  1. Culture of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Precursors

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    Currle, D. Spencer; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kolski-Andreaco, Aaron; Monuki, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    Primary neural stem cell cultures are useful for studying the mechanisms underlying central nervous system development. Stem cell research will increase our understanding of the nervous system and may allow us to develop treatments for currently incurable brain diseases and injuries. In addition, stem cells should be used for stem cell research aimed at the detailed study of mechanisms of neural differentiation and transdifferentiation and the genetic and environmental signals that direct the...

  2. Angiogenic factors stimulate growth of adult neural stem cells.

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    Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research tools.Here we show that NSCs can be efficiently grown in adherent cell cultures when angiogenic signals are included in the medium. These signals include both anti-angiogenic factors (the soluble form of the Notch receptor ligand, Dll4 and pro-angiogenic factors (the Tie-2 receptor ligand, Angiopoietin 2. These treatments support the self renewal state of cultured NSCs and expression of the transcription factor Hes3, which also identifies the cancer stem cell population in human tumors. In an organotypic slice model, angiogenic factors maintain vascular structure and increase the density of dopamine neuron processes.We demonstrate new properties of adult NSCs and a method to generate efficient adult NSC cultures from various central nervous system areas. These findings will help establish cellular models relevant to cancer and regeneration.

  3. Replicable Expansion and Differentiation of Neural Precursors from Adult Canine Skin

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    Thomas Duncan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Repopulation of brain circuits by neural precursors is a potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders; however, choice of cell is critical. Previously, we introduced a two-step culture system that generates a high yield of neural precursors from small samples of adult canine skin. Here, we probe their gene and protein expression profiles in comparison with dermal fibroblasts and brain-derived neural stem cells and characterize their neuronal potential. To date, we have produced >50 skin-derived neural precursor (SKN lines. SKNs can be cultured in a highly replicable fashion and uniformly express a panel of identifying markers. Upon differentiation, they self-upregulate neural specification genes, generating neurons with basic electrophysiological functionality. This unique population of neural precursors, derived from mature skin, overcomes many of the practical issues that have limited clinical translation of alternative cell types. Easily accessible, neuronally committed, and patient specific, SKNs may have potential for the treatment of brain disorders.

  4. Adult Mammalian Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis: Five Decades Later

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    Bond, Allison M.; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adult somatic stem cells in various organs maintain homeostatic tissue regeneration and enhance plasticity. Since its initial discovery five decades ago, investigations of adult neurogenesis and neural stem cells have led to an established and expanding field that has significantly influenced many facets of neuroscience, developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Here we review recent progress and focus on questions related to adult mammalian neural stem cells that also apply to other somatic stem cells. We further discuss emerging topics that are guiding the field toward better understanding adult neural stem cells and ultimately applying these principles to improve human health. PMID:26431181

  5. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

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    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  6. Activity patterns of cultured neural networks on micro electrode arrays

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    Rutten, Wim; van Pelt, J.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid neuro-electronic interface is a cell-cultured micro electrode array, acting as a neural information transducer for stimulation and/or recording of neural activity in the brain or the spinal cord (ventral motor region or dorsal sensory region). It consists of an array of micro electrodes on

  7. Isolation and culture of neural crest cells from embryonic murine neural tube.

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    Pfaltzgraff, Elise R; Mundell, Nathan A; Labosky, Patricia A

    2012-06-02

    The embryonic neural crest (NC) is a multipotent progenitor population that originates at the dorsal aspect of the neural tube, undergoes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrates throughout the embryo, giving rise to diverse cell types. NC also has the unique ability to influence the differentiation and maturation of target organs. When explanted in vitro, NC progenitors undergo self-renewal, migrate and differentiate into a variety of tissue types including neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells, cartilage and bone. NC multipotency was first described from explants of the avian neural tube. In vitro isolation of NC cells facilitates the study of NC dynamics including proliferation, migration, and multipotency. Further work in the avian and rat systems demonstrated that explanted NC cells retain their NC potential when transplanted back into the embryo. Because these inherent cellular properties are preserved in explanted NC progenitors, the neural tube explant assay provides an attractive option for studying the NC in vitro. To attain a better understanding of the mammalian NC, many methods have been employed to isolate NC populations. NC-derived progenitors can be cultured from post-migratory locations in both the embryo and adult to study the dynamics of post-migratory NC progenitors, however isolation of NC progenitors as they emigrate from the neural tube provides optimal preservation of NC cell potential and migratory properties. Some protocols employ fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate a NC population enriched for particular progenitors. However, when starting with early stage embryos, cell numbers adequate for analyses are difficult to obtain with FACS, complicating the isolation of early NC populations from individual embryos. Here, we describe an approach that does not rely on FACS and results in an approximately 96% pure NC population based on a Wnt1-Cre activated lineage reporter. The method presented here is adapted from

  8. Microfluidic engineered high cell density three-dimensional neural cultures

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    Cullen, D. Kacy; Vukasinovic, Jelena; Glezer, Ari; La Placa, Michelle C.

    2007-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) neural cultures with cells distributed throughout a thick, bioactive protein scaffold may better represent neurobiological phenomena than planar correlates lacking matrix support. Neural cells in vivo interact within a complex, multicellular environment with tightly coupled 3D cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions; however, thick 3D neural cultures at cell densities approaching that of brain rapidly decay, presumably due to diffusion limited interstitial mass transport. To address this issue, we have developed a novel perfusion platform that utilizes forced intercellular convection to enhance mass transport. First, we demonstrated that in thick (>500 µm) 3D neural cultures supported by passive diffusion, cell densities =104 cells mm-3), continuous medium perfusion at 2.0-11.0 µL min-1 improved viability compared to non-perfused cultures (p death and matrix degradation. In perfused cultures, survival was dependent on proximity to the perfusion source at 2.00-6.25 µL min-1 (p 90% viability in both neuronal cultures and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures. This work demonstrates the utility of forced interstitial convection in improving the survival of high cell density 3D engineered neural constructs and may aid in the development of novel tissue-engineered systems reconstituting 3D cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions.

  9. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

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    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  10. Dynamic cultural influences on neural representations of the self.

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    Chiao, Joan Y; Harada, Tokiko; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Li, Zhang; Mano, Yoko; Saito, Daisuke; Parrish, Todd B; Sadato, Norihiro; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    People living in multicultural environments often encounter situations which require them to acquire different cultural schemas and to switch between these cultural schemas depending on their immediate sociocultural context. Prior behavioral studies show that priming cultural schemas reliably impacts mental processes and behavior underlying self-concept. However, less well understood is whether or not cultural priming affects neurobiological mechanisms underlying the self. Here we examined whether priming cultural values of individualism and collectivism in bicultural individuals affects neural activity in cortical midline structures underlying self-relevant processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biculturals primed with individualistic values showed increased activation within medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) during general relative to contextual self-judgments, whereas biculturals primed with collectivistic values showed increased response within MPFC and PCC during contextual relative to general self-judgments. Moreover, degree of cultural priming was positively correlated with degree of MPFC and PCC activity during culturally congruent self-judgments. These findings illustrate the dynamic influence of culture on neural representations underlying the self and, more broadly, suggest a neurobiological basis by which people acculturate to novel environments.

  11. Enteric neurospheres are not specific to neural crest cultures : Implications for neural stem cell therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, E. (Ellen); D. Natarajan (Dipa); J.E. Cooper (Julie E.); Kronfli, R. (Rania); Cananzi, M. (Mara); J.-M. Delalande (Jean-Marie); C. Mccann; A.J. Burns (Alan); N. Thapar (Nikhil)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Enteric neural stem cells provide hope of curative treatment for enteric neuropathies. Current protocols for their harvesting from humans focus on the generation of 'neurospheres' from cultures of dissociated gut tissue. The study aims to better understand the derivation,

  12. Functional neural networks underlying response inhibition in adolescents and adults.

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    Stevens, Michael C; Kiehl, Kent A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2007-07-19

    This study provides the first description of neural network dynamics associated with response inhibition in healthy adolescents and adults. Functional and effective connectivity analyses of whole brain hemodynamic activity elicited during performance of a Go/No-Go task were used to identify functionally integrated neural networks and characterize their causal interactions. Three response inhibition circuits formed a hierarchical, inter-dependent system wherein thalamic modulation of input to premotor cortex by fronto-striatal regions led to response suppression. Adolescents differed from adults in the degree of network engagement, regional fronto-striatal-thalamic connectivity, and network dynamics. We identify and characterize several age-related differences in the function of neural circuits that are associated with behavioral performance changes across adolescent development.

  13. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

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    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

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    Manceur, Aziza P. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Michael [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Holowacz, Tamara [Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); McCurdy, Richard D. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); Warsh, Jerry J. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Audet, Julie, E-mail: julie.audet@utoronto.ca [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manceur, Aziza P.; Tseng, Michael; Holowacz, Tamara; Witterick, Ian; Weksberg, Rosanna; McCurdy, Richard D.; Warsh, Jerry J.; Audet, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Neural stem cell isolation and culture from C57BL/6 mice

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    S Koirala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A widely used in vitro culture, the neurosphere assay (NSA has provided a means to retrospectively identify neural progenitor cells as well as to determine both their selfrenewal capacity. Objective of study was to isolate and compare growth of the embryonic neuronal stem cell and adult neuronal stem cells in presence of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF and Fibroblastic Growth Factor (FGF2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Embryonic neuronal stem cell were collected from cortical plate of dorsal telencephalon of fifteen C57BL/6 transgenic mice using stereoscopic microscope on 11th gestational day (GD. Adult mammalian neuronal stem cells taken from subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were cultured. The growth for the neurosphere was then observed in interval of 24 and 72 hours. RESULT The adult stem cell culture showed few intact cells with high amount of debris and 9% heterogeneous sphere after 24 hours while only 20 % was observed at the end of 72 hours. Higher proliferation rate was observed in embryonic neurospheres than the adult stem cell culture. CONCLUSION Presence of EGF and basic FGF2 is essential for culture of neurospheres.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12946 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 1-3

  17. Young Adult Smokers' Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels.

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    Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-06-01

    The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  18. Cultural influences on neural basis of intergroup empathy.

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    Cheon, Bobby K; Im, Dong-Mi; Harada, Tokiko; Kim, Ji-Sook; Mathur, Vani A; Scimeca, Jason M; Parrish, Todd B; Park, Hyun Wook; Chiao, Joan Y

    2011-07-15

    Cultures vary in the extent to which people prefer social hierarchical or egalitarian relations between individuals and groups. Here we examined the effect of cultural variation in preference for social hierarchy on the neural basis of intergroup empathy. Using cross-cultural neuroimaging, we measured neural responses while Korean and American participants observed scenes of racial ingroup and outgroup members in emotional pain. Compared to Caucasian-American participants, Korean participants reported experiencing greater empathy and elicited stronger activity in the left temporo-parietal junction (L-TPJ), a region previously associated with mental state inference, for ingroup compared to outgroup members. Furthermore, preferential reactivity within this region to the pain of ingroup relative to outgroup members was associated with greater preference for social hierarchy and ingroup biases in empathy. Together, these results suggest that cultural variation in preference for social hierarchy leads to cultural variation in ingroup-preferences in empathy, due to increased engagement of brain regions associated with representing and inferring the mental states of others. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cultured Neural Networks: Optimization of Patterned Network Adhesiveness and Characterization of their Neural Activity

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    W. L. C. Rutten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One type of future, improved neural interface is the “cultured probe”. It is a hybrid type of neural information transducer or prosthesis, for stimulation and/or recording of neural activity. It would consist of a microelectrode array (MEA on a planar substrate, each electrode being covered and surrounded by a local circularly confined network (“island” of cultured neurons. The main purpose of the local networks is that they act as biofriendly intermediates for collateral sprouts from the in vivo system, thus allowing for an effective and selective neuron–electrode interface. As a secondary purpose, one may envisage future information processing applications of these intermediary networks. In this paper, first, progress is shown on how substrates can be chemically modified to confine developing networks, cultured from dissociated rat cortex cells, to “islands” surrounding an electrode site. Additional coating of neurophobic, polyimide-coated substrate by triblock-copolymer coating enhances neurophilic-neurophobic adhesion contrast. Secondly, results are given on neuronal activity in patterned, unconnected and connected, circular “island” networks. For connected islands, the larger the island diameter (50, 100 or 150 μm, the more spontaneous activity is seen. Also, activity may show a very high degree of synchronization between two islands. For unconnected islands, activity may start at 22 days in vitro (DIV, which is two weeks later than in unpatterned networks.

  20. Adult ADHD and working memory: neural evidence of impaired encoding.

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    Kim, Soyeon; Liu, Zhongxu; Glizer, Daniel; Tannock, Rosemary; Woltering, Steven

    2014-08-01

    To investigate neural and behavioural correlates of visual encoding during a working memory (WM) task in young adults with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A sample of 30 college students currently meeting a diagnosis of ADHD and 25 typically developing students, matched on age and gender, performed a delayed match-to-sample task with low and high memory load conditions. Dense-array electroencephalography was recorded. Specifically, the P3, an event related potential (ERP) associated with WM, was examined because of its relation with attentional allocation during WM. Task performance (accuracy, reaction time) as well as performance on other neuropsychological tasks of WM was analyzed. Neural differences were found between the groups. Specifically, the P3 amplitude was smaller in the ADHD group compared to the comparison group for both load conditions at parietal-occipital sites. Lower scores on behavioural working memory tasks were suggestive of impaired behavioural WM performance in the ADHD group. Findings from this study provide the first evidence of neural differences in the encoding stage of WM in young adults with ADHD, suggesting ineffective allocation of attentional resources involved in encoding of information in WM. These findings, reflecting alternate neural functioning of WM, may explain some of the difficulties related to WM functioning that college students with ADHD report in their every day cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oogenesis in cultures derived from adult human ovaries

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    Caudle Michael R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten years ago, we reported that in adult human females the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE is a source of germ cells. Recently, we also demonstrated that new primary follicles are formed by assembly of oocytes with nests of primitive granulosa cells in the ovarian cortex. The components of the new primary follicles, primitive granulosa and germ cells, differentiated sequentially from the OSE, which arises from cytokeratin positive mesenchymal progenitor cells residing in the ovarian tunica albuginea. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that the oocytes and granulosa cells may differentiate in cultures derived from adult human ovaries. Cells were scrapped from the surface of ovaries and cultured for 5 to 6 days, in the presence or absence of estrogenic stimuli [phenol red (PhR]. The OSE cells cultured in the medium without PhR differentiated into small (15 micron cells of granulosa phenotype, and epithelial, neural, and mesenchymal type cells. In contrast, OSE cells cultured in the presence of PhR differentiated directly into large (180 micron cells of the oocyte phenotype. Such cells exhibited germinal vesicle breakdown, expulsion of the polar body, and surface expression of zona pellucida proteins, i.e. characteristics of secondary oocytes. These in vitro studies confirm our in vivo observations that in adult human ovaries, the OSE is a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells. Development of numerous mature oocytes from adult ovarian stem cells in vitro offers new strategies for the egg preservation, IVF utilization, and treatment of female infertility. In addition, other clinical applications aiming to utilize stem cells, and basic stem cell research as well, may employ totipotent embryonic stem cells developing from fertilized oocytes.

  2. Adult neural stem cells: The promise of the future

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    Philippe Taupin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe TaupinNational Neuroscience Institute, National University of SingaporeAbstract: Stem cells are self-renewing undifferentiated cells that give rise to multiple types of specialized cells of the body. In the adult, stem cells are multipotents and contribute to homeostasis of the tissues and regeneration after injury. Until recently, it was believed that the adult brain was devoid of stem cells, hence unable to make new neurons and regenerate. With the recent evidences that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS, the adult brain has the potential to regenerate and may be amenable to repair. The function(s of NSCs in the adult CNS remains the source of intense research and debates. The promise of the future of adult NSCs is to redefine the functioning and physiopathology of the CNS, as well as to treat a broad range of CNS diseases and injuries.Keywords: neurogenesis, transdifferentiation, plasticity, cellular therapy

  3. Cellular Analysis of Adult Neural Stem Cells for Investigating Prion Biology.

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    Haigh, Cathryn L

    2017-01-01

    Traditional primary and secondary cell cultures have been used for the investigation of prion biology and disease for many years. While both types of cultures produce highly valid and immensely valuable results, they also have their limitations; traditional cell lines are often derived from cancers, therefore subject to numerous DNA changes, and primary cultures are labor-intensive and expensive to produce requiring sacrifice of many animals. Neural stem cell (NSC) cultures are a relatively new technology to be used for the study of prion biology and disease. While NSCs are subject to their own limitations-they are generally cultured ex vivo in environments that artificially force their growth-they also have their own unique advantages. NSCs retain the ability for self-renewal and can therefore be propagated in culture similarly to secondary cultures without genetic manipulation. In addition, NSCs are multipotent; they can be induced to differentiate into mature cells of central nervous system (CNS) linage. The combination of self-renewal and multipotency allows NSCs to be used as a primary cell line over multiple generations saving time, costs, and animal harvests, thus providing a valuable addition to the existing cell culture repertoire used for investigation of prion biology and disease. Furthermore, NSC cultures can be generated from mice of any genotype, either by embryonic harvest or harvest from adult brain, allowing gene expression to be studied without further genetic manipulation. This chapter describes a standard method of culturing adult NSCs and assays for monitoring NSC growth, migration, and differentiation and revisits basic reactive oxygen species detection in the context of NSC cultures.

  4. Culture-sensitive neural substrates of human cognition: a transcultural neuroimaging approach.

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    Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2008-08-01

    Our brains and minds are shaped by our experiences, which mainly occur in the context of the culture in which we develop and live. Although psychologists have provided abundant evidence for diversity of human cognition and behaviour across cultures, the question of whether the neural correlates of human cognition are also culture-dependent is often not considered by neuroscientists. However, recent transcultural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that one's cultural background can influence the neural activity that underlies both high- and low-level cognitive functions. The findings provide a novel approach by which to distinguish culture-sensitive from culture-invariant neural mechanisms of human cognition.

  5. Axonal Control of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche

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    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D.; Tecott, Laurence H.; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSC) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain’s neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. PMID:24561083

  6. Organotypic hippocampal slice culture from the adult mouse brain: a versatile tool for translational neuropsychopharmacology.

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    Kim, Hyunjeong; Kim, Eosu; Park, Minsun; Lee, Eun; Namkoong, Kee

    2013-03-05

    One of the most significant barriers towards translational neuropsychiatry would be an unavailability of living brain tissues. Although organotypic brain tissue culture could be a useful alternative enabling observation of temporal changes induced by various drugs in living brain tissues, a proper method to establish a stable organotypic brain slice culture system using adult (rather than neonatal) hippocampus has been still elusive. In this study, we evaluated our simple method using the serum-free culture medium for successful adult organotypic hippocampal slice culture. Several tens of hippocampal slices from a single adult mouse (3-5 months old) were cultured in serum-free versus serum-containing conventional culture medium for 30 days and underwent various experiments to validate the effects of the existence of serum in the culture medium. Neither the excessive regression of neuronal viability nor metabolic deficiency was observed in the serum-free medium culture in contrast to the serum-containing medium culture. Despite such viability, newly generated immature neurons were scarcely detected in the serum-free culture, suggesting that the original neurons in the brain slice persist rather than being replaced by neurogenesis. Key structural features of in vivo neural tissue constituting astrocytes, neural processes, and pre- and post-synapses were also well preserved in the serum-free culture. In conclusion, using the serum-free culture medium, the adult hippocampal slice culture system will serve as a promising ex vivo tool for various fields of neuroscience, especially for studies on aging-related neuropsychiatric disorders or for high throughput screening of potential agents working against such disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

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    Carvalho, Bettina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC, that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts, t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds, and tau (curve of the model function, measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal. Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children, and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children. No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode.

  8. Organotypic Cultures as a Model to Study Adult Neurogenesis in CNS Disorders

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    Fabio Cavaliere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural regeneration resides in certain specific regions of adult CNS. Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life, especially from the subgranular zone of hippocampus and the subventricular zone, and can be modulated in physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous techniques and animal models have been developed to demonstrate and observe neural regeneration but, in order to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms and to characterize multiple types of cell populations involved in the activation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, investigators have to turn to in vitro models. Organotypic cultures best recapitulate the 3D organization of the CNS and can be explored taking advantage of many techniques. Here, we review the use of organotypic cultures as a reliable and well defined method to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. As an example, we will focus on the possibilities these cultures offer to study the pathophysiology of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cerebral ischemia.

  9. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

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    Boku, Shuken, E-mail: shuboku@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nakagawa, Shin [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takamura, Naoki [Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kato, Akiko [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takebayashi, Minoru [Department of Psychiatry, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure (Japan); Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue [Department of Pharmacology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro [Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis.

  10. GDNF facilitates differentiation of the adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursor cells into astrocytes via STAT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Takamura, Naoki; Kato, Akiko; Takebayashi, Minoru; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Omiya, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •GDNF has no effect on ADP proliferation and apoptosis. •GDNF increases ADP differentiation into astrocyte. •A specific inhibitor of STAT3 decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •STAT3 knockdown by lentiviral shRNA vector also decreases the astrogliogenic effect of GDNF. •GDNF increases the phosphorylation of STAT3. -- Abstract: While the pro-neurogenic actions of antidepressants in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are thought to be one of the mechanisms through which antidepressants exert their therapeutic actions, antidepressants do not increase proliferation of neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Because previous studies showed that antidepressants increase the expression and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in C6 glioma cells derived from rat astrocytes and GDNF increases neurogenesis in adult DG in vivo, we investigated the effects of GDNF on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cultured neural precursor cells derived from the adult DG. Data showed that GDNF facilitated the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes but had no effect on their proliferation or apoptosis. Moreover, GDNF increased the phosphorylation of STAT3, and both a specific inhibitor of STAT3 and lentiviral shRNA for STAT3 decreased their differentiation into astrocytes. Taken together, our findings suggest that GDNF facilitates astrogliogenesis from neural precursor cells in adult DG through activating STAT3 and that this action might indirectly affect neurogenesis

  11. Neural correlates of autobiographical memory retrieval in children and adults.

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    Bauer, Patricia J; Pathman, Thanujeni; Inman, Cory; Campanella, Carolina; Hamann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is a critically important form of memory for life events that undergoes substantial developmental changes from childhood to adulthood. Relatively little is known regarding the functional neural correlates of AM retrieval in children as assessed with fMRI, and how they may differ from adults. We investigated this question with 14 children ages 8-11 years and 14 adults ages 19-30 years, contrasting AM retrieval with semantic memory (SM) retrieval. During scanning, participants were cued by verbal prompts to retrieve previously selected recent AMs or to verify semantic properties of words. As predicted, both groups showed AM retrieval-related increased activation in regions implicated in prior studies, including bilateral hippocampus, and prefrontal, posterior cingulate, and parietal cortices. Adults showed greater activation in the hippocampal/parahippocampal region as well as prefrontal and parietal cortex, relative to children; age-related differences were most prominent in the first 8 sec versus the second 8 sec of AM retrieval and when AM retrieval was contrasted with semantic retrieval. This study is the first to characterise similarities and differences during AM retrieval in children and adults using fMRI.

  12. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  13. Spatial vision in older adults: perceptual changes and neural bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Allison M; Chan, Yu Man; Nguyen, Bao N

    2018-05-17

    The number of older adults is rapidly increasing internationally, leading to a significant increase in research on how healthy ageing impacts vision. Most clinical assessments of spatial vision involve simple detection (letter acuity, grating contrast sensitivity, perimetry). However, most natural visual environments are more spatially complicated, requiring contrast discrimination, and the delineation of object boundaries and contours, which are typically present on non-uniform backgrounds. In this review we discuss recent research that reports on the effects of normal ageing on these more complex visual functions, specifically in the context of recent neurophysiological studies. Recent research has concentrated on understanding the effects of healthy ageing on neural responses within the visual pathway in animal models. Such neurophysiological research has led to numerous, subsequently tested, hypotheses regarding the likely impact of healthy human ageing on specific aspects of spatial vision. Healthy normal ageing impacts significantly on spatial visual information processing from the retina through to visual cortex. Some human data validates that obtained from studies of animal physiology, however some findings indicate that rethinking of presumed neural substrates is required. Notably, not all spatial visual processes are altered by age. Healthy normal ageing impacts significantly on some spatial visual processes (in particular centre-surround tasks), but leaves contrast discrimination, contrast adaptation, and orientation discrimination relatively intact. The study of older adult vision contributes to knowledge of the brain mechanisms altered by the ageing process, can provide practical information regarding visual environments that older adults may find challenging, and may lead to new methods of assessing visual performance in clinical environments. © 2018 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2018 The College of Optometrists.

  14. Behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult tears : The impact of maternal love withdrawal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricx-Riem, M.M.E.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; De Carli, P.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult tears, taking into account childhood experiences with parental love-withdrawal. With functional MRI (fMRI), we measured neural reactivity to pictures of infants and adults with and without tears on their faces in

  15. Plasmid-based generation of induced neural stem cells from adult human fibroblasts

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    Philipp Capetian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming from somatic to neural cell types has become an alternative to induced pluripotent stem cells. Most protocols employ viral expression systems, posing the risk of random genomic integration. Recent developments led to plasmid-based protocols, lowering this risk. However, these protocols either relied on continuous presence of a variety of small molecules or were only able to reprogram murine cells. We therefore established a reprogramming protocol based on vectors containing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-derived oriP/EBNA1 as well as the defined expression factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28, and a small hairpin directed against p53. We employed a defined neural medium in combination with the neurotrophins bFGF, EGF and FGF4 for cultivation without the addition of small molecules. After reprogramming, cells demonstrated a temporary increase in the expression of endogenous Oct3/4. We obtained induced neural stem cells (iNSC 30 days after transfection. In contrast to previous results, plasmid vectors as well as a residual expression of reprogramming factors remained detectable in all cell lines. Cells showed a robust differentiation into neuronal (72% and glial cells (9% astrocytes, 6% oligodendrocytes. Despite the temporary increase of pluripotency-associated Oct3/4 expression during reprogramming, we did not detect pluripotent stem cells or non-neural cells in culture (except occasional residual fibroblasts. Neurons showed electrical activity and functional glutamatergic synapses. Our results demonstrate that reprogramming adult human fibroblasts to iNSC by plasmid vectors and basic neural medium without small molecules is possible and feasible. However, a full set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors may indeed result in the acquisition of a transient (at least partial pluripotent intermediate during reprogramming. In contrast to previous reports, the EBV-based plasmid system remained present and active inside

  16. Comparative aspects of adult neural stem cell activity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandel, Heiner; Brand, Michael

    2013-03-01

    At birth or after hatching from the egg, vertebrate brains still contain neural stem cells which reside in specialized niches. In some cases, these stem cells are deployed for further postnatal development of parts of the brain until the final structure is reached. In other cases, postnatal neurogenesis continues as constitutive neurogenesis into adulthood leading to a net increase of the number of neurons with age. Yet, in other cases, stem cells fuel neuronal turnover. An example is protracted development of the cerebellar granular layer in mammals and birds, where neurogenesis continues for a few weeks postnatally until the granular layer has reached its definitive size and stem cells are used up. Cerebellar growth also provides an example of continued neurogenesis during adulthood in teleosts. Again, it is the granular layer that grows as neurogenesis continues and no definite adult cerebellar size is reached. Neuronal turnover is most clearly seen in the telencephalon of male canaries, where projection neurons are replaced in nucleus high vocal centre each year before the start of a new mating season--circuitry reconstruction to achieve changes of the song repertoire in these birds? In this review, we describe these and other examples of adult neurogenesis in different vertebrate taxa. We also compare the structure of the stem cell niches to find common themes in their organization despite different functions adult neurogenesis serves in different species. Finally, we report on regeneration of the zebrafish telencephalon after injury to highlight similarities and differences of constitutive neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.

  17. mRNA transfection of mouse and human neural stem cell cultures.

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    Samuel McLenachan

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has not been previously reported. Here we sought to establish an efficient method for delivering mRNA to primary neurosphere cultures. Neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone of adult mice or from human embryonic stem cells were transfected with EGFP mRNA by lipofection and electroporation. Transfection efficiency and expression levels were monitored by flow cytometry. Cell survival following transfection was examined using live cell counting and the MTT assay. Both lipofection and electroporation provided high efficiency transfection of neurospheres. In comparison with lipofection, electroporation resulted in increased transfection efficiencies, but lower expression per cell and shorter durations of expression. Additional rounds of lipofection renewed EGFP expression in neurospheres, suggesting this method may be suitable for reprogramming applications. In summary, we have developed a protocol for achieving high efficiency transfection rates in mouse and human neurosphere cell culture that can be applied for future studies of gene function studies in neural stem cells, such as defining efficient differentiation protocols for glial and neuronal linages.

  18. mRNA Transfection of Mouse and Human Neural Stem Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLenachan, Samuel; Zhang, Dan; Palomo, Ana Belén Alvarez; Edel, Michael J.; Chen, Fred K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has not been previously reported. Here we sought to establish an efficient method for delivering mRNA to primary neurosphere cultures. Neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone of adult mice or from human embryonic stem cells were transfected with EGFP mRNA by lipofection and electroporation. Transfection efficiency and expression levels were monitored by flow cytometry. Cell survival following transfection was examined using live cell counting and the MTT assay. Both lipofection and electroporation provided high efficiency transfection of neurospheres. In comparison with lipofection, electroporation resulted in increased transfection efficiencies, but lower expression per cell and shorter durations of expression. Additional rounds of lipofection renewed EGFP expression in neurospheres, suggesting this method may be suitable for reprogramming applications. In summary, we have developed a protocol for achieving high efficiency transfection rates in mouse and human neurosphere cell culture that can be applied for future studies of gene function studies in neural stem cells, such as defining efficient differentiation protocols for glial and neuronal linages. PMID:24386231

  19. mRNA transfection of mouse and human neural stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLenachan, Samuel; Zhang, Dan; Palomo, Ana Belén Alvarez; Edel, Michael J; Chen, Fred K

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has not been previously reported. Here we sought to establish an efficient method for delivering mRNA to primary neurosphere cultures. Neurospheres derived from the subventricular zone of adult mice or from human embryonic stem cells were transfected with EGFP mRNA by lipofection and electroporation. Transfection efficiency and expression levels were monitored by flow cytometry. Cell survival following transfection was examined using live cell counting and the MTT assay. Both lipofection and electroporation provided high efficiency transfection of neurospheres. In comparison with lipofection, electroporation resulted in increased transfection efficiencies, but lower expression per cell and shorter durations of expression. Additional rounds of lipofection renewed EGFP expression in neurospheres, suggesting this method may be suitable for reprogramming applications. In summary, we have developed a protocol for achieving high efficiency transfection rates in mouse and human neurosphere cell culture that can be applied for future studies of gene function studies in neural stem cells, such as defining efficient differentiation protocols for glial and neuronal linages.

  20. Neural stem cells in the adult ciliary epithelium express GFAP and are regulated by Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ani V.; Zhao Xing; James, Jackson; Kim, Min; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    The identification of neural stem cells with retinal potential in the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult mammals is of considerable interest because of their potential for replacing or rescuing degenerating retinal neurons in disease or injury. The evaluation of such a potential requires characterization of these cells with regard to their phenotypic properties, potential, and regulatory mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that rat CE stem cells/progenitors in neurosphere culture display astrocytic nature in terms of expressing glial intermediate neurofilament protein, GFAP. The GFAP-expressing CE stem cells/progenitors form neurospheres in proliferating conditions and generate neurons when shifted to differentiating conditions. These cells express components of the canonical Wnt pathway and its activation promotes their proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway influences neuronal differentiation of CE stem cells/progenitors in a context dependent manner. Our observations suggest that CE stem cells/progenitors share phenotypic properties and regulatory mechanism(s) with neural stem cells elsewhere in the adult CNS

  1. Tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline indirectly increases the proliferation of adult dentate gyrus-derived neural precursors: an involvement of astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuken Boku

    Full Text Available Antidepressants increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult dentate gyrus (DG, which is considered to be involved in the therapeutic action of antidepressants. However, the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. By using cultured adult rat DG-derived neural precursors (ADP, we have already shown that antidepressants have no direct effects on ADP. Therefore, antidepressants may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG via unknown indirect mechanism. We have also shown that amitriptyline (AMI, a tricyclic antidepressant, induces the expressions of GDNF, BDNF, FGF2 and VEGF, common neurogenic factors, in primary cultured astrocytes (PCA. These suggest that AMI-induced factors in astrocytes may increase the proliferation of neural precursors in adult DG. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of AMI-induced factors and conditioned medium (CM from PCA treated with AMI on ADP proliferation. The effects of CM and factors on ADP proliferation were examined with BrdU immunocytochemistry. AMI had no effect on ADP proliferation, but AMI-treated CM increased it. The receptors of GDNF, BDNF and FGF2, but not VEGF, were expressed in ADP. FGF2 significantly increased ADP proliferation, but not BDNF and GDNF. In addition, both of a specific inhibitor of FGF receptors and anti-FGF2 antibody significantly counteracted the increasing effect of CM on ADP proliferation. In addition, FGF2 in brain is mainly derived from astrocytes that are key components of the neurogenic niches in adult DG. These suggest that AMI may increase ADP proliferation indirectly via PCA and that FGF2 may a potential candidate to mediate such an indirect effect of AMI on ADP proliferation via astrocytes.

  2. Neural correlates of fluid reasoning in children and adults

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    Samantha B Wright

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluid reasoning, or the capacity to think logically and solve novel problems, is central to the development of human cognition, but little is known about the underlying neural changes. During the acquisition of event-related fMRI data, children aged 6-13 (N = 16 and young adults (N = 17 performed a task in which they were asked to identify semantic relationships between drawings of common objects. On semantic problems, participants indicated which of fi ve objects was most closely semantically related to a cued object. On analogy problems, participants solved a visual propositional analogy (e.g., shoe is to foot as glove is to…µ by indicating which of four objects would complete the problem; these problems required integration of two semantic relations, or relational integration. Our prior research on analogical reasoning in adults implicated left anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC in the controlled retrieval of individual semantic relationships, and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC in relational integration. In this study, age-related changes in the recruitment of VLPFC, temporal cortex, and other cortical regions were observed during the retrieval of individual semantic relations. In contrast, agerelated changes in RLPFC function were observed during relational integration. Children aged 6-13 engage RLPFC too late in the analogy trials to infl uence their behavioral responses, suggesting that important changes in RLPFC function take place during adolescence.

  3. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R., E-mail: mundy.william@epa.gov

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  4. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  5. Regulation of adult neural progenitor cell functions by purinergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Illes, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular purines are signaling molecules in the neurogenic niches of the brain and spinal cord, where they activate cell surface purinoceptors at embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although mRNA and protein are expressed at NSCs/NPCs for almost all subtypes of the nucleotide-sensitive P2X/P2Y, and the nucleoside-sensitive adenosine receptors, only a few of those have acquired functional significance. ATP is sequentially degraded by ecto-nucleotidases to ADP, AMP, and adenosine with agonistic properties for distinct receptor-classes. Nucleotides/nucleosides facilitate or inhibit NSC/NPC proliferation, migration and differentiation. The most ubiquitous effect of all agonists (especially of ATP and ADP) appears to be the facilitation of cell proliferation, usually through P2Y1Rs and sometimes through P2X7Rs. However, usually P2X7R activation causes necrosis/apoptosis of NPCs. Differentiation can be initiated by P2Y2R-activation or P2X7R-blockade. A key element in the transduction mechanism of either receptor is the increase of the intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration, which may arise due to its release from intracellular storage sites (G protein-coupling; P2Y) or due to its passage through the receptor-channel itself from the extracellular space (ATP-gated ion channel; P2X). Further research is needed to clarify how purinergic signaling controls NSC/NPC fate and how the balance between the quiescent and activated states is established with fine and dynamic regulation. GLIA 2017;65:213-230. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Enrichment of skin-derived neural precursor cells from dermal cell populations by altering culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Vahid; Gazor, Rohoullah; Nejatbakhsh, Reza; Negad Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    As stem cells play a critical role in tissue repair, their manipulation for being applied in regenerative medicine is of great importance. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) may be good candidates for use in cell-based therapy as the only neural stem cells which can be isolated from an accessible tissue, skin. Herein, we presented a simple protocol to enrich neural SKPs by monolayer adherent cultivation to prove the efficacy of this method. To enrich neural SKPs from dermal cell populations, we have found that a monolayer adherent cultivation helps to increase the numbers of neural precursor cells. Indeed, we have cultured dermal cells as monolayer under serum-supplemented (control) and serum-supplemented culture, followed by serum free cultivation (test) and compared. Finally, protein markers of SKPs were assessed and compared in both experimental groups and differentiation potential was evaluated in enriched culture. The cells of enriched culture concurrently expressed fibronectin, vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors as compared to control culture. In addition, they possessed a multipotential capacity to differentiate into neurogenic, glial, adipogenic, osteogenic and skeletal myogenic cell lineages. It was concluded that serum-free adherent culture reinforced by growth factors have been shown to be effective on proliferation of skin-derived neural precursor cells (skin-NPCs) and drive their selective and rapid expansion.

  7. Analysis of the Growth Process of Neural Cells in Culture Environment Using Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsafianf, Atefeh S.; Isfahani, Shirin N.; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mobasheri, Hamid

    Here we present an approach for processing neural cells images to analyze their growth process in culture environment. We have applied several image processing techniques for: 1- Environmental noise reduction, 2- Neural cells segmentation, 3- Neural cells classification based on their dendrites' growth conditions, and 4- neurons' features Extraction and measurement (e.g., like cell body area, number of dendrites, axon's length, and so on). Due to the large amount of noise in the images, we have used feed forward artificial neural networks to detect edges more precisely.

  8. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic...

  9. Neural correlates of executive attention in adults born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Daamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth is associated with an increased prevalence of attention problems and may especially impair executive attention, i.e., top-down control of attentional selection in situations where distracting information interferes with the processing of task-relevant stimuli. While there are initial findings linking structural brain alterations in preterm-born individuals with attention problems, the functional basis of these problems are not well understood. The present study used an fMRI adaptation of the Attentional Network Test to examine the neural correlates of executive attention in a large sample of N = 86 adults born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW, and N = 100 term-born controls. Executive attention was measured by comparing task behavior and brain activations associated with the processing of incongruent vs. congruent arrow flanker stimuli. Consistent with subtle impairments of executive attention, the VP/VLBW group showed lower accuracy and a tendency for increased response times during the processing of incongruent stimuli. Both groups showed similar activation patters, especially within expected fronto-cingulo-parietal areas, but no significant between-group differences. Our results argue for a maintained attention-relevant network organization in high-functioning preterm born adults in spite of subtle deficits in executive attention. Gestational age and neonatal treatment variables showed associations with task behavior, and brain activation in the dorsal ACC and lateral occipital areas, suggesting that the degree of prematurity (and related neonatal complications has subtle modulatory influences on executive attention processing.

  10. Gene regulation in adult neural stem cells : Current challenges and possible applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encinas, J.M.; Fitzsimons, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) offer a unique opportunity for neural regeneration and niche modification in physiopathological conditions, harnessing the capability to modify from neuronal circuits to glial scar. Findings exposing the vast plasticity and potential of NSPCs have

  11. Isolation and culture of adult mouse vestibular nucleus neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Aydın; Altuntaş, Serap; Öztürk, Gürkan; Erdoğan, Ender; Cengiz, Nureddin

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: Isolated cell cultures are widely used to study neuronal properties due to their advantages. Although embryonic animals are preferred for culturing, their morphological or electrophysiological properties may not reflect adult neurons, which may be important in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop a method for preparing isolated cell cultures of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) from adult mice and describe its morphological and electrophysiological properties.Materials and methods: Vestibular nucleus neurons were mechanically and enzymatically isolated and cultured using a defined medium with known growth factors. Cell survival was measured with propidium iodide, and electrophysiological properties were investigated with current-clamp recording.Results: Vestibular neurons grew neurites in cultures, gaining adult-like morphological properties, and stayed viable for 3 days in culture. Adding bovine calf serum, nerve growth factor, or insulin-like growth factor into the culture medium enhanced neuronal viability. Current-clamp recording of the cultured neurons revealed tonic and phasic-type neurons with similar input resistance, resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude, and duration. Conclusion: Vestibular neurons from adult mice can be cultured, and regenerate axons in a medium containing appropriate growth factors. Culturing adult vestibular neurons provides a new method to study age-related pathologies of the vestibular system.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Jonsgar Sandberg

    Full Text Available There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60. Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate. We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6, foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1 and human brain tissues (n = 12. The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular

  13. Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis Defines Heterogeneity and Transcriptional Dynamics in the Adult Neural Stem Cell Lineage

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    Ben W. Dulken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs in the adult mammalian brain serve as a reservoir for the generation of new neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize adult NSC populations and examine the molecular identities and heterogeneity of in vivo NSC populations. We find that cells in the NSC lineage exist on a continuum through the processes of activation and differentiation. Interestingly, rare intermediate states with distinct molecular profiles can be identified and experimentally validated, and our analysis identifies putative surface markers and key intracellular regulators for these subpopulations of NSCs. Finally, using the power of single-cell profiling, we conduct a meta-analysis to compare in vivo NSCs and in vitro cultures, distinct fluorescence-activated cell sorting strategies, and different neurogenic niches. These data provide a resource for the field and contribute to an integrative understanding of the adult NSC lineage.

  14. Characterization of TLX expression in neural stem cells and progenitor cells in adult brains.

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    Shengxiu Li

    Full Text Available TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression. Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells.

  15. Characterization of TLX expression in neural stem cells and progenitor cells in adult brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengxiu; Sun, Guoqiang; Murai, Kiyohito; Ye, Peng; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression. Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells.

  16. Cultural differences and similarities in beliefs, practices, and neural mechanisms of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-01-01

    The current research examined whether culture shapes the beliefs, practices, and neural basis of emotion regulation. Twenty-nine American and Chinese participants reported their implicit theory of emotion and frequency of reappraisal use. They also underwent an fMRI scan while completing an emotion regulation task. Chinese (vs. American) participants reported more frequent use of reappraisal, which was mediated by their higher incremental theory of emotion (i.e., believing that emotion is changeable through effort). Although there were some cultural similarities in neural activation during emotion regulation, Chinese participants showed less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation than American participants when regulating negative emotions. Lower VLPFC activation was associated with higher incremental theory of emotion and more frequent use of cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest that culture may shape how individuals perceive and engage in emotion regulation, and ultimately, the neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Neural differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells by indirect co-culture with Schwann cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaojie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs could be subject to neural differentiation induced only by Schwann cell (SC factors, we co-cultured ADSCs and SCs in transwell culture dishes. Immunoassaying, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR were performed (1, 3, 7, 14 d and the co-cultured ADSCs showed gene and protein expression of S-100, Nestin, and GFAP. Further, qRT-PCR disclosed relative quantitative differences in the above three gene expressions. We think ADSCs can undergo induced neural differentiation by being co-cultured with SCs, and such differentia­tions begin 1 day after co-culture, become apparent after 7 days, and thereafter remain stable till the 14th day.

  18. Popular Culture in Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender

    2017-01-01

    Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…

  19. Expression and function of orphan nuclear receptor TLX in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhong; Chichung Lie, D; Taupin, Philippe; Nakashima, Kinichi; Ray, Jasodhara; Yu, Ruth T; Gage, Fred H; Evans, Ronald M

    2004-01-01

    The finding of neurogenesis in the adult brain led to the discovery of adult neural stem cells. TLX was initially identified as an orphan nuclear receptor expressed in vertebrate forebrains and is highly expressed in the adult brain. The brains of TLX-null mice have been reported to have no obvious defects during embryogenesis; however, mature mice suffer from retinopathies, severe limbic defects, aggressiveness, reduced copulation and progressively violent behaviour. Here we show that TLX maintains adult neural stem cells in an undifferentiated, proliferative state. We show that TLX-expressing cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from adult brains can proliferate, self-renew and differentiate into all neural cell types in vitro. By contrast, TLX-null cells isolated from adult mutant brains fail to proliferate. Reintroducing TLX into FACS-sorted TLX-null cells rescues their ability to proliferate and to self-renew. In vivo, TLX mutant mice show a loss of cell proliferation and reduced labelling of nestin in neurogenic areas in the adult brain. TLX can silence glia-specific expression of the astrocyte marker GFAP in neural stem cells, suggesting that transcriptional repression may be crucial in maintaining the undifferentiated state of these cells.

  20. Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016

  1. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maucksch C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virus-free approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate.

  2. Network bursts in cortical neuronal cultures: 'noise - versus pacemaker'- driven neural network simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsun, T.; Stegenga, J.; le Feber, Jakob; Rutten, Wim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the issue of spontaneous bursting activity in cortical neuronal cultures and explain what might cause this collective behavior using computer simulations of two different neural network models. While the common approach to acivate a passive network is done by introducing

  3. Neural stem cells improve neuronal survival in cultured postmortem brain tissue from aged and Alzheimer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Sluiter, A.A.; Guo, Ho Fu; Balesar, R. A.; Swaab, D. F.; Zhou, Jiang Ning; Verwer, R. W H

    Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive and incurable and are becoming ever more prevalent. To study whether neural stem cell can reactivate or rescue functions of impaired neurons in the human aging and neurodegenerating brain, we co-cultured postmortem slices from Alzheimer patients and control

  4. Cultures differ in the ability to enhance affective neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W; Hampton, Ryan S

    2017-10-01

    The present study (N = 55) used an event-related potential paradigm to investigate whether cultures differ in the ability to upregulate affective responses. Using stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System, we found that European-Americans (N = 29) enhanced central-parietal late positive potential (LPP) (400-800 ms post-stimulus) responses to affective stimuli when instructed to do so, whereas East Asians (N = 26) did not. We observed cultural differences in the ability to enhance central-parietal LPP responses for both positively and negativelyvalenced stimuli, and the ability to enhance these two types of responses was positively correlated for Americans but negatively for East Asians. These results are consistent with the notion that cultural variations in norms and values regarding affective expression and experiences shape how the brain regulates emotions.

  5. Adult caregiving among American Indians: the role of cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Spencer, S Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Data came from a cross-sectional study of 5,207 American Indian adults residing on 2 closely related Lakota Sioux reservations in the Northern Plains and one American Indian community in the Southwest. Cultural factors included measures of cultural identity and traditional healing practices. Seventeen percent of our sample reported being caregivers. In both the Northern Plains and Southwest, caregiving was positively correlated with younger age, being a woman, larger household size, attending and participating in Native events, and endorsement of traditional healing practices. In both regions, attendance and participation in Native events and engagement in traditional healing practices were associated with increased odds of caregiving after adjusting for covariates. Only in the Northern Plains did we find that speaking some Native language at home was associated with increased odds of being a caregiver. Examination of interaction terms indicated some sex differences in the association between cultural factors and caregiving in the Northern Plains but not in the Southwest. Our findings indicate that greater cultural identity and engagement in traditional healing practices are related to caregiving in American Indian populations. Caregiving research, intervention efforts, and caregiving programs and services in Native communities should pay special attention to the dynamics of culture and caregiving.

  6. Neural activity, neural connectivity, and the processing of emotionally valenced information in older adults: links with life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Robert J; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schulz, Marc S

    2011-09-01

    This study examines whether differences in late-life well-being are linked to how older adults encode emotionally valenced information. Using fMRI with 39 older adults varying in life satisfaction, we examined how viewing positive and negative images would affect activation and connectivity of an emotion-processing network. Participants engaged most regions within this network more robustly for positive than for negative images, but within the PFC this effect was moderated by life satisfaction, with individuals higher in satisfaction showing lower levels of activity during the processing of positive images. Participants high in satisfaction showed stronger correlations among network regions-particularly between the amygdala and other emotion processing regions-when viewing positive, as compared with negative, images. Participants low in satisfaction showed no valence effect. Findings suggest that late-life satisfaction is linked with how emotion-processing regions are engaged and connected during processing of valenced information. This first demonstration of a link between neural recruitment and late-life well-being suggests that differences in neural network activation and connectivity may account for the preferential encoding of positive information seen in some older adults.

  7. Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Cordula; Campano, Louise M.; Woehrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of β-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/β-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity

  8. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) marks adult myogenic cells committed to differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capkovic, Katie L.; Stevenson, Severin; Johnson, Marc C.; Thelen, Jay J.; Cornelison, D.D.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although recent advances in broad-scale gene expression analysis have dramatically increased our knowledge of the repertoire of mRNAs present in multiple cell types, it has become increasingly clear that examination of the expression, localization, and associations of the encoded proteins will be critical for determining their functional significance. In particular, many signaling receptors, transducers, and effectors have been proposed to act in higher-order complexes associated with physically distinct areas of the plasma membrane. Adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells) must, upon injury, respond appropriately to a wide range of extracellular stimuli: the role of such signaling scaffolds is therefore a potentially important area of inquiry. To address this question, we first isolated detergent-resistant membrane fractions from primary satellite cells, then analyzed their component proteins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transmembrane and juxtamembrane components of adhesion-mediated signaling pathways made up the largest group of identified proteins; in particular, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a multifunctional cell-surface protein that has previously been associated with muscle regeneration, was significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that not only is NCAM localized to discrete areas of the plasma membrane, it is also a very early marker of commitment to terminal differentiation. Using flow cytometry, we have sorted physically homogeneous myogenic cultures into proliferating and differentiating fractions based solely upon NCAM expression

  9. Modelling glioblastoma tumour-host cell interactions using adult brain organotypic slice co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs. Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human. Unfortunately, these approaches are expensive, time-consuming, low-throughput and ill-suited for monitoring live cell behaviours. Here, we explored whole adult brain coronal organotypic slices as an alternative model. Mouse adult brain slices remain viable in a serum-free basal medium for several weeks. GSCs can be easily microinjected into specific anatomical sites ex vivo, and we demonstrate distinct responses of engrafted GSCs to diverse microenvironments in the brain tissue. Within the subependymal zone – one of the adult neural stem cell niches – injected tumour cells could effectively engraft and respond to endothelial niche signals. Tumour-transplanted slices were treated with the antimitotic drug temozolomide as proof of principle of the utility in modelling responses to existing treatments. Engraftment of mouse or human GSCs onto whole brain coronal organotypic brain slices therefore provides a simplified, yet flexible, experimental model. This will help to increase the precision and throughput of modelling GSC-host brain interactions and complements ongoing in vivo studies. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  10. Dll1 maintains quiescence of adult neural stem cells and segregates asymmetrically during mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Daichi; Furutachi, Shohei; Kawai, Hiroki; Hozumi, Katsuto; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells often divide asymmetrically to produce one stem cell and one differentiating cell, thus maintaining the stem cell pool. Although neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse subventricular zone have been suggested to divide asymmetrically, intrinsic cell fate determinants for asymmetric NSC division are largely unknown. Stem cell niches are important for stem cell maintenance, but the niche for the maintenance of adult quiescent NSCs has remained obscure. Here we show that the Notch...

  11. Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others

  12. Functional Stem Cell Integration into Neural Networks Assessed by Organotypic Slice Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, David; Thonabulsombat, Charoensri; Jäderstad, Johan; Jäderstad, Linda Maria; Olivius, Petri; Herlenius, Eric

    2017-08-14

    Re-formation or preservation of functional, electrically active neural networks has been proffered as one of the goals of stem cell-mediated neural therapeutics. A primary issue for a cell therapy approach is the formation of functional contacts between the implanted cells and the host tissue. Therefore, it is of fundamental interest to establish protocols that allow us to delineate a detailed time course of grafted stem cell survival, migration, differentiation, integration, and functional interaction with the host. One option for in vitro studies is to examine the integration of exogenous stem cells into an existing active neural network in ex vivo organotypic cultures. Organotypic cultures leave the structural integrity essentially intact while still allowing the microenvironment to be carefully controlled. This allows detailed studies over time of cellular responses and cell-cell interactions, which are not readily performed in vivo. This unit describes procedures for using organotypic slice cultures as ex vivo model systems for studying neural stem cell and embryonic stem cell engraftment and communication with CNS host tissue. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. The novel steroidal alkaloids dendrogenin A and B promote proliferation of adult neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Shaden A.M.; Medina, Philippe de; Erlandsson, Anna; El-Seedi, Hesham R.; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dendrogenin A and B are new aminoalkyl oxysterols. • Dendrogenins stimulated neural stem cells proliferation. • Dendrogenins induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres. • Dendrogenins provide new therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. - Abstract: Dendrogenin A (DDA) and dendrogenin B (DDB) are new aminoalkyl oxysterols which display re-differentiation of tumor cells of neuronal origin at nanomolar concentrations. We analyzed the influence of dendrogenins on adult mice neural stem cell proliferation, sphere formation and differentiation. DDA and DDB were found to have potent proliferative effects in neural stem cells. Additionally, they induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres during in vitro cultivation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for dendrogenins A and B in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which further increases their likely importance to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the brain

  14. The novel steroidal alkaloids dendrogenin A and B promote proliferation of adult neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Shaden A.M., E-mail: shaden.khalifa@ki.se [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Medina, Philippe de [Affichem, Toulouse (France); INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); Erlandsson, Anna [Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); El-Seedi, Hesham R. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine [INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); University of Toulouse III, Toulouse (France); Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Poirot, Marc, E-mail: marc.poirot@inserm.fr [INSERM UMR 1037, Team “Sterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations in Oncology”, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, F-31052 Toulouse (France); University of Toulouse III, Toulouse (France); Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Dendrogenin A and B are new aminoalkyl oxysterols. • Dendrogenins stimulated neural stem cells proliferation. • Dendrogenins induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres. • Dendrogenins provide new therapeutic options for neurodegenerative disorders. - Abstract: Dendrogenin A (DDA) and dendrogenin B (DDB) are new aminoalkyl oxysterols which display re-differentiation of tumor cells of neuronal origin at nanomolar concentrations. We analyzed the influence of dendrogenins on adult mice neural stem cell proliferation, sphere formation and differentiation. DDA and DDB were found to have potent proliferative effects in neural stem cells. Additionally, they induce neuronal outgrowth from neurospheres during in vitro cultivation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for dendrogenins A and B in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which further increases their likely importance to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the brain.

  15. Effects of epidermal growth factor on neural crest cells in tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, C.A.; Turley, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the release of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) from quail trunk neural crest cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. It also promotes the expression of cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of the 3 H-labeled proteoglycan. Furthermore, EGF stimulates [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into total cell DNA. These results raise the possibility that EGF or an analogous growth factor is involved in regulation of neural crest cell morphogenesis

  16. Synergic Functions of miRNAs Determine Neuronal Fate of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Pons-Espinal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis requires the precise control of neuronal versus astrocyte lineage determination in neural stem cells. While microRNAs (miRNAs are critically involved in this step during development, their actions in adult hippocampal neural stem cells (aNSCs has been unclear. As entry point to address that question we chose DICER, an endoribonuclease essential for miRNA biogenesis and other RNAi-related processes. By specific ablation of Dicer in aNSCs in vivo and in vitro, we demonstrate that miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult murine hippocampus. Moreover, we identify 11 miRNAs, of which 9 have not been previously characterized in neurogenesis, that determine neurogenic lineage fate choice of aNSCs at the expense of astrogliogenesis. Finally, we propose that the 11 miRNAs sustain adult hippocampal neurogenesis through synergistic modulation of 26 putative targets from different pathways. : In this article, the authors demonstrate that Dicer-dependent miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult hippocampus in vivo and in vitro. The authors identify a new set of 11 miRNAs that synergistically converge on multiple targets in different pathways to sustain neurogenic lineage fate commitment in aNSCs. Keywords: mouse, hippocampus, neural stem cells, fate choice, adult neurogenesis, astrogliogenesis, DICER, microRNAs, synergy

  17. Culture in the mind's mirror: how anthropology and neuroscience can inform a model of the neural substrate for cultural imitative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.

  18. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Barrett, L.A.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    . The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial......Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  19. Conversion of adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into induced neural stem cell by using episomal vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human neural stem cells (NSCs hold great promise for research and therapy in neural diseases. Many studies have shown direct induction of NSCs from human fibroblasts, which require an invasive skin biopsy and a prolonged period of expansion in cell culture prior to use. Peripheral blood (PB is routinely used in medical diagnoses, and represents a noninvasive and easily accessible source of cells. Here we show direct derivation of NSCs from adult human PB mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs by employing episomal vectors for transgene delivery. These induced NSCs (iNSCs can expand more than 60 passages, can exhibit NSC morphology, gene expression, differentiation potential, and self-renewing capability and can give rise to multiple functional neural subtypes and glial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the iNSCs carry a specific regional identity and have electrophysiological activity upon differentiation. Our findings provide an easily accessible approach for generating human iNSCs which will facilitate disease modeling, drug screening, and possibly regenerative medicine.

  20. Does this adult patient with suspected bacteremia require blood cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Bryan; Morris, Andrew M; Tomlinson, George; Detsky, Allan S

    2012-08-01

    Clinicians order blood cultures liberally among patients in whom bacteremia is suspected, though a small proportion of blood cultures yield true-positive results. Ordering blood cultures inappropriately may be both wasteful and harmful. To review the accuracy of easily obtained clinical and laboratory findings to inform the decision to obtain blood cultures in suspected bacteremia. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search (inception to April 2012) yielded 35 studies that met inclusion criteria for evaluating the accuracy of clinical variables for bacteremia in adult immunocompetent patients, representing 4566 bacteremia and 25,946 negative blood culture episodes. Data were extracted to determine the prevalence and likelihood ratios (LRs) of findings for bacteremia. The pretest probability of bacteremia varies depending on the clinical context, from low (eg, cellulitis: 2%) to high (eg, septic shock: 69%). Elevated temperatures alone do not accurately predict bacteremia (for ≥38°C [>100.3°F], LR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.4]; for ≥38.5°C [>101.2°F], LR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-2.0]), nor does isolated leukocytosis (LR, cultures should not be ordered for adult patients with isolated fever or leukocytosis without considering the pretest probability. SIRS and the decision rule may be helpful in identifying patients who do not need blood cultures. These conclusions do not apply to immunocompromised patients or when endocarditis is suspected.

  1. Interleukin-6 Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Numbers during Normal and Abnormal Post-natal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekayla A. Storer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Circulating systemic factors can regulate adult neural stem cell (NSC biology, but the identity of these circulating cues is still being defined. Here, we have focused on the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, since increased circulating levels of IL-6 are associated with neural pathologies such as autism and bipolar disorder. We show that IL-6 promotes proliferation of post-natal murine forebrain NSCs and that, when the IL-6 receptor is inducibly knocked out in post-natal or adult neural precursors, this causes a long-term decrease in forebrain NSCs. Moreover, a transient circulating surge of IL-6 in perinatal or adult mice causes an acute increase in neural precursor proliferation followed by long-term depletion of adult NSC pools. Thus, IL-6 signaling is both necessary and sufficient for adult NSC self-renewal, and acute perturbations in circulating IL-6, as observed in many pathological situations, have long-lasting effects on the size of adult NSC pools. : In this report, Storer and colleagues demonstrate that the circulating cytokine IL-6, which is elevated in humans in different pathological situations, can perturb neural stem cell biology after birth. They show that IL-6 signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of post-natal and adult NSCs in the murine forebrain under normal homeostatic conditions. Keywords: interleukin-6, neural stem cell, adult neurogenesis, CNS cytokines, postnatal brain development, stem cell depletion, neural stem cell niche, circulating stem cell factors, olfactory bulb

  2. The neural basis of cultural differences in delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyung; Sung, Young Shin; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-03-05

    People generally prefer to receive rewarding outcomes sooner rather than later. Such preferences result from delay discounting, or the process by which outcomes are devalued for the expected delay until their receipt. We investigated cultural differences in delay discounting by contrasting behaviour and brain activity in separate cohorts of Western (American) and Eastern (Korean) subjects. Consistent with previous reports, we find a dramatic difference in discounting behaviour, with Americans displaying much greater present bias and elevated discount rates. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that differences in discounting may arise from differential involvement of either brain reward areas or regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices associated with cognitive control. We find that the ventral striatum is more greatly recruited in Americans relative to Koreans when discounting future rewards, but there is no difference in prefrontal or parietal activity. This suggests that a cultural difference in emotional responsivity underlies the observed behavioural effect. We discuss the implications of this research for strategic interrelations between Easterners and Westerners.

  3. Behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult tears: The impact of maternal love withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riem, Madelon M E; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; De Carli, Pietro; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined behavioral and neural responses to infant and adult tears, taking into account childhood experiences with parental love-withdrawal. With functional MRI (fMRI), we measured neural reactivity to pictures of infants and adults with and without tears on their faces in nulliparous women with varying childhood experiences of maternal use of love withdrawal. Behavioral responses to infant and adult tears were measured with an approach-avoidance task. We found that individuals with experiences of love withdrawal showed less amygdala and insula reactivity to adult tears, but love withdrawal did not affect amygdala and insula reactivity to infant tears. During the approach-avoidance task, individuals responded faster to adult tears in the approach condition compared with the avoidance condition, indicating that adult tears facilitate approach behavior. Individuals responded faster to infant tears than to adult tears, regardless of approach or avoidance condition. Our findings suggest that infant tears are highly salient and may, therefore, overrule the effects of contextual and personal characteristics that influence the perception of adult crying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. RNA synthesis in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugassa, E.; Gallo, G.; Voci, A.; Cordone, A.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of hepatocyte monolayers to synthesize RNA was investigated by measuring [3H]orotic acid incorporation into RNA and the total nuclear RNA polymerase activity as a function of the time in culture. The results demonstrate that primary cultures of hepatocytes maintained in a chemically defined serum- and hormone-free medium are able to synthesize RNA actively. This ability increases within the first 2 d of culture, despite the concomitant decrease in [3H]orotic acid uptake, and decreases only after 3 d. Factors such as serum, insulin, and dexamethasone, known to improve maintenance of functional hepatocytes, markedly stimulate the uptake of labeled precursor without apparently affecting the rate of RNA synthesis by cultured cells. It is suggested that the culture of adult rat hepatocytes provides a useful experimental model for the studies of hormonal regulation of transcription in liver

  5. The lived experience of depression among culturally Deaf adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K; Badger, T

    2010-11-01

    Culturally Deaf adults lost hearing at early ages, communicate primarily in American Sign Language (ASL), and self-identify as culturally Deaf. Communication barriers lead to isolation, low self-esteem, abuse, and inadequate health care. Screening Deaf patients for depressive symptoms poses challenge. Nurses are rarely familiar with ASL, and depression screening tools aren't easily translated from English to ASL. Consequently, Deaf adults are not adequately screened for depression. Qualitative interviews were conducted with culturally Deaf adults, and certified interpreters helped to enhance understanding. Text was generated from interview transcriptions and researcher observations. No novel depressive symptoms were described. Various ASL signs were used to represent depression; two participants used a unique gesture that had no meaning to others. Childhood experiences leading to depression included sexual or physical abuse, feeling ostracized from family and like a burden. Suicidal gestures communicated severity of depression. Adults felt interpreters were unwelcome during mental health encounters. No participants were asked about depressive symptoms despite frank manifestations of depression. Study describes antecedents and consequences of depressive symptoms among Deaf adults. Understanding symptom manifestations and challenges experienced by Deaf patients helps identify those at risk for depression, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  6. A role for adult TLX-positive neural stem cells in learning and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Li; Zou, Yuhua; He, Weimin; Gage, Fred H; Evans, Ronald M

    2008-02-21

    Neurogenesis persists in the adult brain and can be regulated by a plethora of external stimuli, such as learning, memory, exercise, environment and stress. Although newly generated neurons are able to migrate and preferentially incorporate into the neural network, how these cells are molecularly regulated and whether they are required for any normal brain function are unresolved questions. The adult neural stem cell pool is composed of orphan nuclear receptor TLX-positive cells. Here, using genetic approaches in mice, we demonstrate that TLX (also called NR2E1) regulates adult neural stem cell proliferation in a cell-autonomous manner by controlling a defined genetic network implicated in cell proliferation and growth. Consequently, specific removal of TLX from the adult mouse brain through inducible recombination results in a significant reduction of stem cell proliferation and a marked decrement in spatial learning. In contrast, the resulting suppression of adult neurogenesis does not affect contextual fear conditioning, locomotion or diurnal rhythmic activities, indicating a more selective contribution of newly generated neurons to specific cognitive functions.

  7. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Early Atypical Neural Activity during Emotional Face Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Leung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The ability to perceive and interpret affect is integral to successful social functioning and has an extended developmental course. However, the neural mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in ASD are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, the present study explored neural activation during implicit emotional face processing in young adults with and without ASD. Twenty-six young adults with ASD and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Participants indicated the location of a scrambled pattern (target that was presented alongside a happy or angry face. Emotion-related activation sources for each emotion were estimated using the Empirical Bayes Beamformer (pcorr ≤ 0.001 in Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 (SPM12. Emotional faces elicited elevated fusiform, amygdala and anterior insula and reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activity in adults with ASD relative to controls. Within group comparisons revealed that angry vs. happy faces elicited distinct neural activity in typically developing adults; there was no distinction in young adults with ASD. Our data suggest difficulties in affect processing in ASD reflect atypical recruitment of traditional emotional processing areas. These early differences may contribute to difficulties in deriving social reward from faces, ascribing salience to faces, and an immature threat processing system, which collectively could result in deficits in emotional face processing.

  8. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

  9. Isolation and culture of porcine neural progenitor cells from embryos and pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    from porcine embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells is presented. The neural induction is performed in coculture and the isolation of rosette structures is carried out manually to ensure a homogenous population of NPCs. Using this method, multipotent NPCs can be obtained in approximately 1 month......The isolation and culture of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated in vitro mechanistic studies of diseases related to the nervous system, as well as discovery of new medicine. In addition, NPCs are envisioned to play a crucial role in future cell replacement...... therapy. The pig has become recognized as an important large animal model and establishment of in vitro-derived porcine NPCs would allow for preclinical safety testing by transplantation in a porcine biomedical model. In this chapter, a detailed method for isolation and in vitro culture of porcine NPCs...

  10. Three-dimensional hydrogel cell culture systems for modeling neural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, John

    Two-dimensional (2-D) neural cell culture systems have served as physiological models for understanding the cellular and molecular events that underlie responses to physical and chemical stimuli, control sensory and motor function, and lead to the development of neurological diseases. However, the development of three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture systems will be essential for the advancement of experimental research in a variety of fields including tissue engineering, chemical transport and delivery, cell growth, and cell-cell communication. In 3-D cell culture, cells are provided with an environment similar to tissue, in which they are surrounded on all sides by other cells, structural molecules and adhesion ligands. Cells grown in 3-D culture systems display morphologies and functions more similar to those observed in vivo, and can be cultured in such a way as to recapitulate the structural organization and biological properties of tissue. This thesis describes a hydrogel-based culture system, capable of supporting the growth and function of several neural cell types in 3-D. Alginate hydrogels were characterized in terms of their biomechanical and biochemical properties and were functionalized by covalent attachment of whole proteins and peptide epitopes. Methods were developed for rapid cross-linking of alginate hydrogels, thus permitting the incorporation of cells into 3-D scaffolds without adversely affecting cell viability or function. A variety of neural cell types were tested including astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. Cells remained viable and functional for longer than two weeks in culture and displayed process outgrowth in 3-D. Cell constructs were created that varied in cell density, type and organization, providing experimental flexibility for studying cell interactions and behavior. In one set of experiments, 3-D glial-endothelial cell co-cultures were used to model blood-brain barrier (BBB) structure and function. This co-culture system was

  11. SRY-box-containing gene 2 regulation of nuclear receptor tailless (Tlx) transcription in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M; Evans, Ronald M; Gage, Fred H

    2012-02-17

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively regulates Tlx expression, whereas the binding of TLX to its own promoter suppresses its transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Such TLX-mediated suppression can be antagonized by overexpressing wild-type Sox2 but not a mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain. Furthermore, through regions involved in DNA-binding activity, Sox2 and TLX physically interact to form a complex on DNAs that contain a consensus binding site for TLX. Finally, depletion of Sox2 revealed the potential negative feedback loop of TLX expression that is antagonized by Sox2 in adult NSCs. These data suggest that Sox2 plays an important role in Tlx transcription in cultured adult NSCs.

  12. SRY-box-containing Gene 2 Regulation of Nuclear Receptor Tailless (Tlx) Transcription in Adult Neural Stem Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M.; Evans, Ronald M.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively regulates Tlx expression, whereas the binding of TLX to its own promoter suppresses its transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Such TLX-mediated suppression can be antagonized by overexpressing wild-type Sox2 but not a mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain. Furthermore, through regions involved in DNA-binding activity, Sox2 and TLX physically interact to form a complex on DNAs that contain a consensus binding site for TLX. Finally, depletion of Sox2 revealed the potential negative feedback loop of TLX expression that is antagonized by Sox2 in adult NSCs. These data suggest that Sox2 plays an important role in Tlx transcription in cultured adult NSCs. PMID:22194602

  13. The impact of cultural differences in self-representation on the neural substrates of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J. Liddell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A significant body of literature documents the neural mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, there is very little empirical work considering the influence of culture on these underlying mechanisms. Accumulating cultural neuroscience research clearly indicates that cultural differences in self-representation modulate many of the same neural processes proposed to be aberrant in PTSD. The objective of this review paper is to consider how culture may impact on the neural mechanisms underlying PTSD. We first outline five key affective and cognitive functions and their underlying neural correlates that have been identified as being disrupted in PTSD: (1 fear dysregulation; (2 attentional biases to threat; (3 emotion and autobiographical memory; (4 self-referential processing; and (5 attachment and interpersonal processing. Second, we consider prominent cultural theories and review the empirical research that has demonstrated the influence of cultural variations in self-representation on the neural substrates of these same five affective and cognitive functions. Finally, we propose a conceptual model that suggests that these five processes have major relevance to considering how culture may influence the neural processes underpinning PTSD. Highlights of the article:

  14. The impact of cultural differences in self-representation on the neural substrates of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Belinda J; Jobson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A significant body of literature documents the neural mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is very little empirical work considering the influence of culture on these underlying mechanisms. Accumulating cultural neuroscience research clearly indicates that cultural differences in self-representation modulate many of the same neural processes proposed to be aberrant in PTSD. The objective of this review paper is to consider how culture may impact on the neural mechanisms underlying PTSD. We first outline five key affective and cognitive functions and their underlying neural correlates that have been identified as being disrupted in PTSD: (1) fear dysregulation; (2) attentional biases to threat; (3) emotion and autobiographical memory; (4) self-referential processing; and (5) attachment and interpersonal processing. Second, we consider prominent cultural theories and review the empirical research that has demonstrated the influence of cultural variations in self-representation on the neural substrates of these same five affective and cognitive functions. Finally, we propose a conceptual model that suggests that these five processes have major relevance to considering how culture may influence the neural processes underpinning PTSD.

  15. Expression of the capacity to release [3H]norepinephrine by neural crest cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Cultures of trunk neural crest cells from quail embryos were tested for their ability to release [ 3 H]norepinephrine [( 3 H]NE) in response to depolarization. After 7 days in vitro, exposure of the cultures to either the alkaloid veratridine or 40 mM K+ results in the evoked release of [ 3 H]NE. The release evoked by veratridine is blocked in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The release evoked by increased K+ is blocked by the calcium antagonist cobalt. Release in response to the nicotinic cholinergic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazine was also observed. The amount of evoked release is highly correlated with the number of histochemically demonstrable catecholamine-containing cells in a given culture. Autoradiography reveals that the radioactivity taken up by these cultures is located in a subpopulation of cells whose morphology resembles that of the histochemically detectable catecholamine-containing cell population. Whereas capacity for the release of [ 3 H] NE is readily detectable after 7 days in vitro, it is detectable only with difficulty after 4 days in vitro. There is a greater than 6-fold increase in uptake capacity over the period of 4 to 7 days in vitro. These results demonstrate that neural crest cultures grown without their normal synaptic inputs or targets can exhibit the capacity for stimulus secretion coupling characteristic of synaptic neurotransmitter release

  16. Cultural modulation of the neural correlates of emotional pain perception: the role of other-focusedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Im, Dong-Mi; Harada, Tokiko; Kim, Ji-Sook; Mathur, Vani A; Scimeca, Jason M; Parrish, Todd B; Park, Hyunwook; Chiao, Joan Y

    2013-06-01

    Cultures vary in the extent to which they emphasize group members to habitually attend to the needs, perspectives, and internal experiences of others compared to the self. Here we examined the influence that collectivistic and individualistic cultural environments may play on the engagement of the neurobiological processes that underlie the perception and processing of emotional pain. Using cross-cultural fMRI, Korean and Caucasian-American participants passively viewed scenes of others in situations of emotional pain and distress. Regression analyses revealed that the value of other-focusedness was associated with heightened neural response within the affective pain matrix (i.e. anterior cingulate cortex and insula) to a greater extent for Korean relative to Caucasian-American participants. These findings suggest that mindsets promoting attunement to the subjective experience of others may be especially critical for pain-related and potentially empathic processing within collectivistic relative to individualistic cultural environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Purinergic modulation of adult guinea pig cardiomyocytes in long term cultures and co-cultures with extracardiac or intrinsic cardiac neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horackova, M; Huang, M H; Armour, J A

    1994-05-01

    To determine the capacity of ATP to modify cardiomyocytes directly or indirectly via peripheral autonomic neurones, the effects of various purinergic agents were studied on long term cultures of adult guinea pig ventricular myocytes and their co-cultures with extracardiac (stellate ganglion) or intrinsic cardiac neurones. Ventricular myocytes and cardiac neurones were enzymatically dissociated and plated together or alone (myocytes only). Myocyte cultures were used for experiments after three to six weeks. The electrical and contractile properties of cultured myocytes and myocyte-neuronal networks were investigated. The spontaneous beating frequency of ventricular myocytes co-cultured with stellate ganglion neurones increased by approximately 140% (p under control conditions, but when beta adrenergic receptors of tetrodotoxin sensitive neural responses were blocked, ATP induced greater augmentation (> 100%). In contrast, ATP induced much smaller effects in non-innervated myocyte cultures (approximately 26%, p UTP > MSATP > beta gamma ATP > alpha beta ATP. Adenosine (10(-4) M) attenuated the beating frequency of myocytes in both types of co-culture, while not significantly affecting non-innervated myocyte cultures. The experimental model used in this study showed that extrinsic and intrinsic cardiac neurones which possess P2 receptors can greatly enhance cardiac myocyte contractile rate when activated by ATP. Since adenosine reduced contractile rate in both types of co-cultures while not affecting non-innervated myocytes, it is concluded that some of these neurones possess P1 receptors.

  18. Nigral dopaminergic neuron replenishment in adult mice through VE-cadherin-expressing neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir A Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2– neural progenitor cells. We sought to further validate this finding and explore a potential atypical origin for these progenitor cells. Since neural progenitor cells have a proximal association with the vasculature of the brain and subsets of endothelial cells are Nestin+, we hypothesized that dopaminergic neural progenitors might share a common cell lineage. Therefore, we employed a VE-cadherin promoter-driven CREERT2:THlox/THlox transgenic mouse line to ablate the tyrosine hydroxylase gene from endothelial cells in adult animals. After 26 weeks, but not 13 weeks, following the genetic blockade of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in VE-cadherin+ cells, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase+ neurons in the substantia nigra. The results from this genetic lineage tracing study suggest that dopaminergic neurons are replenished in adult mice by a VE-cadherin+ progenitor cell population potentially arising from an endothelial lineage.

  19. Factors Released from Endothelial Cells Exposed to Flow Impact Adhesion, Proliferation, and Fate Choice in the Adult Neural Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Courtney M; Piselli, Jennifer M; Kazi, Nadeem; Bowman, Evan; Li, Guoyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Temple, Sally; Dai, Guohao; Thompson, Deanna M

    2017-08-15

    The microvasculature within the neural stem cell (NSC) niche promotes self-renewal and regulates lineage progression. Previous work identified endothelial-produced soluble factors as key regulators of neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate and proliferation; however, endothelial cells (ECs) are sensitive to local hemodynamics, and the effect of this key physiological process has not been defined. In this study, we evaluated adult mouse NPC response to soluble factors isolated from static or dynamic (flow) EC cultures. Endothelial factors generated under dynamic conditions significantly increased neuronal differentiation, while those released under static conditions stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation. Flow increases EC release of neurogenic factors and of heparin sulfate glycosaminoglycans that increase their bioactivity, likely underlying the enhanced neuronal differentiation. Additionally, endothelial factors, especially from static conditions, promoted adherent growth. Together, our data suggest that blood flow may impact proliferation, adhesion, and the neuron-glial fate choice of adult NPCs, with implications for diseases and aging that reduce flow.

  20. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2-7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum-treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases.

  1. Cross-cultural differences in the neural correlates of specific and general recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Laura E; Ksander, John C; Johndro, Hunter A; Gutchess, Angela H

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that culture influences how people perceive the world, which extends to memory specificity, or how much perceptual detail is remembered. The present study investigated cross-cultural differences (Americans vs East Asians) at the time of encoding in the neural correlates of specific versus general memory formation. Participants encoded photos of everyday items in the scanner and 48 h later completed a surprise recognition test. The recognition test consisted of same (i.e., previously seen in scanner), similar (i.e., same name, different features), or new photos (i.e., items not previously seen in scanner). For Americans compared to East Asians, we predicted greater activation in the hippocampus and right fusiform for specific memory at recognition, as these regions were implicated previously in encoding perceptual details. Results revealed that East Asians activated the left fusiform and left hippocampus more than Americans for specific versus general memory. Follow-up analyses ruled out alternative explanations of retrieval difficulty and familiarity for this pattern of cross-cultural differences at encoding. Results overall suggest that culture should be considered as another individual difference that affects memory specificity and modulates neural regions underlying these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of cultured neural networks using neurotrophin release from hydrogel-coated microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sang Beom; Hynd, Matthew R.; Dowell-Mesfin, Natalie M.; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Roysam, Badrinath; Shain, William; Kim, Sung June

    2008-06-01

    Polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels were synthesized and characterized for use as drug release and substrates for neuron cell culture. Protein release kinetics was determined by incorporating bovine serum albumin (BSA) into hydrogels during polymerization. To determine if hydrogel incorporation and release affect bioactivity, alkaline phosphatase was incorporated into hydrogels and a released enzyme activity determined using the fluorescence-based ELF-97 assay. Hydrogels were then used to deliver a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from hydrogels polymerized over planar microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Primary hippocampal neurons were cultured on both control and neurotrophin-containing hydrogel-coated MEAs. The effect of released BDNF on neurite length and process arborization was investigated using automated image analysis. An increased spontaneous activity as a response to the released BDNF was recorded from the neurons cultured on the top of hydrogel layers. These results demonstrate that proteins of biological interest can be incorporated into hydrogels to modulate development and function of cultured neural networks. These results also set the stage for development of hydrogel-coated neural prosthetic devices for local delivery of various biologically active molecules.

  3. Mapping the Framing of Culture in U.S. Adult Education over the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    We are working with more culturally diverse adult learner populations than we have ever had in adult and continuing higher education (Merriam & Bierema, 2014). Culture has become one of the most popular discussion topics in adult learning classrooms and both instructors and students are showing great interest in culture's interaction with…

  4. Adult-Brain-Derived Neural Stem Cells Grafting into a Vein Bridge Increases Postlesional Recovery and Regeneration in a Peripheral Nerve of Adult Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Liard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempted transplantation of adult neural stem cells (ANSCs inside an autologous venous graft following surgical transsection of nervis cruralis with 30 mm long gap in adult pig. The transplanted cell suspension was a primary culture of neurospheres from adult pig subventricular zone (SVZ which had been labeled in vitro with BrdU or lentivirally transferred fluorescent protein. Lesion-induced loss of leg extension on the thigh became definitive in controls but was reversed by 45–90 days after neurosphere-filled vein grafting. Electromyography showed stimulodetection recovery in neurosphere-transplanted pigs but not in controls. Postmortem immunohistochemistry revealed neurosphere-derived cells that survived inside the venous graft from 10 to 240 post-lesion days and all displayed a neuronal phenotype. Newly formed neurons were distributed inside the venous graft along the severed nerve longitudinal axis. Moreover, ANSC transplantation increased CNPase expression, indicating activation of intrinsic Schwann cells. Thus ANSC transplantation inside an autologous venous graft provides an efficient repair strategy.

  5. Negative regulation of TLX by IL-1β correlates with an inhibition of adult hippocampal neural precursor cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sinead M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; O'Connor, Caitriona; Keeshan, Karen; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2013-10-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors including local signalling molecules, exercise, aging and inflammation. Inflammation is also a major contributor to several hippocampal-associated disorders. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the most predominant pro-inflammatory cytokine in the brain, and an increase in its concentration is known to decrease the proliferation of both embryonic and adult hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). Recent research has focused on the role of nuclear receptors as intrinsic regulators of neurogenesis, and it is now established that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is crucial in maintaining the NPC pool in neurogenic brain regions. To better understand the involvement of TLX in IL-1β-mediated effects on hippocampal NPC proliferation, we examined hippocampal NPC proliferation and TLX expression in response to IL-1β treatment in an adult rat hippocampal neurosphere culture system. We demonstrate that IL-1β reduced the proliferation of hippocampal NPCs and TLX expression in a dose and time-dependent manner and that co-treatment with IL-1β receptor antagonist or IL-1 receptor siRNA prevented these effects. We also report a dose-dependent effect of IL-1β on the composition of cell phenotypes in the culture and on expression of TLX in these cells. This study thus provides evidence of an involvement of TLX in IL-1β-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and offers mechanistic insight into disorders in which neuroinflammation and alterations in neurogenesis are characteristic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MRI visualization of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration along the RMS in the adult mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreys, Ruth; Vande Velde, Greetje; Krylychkina, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The adult rodent brain contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs), generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to visualize endogenous NPC migration...... by a longitudinal MRI study and validated with histology. Here, we visualized endogenous NPC migration in the mouse brain by in vivo MRI and demonstrated accumulation of MPIO-labeled NPCs in the OB over time with ex vivo MRI. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of in situ injection of MPIOs on adult...

  7. Residual neural processng of musical sound features in adult cochlear implant users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    setting lasting only 20 min. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants' attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to five feature changes...... neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood. HIGHLIGHTS: -Automatic brain responses to musical feature changes reflect the limitations of central auditory processing in adult Cochlear Implant users.-The brains of adult CI users automatically...

  8. LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults' health autonomy in resisting cultural stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rachel M; Sanchez, Julissa; Lopez, Bianca

    2018-03-20

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups. Guided by an intersectional minority stress resilience framework, we asked: how do self-identified LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults manage cultural messages of prejudice and discrimination in relation to their health? Findings underscore how LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults established a strong sense of health autonomy to resist cultural stigma related to their intersecting identities. Young people actively educated themselves on health-related concerns, engaged in health-promoting tactics, and practised cultural negativity management to effectively navigate exposure to prejudice and discrimination.

  9. Leptin-dependent neurotoxicity via induction of apoptosis in adult rat neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eSEGURA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte-derived hormone leptin has been recently implicated in the control of neuronal plasticity. To explore whether modulation of adult neurogenesis may contribute to leptin control of neuronal plasticity, we used the neurosphere assay of neural stem cells derived from the adult rat subventricular zone (SVZ. Endogenous expression of specific leptin receptor (ObRb transcripts, as revealed by RT-PCR, is associated with activation of both ERK and STAT-3 pathways via phosphorylation of the critical ERK/STAT-3 amino acid residues upon addition of leptin to neurospheres. Furthermore, leptin triggered withdrawal of neural stem cells from the cell cycle as monitored by Ki67 labelling. This effect was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of ERK activation thus demonstrating that ERK mediates leptin effects on neural stem cell expansion. Leptin-dependent withdrawal of neural stem cells from the cell cycle was associated with increased apoptosis, as detected by TUNEL, which was preceded by cyclin D1 induction. Cyclin D1 was indeed extensively colocalized with TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Cyclin-D1 silencing by specific shRNA prevented leptin-induced decrease of the cell number per neurosphere thus pointing to the causal relationship between leptin actions on apoptosis and cyclin D1 induction. Leptin target cells in SVZ neurospheres were identified by double TUNEL/phenotypic marker immunocytofluorescence as differentiating neurons mostly. The inhibition of neural stem cell expansion via ERK/cyclin D1-triggered apoptosis defines novel biological action of leptin which may be involved in adiposity-dependent neurotoxicity.

  10. A 3D human neural cell culture system for modeling Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; D’Avanzo, Carla; Hebisch, Matthias; Sliwinski, Christopher; Bylykbashi, Enjana; Washicosky, Kevin J.; Klee, Justin B.; Brüstle, Oliver; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell technologies have facilitated the development of human cellular disease models that can be used to study pathogenesis and test therapeutic candidates. These models hold promise for complex neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) because existing animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate all aspects of pathology. We recently reported the characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) culture system that exhibits key events in AD pathogenesis, including extracellular aggregation of β-amyloid and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here we provide instructions for the generation and analysis of 3D human neural cell cultures, including the production of genetically modified human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) with familial AD mutations, the differentiation of the hNPCs in a 3D matrix, and the analysis of AD pathogenesis. The 3D culture generation takes 1–2 days. The aggregation of β-amyloid is observed after 6-weeks of differentiation followed by robust tau pathology after 10–14 weeks. PMID:26068894

  11. Laminin enhances the growth of human neural stem cells in defined culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lathia Justin D

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human neural stem cells (hNSC have the potential to provide novel cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. In order to realise this goal, protocols need to be developed that allow for large quantities of hNSC to be cultured efficiently. As such, it is important to identify factors which enhance the growth of hNSC. In vivo, stem cells reside in distinct microenvironments or niches that are responsible for the maintenance of stem cell populations. A common feature of niches is the presence of the extracellular matrix molecule, laminin. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of exogenous laminin on hNSC growth. Results To measure hNSC growth, we established culture conditions using B27-supplemented medium that enable neurospheres to grow from human neural cells plated at clonal densities. Limiting dilution assays confirmed that neurospheres were derived from single cells at these densities. Laminin was found to increase hNSC numbers as measured by this neurosphere formation. The effect of laminin was to augment the proliferation/survival of the hNSC, rather than promoting the undifferentiated state. In agreement, apoptosis was reduced in dissociated neurospheres by laminin in an integrin β1-dependent manner. Conclusion The addition of laminin to the culture medium enhances the growth of hNSC, and may therefore aid their large-scale production.

  12. Prediction of Clinical Deterioration in Hospitalized Adult Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Using a Neural Network Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B Hu

    Full Text Available Clinical deterioration (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest occurs during approximately 5-10% of hospital admissions. Existing prediction models have a high false positive rate, leading to multiple false alarms and alarm fatigue. We used routine vital signs and laboratory values obtained from the electronic medical record (EMR along with a machine learning algorithm called a neural network to develop a prediction model that would increase the predictive accuracy and decrease false alarm rates.Retrospective cohort study.The hematologic malignancy unit in an academic medical center in the United States.Adult patients admitted to the hematologic malignancy unit from 2009 to 2010.None.Vital signs and laboratory values were obtained from the electronic medical record system and then used as predictors (features. A neural network was used to build a model to predict clinical deterioration events (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest. The performance of the neural network model was compared to the VitalPac Early Warning Score (ViEWS. Five hundred sixty five consecutive total admissions were available with 43 admissions resulting in clinical deterioration. Using simulation, the neural network outperformed the ViEWS model with a positive predictive value of 82% compared to 24%, respectively.We developed and tested a neural network-based prediction model for clinical deterioration in patients hospitalized in the hematologic malignancy unit. Our neural network model outperformed an existing model, substantially increasing the positive predictive value, allowing the clinician to be confident in the alarm raised. This system can be readily implemented in a real-time fashion in existing EMR systems.

  13. Atypical neural responding to hearing one's own name in adults with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Dhar, Monica; Goris, Judith; Brass, Marcel; Wiersema, Jan R

    2018-01-01

    Diminished responding to hearing one's own name is one of the earliest and strongest predictors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we studied, for the first time, the neural correlates of hearing one's own name in ASD. Based on existing research, we hypothesized enhancement of late parietal positive activity specifically for the own name in neurotypicals, and for this effect to be reduced in adults with ASD. Source localization analyses were conducted to estimate group differences in brain regions underlying this effect. Twenty-one adults with ASD, and 21 age- and gender-matched neurotypicals were presented with 3 categories of names (own name, close other, unknown other) as task-irrelevant deviant stimuli in an auditory oddball paradigm while electroencephalogram was recorded. As expected, late parietal positivity was observed specifically for own names in neurotypicals, indicating enhanced attention to the own name. This preferential effect was absent in the ASD group. This group difference was associated with diminished activation in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) in adults with ASD. Further, a familiarity effect was found for N1 amplitude, with larger amplitudes for familiar names (own name and close other). However, groups did not differ for this effect. These findings provide evidence of atypical neural responding to hearing one's own name in adults with ASD, suggesting a deficit in self-other distinction associated with rTPJ dysfunction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The neuro-glial properties of adipose-derived adult stromal (ADAS) cells are not regulated by Notch 1 and are not derived from neural crest lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrage, Philip C; Tran, Thi; To, Khai; Keefer, Edward W; Ruhn, Kelly A; Hong, John; Hattangadi, Supriya; Treviño, Isaac; Tansey, Malú G

    2008-01-16

    We investigated whether adipose-derived adult stromal (ADAS) are of neural crest origin and the extent to which Notch 1 regulates their growth and differentiation. Mouse ADAS cells cultured in media formulated for neural stem cells (NSC) displayed limited capacity for self-renewal, clonogenicity, and neurosphere formation compared to NSC from the subventricular zone in the hippocampus. Although ADAS cells expressed Nestin, GFAP, NSE and Tuj1 in vitro, exposure to NSC differentiation supplements did not induce mature neuronal marker expression. In contrast, in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) media, ADAS cells retained their ability to proliferate and differentiate beyond 20 passages and expressed high levels of Nestin. In neuritizing cocktails, ADAS cells extended processes, downregulated Nestin expression, and displayed depolarization-induced Ca(2+) transients but no spontaneous or evoked neural network activity on Multi-Electrode Arrays. Deletion of Notch 1 in ADAS cell cultures grown in NSC proliferation medium did not significantly alter their proliferative potential in vitro or the differentiation-induced downregulation of Nestin. Co-culture of ADAS cells with fibroblasts that stably expressed the Notch ligand Jagged 1 or overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) did not alter ADAS cell growth, morphology, or cellular marker expression. ADAS cells did not display robust expression of neural crest transcription factors or genes (Sox, CRABP2, and TH); and lineage tracing analyses using Wnt1-Cre;Rosa26R-lacZ or -EYFP reporter mice confirmed that fewer than 2% of the ADAS cell population derived from a Wnt1-positive population during development. In summary, although media formulations optimized for MSCs or NSCs enable expansion of mouse ADAS cells in vitro, we find no evidence that these cells are of neural crest origin, that they can undergo robust terminal differentiation into functionally mature neurons, and that Notch 1 is likely to be a key

  15. Calcium exchange, structure, and function in cultured adult myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.A.; Frank, J.S.; Rich, T.L.; Orner, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    Cells digested from adult rat heart and cultured for 14 days demonstrate all the structural elements, in mature form, associated with the process of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. The transverse tubular (TT) system is well developed with an extensive junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR). In nonphosphate-containing buffer contraction of the cells is lost as rapidly as zero extracellular Ca concentration ([Ca] 0 ) solution is applied and a negative contraction staircase is produced on increase of stimulation frequency. Structurally and functionally the cells have the characteristics of adult cells in situ. 45 Ca exchange and total 45 Ca measurement in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-buffered perfusate define three components of cellular Ca: 1) a rapidly exchangeable component accounting for 36% of total Ca, 2) a slowly exchangeable component (t/sub 1/2/ 53 min) accounting for 7% total Ca, and 3) the remaining 57% cellular Ca is inexchangeable (demonstrates no significant exchange within 60 min). The slowly exchangeable component can be increased 10-fold within 60 min by addition of phosphate to the perfusate. The Ca distribution and exchange characteristics are little different from those of 3-day cultures of neonatal rat heart previously studied. The results suggest that the cells are representative of adult cells in situ and that both sarcolemmal-bound and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca contribute to the component of Ca that is rapidly exchangeable

  16. Catalog of gene expression in adult neural stem cells and their in vivo microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Cecilia; Wirta, Valtteri; Meletis, Konstantinos; Wikstroem, Lilian; Carlsson, Leif; Frisen, Jonas; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells generally reside in a stem cell microenvironment, where cues for self-renewal and differentiation are present. However, the genetic program underlying stem cell proliferation and multipotency is poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of stem cells and their in vivo microenvironment is one way of uncovering the unique stemness properties and provides a framework for the elucidation of stem cell function. Here, we characterize the gene expression profile of the in vivo neural stem cell microenvironment in the lateral ventricle wall of adult mouse brain and of in vitro proliferating neural stem cells. We have also analyzed an Lhx2-expressing hematopoietic-stem-cell-like cell line in order to define the transcriptome of a well-characterized and pure cell population with stem cell characteristics. We report the generation, assembly and annotation of 50,792 high-quality 5'-end expressed sequence tag sequences. We further describe a shared expression of 1065 transcripts by all three stem cell libraries and a large overlap with previously published gene expression signatures for neural stem/progenitor cells and other multipotent stem cells. The sequences and cDNA clones obtained within this framework provide a comprehensive resource for the analysis of genes in adult stem cells that can accelerate future stem cell research

  17. Dll1 maintains quiescence of adult neural stem cells and segregates asymmetrically during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Daichi; Furutachi, Shohei; Kawai, Hiroki; Hozumi, Katsuto; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells often divide asymmetrically to produce one stem cell and one differentiating cell, thus maintaining the stem cell pool. Although neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse subventricular zone have been suggested to divide asymmetrically, intrinsic cell fate determinants for asymmetric NSC division are largely unknown. Stem cell niches are important for stem cell maintenance, but the niche for the maintenance of adult quiescent NSCs has remained obscure. Here we show that the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is required to maintain quiescent NSCs in the adult mouse subventricular zone. Dll1 protein is induced in activated NSCs and segregates to one daughter cell during mitosis. Dll1-expressing cells reside in close proximity to quiescent NSCs, suggesting a feedback signal for NSC maintenance by their sister cells and progeny. Our data suggest a model in which NSCs produce their own niche cells for their maintenance through asymmetric Dll1 inheritance at mitosis.

  18. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, BoKyung; Tsai, Jeanne L; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-02-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people's immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets' ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, BoKyung; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people’s immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets’ ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. PMID:26342220

  20. Ochratoxin A at nanomolar concentration perturbs the homeostasis of neural stem cells in highly differentiated but not in immature three-dimensional brain cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Honegger, Paul

    2011-08-28

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal contaminant of basic food commodities, is known to be highly cytotoxic, but the pathways underlying adverse effects at subcytotoxic concentrations remain to be elucidated. Recent reports indicate that OTA affects cell cycle regulation. Therefore, 3D brain cell cultures were used to study OTA effects on mitotically active neural stem/progenitor cells, comparing highly differentiated cultures with their immature counterparts. Changes in the rate of DNA synthesis were related to early changes in the mRNA expression of neural stem/progenitor cell markers. OTA at 10nM, a concentration below the cytotoxic level, was ineffective in immature cultures, whereas in mature cultures it significantly decreased the rate of DNA synthesis together with the mRNA expression of key transcriptional regulators such as Sox2, Mash1, Hes5, and Gli1; the cell cycle activator cyclin D2; the phenotypic markers nestin, doublecortin, and PDGFRα. These effects were largely prevented by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) peptide (500ngml(-1)) administration, indicating that OTA impaired the Shh pathway and the Sox2 regulatory transcription factor critical for stem cell self-renewal. Similar adverse effects of OTA in vivo might perturb the regulation of stem cell proliferation in the adult brain and in other organs exhibiting homeostatic and/or regenerative cell proliferation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regenerative medicine using adult neural stem cells: the potential for diabetes therapy and other pharmaceutical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoko Kuwabara; Makoto Asashima

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs),which are responsible for continuous neurogenesis during the adult stage,are present in human adults.The typical neurogenic regions are the hippocampus and the subventricular zone; recent studies have revealed that NSCs also exist in the olfactory bulb.Olfactory bulb-derived neural stem cells (OB NSCs) have the potential to be used in therapeutic applications and can be easily harvested without harm to the patient.Through the combined influence of extrinsic cues and innate programming,adult neurogenesis is a finely regulated process occurring in a specialized cellular environment,a niche.Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of adult NSCs and their cellular niche is not only important to understand the physiological roles of neurogenesis in adulthood,but also to provide the knowledge necessary for developing new therapeutic applications using adult NSCs in other organs with similar regulatory environments.Diabetes is a devastating disease affecting more than 200 million people worldwide.Numerous diabetic patients suffer increased symptom severity after the onset,involving complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy.Therefore,the development of treatments for fundamental diabetes is important.The utilization of autologous cells from patients with diabetes may address challenges regarding the compatibility of donor tissues as well as provide the means to naturally and safely restore function,reducing future risks while also providing a long-term cure.Here,we review recent findings regarding the use of adult OB NSCs as a potential diabetes cure,and discuss the potential of OB NSC-based pharmaceutical applications for neuronal diseases and mental disorders.

  2. Residual Neural Processing of Musical Sound Features in Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Lydia; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Agrawal, Deepashri; Debener, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Wittfoth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing in general and music perception in particular are hampered in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. To examine the residual music perception skills and their underlying neural correlates in CI users implanted in adolescence or adulthood, we conducted an electrophysiological and behavioral study comparing adult CI users with normal-hearing age-matched controls (NH controls). We used a newly developed musical multi-feature paradigm, which makes it possible to test automatic auditory discrimination of six different types of sound feature changes inserted within a musical enriched setting lasting only 20 min. The presentation of stimuli did not require the participants’ attention, allowing the study of the early automatic stage of feature processing in the auditory cortex. For the CI users, we obtained mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to five feature changes but not to changes of rhythm, whereas we obtained MMNs for all the feature changes in the NH controls. Furthermore, the MMNs to deviants of pitch of CI users were reduced in amplitude and later than those of NH controls for changes of pitch and guitar timber. No other group differences in MMN parameters were found to changes in intensity and saxophone timber. Furthermore, the MMNs in CI users reflected the behavioral scores from a respective discrimination task and were correlated with patients’ age and speech intelligibility. Our results suggest that even though CI users are not performing at the same level as NH controls in neural discrimination of pitch-based features, they do possess potential neural abilities for music processing. However, CI users showed a disrupted ability to automatically discriminate rhythmic changes compared with controls. The current behavioral and MMN findings highlight the residual neural skills for music processing even in CI users who have been implanted in adolescence or adulthood. Highlights: -Automatic brain responses to musical feature changes

  3. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult subependymal neural precursors, but not differentiated cells, undergo rapid cathodal migration in the presence of direct current electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robart Babona-Pilipos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The existence of neural stem and progenitor cells (together termed neural precursor cells in the adult mammalian brain has sparked great interest in utilizing these cells for regenerative medicine strategies. Endogenous neural precursors within the adult forebrain subependyma can be activated following injury, resulting in their proliferation and migration toward lesion sites where they differentiate into neural cells. The administration of growth factors and immunomodulatory agents following injury augments this activation and has been shown to result in behavioural functional recovery following stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With the goal of enhancing neural precursor migration to facilitate the repair process we report that externally applied direct current electric fields induce rapid and directed cathodal migration of pure populations of undifferentiated adult subependyma-derived neural precursors. Using time-lapse imaging microscopy in vitro we performed an extensive single-cell kinematic analysis demonstrating that this galvanotactic phenomenon is a feature of undifferentiated precursors, and not differentiated phenotypes. Moreover, we have shown that the migratory response of the neural precursors is a direct effect of the electric field and not due to chemotactic gradients. We also identified that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling plays a role in the galvanotactic response as blocking EGFR significantly attenuates the migratory behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest direct current electric fields may be implemented in endogenous repair paradigms to promote migration and tissue repair following neurotrauma.

  5. Sensitive Tumorigenic Potential Evaluation of Adult Human Multipotent Neural Cells Immortalized by hTERT Gene Transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Hang Lee

    Full Text Available Stem cells and therapeutic genes are emerging as a new therapeutic approach to treat various neurodegenerative diseases with few effective treatment options. However, potential formation of tumors by stem cells has hampered their clinical application. Moreover, adequate preclinical platforms to precisely test tumorigenic potential of stem cells are controversial. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of various animal models for in vivo stem cell tumorigenicity testing to identify the most sensitive platform. Then, tumorigenic potential of adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs immortalized by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene was examined as a stem cell model with therapeutic genes. When human glioblastoma (GBM cells were injected into adult (4-6-week-old Balb/c-nu, adult NOD/SCID, adult NOG, or neonate (1-2-week-old NOG mice, the neonate NOG mice showed significantly faster tumorigenesis than that of the other groups regardless of intracranial or subcutaneous injection route. Two kinds of ahMNCs (682TL and 779TL were primary cultured from surgical samples of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Although the ahMNCs were immortalized by lentiviral hTERT gene delivery (hTERT-682TL and hTERT-779TL, they did not form any detectable masses, even in the most sensitive neonate NOG mouse platform. Moreover, the hTERT-ahMNCs had no gross chromosomal abnormalities on a karyotype analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that neonate NOG mice could be a sensitive animal platform to test tumorigenic potential of stem cell therapeutics and that ahMNCs could be a genetically stable stem cell source with little tumorigenic activity to develop regenerative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Huperzine A protects neural stem cells against Aβ-induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells and microglia co-culture system

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    Zhu, Ning; Lin, Jizong; Wang, Kewan; Wei, Meidan; Chen, Qingzhuang; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to explore whether Huperzine A (HupA) could protect neural stem cells against amyloid beta-peptide Aβ induced apoptosis in a neural stem cells (NSCs) and microglia co-culture system. Methods: Rat NSCs and microglial cells were isolated, cultured and identified with immunofluorescence Assays (IFA). Co-culture systems of NSCs and microglial cells were employed using Transwell Permeable Supports. The effects of Aβ1-42 on NSCs were studied in 4 groups using co-culture systems: NSCs, Aβ+NSCs, co-culture and Aβ+co-culture groups. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry were utilized to assess the differences of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NSCs between the groups. LQ test was performed to assess the amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α secreted, and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to assess apoptosis of NSCs and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in each group. Results: IFA results showed that isolated rat NSCs were nestin-positive and microglial cells were CD11b/c-positive. Among all the groups, the Aβ+co-culture group has the lowest BrdU expression level, the lowest MAP2-positive, ChAT-positive cell counts and the highest NSC apoptosis rate. Smaller amounts of IL-6, TNF-α and MIP-α were being secreted by microglial cells in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group compared with those in the Aβ+ co-culture group. Also the Bcl-2: Bax ratio was much higher in the HupA+Aβ+co-culture group than in the Aβ+co-culture group. Conclusions: HupA inhibits cell apoptosis through restraining microglia’s inflammatory response induced by Aβ1-42. PMID:26261518

  7. Human neural progenitor cells decrease photoreceptor degeneration, normalize opsin distribution and support synapse structure in cultured porcine retina.

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    Mollick, Tanzina; Mohlin, Camilla; Johansson, Kjell

    2016-09-01

    Retinal neurodegenerative disorders like retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment decrease retinal functionality leading to visual impairment. The pathological events are characterized by photoreceptor degeneration, synaptic disassembly, remodeling of postsynaptic neurons and activation of glial cells. Despite intense research, no effective treatment has been found for these disorders. The current study explores the potential of human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) derived factors to slow the degenerative processes in adult porcine retinal explants. Retinas were cultured for 3 days with or without hNPCs as a feeder layer and investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), immunohistochemical, western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques. TUNEL showed that hNPCs had the capacity to limit photoreceptor cell death. Among cone photoreceptors, hNPC coculture resulted in better maintenance of cone outer segments and reduced opsin mislocalization. Additionally, maintained synaptic structural integrity and preservation of second order calbindin positive horizontal cells was also observed. However, Müller cell gliosis only seemed to be alleviated in terms of reduced Müller cell density. Our observations indicate that at 3 days of coculture, hNPC derived factors had the capacity to protect photoreceptors, maintain synaptic integrity and support horizontal cell survival. Human neural progenitor cell applied treatment modalities may be an effective strategy to help maintain retinal functionality in neurodegenerative pathologies. Whether hNPCs can independently hinder Müller cell gliosis by utilizing higher concentrations or by combination with other pharmacological agents still needs to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Isolation, purification and primary culture of adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts].

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    Li, Rujun; Gong, Kaizheng; Zhang, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for primary culture of adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts. Methods Myocardial tissues from adult mice were digested with 1 g/L trypsin and 0.8 g/L collagenase IV by oscillating water bath for a short time repeatedly. Cardiac fibroblasts and myocardial cells were isolated with differential adhesion method. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the purity of cardiac fibroblasts. The cell morphology was observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope. The proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts was analyzed by growth curve and CCK-8 assay. The Smad2/3 phosphorylation induced by TGF-β1 was detected by Western blotting. Results After 90 minutes of differential adhesion, adherent fibroblasts formed spherical cell mass and after 3 days, cells were spindle-shaped and proliferated rapidly. Cells were confluent after 5 days and the growth curve presented nearly "S" shape. The positive expression rate of vimentin was 95%. CCK-8 assay showed that the optimal cell proliferating activity was found from day 3 to day 5. The level of phosphorylated Smad2/3 obviously increased at the second passage induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion This method is economical and stable to isolate cardiac fibroblasts with high activity and high purity from adult mice.

  9. Neural Correlates of Moral Evaluation and Psychopathic Traits in Male Multi-Problem Young Adults

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    Josjan Zijlmans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-problem young adults (18–27 years present with a plethora of problems, including varying degrees of psychopathic traits. The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC have been implicated in moral dysfunction in psychopathy in adolescents and adults, but no studies have been performed in populations in the transitional period to adulthood. We tested in multi-problem young adults the hypothesis that psychopathic traits are related to amygdala and vmPFC activity during moral evaluation. Additionally, we explored the relation between psychopathic traits and other regions consistently implicated in moral evaluation. Our final sample consisted of 100 multi-problem young adults and 22 healthy controls. During fMRI scanning, participants judged whether pictures showed a moral violation on a 1–4 scale. Whole brain analysis revealed neural correlates of moral evaluation consistent with the literature. Region of interest analyses revealed positive associations between the affective callous-unemotional dimension of psychopathy and activation in the left vmPFC, left superior temporal gyrus, and left cingulate. Our results are consistent with altered vmPFC function during moral evaluation in psychopathy, but we did not find evidence for amygdala involvement. Our findings indicate the affective callous-unemotional trait of psychopathy may be related to widespread altered activation patterns during moral evaluation in multi-problem young adults.

  10. Distinct neural correlates of emotional and cognitive empathy in older adults.

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    Moore, Raeanne C; Dev, Sheena I; Jeste, Dilip V; Dziobek, Isabel; Eyler, Lisa T

    2015-04-30

    Empathy is thought to be a mechanism underlying prosocial behavior across the lifespan, yet little is known about how levels of empathy relate to individual differences in brain functioning among older adults. In this exploratory study, we examined the neural correlates of affective and cognitive empathy in older adults. Thirty older adults (M=79 years) underwent fMRI scanning and neuropsychological testing and completed a test of affective and cognitive empathy. Brain response during processing of cognitive and emotional stimuli was measured by fMRI in a priori and task-related regions and was correlated with levels of empathy. Older adults with higher levels of affective empathy showed more deactivation in the amygdala and insula during a working memory task, whereas those with higher cognitive empathy showed greater insula activation during a response inhibition task. Our preliminary findings suggest that brain systems linked to emotional and social processing respond differently among older adults with more or less affective and cognitive empathy. That these relationships can be seen both during affective and non-emotional tasks of "cold" cognitive abilities suggests that empathy may impact social behavior through both emotional and cognitive mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Action prediction in younger versus older adults: neural correlates of motor familiarity.

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    Nadine Diersch

    Full Text Available Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON, consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises. All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer.

  12. Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

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    Yuping Luo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. Adult neurogenesis, a process considered important for neuroplasticity and memory, is regulated at multiple molecular levels. In this study, we investigated whether Fmrp deficiency affects adult neurogenesis. We show that in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, adult neurogenesis is indeed altered. The loss of Fmrp increases the proliferation and alters the fate specification of adult neural progenitor/stem cells (aNPCs. We demonstrate that Fmrp regulates the protein expression of several components critical for aNPC function, including CDK4 and GSK3beta. Dysregulation of GSK3beta led to reduced Wnt signaling pathway activity, which altered the expression of neurogenin1 and the fate specification of aNPCs. These data unveil a novel regulatory role for Fmrp and translational regulation in adult neurogenesis.

  13. Hydrogel formulation determines cell fate of fetal and adult neural progenitor cells

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    Emily R. Aurand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels provide a unique tool for neural tissue engineering. These materials can be customized for certain functions, i.e. to provide cell/drug delivery or act as a physical scaffold. Unfortunately, hydrogel complexities can negatively impact their biocompatibility, resulting in unintended consequences. These adverse effects may be combated with a better understanding of hydrogel chemical, physical, and mechanical properties, and how these properties affect encapsulated neural cells. We defined the polymerization and degradation rates and compressive moduli of 25 hydrogels formulated from different concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. Changes in compressive modulus were driven primarily by the HA concentration. The in vitro biocompatibility of fetal-derived (fNPC and adult-derived (aNPC neural progenitor cells was dependent on hydrogel formulation. Acute survival of fNPC benefited from hydrogel encapsulation. NPC differentiation was divergent: fNPC differentiated into mostly glial cells, compared with neuronal differentiation of aNPC. Differentiation was influenced in part by the hydrogel mechanical properties. This study indicates that there can be a wide range of HA and PEG hydrogels compatible with NPC. Additionally, this is the first study comparing hydrogel encapsulation of NPC derived from different aged sources, with data suggesting that fNPC and aNPC respond dissimilarly within the same hydrogel formulation.

  14. Identifying endogenous neural stem cells in the adult brain in vitro and in vivo: novel approaches.

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    Rueger, Maria Adele; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, Joseph Altman reported that the adult mammalian brain is capable of generating new neurons. Today it is understood that some of these neurons are derived from uncommitted cells in the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The first area generates new neuroblasts which migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas hippocampal neurogenesis seems to play roles in particular types of learning and memory. A part of these uncommitted (immature) cells is able to divide and their progeny can generate all three major cell types of the nervous system: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes; these properties define such cells as neural stem cells. Although the roles of these cells are not yet clear, it is accepted that they affect functions including olfaction and learning/memory. Experiments with insults to the central nervous system also show that neural stem cells are quickly mobilized due to injury and in various disorders by proliferating, and migrating to injury sites. This suggests a role of endogenous neural stem cells in disease. New pools of stem cells are being discovered, suggesting an even more important role for these cells. To understand these cells and to coax them to contribute to tissue repair it would be very useful to be able to image them in the living organism. Here we discuss advances in imaging approaches as well as new concepts that emerge from stem cell biology with emphasis on the interface between imaging and stem cells.

  15. Epigenetic regulation of neural stem cell property from embryo to adult

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    Naoya Murao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs have the ability to self-renew and give rise to neurons and glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system. This multipotency is acquired by NSCs during development and is maintained throughout life. Proliferation, fate specification, and maturation of NSCs are regulated by both cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Epigenetic modification is a representative intrinsic factor, being involved in many biological aspects of central nervous system development and adult neurogenesis through the regulation of NSC dynamics. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the epigenetic regulation of NSC behavior in the embryonic and adult brain, with particular reference to DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs.

  16. Neural processing of food and emotional stimuli in adolescent and adult anorexia nervosa patients

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    Forster, Clemens; Dörfler, Arnd; Lindsiepe, Silja; Heinrich, Hartmut; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H.; Kratz, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Background A constant preoccupation with food and restrictive eating are main symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). Imaging studies revealed aberrant neural activation patterns in brain regions processing hedonic and reward reactions as well as–potentially aversive–emotions. An imbalance between so called “bottom-up” and “top-down” control areas is discussed. The present study is focusing on neural processing of disease-specific food stimuli and emotional stimuli and its developmental course in adolescent and adult AN patients and could offer new insight into differential mechanisms underlying shorter or more chronic disease. Methods 33 adolescents aged 12–18 years (15 AN patients, 18 control participants) and 32 adult women (16 AN patients, 16 control participants) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 3T high-field scanner) while watching pictures of high and low-calorie food and affective stimuli. Afterwards, they rated subjective valence of each picture. FMRI data analysis was performed using a region of interest based approach. Results Pictures of high-calorie food items were rated more negatively by AN patients. Differences in activation between patients and controls were found in “bottom up” and “top down” control areas for food stimuli and in several emotion processing regions for affective stimuli which were more pronounced in adolescents than in adults. Conclusion A differential pattern was seen for food stimuli compared to generally emotion eliciting stimuli. Adolescents with AN show reduced processing of affective stimuli and enhanced activation of regions involved in “bottom up” reward processing and “top down” control as well as the insula with regard to food stimuli with a focus on brain regions which underlie changes during adolescent development. In adults less clear and less specific activation differences were present, pointing towards a high impact that regions undergoing maturation might have on AN

  17. Neural processing of food and emotional stimuli in adolescent and adult anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Roesch, Julie; Forster, Clemens; Dörfler, Arnd; Lindsiepe, Silja; Heinrich, Hartmut; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    A constant preoccupation with food and restrictive eating are main symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). Imaging studies revealed aberrant neural activation patterns in brain regions processing hedonic and reward reactions as well as-potentially aversive-emotions. An imbalance between so called "bottom-up" and "top-down" control areas is discussed. The present study is focusing on neural processing of disease-specific food stimuli and emotional stimuli and its developmental course in adolescent and adult AN patients and could offer new insight into differential mechanisms underlying shorter or more chronic disease. 33 adolescents aged 12-18 years (15 AN patients, 18 control participants) and 32 adult women (16 AN patients, 16 control participants) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 3T high-field scanner) while watching pictures of high and low-calorie food and affective stimuli. Afterwards, they rated subjective valence of each picture. FMRI data analysis was performed using a region of interest based approach. Pictures of high-calorie food items were rated more negatively by AN patients. Differences in activation between patients and controls were found in "bottom up" and "top down" control areas for food stimuli and in several emotion processing regions for affective stimuli which were more pronounced in adolescents than in adults. A differential pattern was seen for food stimuli compared to generally emotion eliciting stimuli. Adolescents with AN show reduced processing of affective stimuli and enhanced activation of regions involved in "bottom up" reward processing and "top down" control as well as the insula with regard to food stimuli with a focus on brain regions which underlie changes during adolescent development. In adults less clear and less specific activation differences were present, pointing towards a high impact that regions undergoing maturation might have on AN symptoms.

  18. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

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    Lisa Jane Burklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one’s emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one’s own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N=39. Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes.

  19. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.

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    Subhra Prakash Hui

    Full Text Available Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration.

  20. Cognitive and Neural Correlates of Mathematical Giftedness in Adults and Children: A Review

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    Timothy Myers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics. Studies associated a large number of cognitive factors with gifted mathematics, with spatial processing and working memory being the most frequently identified contributors. However, the current literature suffers from low statistical power, which most probably contributes to variability across findings. Other major shortcomings include failing to establish domain and stimulus specificity of findings, suggesting causation without sufficient evidence and the frequent use of invalid backward inference in neuro-imaging studies. Future studies must increase statistical power and neuro-imaging studies must rely on supporting behavioral data when interpreting findings. Studies should investigate the factors shown to correlate with math giftedness in a more specific manner and determine exactly how individual factors may contribute to gifted math ability.

  1. Enhancement of human neural stem cell self-renewal in 3D hypoxic culture.

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    Ghourichaee, Sasan Sharee; Powell, Elizabeth M; Leach, Jennie B

    2017-05-01

    The pathology of neurological disorders is associated with the loss of neuronal and glial cells that results in functional impairments. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs), due to their self-renewing and multipotent characteristics, possess enormous tissue-specific regenerative potential. However, the efficacy of clinical applications is restricted due to the lack of standardized in vitro cell production methods with the capability of generating hNSC populations with well-defined cellular compositions. At any point, a population of hNSCs may include undifferentiated stem cells, intermediate and terminally differentiated progenies, and dead cells. Due to the plasticity of hNSCs, environmental cues play crucial roles in determining the cellular composition of hNSC cultures over time. Here, we investigated the independent and synergistic effect of three important environmental factors (i.e., culture dimensionality, oxygen concentration, and growth factors) on the survival, renewal potential, and differentiation of hNSCs. Our experimental design included two dimensional (2D) versus three dimensional (3D) cultures and normoxic (21% O 2 ) versus hypoxic (3% O 2 ) conditions in the presence and absence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Additionally, we discuss the feasibility of mathematical models that predict hNSC growth and differentiation under these culture conditions by adopting a negative feedback regulatory term. Our results indicate that the synergistic effect of culture dimensionality and hypoxic oxygen concentration in the presence of growth factors enhances the proliferation of viable, undifferentiated hNSCs. Moreover, the same synergistic effect in the absence of growth factors promotes the differentiation of hNSCs. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1096-1106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

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    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  3. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

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    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  4. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

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    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Feline Neural Progenitor Cells I: Long-Term Expansion under Defined Culture Conditions

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    Jing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural progenitor cells (NPCs of feline origin (cNPCs have demonstrated utility in transplantation experiments, yet are difficult to grow in culture beyond the 1 month time frame. Here we use an enriched, serum-free base medium (Ultraculture and report the successful long-term propagation of these cells. Primary cultures were derived from fetal brain tissue and passaged in DMEM/F12-based or Ultraculture-based proliferation media, both in the presence of EGF + bFGF. Cells in standard DMEM/F12-based medium ceased to proliferate by 1-month, whereas the cells in the Ultraculture-based medium continued to grow for at least 5 months (end of study with no evidence of senescence. The Ultraculture-based cultures expressed lower levels of progenitor and lineage-associated markers under proliferation conditions but retained multipotency as evidenced by the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia following growth factor removal in the presence of FBS. Importantly, later passage cNPCs did not develop chromosomal aberrations.

  6. Tracking differentiating neural progenitors in pluripotent cultures using microRNA-regulated lentiviral vectors.

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    Sachdeva, Rohit; Jönsson, Marie E; Nelander, Jenny; Kirkeby, Agnete; Guibentif, Carolina; Gentner, Bernhard; Naldini, Luigi; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin; Jakobsson, Johan

    2010-06-22

    In this study, we have used a microRNA-regulated lentiviral reporter system to visualize and segregate differentiating neuronal cells in pluripotent cultures. Efficient suppression of transgene expression, specifically in undifferentiated pluripotent cells, was achieved by using a lentiviral vector expressing a fluorescent reporter gene regulated by microRNA-292. Using this strategy, it was possible to track progeny from murine ES, human ES cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells as they differentiated toward the neural lineage. In addition, this strategy was successfully used to FACS purify neuronal progenitors for molecular analysis and transplantation. FACS enrichment reduced tumor formation and increased survival of ES cell-derived neuronal progenitors after transplantation. The properties and versatility of the microRNA-regulated vectors allows broad use of these vectors in stem cell applications.

  7. SOX2 Reprograms Resident Astrocytes into Neural Progenitors in the Adult Brain

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    Wenze Niu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glial cells can be in vivo reprogrammed into functional neurons in the adult CNS; however, the process by which this reprogramming occurs is unclear. Here, we show that a distinct cellular sequence is involved in SOX2-driven in situ conversion of adult astrocytes to neurons. This includes ASCL1+ neural progenitors and DCX+ adult neuroblasts (iANBs as intermediates. Importantly, ASCL1 is required, but not sufficient, for the robust generation of iANBs in the adult striatum. These progenitor-derived iANBs predominantly give rise to calretinin+ interneurons when supplied with neurotrophic factors or the small-molecule valproic acid. Patch-clamp recordings from the induced neurons reveal subtype heterogeneity, though all are functionally mature, fire repetitive action potentials, and receive synaptic inputs. Together, these results show that SOX2-mediated in vivo reprogramming of astrocytes to neurons passes through proliferative intermediate progenitors, which may be exploited for regenerative medicine.

  8. Difference in neural response to social exclusion observation and subsequent altruism between adolescents and adults.

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    Tousignant, Béatrice; Eugène, Fanny; Sirois, Katia; Jackson, Philip L

    2017-04-13

    Empathy and prosocial behaviors toward peers promote successful social development and creation of significant long-term relationships, but surprisingly little is known about the maturation of these skills during the period of adolescence. As the majority of studies have used questionnaires or pain observation paradigms, it remains unknown whether the empathic response of adolescents differs from that of adults in a paradigm that is closer to everyday life. In the current study, fMRI was used to examine the neural correlates of social exclusion observation and subsequent prosocial behavior in 20 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) and 20 adults (aged 22-30 years) while playing a ball-tossing game with what they believed to be real individuals. Observing someone being excluded compared to observing equal inclusion of all players elicited a significantly higher activation of the IFG (pars triangularis) in adults compared to adolescents. When given the opportunity to directly help the excluded player during the game, adolescents showed significantly less prosocial behavior than adults, which was underpinned by a significantly lower activity in the right temporoparietal junction, medial/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and fusiform face area. These findings might indicate that adolescents have a lower propensity to take the victim's perspective and share his or her distress when witnessing social exclusion, which leads to a lower altruistic motivation to help. The factors that could generate what can be interpreted as a downward modulation of empathy during adolescence are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can adult neural stem cells create new brains? Plasticity in the adult mammalian neurogenic niches: realities and expectations in the era of regenerative biology.

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    Kazanis, Ilias

    2012-02-01

    Since the first experimental reports showing the persistence of neurogenic activity in the adult mammalian brain, this field of neurosciences has expanded significantly. It is now widely accepted that neural stem and precursor cells survive during adulthood and are able to respond to various endogenous and exogenous cues by altering their proliferation and differentiation activity. Nevertheless, the pathway to therapeutic applications still seems to be long. This review attempts to summarize and revisit the available data regarding the plasticity potential of adult neural stem cells and of their normal microenvironment, the neurogenic niche. Recent data have demonstrated that adult neural stem cells retain a high level of pluripotency and that adult neurogenic systems can switch the balance between neurogenesis and gliogenesis and can generate a range of cell types with an efficiency that was not initially expected. Moreover, adult neural stem and precursor cells seem to be able to self-regulate their interaction with the microenvironment and even to contribute to its synthesis, altogether revealing a high level of plasticity potential. The next important step will be to elucidate the factors that limit this plasticity in vivo, and such a restrictive role for the microenvironment is discussed in more details.

  10. Fabrication of micropatterned hydrogels for neural culture systems using dynamic mask projection photolithography.

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    Curley, J Lowry; Jennings, Scott R; Moore, Michael J

    2011-02-11

    Increasingly, patterned cell culture environments are becoming a relevant technique to study cellular characteristics, and many researchers believe in the need for 3D environments to represent in vitro experiments which better mimic in vivo qualities. Studies in fields such as cancer research, neural engineering, cardiac physiology, and cell-matrix interaction have shown cell behavior differs substantially between traditional monolayer cultures and 3D constructs. Hydrogels are used as 3D environments because of their variety, versatility and ability to tailor molecular composition through functionalization. Numerous techniques exist for creation of constructs as cell-supportive matrices, including electrospinning, elastomer stamps, inkjet printing, additive photopatterning, static photomask projection-lithography, and dynamic mask microstereolithography. Unfortunately, these methods involve multiple production steps and/or equipment not readily adaptable to conventional cell and tissue culture methods. The technique employed in this protocol adapts the latter two methods, using a digital micromirror device (DMD) to create dynamic photomasks for crosslinking geometrically specific poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels, induced through UV initiated free radical polymerization. The resulting "2.5D" structures provide a constrained 3D environment for neural growth. We employ a dual-hydrogel approach, where PEG serves as a cell-restrictive region supplying structure to an otherwise shapeless but cell-permissive self-assembling gel made from either Puramatrix or agarose. The process is a quick simple one step fabrication which is highly reproducible and easily adapted for use with conventional cell culture methods and substrates. Whole tissue explants, such as embryonic dorsal root ganglia (DRG), can be incorporated into the dual hydrogel constructs for experimental assays such as neurite outgrowth. Additionally, dissociated cells can be encapsulated in the

  11. Protease-activated receptor-1 negatively regulates proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells derived from the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult mouse

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    Masayuki Tanaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin-activated protease-activated receptor (PAR-1 regulates the proliferation of neural cells following brain injury. To elucidate the involvement of PAR-1 in the neurogenesis that occurs in the adult hippocampus, we examined whether PAR-1 regulated the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs derived from the murine hippocampal dentate gyrus. NPC cultures expressed PAR-1 protein and mRNA encoding all subtypes of PAR. Direct exposure of the cells to thrombin dramatically attenuated the cell proliferation without causing cell damage. This thrombin-induced attenuation was almost completely abolished by the PAR antagonist RWJ 56110, as well as by dabigatran and 4-(2-aminoethylbenzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF, which are selective and non-selective thrombin inhibitors, respectively. Expectedly, the PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP SFLLR-NH2 also attenuated the cell proliferation. The cell proliferation was not affected by the PAR-1 negative control peptide RLLFT-NH2, which is an inactive peptide for PAR-1. Independently, we determined the effect of in vivo treatment with AEBSF or AP on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. The administration of AEBSF, but not that of AP, significantly increased the number of newly-generated cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone. These data suggest that PAR-1 negatively regulated adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by inhibiting the proliferative activity of the NPCs.

  12. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Rice, Katherine P.; Schwindt, Rani K.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Jeerage, Kavita M.

    2015-01-01

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum (∼ 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate

  13. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Rice, Katherine P.; Schwindt, Rani K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States); MacCuspie, Robert I. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Materials Measurement Science Division (United States); Jeerage, Kavita M., E-mail: jeerage@boulder.nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum (∼ 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate

  14. The neural correlates of persuasion: a common network across cultures and media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Rameson, Lian; Berkman, Elliot T; Liao, Betty; Kang, Yoona; Inagaki, Tristen K; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-11-01

    Persuasion is at the root of countless social exchanges in which one person or group is motivated to have another share its beliefs, desires, or behavioral intentions. Here, we report the first three functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate the neurocognitive networks associated with feeling persuaded by an argument. In the first two studies, American and Korean participants, respectively, were exposed to a number of text-based persuasive messages. In both Study 1 and Study 2, feeling persuaded was associated with increased activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, temporal pole bilaterally, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest a discrete set of underlying mechanisms in the moment that the persuasion process occurs, and are strengthened by the fact that the results replicated across two diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Additionally, a third study using region-of-interest analyses demonstrated that neural activity in this network was also associated with persuasion when a sample of American participants viewed video-based messages. In sum, across three studies, including two different cultural groups and two types of media, persuasion was associated with a consistent network of regions in the brain. Activity in this network has been associated with social cognition and mentalizing and is consistent with models of persuasion that emphasize the importance of social cognitive processing in determining the efficacy of persuasive communication.

  15. Cultural influences on the neural correlate of moral decision making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Glover, Gary H; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-02-01

    This study compares the neural substrate of moral decision making processes between Korean and American participants. By comparison with Americans, Korean participants showed increased activity in the right putamen associated with socio-intuitive processes and right superior frontal gyrus associated with cognitive control processes under a moral-personal condition, and in the right postcentral sulcus associated with mental calculation in familiar contexts under a moral-impersonal condition. On the other hand, American participants showed a significantly higher degree of activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) associated with conflict resolution under the moral-personal condition, and in the right medial frontal gyrus (MFG) associated with simple cognitive branching in non-familiar contexts under the moral-impersonal condition when a more lenient threshold was applied, than Korean participants. These findings support the ideas of the interactions between the cultural background, education, and brain development, proposed in the field of cultural psychology and educational psychology. The study introduces educational implications relevant to moral psychologists and educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of nano iridium oxide: material properties and neural cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In-Seop; Whang, Chung-Nam; Lee, Young-Hee; Hwan Lee, Gun; Park, Bong-Joo; Park, Jong-Chul; Seo, Won-Seon; Cui Fuzhai

    2005-01-01

    Iridium film with the thickness of 30 and 60 nm were formed on both Si wafer and commercially pure (CP) Ti by electron beam evaporation. The thin iridium film showed the identical charge injection capability with the bulk Ir. However, the charge injection value of iridium film was decreased with continuous potential cycling when the deposited iridium became depleted due to the formation of oxide. The number of cycles at which the charge injection value decreased was 800 and 1600 cycles for the 30- and 60-nm-thick Ir film, respectively. FE-SEM observations on the cross section of Ir film clearly showed the thicker iridium oxide was formed with the more potential cycling. Ar ion beam etching to substrates before deposition certainly improved the adhesion strength of Ir film enough to resist to the strain induced by the larger volume occupation of iridium oxide. Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts culture on Ir and Ir oxide showed no cytotoxicity. Also, embryonic cortical neural cell culture on electrode indicated neurons adhered and survived by the formation of neurofilament

  17. Effects of Electromagnetic Stimulation on Cell Density and Neural Markers in Murine Enteric Cell Cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon-Rodriguez, A.; Belkind-Gerson, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Canedo-Dorantes, L.

    2008-01-01

    Availability of adult stem cells from several organs like bone marrow, umbilical cord blood or peripheral blood has become a powerful therapeutic tool for many chronic diseases. Potential of adult stem cells for regeneration extents to other tissues among them the nervous system. However two obstacles should be resolved before such cells could be currently applied in clinical practice: a) slow growth rate and b) ability to form enough dense colonies in order to populate a specific injury or cellular deficiency. Many approaches have been explored as genetic differentiation programs, growth factors, and supplemented culture media, among others. Electromagnetic field stimulation of differentiation, proliferation, migration, and particularly on neurogenesis is little known. Since the biological effects of ELF-EMF are well documented, we hypothesize ELF-EMF could affect growth and maturation of stem cells derived of enteric tissue

  18. Culture and Interculturality in the Adult ESL Context in Urban Quebec: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytynyshyn, Nancy; Collins, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the treatment of culture and the development of interculturality in the transcripts of a complete 36-hour ESL course organized by a community center in Montreal. The adult participants came from a variety of linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The adult second-language class has been identified as a potentially rich context…

  19. Second Language Acquisition, Culture Shock and Language Stress of Adult Latina Students in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttaro, Lucia

    This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…

  20. Attenuated Neural Processing of Risk in Young Adults at Risk for Stimulant Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Reske

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early stages of stimulant use show altered decision making processing.158 occasional stimulants users (OSU and 50 comparison subjects (CS performed a "risky gains" decision making task during which they could select safe options (cash in 20 cents or gamble them for double or nothing in two consecutive gambles (win or lose 40 or 80 cents, "risky decisions". The primary analysis focused on risky versus safe decisions. Three secondary analyses were conducted: First, a robust regression examined the effect of lifetime exposure to stimulants and marijuana; second, subgroups of OSU with >1000 (n = 42, or <50 lifetime marijuana uses (n = 32, were compared to CS with <50 lifetime uses (n = 46 to examine potential marijuana effects; third, brain activation associated with behavioral adjustment following monetary losses was probed.There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options.Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring

  1. Galectin-1 is expressed in early-type neural progenitor cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

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    Imaizumi Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs proliferate in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and generate new neurons throughout life. A multimodal protein, Galectin-1, is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs and implicated in the proliferation of the NPCs in the DG. However, little is known about its detailed expression profile in the NPCs and functions in adult neurogenesis in the DG. Results Our immunohistochemical and morphological analysis showed that Galectin-1 was expressed in the type 1 and 2a cells, which are putative NSCs, in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the adult mouse DG. To study Galectin-1's function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we made galectin-1 knock-out mice on the C57BL6 background and characterized the effects on neurogenesis. In the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, increased numbers of type 1 cells, DCX-positive immature progenitors, and NeuN-positive newborn neurons were observed. Using triple-labeling immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses, we found that the proliferation of the type-1 cells was increased in the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, and we propose that this proliferation is the mechanism for the net increase in the adult neurogenesis in these knock-out mice DG. Conclusions Galectin-1 is expressed in the neural stem cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

  2. PPARs Expression in Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cells: Modulation of PPARs during Astroglial Differentiaton of NSC

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    A. Cimini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PPAR isotypes are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, death, and differentiation, with different roles and mechanisms depending on the specific isotype and ligand and on the differentiated, undifferentiated, or transformed status of the cell. Differentiation stimuli are integrated by key transcription factors which regulate specific sets of specialized genes to allow proliferative cells to exit the cell cycle and acquire specialized functions. The main differentiation programs known to be controlled by PPARs both during development and in the adult are placental differentiation, adipogenesis, osteoblast differentiation, skin differentiation, and gut differentiation. PPARs may also be involved in the differentiation of macrophages, brain, and breast. However, their functions in this cell type and organs still awaits further elucidation. PPARs may be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation processes of neural stem cells (NSC. To this aim, in this work the expression of the three PPAR isotypes and RXRs in NSC has been investigated.

  3. The presence of a culturally similar or dissimilar social partner affects neural responses to emotional stimuli

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    Kate A. Woodcock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional responding is sensitive to social context; however, little emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms by which social context effects changes in emotional responding. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of social context on neural responses to emotional stimuli to inform on the mechanisms underpinning context-linked changes in emotional responding. Design: We measured event-related potential (ERP components known to index specific emotion processes and self-reports of explicit emotion regulation strategies and emotional arousal. Female Chinese university students observed positive, negative, and neutral photographs, whilst alone or accompanied by a culturally similar (Chinese or dissimilar researcher (British. Results: There was a reduction in the positive versus neutral differential N1 amplitude (indexing attentional capture by positive stimuli in the dissimilar relative to alone context. In this context, there was also a corresponding increase in amplitude of a frontal late positive potential (LPP component (indexing engagement of cognitive control resources. In the similar relative to alone context, these effects on differential N1 and frontal LPP amplitudes were less pronounced, but there was an additional decrease in the amplitude of a parietal LPP component (indexing motivational relevance in response to positive stimuli. In response to negative stimuli, the differential N1 component was increased in the similar relative to dissimilar and alone (trend context. Conclusion: These data suggest that neural processes engaged in response to emotional stimuli are modulated by social context. Possible mechanisms for the social-context-linked changes in attentional capture by emotional stimuli include a context-directed modulation of the focus of attention, or an altered interpretation of the emotional stimuli based on additional information proportioned by the context.

  4. Social Interaction Affects Neural Outcomes of Sign Language Learning As a Foreign Language in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-01-01

    Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.

  5. Neural correlates of training and transfer effects in working memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Stephan; Lorenz, Robert C; Pelz, Patricia; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Kathmann, Norbert; Rapp, Michael A; Stelzel, Christine

    2016-07-01

    As indicated by previous research, aging is associated with a decline in working memory (WM) functioning, related to alterations in fronto-parietal neural activations. At the same time, previous studies showed that WM training in older adults may improve the performance in the trained task (training effect), and more importantly, also in untrained WM tasks (transfer effects). However, neural correlates of these transfer effects that would improve understanding of its underlying mechanisms, have not been shown in older participants as yet. In this study, we investigated blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during n-back performance and an untrained delayed recognition (Sternberg) task following 12sessions (45min each) of adaptive n-back training in older adults. The Sternberg task used in this study allowed to test for neural training effects independent of specific task affordances of the trained task and to separate maintenance from updating processes. Thirty-two healthy older participants (60-75years) were assigned either to an n-back training or a no-contact control group. Before (t1) and after (t2) training/waiting period, both the n-back task and the Sternberg task were conducted while BOLD signal was measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in all participants. In addition, neuropsychological tests were performed outside the scanner. WM performance improved with training and behavioral transfer to tests measuring executive functions, processing speed, and fluid intelligence was found. In the training group, BOLD signal in the right lateral middle frontal gyrus/caudal superior frontal sulcus (Brodmann area, BA 6/8) decreased in both the trained n-back and the updating condition of the untrained Sternberg task at t2, compared to the control group. fMRI findings indicate a training-related increase in processing efficiency of WM networks, potentially related to the process of WM updating. Performance gains in untrained tasks

  6. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Erin Boote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co-culture

  7. Neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells in 3-D cultures for studying biomolecule-directed differential cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanwei; Bejoy, Julie; Xia, Junfei; Guan, Jingjiao; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yan

    2016-09-15

    Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells/tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capacity of signaling factors that regulate 3-D neural tissue patterning in vitro and differential responses of the resulting neural populations to various biomolecules have not yet been fully understood. By tuning neural patterning of hiPSCs with small molecules targeting sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, this study generated different 3-D neuronal cultures that were mainly comprised of either cortical glutamatergic neurons or motor neurons. Abundant glutamatergic neurons were observed following the treatment with an antagonist of SHH signaling, cyclopamine, while Islet-1 and HB9-expressing motor neurons were enriched by an SHH agonist, purmorphamine. In neurons derived with different neural patterning factors, whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed similar voltage-gated Na(+)/K(+) currents, depolarization-evoked action potentials and spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents. Moreover, these different neuronal populations exhibited differential responses to three classes of biomolecules, including (1) matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors that affect extracellular matrix remodeling; (2) N-methyl-d-aspartate that induces general neurotoxicity; and (3) amyloid β (1-42) oligomers that cause neuronal subtype-specific neurotoxicity. This study should advance our understanding of hiPSC self-organization and neural tissue development and provide a transformative approach to establish 3-D models for neurological disease modeling and drug discovery. Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells, tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capability of sonic hedgehog-related small molecules to tune

  8. Neural response during anticipation of monetary loss is elevated in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Delgado, Mauricio R; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Maier, Simon; Philipsen, Alexandra; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Risky behaviour seriously impacts the life of adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such behaviours have often been attributed to their exaggerated reward seeking, but dysfunctional anticipation of negative outcomes might also play a role. The present study compared adult patients with ADHD (n = 28) with matched healthy controls (n = 28) during anticipation of monetary losses versus gains while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance recording. Skin conductance was higher during anticipation of losses compared to gains in both groups. Affective ratings of predictive cues did not differ between groups. ADHD patients showed increased activity in bilateral amygdalae, left anterior insula (region of interest analysis) and left temporal pole (whole brain analysis) compared to healthy controls during loss versus gain anticipation. In the ADHD group higher insula and temporal pole activations went along with more negative affective ratings. Neural correlates of loss anticipation are not blunted but rather increased in ADHD, possibly due to a life history of repeated failures and the respective environmental sanctions. Behavioural adaptations to such losses, however, might differentiate them from controls: future research should study whether negative affect might drive more risk seeking than risk avoidance.

  9. Differential proliferation rhythm of neural progenitor and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the young adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs are a unique type of glial cells that function as oligodendrocyte progenitors while constantly proliferating in the normal condition from rodents to humans. However, the functional roles they play in the adult brain are largely unknown. In this study, we focus on the manner of OPC proliferation in the hippocampus of the young adult mice. Here we report that there are oscillatory dynamics in OPC proliferation that differ from neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ; the former showed S-phase and M-phase peaks in the resting and active periods, respectively, while the latter only exhibited M-phase peak in the active period. There is coincidence between different modes of proliferation and expression of cyclin proteins that are crucial for cell cycle; cyclin D1 is expressed in OPCs, while cyclin D2 is observed in neural stem cells. Similar to neurogenesis, the proliferation of hippocampal OPCs was enhanced by voluntary exercise that leads to an increase in neuronal activity in the hippocampus. These data suggest an intriguing control of OPC proliferation in the hippocampus.

  10. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nicole R; O'Shea, Andrew M; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance ( N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function.

  11. Development of an in situ evaluation system for neural cells using extracellular matrix-modeled gel culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Ikegami, Yasuhiro; Mizumachi, Hideyuki; Shirakigawa, Nana; Ijima, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional monolayer culture is the most popular cell culture method. However, the cells may not respond as they do in vivo because the culture conditions are different from in vivo conditions. However, hydrogel-embedding culture, which cultures cells in a biocompatible culture substrate, can produce in vivo-like cell responses, but in situ evaluation of cells in a gel is difficult. In this study, we realized an in vivo-like environment in vitro to produce cell responses similar to those in vivo and established an in situ evaluation system for hydrogel-embedded cell responses. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-modeled gel consisted of collagen and heparin (Hep-col) to mimic an in vivo-like environment. The Hep-col gel could immobilize growth factors, which is important for ECM functions. Neural stem/progenitor cells cultured in the Hep-col gel grew and differentiated more actively than in collagen, indicating an in vivo-like environment in the Hep-col gel. Second, a thin-layered gel culture system was developed to realize in situ evaluation of the gel-embedded cells. Cells in a 200-μm-thick gel could be evaluated clearly by a phase-contrast microscope and immunofluorescence staining through reduced optical and diffusional effects. Finally, we found that the neural cells cultured in this system had synaptic connections and neuronal action potentials by immunofluorescence staining and Ca 2+ imaging. In conclusion, this culture method may be a valuable evaluation system for neurotoxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated Interpretation of Blood Culture Gram Stains by Use of a Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth P; Kang, Anthony D; Kirby, James E

    2018-03-01

    Microscopic interpretation of stained smears is one of the most operator-dependent and time-intensive activities in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Here, we investigated application of an automated image acquisition and convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach for automated Gram stain classification. Using an automated microscopy platform, uncoverslipped slides were scanned with a 40× dry objective, generating images of sufficient resolution for interpretation. We collected 25,488 images from positive blood culture Gram stains prepared during routine clinical workup. These images were used to generate 100,213 crops containing Gram-positive cocci in clusters, Gram-positive cocci in chains/pairs, Gram-negative rods, or background (no cells). These categories were targeted for proof-of-concept development as they are associated with the majority of bloodstream infections. Our CNN model achieved a classification accuracy of 94.9% on a test set of image crops. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated a robust ability to differentiate between categories with an area under the curve of >0.98 for each. After training and validation, we applied the classification algorithm to new images collected from 189 whole slides without human intervention. Sensitivity and specificity were 98.4% and 75.0% for Gram-positive cocci in chains and pairs, 93.2% and 97.2% for Gram-positive cocci in clusters, and 96.3% and 98.1% for Gram-negative rods. Taken together, our data support a proof of concept for a fully automated classification methodology for blood-culture Gram stains. Importantly, the algorithm was highly adept at identifying image crops with organisms and could be used to present prescreened, classified crops to technologists to accelerate smear review. This concept could potentially be extended to all Gram stain interpretive activities in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Neuronal Differentiation in Cultured Rat Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can induce neurogenesis and recovery from brain diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects of PUFAs have not been conclusively described. We recently reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA induced neuronal differentiation by decreasing Hes1 expression and increasing p27kip1 expression, which causes cell cycle arrest in neural stem cells (NSCs. In the present study, we examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (AA on differentiation, expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (Hes1, Hes6, and NeuroD, and the cell cycle of cultured NSCs. EPA also increased mRNA levels of Hes1, an inhibitor of neuronal differentiation, Hes6, an inhibitor of Hes1, NeuroD, and Map2 mRNA and Tuj-1-positive cells (a neuronal marker, indicating that EPA induced neuronal differentiation. EPA increased the mRNA levels of p21cip1 and p27kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which indicated that EPA induced cell cycle arrest. Treatment with AA decreased Hes1 mRNA but did not affect NeuroD and Map2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, AA did not affect the number of Tuj-1-positive cells or cell cycle progression. These results indicated that EPA could be involved in neuronal differentiation by mechanisms alternative to those of DHA, whereas AA did not affect neuronal differentiation in NSCs.

  14. Obesity-specific neural cost of maintaining gait performance under complex conditions in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofundiya, Olufunmilola; Benden, Mark E; Dowdy, Diane; Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence of obesity-related changes in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive and seated motor activities has surfaced; however, the impact of obesity on neural activity during ambulation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine obesity-specific neural cost of simple and complex ambulation in older adults. Twenty non-obese and obese individuals, 65years and older, performed three tasks varying in the types of complexity of ambulation (simple walking, walking+cognitive dual-task, and precision walking). Maximum oxygenated hemoglobin, a measure of neural activity, was measured bilaterally using a portable functional near infrared spectroscopy system, and gait speed and performance on the complex tasks were also obtained. Complex ambulatory tasks were associated with ~2-3.5 times greater cerebral oxygenation levels and ~30-40% slower gait speeds when compared to the simple walking task. Additionally, obesity was associated with three times greater oxygenation levels, particularly during the precision gait task, despite obese adults demonstrating similar gait speeds and performances on the complex gait tasks as non-obese adults. Compared to existing studies that focus solely on biomechanical outcomes, the present study is one of the first to examine obesity-related differences in neural activity during ambulation in older adults. In order to maintain gait performance, obesity was associated with higher neural costs, and this was augmented during ambulatory tasks requiring greater precision control. These preliminary findings have clinical implications in identifying individuals who are at greater risk of mobility limitations, particularly when performing complex ambulatory tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural correlates of obstacle negotiation in older adults: An fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michelle; Pillemer, Sarah; England, Sarah; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Mahoney, Jeannette R; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-10-01

    Older adults are less efficient at avoiding obstacles compared to young adults, especially under attention-demanding conditions. Using functional near-infrared-spectroscopy (fNIRS), recent studies implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under dual-task walking conditions. The neural substrates underlying Obstacle Negotiation (ON), however, have not been established. The current study determined the role of the PFC in ON during walking in seniors. Non-demented older adults (n=90; mean age=78.1±5.5years; %female=51) underwent fNIRS acquisition to assess changes in hemodynamic activity in the PFC during normal-walk [NW] and walk-while-talk [WWT] conditions with and without obstacles. Obstacles were presented as red elliptical shapes using advanced laser technology, which resemble potholes. Linear mixed effects models were used to determine differences in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO 2 ) levels among the four task conditions. The presence of slow gait, a risk factor for dementia and falls, served as a predictor hypothesized to moderate the effect of obstacles on PFC HbO 2 levels. PFC HbO 2 levels were significantly higher in WWT compared to NW (p<0.001) irrespective of ON. Slow gait moderated the effect of obstacles on HbO 2 levels across task conditions. Specifically, compared to participants with normal gait, PFC HbO 2 levels were significantly increased in ON-NW relative to NW (p=0.017) and ON-WWT relative to WWT (p<0.001) among individuals with slow gait. Consistent with Compensatory Reallocation, ON required greater PFC involvement among individuals with mobility limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of postmodernism and impacts of virtuality on cultural tourism and adult education

    OpenAIRE

    Vanda Sousa

    2013-01-01

    In her article the author examines the relationship between postmodern phenomena, the virtuality of new technologies and cultural tourism. She starts by defining cultural tourism and proceeds by giving an account of its different elements and domains. Furtheron, she discusses adult education, the education of cultural tourists on the one hand and local inhabitants on the other, the aim of which is to foster cultural tourism as an important agent in the economic and social development of the p...

  17. Characteristics of postmodernism and impacts of virtuality on cultural tourism and adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Sousa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In her article the author examines the relationship between postmodern phenomena, the virtuality of new technologies and cultural tourism. She starts by defining cultural tourism and proceeds by giving an account of its different elements and domains. Furtheron, she discusses adult education, the education of cultural tourists on the one hand and local inhabitants on the other, the aim of which is to foster cultural tourism as an important agent in the economic and social development of the postmodern society.

  18. Psycho-Socio-Cultural Determinants of Food Choice: A Qualitative Study on Adults in Social and Cultural Context of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighian Roudsari, Arezoo; Vedadhir, Abouali; Amiri, Parisa; Kalantari, Naser; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Hani Sadati, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Food choice is a process through which people think, feel, and eat food. It does not only influence individuals' health and well-being, families and communities, but also it has an effect on regional, national, and global levels. This qualitative study was conducted to explore perceptions and lived experiences of Tehran adult residents on psychological, social and cultural determinants of food choice. Method: In this qualitative design, we recruited 33 adults aged 30 to 64 years from various districts of Tehran, capital of Iran, and we explored how people make decisions about food choice in practice and shape their perception, attitude, and eating practices. An individual in-depth semi-structured interview guide included major questions with follow-up probes was used to explore participants' current and past eating habits from childhood to adulthood, dietary change at different life courses, and effective psychological state on food selection in different seasons. Results: This study revealed that food choice in the studied adults (30-64 years old) was widely influenced by psychological, social, and cultural determinants, which can be categorized into 5 main themes: cultural context and patterns; social Structure and norms; information resources and media; household and family structure; and nutrition transition. Conclusion: The findings clarified the importance of social and cultural contexts, which influence the food choice of adults in a metropolis like Tehran. Many of these concepts are contextualized from childhood. These findings could serve as guideline to design socio-culturally appropriate strategies and improve dietary behaviors of Iranians.

  19. An fMRI comparison of neural activity associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Ritu; Cuddy, Lola L; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Vanstone, Ashley D

    2015-01-01

    Several studies of semantic memory in non-musical domains involving recognition of items from long-term memory have shown an age-related shift from the medial temporal lobe structures to the frontal lobe. However, the effects of aging on musical semantic memory remain unexamined. We compared activation associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults. Recognition follows successful retrieval from the musical lexicon that comprises a lifetime of learned musical phrases. We used the sparse-sampling technique in fMRI to determine the neural correlates of melody recognition by comparing activation when listening to familiar vs. unfamiliar melodies, and to identify age differences. Recognition-related cortical activation was detected in the right superior temporal, bilateral inferior and superior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, bilateral precentral, and left supramarginal gyri. Region-of-interest analysis showed greater activation for younger adults in the left superior temporal gyrus and for older adults in the left superior frontal, left angular, and bilateral superior parietal regions. Our study provides powerful evidence for these musical memory networks due to a large sample (N = 40) that includes older adults. This study is the first to investigate the neural basis of melody recognition in older adults and to compare the findings to younger adults.

  20. An fMRI comparison of neural activity associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu eSikka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of semantic memory in non-musical domains involving recognition of items from long-term memory have shown an age-related shift from the medial temporal lobe structures to the frontal lobe. However, the effects of aging on musical semantic memory remain unexamined. We compared activation associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults. Recognition follows successful retrieval from the musical lexicon that comprises a lifetime of learned musical phrases. We used the sparse-sampling technique in fMRI to determine the neural correlates of melody recognition by comparing activation when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar melodies, and to identify age differences. Recognition-related cortical activation was detected in the right superior temporal, bilateral inferior and superior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, bilateral precentral, and left supramarginal gyri. Region-of-interest analysis showed greater activation for younger adults in the left superior temporal gyrus and for older adults in the left superior frontal, left angular, and bilateral superior parietal regions. Our study provides powerful evidence for these musical memory networks due to a large sample (N = 40 that includes older adults. This study is the first to investigate the neural basis of melody recognition in older adults and to compare the findings to younger adults.

  1. When Age and Culture Interact in an Easy and Yet Cognitively Demanding Task: Older Adults, But Not Younger Adults, Showed the Expected Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (living vs. non-living). To measure their reliance on intuition, we manipulated the typicality of targets (animate vs. inanimate). We showed that (1) RTs for inanimate organisms were slower than RTs for animate organisms (atypicality cost), (2) the cost was particularly large for older adults and (3) an age × culture interaction was observed such that cultural differences in the cost (Singaporeans > Americans) was found only among older participants. Further, we demonstrated that the age effect was associated with cognitive function and the culture effect among older adults was associated with cultural values. Finally, a moderated mediation analysis suggests that cognitive function and cultural values interact with each other in order to jointly influence one's cognition.

  2. When Age and Culture Interact in an Easy and Yet Cognitively Demanding Task: Older Adults, But Not Younger Adults, Showed the Expected Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise C.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (living vs. non-living). To measure their reliance on intuition, we manipulated the typicality of targets (animate vs. inanimate). We showed that (1) RTs for inanimate organisms were slower than RTs for animate organisms (atypicality cost), (2) the cost was particularly large for older adults and (3) an age × culture interaction was observed such that cultural differences in the cost (Singaporeans > Americans) was found only among older participants. Further, we demonstrated that the age effect was associated with cognitive function and the culture effect among older adults was associated with cultural values. Finally, a moderated mediation analysis suggests that cognitive function and cultural values interact with each other in order to jointly influence one’s cognition. PMID:28396649

  3. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyoung Ho [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Sang Won, E-mail: swyeo@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Troy, Frederic A., E-mail: fatroy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen City (China)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  4. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Yeo, Sang Won; Troy, Frederic A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders

  5. Selective comparison of gelling agents as neural cell culture matrices for long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In classic monolayer cell culture, the world is flat. In contrast, tissue-embedded cells experience a three-dimensional context to interact with. We assessed a selection of natural gelling agents of non-animal origin (ι- and κ-carrageenan, gellan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum, sodium alginate, tragacanth and xanthan gum in serum-free medium at 1–4% (w/v concentration for their suitability as a more natural 3D culture environment for brain-derived cells. Their biophysical properties (viscosity, texture, transparency, gelling propensity resemble those of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Gels provide the neurons with a 3D scaffold to interact with and allow for an increase of the overall cell density compared to classical monolayer 2D culture. They not only protect neurons in cell culture from shear forces and medium evaporation, but stabilize the microenvironment around them for efficient glial proliferation, tissue-analog neural differentiation and neural communication. We report on their properties (viscosity, transparency, their ease of handling in a cell culture context and their possible use modalities (cell embedment, as a cell cover or as a cell culture substrate. Among the selected gels, guar gum and locust bean gum with intercalated laminin allowed for cortical cell embedment. Neurons plated on and migrating into gellan gum survived and differentiated even without the addition of laminin. Sodium alginate with laminin was a suitable cell cover. Finally, we exemplarily demonstrate how guar gum supported the functional survival of a cortical culture over a period of 79 days in a proof-of-concept long-term microelectrode array (MEA electrophysiology study.

  6. SRY-box-containing Gene 2 Regulation of Nuclear Receptor Tailless (Tlx) Transcription in Adult Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M.; Evans, Ronald M.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively r...

  7. East Meets West: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Wisdom and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-ying

    2011-01-01

    Wisdom enables people to lead a good life. The pursuit of wisdom is an important goal for adult education, and adult education is important for developing wisdom in individuals and communities. The good life for humankind is threatened by global warming, shortages of natural resources, cultural and religious conflicts, and financial crises, and…

  8. Responsible Adult Culture (RAC): Cognitive and Behavioral Changes at a Community-Based Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Renee S.; Gibbs, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examined cognitive and behavioral changes among participants in Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a cognitive-behavioral (especially, cognitive restructuring) treatment program in use at the Franklin County Community-Based Correctional Facility (CBCF). Participants were adult felony offenders (approximately three-fourths male). A…

  9. The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2007-01-01

    Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Young adult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…

  10. Prion replication occurs in endogenous adult neural stem cells and alters their neuronal fate: involvement of endogenous neural stem cells in prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroa Relaño-Ginès

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are irreversible progressive neurodegenerative diseases, leading to severe incapacity and death. They are characterized in the brain by prion amyloid deposits, vacuolisation, astrocytosis, neuronal degeneration, and by cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. There is no treatment for these disorders and stem cell therapy therefore represents an interesting new approach. Gains could not only result from the cell transplantation, but also from the stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC or by the combination of both approaches. However, the development of such strategies requires a detailed knowledge of the pathology, particularly concerning the status of the adult neurogenesis and endogenous NSC during the development of the disease. During the past decade, several studies have consistently shown that NSC reside in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS and that adult neurogenesis occurs throughout the adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle or the Dentate Gyrus of the hippocampus. Adult NSC are believed to constitute a reservoir for neuronal replacement during normal cell turnover or after brain injury. However, the activation of this system does not fully compensate the neuronal loss that occurs during neurodegenerative diseases and could even contribute to the disease progression. We investigated here the status of these cells during the development of prion disorders. We were able to show that NSC accumulate and replicate prions. Importantly, this resulted in the alteration of their neuronal fate which then represents a new pathologic event that might underlie the rapid progression of the disease.

  11. The Influence of Cultural Values on Classroom Behaviors of Adult Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Roberta S.

    A study examined the influence of cultural values on classroom behaviors of adult Vietnamese refugees. More specifically, the study was designed to determine the effect of culturally acquired attitudes and personality traits on the refugees' classroom behaviors, the relationship between these behaviors and the cognitive learning styles favored by…

  12. The Reference Ability Neural Network Study: Life-time stability of reference-ability neural networks derived from task maps of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, C; Gazes, Y; Razlighi, Q; Steffener, J; Brickman, A; Barulli, D; Salthouse, T; Stern, Y

    2016-01-15

    Analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old have consistently yielded a set of latent variables representing reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change: Episodic Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Perceptual Processing Speed, and Vocabulary. In a previous paper (Stern et al., 2014), we introduced the Reference Ability Neural Network Study, which administers 12 cognitive neuroimaging tasks (3 for each RA) to healthy adults age 20-80 in order to derive unique neural networks underlying these 4 RAs and investigate how these networks may be affected by aging. We used a multivariate approach, linear indicator regression, to derive a unique covariance pattern or Reference Ability Neural Network (RANN) for each of the 4 RAs. The RANNs were derived from the neural task data of 64 younger adults of age 30 and below. We then prospectively applied the RANNs to fMRI data from the remaining sample of 227 adults of age 31 and above in order to classify each subject-task map into one of the 4 possible reference domains. Overall classification accuracy across subjects in the sample age 31 and above was 0.80±0.18. Classification accuracy by RA domain was also good, but variable; memory: 0.72±0.32; reasoning: 0.75±0.35; speed: 0.79±0.31; vocabulary: 0.94±0.16. Classification accuracy was not associated with cross-sectional age, suggesting that these networks, and their specificity to the respective reference domain, might remain intact throughout the age range. Higher mean brain volume was correlated with increased overall classification accuracy; better overall performance on the tasks in the scanner was also associated with classification accuracy. For the RANN network scores, we observed for each RANN that a higher score was associated with a higher corresponding classification accuracy for that reference ability. Despite the absence of behavioral performance information in the

  13. Neurons from the adult human dentate nucleus: neural networks in the neuron classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbatinić, Ivan; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T

    2015-04-07

    Topological (central vs. border neuron type) and morphological classification of adult human dentate nucleus neurons according to their quantified histomorphological properties using neural networks on real and virtual neuron samples. In the real sample 53.1% and 14.1% of central and border neurons, respectively, are classified correctly with total of 32.8% of misclassified neurons. The most important result present 62.2% of misclassified neurons in border neurons group which is even greater than number of correctly classified neurons (37.8%) in that group, showing obvious failure of network to classify neurons correctly based on computational parameters used in our study. On the virtual sample 97.3% of misclassified neurons in border neurons group which is much greater than number of correctly classified neurons (2.7%) in that group, again confirms obvious failure of network to classify neurons correctly. Statistical analysis shows that there is no statistically significant difference in between central and border neurons for each measured parameter (p>0.05). Total of 96.74% neurons are morphologically classified correctly by neural networks and each one belongs to one of the four histomorphological types: (a) neurons with small soma and short dendrites, (b) neurons with small soma and long dendrites, (c) neuron with large soma and short dendrites, (d) neurons with large soma and long dendrites. Statistical analysis supports these results (pneurons can be classified in four neuron types according to their quantitative histomorphological properties. These neuron types consist of two neuron sets, small and large ones with respect to their perykarions with subtypes differing in dendrite length i.e. neurons with short vs. long dendrites. Besides confirmation of neuron classification on small and large ones, already shown in literature, we found two new subtypes i.e. neurons with small soma and long dendrites and with large soma and short dendrites. These neurons are

  14. Neural correlates of reward processing in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duin, Esther D A; Goossens, Liesbet; Hernaus, Dennis; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Schruers, Koen; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2016-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and associated with an increased risk to develop psychosis. The gene coding for catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) is located at the deleted region, resulting in disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission in 22q11DS, which may contribute to the increased vulnerability for psychosis. A dysfunctional motivational reward system is considered one of the salient features in psychosis and thought to be related to abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission. The functional anatomy of the brain reward circuitry has not yet been investigated in 22q11DS. This study aims to investigate neural activity during anticipation of reward and loss in adult patients with 22q11DS. We measured blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity in 16 patients with 22q11DS and 12 healthy controls during a monetary incentive delay task using a 3T Philips Intera MRI system. Data were analysed using SPM8. During anticipation of reward, the 22q11DS group alone displayed significant activation in bilateral middle frontal and temporal brain regions. Compared to healthy controls, significantly less activation in bilateral cingulate gyrus extending to premotor, primary motor and somatosensory areas was found. During anticipation of loss, the 22q11DS group displayed activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, and relative to controls, they showed reduced brain activation in bilateral (pre)cuneus and left posterior cingulate. Within the 22q11DS group, COMT Val hemizygotes displayed more activation compared to Met hemizygotes in right posterior cingulate and bilateral parietal regions during anticipation of reward. During anticipation of loss, COMT Met hemizygotes compared to Val hemizygotes showed more activation in bilateral insula, striatum and left anterior cingulate. This is the first study to investigate reward processing in 22q11DS. Our preliminary results suggest that people with 22q11DS

  15. Being in-between: A model of cultural identity negotiation for emerging adult immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Julie A; Kassan, Anusha

    2018-03-01

    This qualitative study explored the cultural identity negotiation of young adult immigrants. Using a grounded theory research design, 10 semistructured interviews were conducted with emerging adult immigrants (EAI), ages 19-27. Results yielded a substantive model of cultural identity negotiation (MCIN) for EAI and posited that One's Motivation and Sense of Agency to Negotiate Cultural Identity is at the core of how participants navigate their cultural identities. This model included 6 major categories: (a) Family Cultural Rigidity ; (b) Connections Specific to Canada ; (c) Connection to a Same Cultured Community ; (d) Sense of Permanency ; (e) Desire to Preserve Culture of Origin ; (f) Desire to Fit in to Canadian Culture , as well as 2 overarching factors ( Dimension of Time and Dimension of Age ), which were found to be influential on participants' cultural identity negotiation. The model also included the identification of 4 approaches to cultural identity negotiation: (a) Blended; (b) Dual; (c) Disconnected; and (d) Intermediate. The MCIN for EAI is discussed in terms of the current literature on cultural identity formation as well as implications for counseling psychology training and practice. Recommendations for further research are also suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Neural androgen receptors affect the number of surviving new neurones in the adult dentate gyrus of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, A; Duarte-Guterman, P; Hamson, D K; Ibrahim, M; Monks, D A; Galea, L A M

    2018-04-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in many mammalian species. In rats, the survival of new neurones within the hippocampus is modulated by the action of androgen via the androgen receptor (AR); however, it is not known whether this holds true in mice. Furthermore, the evidence is mixed regarding whether androgens act in neural tissue or via peripheral non-neural targets to promote new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We evaluated whether the action of androgen via AR underlies the survival of new neurones in mice, and investigated whether increasing AR selectively in neural tissue would increase new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We used the cre-loxP system to overexpress AR only in neural tissues (Nestin-AR). These males were compared with wild-type males, as well as control males with 1 of the 2 mutations required for overexpression. Mice were gonadectomised and injected with the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and for 37 days (following BrdU injection), mice were treated with oil or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Using immunohistochemistry, proliferation (Ki67) and survival (BrdU) of new neurones were both evaluated in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus. Dihydrotestosterone treatment increased the survival of new neurones in the entire hippocampus in wild-type mice and control mice that only have 1 of 2 necessary mutations for transgenic expression. However, DHT treatment did not increase the survival of new neurones in mice that overexpressed AR in neural tissue. Cell proliferation (Ki67) and cell death (pyknotic cells) were not affected by DHT treatment in wild-type or transgenic males. These results suggest that androgens act via neural AR to affect hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting cell survival; however, the relationship between androgen dose and new neurone survival is nonlinear. © 2018 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  17. In vitro culture and characterization of enteric neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens using polymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, Janardhanam; Senthilnathan, Venugopal S; Vaikundaraman, Tirunelveli Muthiah; Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Balamurugan, Madasamy; Iwasaki, Masaru; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel Jk

    2013-08-01

    In vitro expansion and characterization of neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens with or without Hirschsprung's disease using a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) is reported aiming at a possible future treatment. Gut biopsy samples were obtained from five patients undergoing gut resection for Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1) or gastrointestinal disorders (n = 4). Cells isolated from the smooth muscle layer and the myenteric plexus were cultured in two groups for 18 to 28 days; Group I: conventional culture as earlier reported and Group II: using TGP scaffold. Neurosphere like bodies (NLBs) were observed in the cultures between 8th to 12th day and H & E staining was positive for neural cells in both groups including aganglionic gut portion from the Hirschsprung's disease patient. Immunohistochemistry using S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) was positive in both groups but the TGP group (Group II) showed more number of cells with intense cytoplasmic granular positivity for both NSE and S-100 compared to Group I. TGP supports the in vitro expansion of human gut derived neuronal cells with seemingly better quality NLBs. Animal Studies can be tried to validate their functional outcome by transplanting the NLBs with TGP scaffolds to see whether this can enhance the outcome of cell based therapies for Hirschsprung's disease.

  18. Spatio-temporal neural stem cell behavior that leads to both perfect and imperfect structural brain regeneration in adult newts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yuko; Yamashita, Wataru; Inoue, Takeshi; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2018-06-14

    Adult newts can regenerate large parts of their brain from adult neural stem cells (NSCs), but how adult NSCs reorganize brain structures during regeneration remains unclear. In development, elaborate brain structures are produced under broadly coordinated regulations of embryonic NSCs in the neural tube, whereas brain regeneration entails exquisite control of the reestablishment of certain brain parts, suggesting a yet-unknown mechanism directs NSCs upon partial brain excision. Here we report that upon one-quarter excision of the adult newt ( Pleurodeles waltl ) mesencephalon, active participation of local NSCs around specific brain subregions' boundaries leads to some imperfect and some perfect brain regeneration along an individual's rostrocaudal axis. Regeneration phenotypes depend on how the wound closing occurs using local NSCs, and perfect regeneration replicates development-like processes but takes more than one year. Our findings indicate that newt brain regeneration is supported by modularity of boundary-domain NSCs with self-organizing ability in neighboring fields. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Neural and behavioral responses to attractiveness in adult and infant faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Perrett, David I

    2014-10-01

    Facial attractiveness provides a very powerful motivation for sexual and parental behavior. We therefore review the importance of faces to the study of neurobiological control of human reproductive motivations. For heterosexual individuals there is a common brain circuit involving the nucleus accumbens, the medial prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and the orbitofrontal cortices that is activated more by attractive than unattractive faces, particularly for faces of the opposite sex. Behavioral studies indicate parallel effects of attractiveness on incentive salience or willingness to work to see faces. There is some evidence that the reward value of opposite sex attractiveness is more pronounced in men than women, perhaps reflecting the greater importance assigned to physical attractiveness by men when evaluating a potential mate. Sex differences and similarities in response to facial attractiveness are reviewed. Studies comparing heterosexual and homosexual observers indicate the orbitofrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus are more activated by faces of the desired sex than faces of the less-preferred sex, independent of observer gender or sexual orientation. Infant faces activate brain regions that partially overlap with those responsive to adult faces. Infant faces provide a powerful stimulus, which also elicits sex differences in behavior and brain responses that appear dependent on sex hormones. There are many facial dimensions affecting perceptions of attractiveness that remain unexplored in neuroimaging, and we conclude by suggesting that future studies combining parametric manipulation of face images, brain imaging, hormone assays and genetic polymorphisms in receptor sensitivity are needed to understand the neural and hormonal mechanisms underlying reproductive drives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of cannabichromene on adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjyo, Noriko; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-11-01

    Apart from the psychotropic compound Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), evidence suggests that other non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids are also of potential clinical use. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of major non-THC phytocannabinoids on the fate of adult neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), which are an essential component of brain function in health as well as in pathology. We tested three compounds: cannabidiol, cannabigerol, and cannabichromene (CBC), and found that CBC has a positive effect on the viability of mouse NSPCs during differentiation in vitro. The expression of NSPC and astrocyte markers nestin and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), respectively, was up- and down-regulated, respectively. CBC stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation; however, this effect had a slower onset in comparison to typical MAPK stimulation. A MEK inhibitor, U0126, antagonized the up-regulation of nestin but not the down-regulation of GFAP. Based on a previous report, we studied the potential involvement of the adenosine A1 receptor in the effect of CBC on these cells and found that the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, DPCPX, counteracted both ERK1/2 phosphorylation and up-regulation of nestin by CBC, indicating that also adenosine is involved in these effects of CBC, but possibly not in CBC inhibitory effect on GFAP expression. Next, we measured ATP levels as an equilibrium marker of adenosine and found higher ATP levels during differentiation of NSPCs in the presence of CBC. Taken together, our results suggest that CBC raises the viability of NSPCs while inhibiting their differentiation into astroglia, possibly through up-regulation of ATP and adenosine signalling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro effects of Epidiferphane™ on adult human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural stem cells have the capacity to respond to their environment, migrate to the injury site and generate functional cell types, and thus they hold great promise for cell therapies. In addition to representing a source for central nervous system (CNS) repair, neural stem and progenitor cells als...

  2. In vivo sensitivity of the embryonic and adult neural stem cell compartments to low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barazzuol, Lara; Jeggo, Penny A.

    2016-01-01

    The embryonic brain is radiation-sensitive, with cognitive deficits being observed after exposure to low radiation doses. Exposure of neonates to radiation can cause intracranial carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the basis underlying these outcomes, we examined the response of the embryonic, neonatal and adult brain to low-dose radiation, focusing on the neural stem cell compartments. This review summarizes our recent findings. At E13.5–14.5 the embryonic neocortex encompasses rapidly proliferating stem and progenitor cells. Exploiting mice with a hypomorphic mutation in DNA ligase IV (Lig4 Y288C ), we found a high level of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at E14.5, which we attribute to the rapid proliferation. We observed endogenous apoptosis in Lig4 Y288C embryos and in WT embryos following exposure to low radiation doses. An examination of DSB levels and apoptosis in adult neural stem cell compartments, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) revealed low DSB levels in Lig4 Y288C mice, comparable with the levels in differentiated neuronal tissues. We conclude that the adult SVZ does not incur high levels of DNA breakage, but sensitively activates apoptosis; apoptosis was less sensitively activated in the SGZ, and differentiated neuronal tissues did not activate apoptosis. P5/P15 mice showed intermediate DSB levels, suggesting that DSBs generated in the embryo can be transmitted to neonates and undergo slow repair. Interestingly, this analysis revealed a stage of high endogenous apoptosis in the neonatal SVZ. Collectively, these studies reveal that the adult neural stem cell compartment, like the embryonic counterpart, can sensitively activate apoptosis

  3. In vivo sensitivity of the embryonic and adult neural stem cell compartments to low-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara; Jeggo, Penny A

    2016-08-01

    The embryonic brain is radiation-sensitive, with cognitive deficits being observed after exposure to low radiation doses. Exposure of neonates to radiation can cause intracranial carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the basis underlying these outcomes, we examined the response of the embryonic, neonatal and adult brain to low-dose radiation, focusing on the neural stem cell compartments. This review summarizes our recent findings. At E13.5-14.5 the embryonic neocortex encompasses rapidly proliferating stem and progenitor cells. Exploiting mice with a hypomorphic mutation in DNA ligase IV (Lig4(Y288C) ), we found a high level of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at E14.5, which we attribute to the rapid proliferation. We observed endogenous apoptosis in Lig4(Y288C) embryos and in WT embryos following exposure to low radiation doses. An examination of DSB levels and apoptosis in adult neural stem cell compartments, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) revealed low DSB levels in Lig4(Y288C) mice, comparable with the levels in differentiated neuronal tissues. We conclude that the adult SVZ does not incur high levels of DNA breakage, but sensitively activates apoptosis; apoptosis was less sensitively activated in the SGZ, and differentiated neuronal tissues did not activate apoptosis. P5/P15 mice showed intermediate DSB levels, suggesting that DSBs generated in the embryo can be transmitted to neonates and undergo slow repair. Interestingly, this analysis revealed a stage of high endogenous apoptosis in the neonatal SVZ. Collectively, these studies reveal that the adult neural stem cell compartment, like the embryonic counterpart, can sensitively activate apoptosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  4. Artificial neural network-based model for the prediction of optimal growth and culture conditions for maximum biomass accumulation in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Archana; Prakash, Om; Mehrotra, Shakti; Khan, Feroz; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Mathur, Archana

    2017-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling approach is used to determine the synergistic effect of five major components of growth medium (Mg, Cu, Zn, nitrate and sucrose) on improved in vitro biomass yield in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica. The back propagation neural network (BPNN) was employed to predict optimal biomass accumulation in terms of growth index over a defined culture duration of 35 days. The four variable concentrations of five media components, i.e. MgSO 4 (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mM), ZnSO 4 (0, 15, 30, 60 μM), CuSO 4 (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 μM), NO 3 (20, 30, 40, 60 mM) and sucrose (1, 3, 5, 7 %, w/v) were taken as inputs for the ANN model. The designed model was evaluated by performing three different sets of validation experiments that indicated a greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset. The results of the modelling experiment suggested that 1.5 mM Mg, 30 μM Zn, 0.1 μM Cu, 40 mM NO 3 and 6 % (w/v) sucrose were the respective optimal concentrations of the tested medium components for achieving maximum growth index of 1654.46 with high centelloside yield (62.37 mg DW/culture) in the cultured multiple shoots. This study can facilitate the generation of higher biomass of uniform, clean, good quality C. asiatica herb that can efficiently be utilized by pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Family cultural socialization practices and ethnic identity in college-going emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-06-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N=225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and ethnic identity compared to White students. The family cultural socialization-ethnic identity link was more pronounced for females compared to males, and for White compared to ethnic minority students. The findings highlight the importance of the family for identity development beyond adolescence.

  6. The Burden of Binge and Heavy Drinking on the Brain: Effects on Adolescent and Young Adult Neural Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cservenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function.Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e.g., gray and white matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and investigated brain response using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Results: Binge and heavy-drinking adolescents and young adults have systematically thinner and lower volume in prefrontal cortex and cerebellar regions, and attenuated white matter development. They also show elevated brain activity in fronto-parietal regions during working memory, verbal learning, and inhibitory control tasks. In response to alcohol cues, relative to controls or light-drinking individuals, binge and heavy drinkers show increased neural response mainly in mesocorticolimbic regions, including the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, hippocampus, and amygdala. Mixed findings are present in risky decision-making tasks, which could be due to large variation in task design and analysis.Conclusions: These findings suggest altered neural structure and activity in binge and heavy-drinking youth may be related to the neurotoxic effects of consuming alcohol in large quantities during a highly plastic neurodevelopmental period, which could result in neural reorganization, and increased risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD.

  7. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture among registered nurses working in adult critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellino, Donna; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between structural empowerment and patient safety culture among staff level Registered Nurses (RNs) within adult critical care units (ACCU). There is literature to support the value of RNs' structurally empowered work environments and emerging literature towards patient safety culture; the link between empowerment and patient safety culture is being discovered. A sample of 257 RNs, working within adult critical care of a tertiary hospital in the United States, was surveyed. Instruments included a background data sheet, the Conditions of Workplace Effectiveness and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Structural empowerment and patient safety culture were significantly correlated. As structural empowerment increased so did the RNs' perception of patient safety culture. To foster patient safety culture, nurse leaders should consider providing structurally empowering work environments for RNs. This study contributes to the body of knowledge linking structural empowerment and patient safety culture. Results link structurally empowered RNs and increased patient safety culture, essential elements in delivering efficient, competent, quality care. They inform nursing management of key factors in the nurses' environment that promote safe patient care environments. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Object permanence in adults : a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Subbotski, Eugene; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and German adult subjects observed the phenomenon of object non-permanence (destruction, reconstruction, or transformation of a physical object). Both samples attributed an equal degree of probability to real existence of object non-permanence. However, Soviet subjects attributed a significantly higher probability to the existence of "religion-independent" non-permanent mysterious phenomena, (e.g., "unidentified flying objects", "abominable snowman", "Loch Ness monster") while attribut...

  9. Neuron cell positioning on polystyrene in culture by silver-negative ion implantation and region control of neural outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroko; Baba, Takahiro; Ikemura, Shin'ichi; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2000-01-01

    A new method to control the position of neuron cell attachment and extension region of neural outgrowth has been developed by using a pattering ion implantation with silver-negative ions into polystyrene dishes. This technique offers a promising method to form an artificially designed neural network in cell culture in vitro. Silver-negative ions were implanted into non-treated polystyrene dishes (NTPS) at conditions of 20 keV and 3x10 15 ions/cm 2 through a pattering mask, which had as many as 67 slits of 60 μm in width and 4 mm in length with a spacing of 60 μm. For cell culture in vitro, nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) were used because they respond to a nerve growth factor (NGF). In the first 2 days in culture without NGF, we observed a selective cell attachment only to the ion-implanted region in patterning Ag - implanted polystyrene sample (p-Ag/NTPS). In another 2 days in culture with NGF, the nerve cells expanded neurites only over the ion-implanted region. For collagen-coated p-Ag/NTPS sample of which collagen was coated after the ion implantation (Collagen/p-Ag/NTPS), most nerve cells were also attached on the ion-implanted region. However, neurites expanded in both ion-implanted and unimplanted regions. The contact angle of NTPS decreased after the ion implantation from 86 deg. to 74 deg. . The region selectivity of neuron attachment and neurite extension is considered to be due to contact angle lowering by the ion implantation as radiation effect on the surface

  10. Thyroid hormone participates in the regulation of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; Pirondi, S; Manservigi, M; Giardino, L; Calzà, L

    2004-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are under thyroid hormone control. In this study we analysed the effects of chronic manipulation of thyroid status on the expression of a wide spectrum of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) markers and myelin basic protein (MBP) in the subventricular zone (SVZ), olfactory bulb and optic nerve, and on neural stem cell (NSC) lineage in adult rats. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in male rats, by propyl-thio-uracil (PTU) and L-thyroxin (T4) treatment, respectively. Hypothyroidism increased and hyperthyroidism downregulated proliferation in the SVZ and olfactory bulb (Ki67 immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, bromodeoxyuridine uptake). Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFalpha-R) and MBP mRNA levels decreased in the optic nerve of hypothyroid rats; the same also occurred at the level of MBP protein. Hyperthyroidism slightly upregulates selected markers such as NG2 in the olfactory bulb. The lineage of cells derived from primary cultures of NSC prepared from the forebrain of adult hypo- and hyperthyroid also differs from those derived from control animals. Although no difference of in vitro proliferation of NSCs was observed in the presence of epidermal growth factor, maturation of oligodendrocytes (defined by process number and length) was enhanced in hyperthyroidism, suggesting a more mature state than in control animals. This difference was even greater when compared with the hypothyroid group, the morphology of which suggested a delay in differentiation. These results indicate that thyroid hormone affects NSC and OPC proliferation and maturation also in adulthood.

  11. Adult third culture kids and their intercultural learning and competence

    OpenAIRE

    Liwen, J. (Jiang)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to globalization, there are more and more families are bringing their children abroad due to different reasons (Cockburn 2002, 475–476). Third culture kids (TCKs) have gradually become well known to people and the society. The aim of this research is to discuss TCKs’ intercultural learning and competence during their significant years of development and what this experience means to them in terms of their educa...

  12. Rotary orbital suspension culture of embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells: impact of hydrodynamic culture on aggregate yield, morphology and cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundos, Tiago L; Silva, Joana; Assunção, Marisa; Quelhas, Pedro; Monteiro, Cátia; Oliveira, Carla; Oliveira, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P; Amaral, Isabel F

    2017-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES)-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (ES-NSPCs) constitute a promising cell source for application in cell therapies for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. In this study, a rotary orbital hydrodynamic culture system was applied to single-cell suspensions of ES-NSPCs, to obtain homogeneously-sized ES-NSPC cellular aggregates (neurospheres). Hydrodynamic culture allowed the formation of ES-NSPC neurospheres with a narrower size distribution than statically cultured neurospheres, increasing orbital speeds leading to smaller-sized neurospheres and higher neurosphere yield. Neurospheres formed under hydrodynamic conditions (72 h at 55 rpm) showed higher cell compaction and comparable percentages of viable, dead, apoptotic and proliferative cells. Further characterization of cellular aggregates provided new insights into the effect of hydrodynamic shear on ES-NSPC behaviour. Rotary neurospheres exhibited reduced protein levels of N-cadherin and β-catenin, and higher deposition of laminin (without impacting fibronectin deposition), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity and percentage of neuronal cells. In line with the increased MMP-2 activity levels found, hydrodynamically-cultured neurospheres showed higher outward migration on laminin. Moreover, when cultured in a 3D fibrin hydrogel, rotary neurospheres generated an increased percentage of neuronal cells. In conclusion, the application of a constant orbital speed to single-cell suspensions of ES-NSPCs, besides allowing the formation of homogeneously-sized neurospheres, promoted ES-NSPC differentiation and outward migration, possibly by influencing the expression of cell-cell adhesion molecules and the secretion of proteases/extracellular matrix proteins. These findings are important when establishing the culture conditions needed to obtain uniformly-sized ES-NSPC aggregates, either for use in regenerative therapies or in in vitro platforms for biomaterial development or

  13. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Cross-cultural differences and sexual risk behavior of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Yarandi, Hossein N; Dalmida, Safiya George; Frados, Andrew; Klienert, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined population-specific risk factors that increase emerging adults' risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papillomavirus (HPV). A cross-sectional sample of 335 diverse, emerging adults ages 18 to 24 years was recruited from a health center at a large university in the Southeastern United States. The mean age was 20.6 ± 1.9 years, majority were females (74.0%), and 61.0% were Hispanic. Findings revealed inconsistent condom use, reasons for not using condoms, and a need for more culturally specific intervention strategies. Healthcare providers should identify culturally specific reasons for inconsistent condom use, examine cultural and geographic differences in sexual risk behaviors among groups and communities, and modify communication, educational programs, and interventions accordingly. By adopting a multicultural approach to the control of STIs, nurses can address specific cultural attitudes and behaviors that may influence exposure to STIs, including HPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Philip L.; Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days...

  16. Cultural shaping of neural responses: Feedback-related potentials vary with self-construal and face priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Glazer, James; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous work shows that when an image of a face is presented immediately prior to each trial of a speeded cognitive task (face-priming), the error-related negativity (ERN) is upregulated for Asians, but it is downregulated for Caucasians. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that images of "generalized other" vary cross-culturally such that they evoke anxiety for Asians, whereas they serve as safety cues for Caucasians. Here, we tested whether the cross-cultural variation in the face-priming effect would be observed in a gambling paradigm. Caucasian Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian sojourners were exposed to a brief flash of a schematic face during a gamble. For Asian Americans, face-priming resulted in significant increases of both negative-going deflection of ERP upon negative feedback (feedback-related negativity [FRN]) and positive-going deflection of ERP upon positive feedback (feedback-related positivity [FRP]). For Caucasian Americans, face-priming showed a significant reversal, decreasing both FRN and FRP. The cultural difference in the face-priming effect in FRN and FRP was partially mediated by interdependent self-construal. Curiously, Asian sojourners showed a pattern similar to the one for Caucasian Americans. Our findings suggest that culture shapes neural pathways in both systematic and highly dynamic fashion. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Can older adults resist the positivity effect in neural responding? The impact of verbal framing on event-related brain potentials elicited by emotional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmert, Andrea E; Kisley, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information, presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive ("more or less positive") or negative ("more or less negative"). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition, thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults, but for positively valenced images, such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared with the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated, even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition.

  18. Can Older Adults Resist the Positivity Effect in Neural Responding: The Impact of Verbal Framing on Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited by Emotional Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmert, Andrea E.; Kisley, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice, or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision-making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural responses to negative stimuli through verbal reframing of evaluative response options. The late-positive potential (LPP) response of 50 older adults and 50 younger adults was recorded while participants categorized emotional images in one of two framing conditions: positive (“more or less positive”) or negative (“more or less negative”). It was hypothesized that older adults would be able to overcome a presumed tendency to down-regulate neural responding to negative stimuli in the negative framing condition thus leading to larger LPP wave amplitudes to negative images. A similar effect was predicted for younger adults but for positively valenced images such that LPP responses would be increased in the positive framing condition compared to the negative framing condition. Overall, younger adults' LPP wave amplitudes were modulated by framing condition, including a reduction in the negativity bias in the positive frame. Older adults' neural responses were not significantly modulated even though task-related behavior supported the notion that older adults were able to successfully adopt the negative framing condition. PMID:23731435

  19. Induced Neural Stem Cells Achieve Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hemmer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]. iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  20. Neural Response to Biological Motion in Healthy Adults Varies as a Function of Autistic-Like Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan H. Puglia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Perception of biological motion is an important social cognitive ability that has been mapped to specialized brain regions. Perceptual deficits and neural differences during biological motion perception have previously been associated with autism, a disorder classified by social and communication difficulties and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviors. However, the traits associated with autism are not limited to diagnostic categories, but are normally distributed within the general population and show the same patterns of heritability across the continuum. In the current study, we investigate whether self-reported autistic-like traits in healthy adults are associated with variable neural response during passive viewing of biological motion displays. Results show that more autistic-like traits, particularly those associated with the communication domain, are associated with increased neural response in key regions involved in social cognitive processes, including prefrontal and left temporal cortices. This distinct pattern of activation might reflect differential neurodevelopmental processes for individuals with varying autistic-like traits, and highlights the importance of considering the full trait continuum in future work.

  1. Induced neural stem cells achieve long-term survival and functional integration in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Kathrin; Zhang, Mingyue; van Wüllen, Thea; Sakalem, Marna; Tapia, Natalia; Baumuratov, Aidos; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Schöler, Hans R; Zhang, Weiqi; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2014-09-09

    Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]). iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quiescent Oct4+ Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) Repopulate Ablated Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein+ NSCs in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Rachel L; Yammine, Samantha Z; Morshead, Cindi M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2017-09-01

    Adult primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) are a rare population of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) - Oct4 + cells in the mouse forebrain subependymal zone bordering the lateral ventricles that give rise to clonal neurospheres in leukemia inhibitory factor in vitro. pNSC neurospheres can be passaged to self-renew or give rise to GFAP + NSCs that form neurospheres in epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, which we collectively refer to as definitive NSCs (dNSCs). Label retention experiments using doxycycline-inducible histone-2B (H2B)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice and several chase periods of up to 1 year quantified the adult pNSC cell cycle time as 3-5 months. We hypothesized that while pNSCs are not very proliferative at baseline, they may exist as a reserve pool of NSCs in case of injury. To test this function of pNSCs, we obtained conditional Oct4 knockout mice, Oct4 fl/fl ;Sox1 Cre (Oct4 CKO ), which do not yield adult pNSC-derived neurospheres. When we ablated the progeny of pNSCs, namely all GFAP + dNSCs, in these Oct4 CKO mice, we found that dNSCs did not recover as they do in wild-type mice, suggesting that pNSCs are necessary for dNSC repopulation. Returning to the H2B-GFP mice, we observed that the cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside ablation of proliferating cells including dNSCs-induced quiescent pNSCs to proliferate and significantly dilute their H2B-GFP label. In conclusion, we demonstrate that pNSCs are the most quiescent stem cells in the adult brain reported to date and that their lineage position upstream of GFAP + dNSCs allows them to repopulate a depleted neural lineage. Stem Cells 2017;35:2071-2082. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  4. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  5. As Working Memory Grows: A Developmental Account of Neural Bases of Working Memory Capacity in 5- to 8-Year Old Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonova, Maria; Winter, Warren; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2015-09-01

    Working memory develops slowly: Even by age 8, children are able to maintain only half the number of items that adults can remember. Neural substrates that support performance on working memory tasks also have a slow developmental trajectory and typically activate to a lesser extent in children, relative to adults. Little is known about why younger participants elicit less neural activation. This may be due to maturational differences, differences in behavioral performance, or both. Here we investigate the neural correlates of working memory capacity in children (ages 5-8) and adults using a visual working memory task with parametrically increasing loads (from one to four items) using fMRI. This task allowed us to estimate working memory capacity limit for each group. We found that both age groups increased the activation of frontoparietal networks with increasing working memory loads, until working memory capacity was reached. Because children's working memory capacity limit was half of that for adults, the plateau occurred at lower loads for children. Had a parametric increase in load not been used, this would have given an impression of less activation overall and less load-dependent activation for children relative to adults. Our findings suggest that young children and adults recruit similar frontoparietal networks at working memory loads that do not exceed capacity and highlight the need to consider behavioral performance differences when interpreting developmental differences in neural activation.

  6. Cultural values associated with substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-02-01

    Hispanic emerging adults are a priority population for substance use prevention, yet few studies have examined whether traditional Hispanic cultural values serve as risk or protective factors for substance use among emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between familism, respeto, fatalism, and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants (ages 18 to 25) completed surveys indicating identification with familism, respeto, and fatalism, past month use of tobacco, marijuana, hard drugs and binge drinking. Separate logistic regression models examined the association between cultural values and each substance use outcome, controlling for acculturation, age and gender. Among participants (n=1445, mean age=23, 60% female), 21% reported past month cigarette use, 18% reported past month alternative tobacco product (ATP) use, 25% reported past month marijuana use, 44% reported past month binge drinking, and 7% reported past month hard drug use. Higher fatalism scores were associated with increased ATP use. Higher familism scores were associated with binge drinking, while higher respeto scores were associated with decreased binge drinking, marijuana, and hard drug use. These findings suggest that substance use prevention and intervention programs should emphasize how substance use interferes with caring and honoring parents (respeto) and family cohesion and functioning (familism). Programs that highlight these cultural values and beliefs may be beneficial for Hispanic emerging adults and members of other collectivistic cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Affecting Participation by Adults in Community Educational Activities Concerned with the Cultural Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlum, Michael Frank

    The study seeks to determine and describe factors which are related to, and which may be responsible for, adult participation or lack of participation in a large-scale, community-wide, cultural arts project involving considerable volunteer effort. While serving as a participant observer, the researcher gathered data from sources directly related…

  8. A Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices of Adult ESOL and EAP Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christy M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently adult education English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teachers in Florida used specific culturally responsive teaching practices and how important they believed those practices were to their teaching. Using Ginsberg and Wlodkowski's…

  9. Menadione-mediated WST1 reduction assay for the determination of metabolic activity of cultured neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Karsten; Ehrke, Eric; Steinmeier, Johann; Rastedt, Wiebke; Dringen, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Cellular reduction of tetrazolium salts to their respective formazans is frequently used to determine the metabolic activity of cultured cells as an indicator of cell viability. For membrane-impermeable tetrazolium salts such as WST1 the application of a membrane-permeable electron cycler is usually required to mediate the transfer of intracellular electrons for extracellular WST1 reduction. Here we demonstrate that in addition to the commonly used electron cycler M-PMS, menadione can also serve as an efficient electron cycler for extracellular WST1 reduction in cultured neural cells. The increase in formazan absorbance in glial cell cultures for the WST1 reduction by menadione involves enzymatic menadione reduction and was twice that recorded for the cytosolic enzyme-independent WST1 reduction in the presence of M-PMS. The optimized WST1 reduction assay allowed within 30 min of incubation a highly reliable detection of compromised cell metabolism caused by 3-bromopyruvate and impaired membrane integrity caused by Triton X-100, with a sensitivity as good as that of spectrophotometric assays which determine cellular MTT reduction or lactate dehydrogenase release. The short incubation period of 30 min and the observed good sensitivity make this optimized menadione-mediated WST1 reduction assay a quick and reliable alternative to other viability and toxicity assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary evidence of altered neural response during intertemporal choice of losses in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori C; Yahata, Noriaki; Todokoro, Ayako; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kano, Yukiko; Nishimura, Yukika; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Ohtake, Fumio; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2018-04-30

    Impulsive behaviours are common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although previous studies have suggested functional models of impulsive behaviour, a full explanation of impulsivity in ADHD remains elusive. To investigate the detailed mechanisms behind impulsive behaviour in ADHD, we applied an economic intertemporal choice task involving gains and losses to adults with ADHD and healthy controls and measured brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the intertemporal choice of future gains, we observed no behavioural or neural difference between the two groups. In the intertemporal choice of future losses, adults with ADHD exhibited higher discount rates than the control participants. Furthermore, a comparison of brain activity representing the sensitivity of future loss in the two groups revealed significantly lower activity in the striatum and higher activity in the amygdala in adults with ADHD than in controls. Our preliminary findings suggest that an altered size sensitivity to future loss is involved in apparent impulsive choice behaviour in adults with ADHD and shed light on the multifaceted impulsivity underlying ADHD.

  11. Seeing odors in color: Cross-modal associations in children and adults from two cultural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubet, Nathalie; Durand, Karine; Schaal, Benoist; McCall, Daniel D

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the occurrence and underlying processes of odor-color associations in French and American 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 386) and adults (n = 137). Nine odorants were chosen according to their familiarity to either cultural group. Participants matched each odor with a color, gave hedonic and familiarity judgments, and identified each odor. By 6 years of age, children displayed culture-specific odor-color associations, but age differences were noted in the type of associations. Children and adults in both cultural groups shared common associations and formed associations that were unique to their environment, underscoring the importance of exposure learning in odor-color associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Philip L; Lee, Jae W; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at approximately 95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days on collagen-coated dishes with or without DCI for the final 3 days. In freshly isolated cells, highly expressed genes included SFTPA/B/C, SCGB1A, IL8, CXCL2, and SFN in addition to ubiquitously expressed genes. Transcript abundance was correlated between fetal and adult cells (r = 0.88), with a subset of 187 genes primarily related to inflammation and immunity that were expressed >10-fold higher in adult cells. During control culture, expression increased for 8.1% of expressed genes and decreased for approximately 4% including 118 immune response and 10 surfactant-related genes. DCI treatment promoted lamellar body production and increased expression of approximately 3% of probed genes by > or =1.5-fold; 40% of these were also induced in fetal cells. Highly induced genes (> or =10-fold) included PGC, ZBTB16, DUOX1, PLUNC, CIT, and CRTAC1. Twenty-five induced genes, including six genes related to surfactant (SFTPA/B/C, PGC, CEBPD, and ADFP), also had decreased expression during control culture and thus are candidates for hormonal regulation in vivo. Our results further define the adult human type II cell molecular phenotype and demonstrate that a subset of genes remains hormone responsive in cultured adult cells.

  13. A novel culture method reveals unique neural stem/progenitors in mature porcine iris tissues that differentiate into neuronal and rod photoreceptor-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Lars N; Lea, Daniel; Matsushita, Tamami; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Taketani, Shigeru; Araki, Masasuke

    2017-11-15

    Iris neural stem/progenitor cells from mature porcine eyes were investigated using a new protocol for tissue culture, which consists of dispase treatment and Matrigel embedding. We used a number of culture conditions and found an intense differentiation of neuronal cells from both the iris pigmented epithelial (IPE) cells and the stroma tissue cells. Rod photoreceptor-like cells were also observed but mostly in a later stage of culture. Neuronal differentiation does not require any additives such as fetal bovine serum or FGF2, although FGF2 and IGF2 appeared to promote neural differentiation in the IPE cultures. Furthermore, the stroma-derived cells were able to be maintained in vitro indefinitely. The evolutionary similarity between humans and domestic pigs highlight the potential for this methodology in the modeling of human diseases and characterizing human ocular stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. mRNA transfection of mouse and human neural stem cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    McLenachan, Samuel; Zhang, D.; Palomo, A.B.; Edel, Michael John; Chen, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of synthetic mRNA as an alternative gene delivery vector to traditional DNA-based constructs provides an effective method for inducing transient gene expression in cell cultures without genetic modification. Delivery of mRNA has been proposed as a safer alternative to viral vectors in the induction of pluripotent cells for regenerative therapies. Although mRNA transfection of fibroblasts, dendritic and embryonic stem cells has been described, mRNA delivery to neurosphere cultures has ...

  15. Three-dimensional neural cultures produce networks that mimic native brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Justin L; Quigley, Anita F; Duchi, Serena; O'Connell, Cathal D; Crook, Jeremy M; Wallace, Gordon G; Cook, Mark J; Kapsa, Robert M I

    2018-02-01

    Development of brain function is critically dependent on neuronal networks organized through three dimensions. Culture of central nervous system neurons has traditionally been limited to two dimensions, restricting growth patterns and network formation to a single plane. Here, with the use of multichannel extracellular microelectrode arrays, we demonstrate that neurons cultured in a true three-dimensional environment recapitulate native neuronal network formation and produce functional outcomes more akin to in vivo neuronal network activity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Oxytocin receptor polymorphism and childhood social experiences shape adult personality, brain structure and neural correlates of mentalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Hassloff, H; Straube, B; Jansen, A; Nuscheler, B; Wemken, G; Witt, S H; Rietschel, M; Kircher, T

    2016-07-01

    The oxytocin system is involved in human social behavior and social cognition such as attachment, emotion recognition and mentalizing (i.e. the ability to represent mental states of oneself and others). It is shaped by social experiences in early life, especially by parent-infant interactions. The single nucleotid polymorphism rs53576 in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene has been linked to social behavioral phenotypes. In 195 adult healthy subjects we investigated the interaction of OXTR rs53576 and childhood attachment security (CAS) on the personality traits "adult attachment style" and "alexithymia" (i.e. emotional self-awareness), on brain structure (voxel-based morphometry) and neural activation (fMRI) during an interactive mentalizing paradigm (prisoner's dilemma game; subgroup: n=163). We found that in GG-homozygotes, but not in A-allele carriers, insecure childhood attachment is - in adulthood - associated with a) higher attachment-related anxiety and alexithymia, b) higher brain gray matter volume of left amygdala and lower volumes in right superior parietal lobule (SPL), left temporal pole (TP), and bilateral frontal regions, and c) higher mentalizing-related neural activity in bilateral TP and precunei, and right middle and superior frontal gyri. Interaction effects of genotype and CAS on brain volume and/or function were associated with individual differences in alexithymia and attachment-related anxiety. Interactive effects were in part sexually dimorphic. The interaction of OXTR genotype and CAS modulates adult personality as well as brain structure and function of areas implicated in salience processing and mentalizing. Rs53576 GG-homozygotes are partially more susceptible to childhood attachment experiences than A-allele carriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. General and Specific Culture Learning in EFL Textbooks Aimed at Adult Learners in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Antonio R. Raigón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since language teaching in modern-day society is closely linked to cultural instruction, this study employs the model of a cultural learning analysis based on the earlier work of Paige and Lee. Using this model, the authors analysed the cultural content of six B1 and B2-level textbooks for teaching English to adults in Spain, and carried out a comparative study of the results, contrasting the two levels. Findings show that the subjective aspects of culture receive less coverage in textbooks, despite being fundamental to an understanding of the values of a society. Regarding the comparison between B1 and B2 levels, the data indicate that the number of big “C” Culture occurrences is similar for both levels, although there are differences in other cultural aspects. So, for example, culture in general is dealt with more at the B1 level, whereas small “c” culture is dealt with more at the B2 level.

  18. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-02-01

    This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers' assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers' experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers' generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice.

  19. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Miyawaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice.

  20. Cross-Cultural and Gender Differences in ADHD Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Benito, Juana; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Balluerka, Nekane; Caterino, Linda

    2015-10-29

    This study explored the effect of cultural and gender differences in ADHD among Spanish, African American, Hispanic American, and European American young adults. Structural equivalence between the four groups was examined by Tucker's phi coefficient. A MANCOVA was carried out with cultural groups and gender as factors and age as covariate. Structural equivalence was observed across all groups, and no differential item functioning was found. No significant effect was found for gender, although, with the exception of the Hispanic group, males scored higher than females. Furthermore, small, though significant, cultural differences were found. The lowest levels of ADHD were observed in the European American group and the highest in the Hispanic American group. ADHD symptoms, notably inattention, showed some decline with age. Findings extend existing data and suggest a relationship between culture and the development of ADHD, which might be mediated by parenting style. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A neural basis for the visual sense of number and its development: A steady-state visual evoked potential study in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonkoo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While recent studies in adults have demonstrated the existence of a neural mechanism for a visual sense of number, little is known about its development and whether such a mechanism exists at young ages. In the current study, I introduce a novel steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP technique to objectively quantify early visual cortical sensitivity to numerical and non-numerical magnitudes of a dot array. I then examine this neural sensitivity to numerical magnitude in children between three and ten years of age and in college students. Children overall exhibit strong SSVEP sensitivity to numerical magnitude in the right occipital sites with negligible SSVEP sensitivity to non-numerical magnitudes, the pattern similar to what is observed in adults. However, a closer examination of age differences reveals that this selective neural sensitivity to numerical magnitude, which is close to absent in three-year-olds, increases steadily as a function of age, while there is virtually no neural sensitivity to other non-numerical magnitudes across these ages. These results demonstrate the emergence of a neural mechanism underlying direct perception of numerosity across early and middle childhood and provide a potential neural mechanistic explanation for the development of humans’ primitive, non-verbal ability to comprehend number. Keywords: Numerosity, Steady-state visual evoked potential, Child development, Visual cortex, Approximate number system

  2. Neural correlates of motor-cognitive dual-tasking in young and old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Godde, Ben; Kaan, Wim A.; Erhard, Peter; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute

  3. A Fab fragment directed against the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 enhances functional recovery after injury of the adult mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loers, Gabriele; Cui, Yi-Fang; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schachner, Melitta; Skerra, Arne

    2014-06-15

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery, which leads to severe disabilities in motor functions or pain. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration. In the present study, we describe the cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli cells and purification of a recombinant αL1 Fab fragment that binds to L1 with comparable activity as the function-triggering monoclonal antibody 557.B6 and induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cultured neurons, despite its monovalent function. Infusion of αL1 Fab into the lesioned spinal cord of mice enhanced functional recovery after thoracic spinal cord compression injury. αL1 Fab treatment resulted in reduced scar volume, enhanced number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive axons and increased linear density of VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) on motoneurons. Furthermore, the number and soma size of ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)-positive motoneurons and the linear density of ChAT-positive boutons on motoneurons as well as parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord were elevated. Stimulation of endogenous L1 by application of the αL1 Fab opens new avenues for recombinant antibody technology, offering prospects for therapeutic applications after traumatic nervous system lesions.

  4. Neural activation patterns during retrieval of schema-related memories: differences and commonalities between children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Garvin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Shing, Yee Lee

    2017-11-01

    Schemas represent stable properties of individuals' experiences, and allow them to classify new events as being congruent or incongruent with existing knowledge. Research with adults indicates that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in memory retrieval of schema-related information. However, developmental differences between children and adults in the neural correlates of schema-related memories are not well understood. One reason for this is the inherent confound between schema-relevant experience and maturation, as both are related to time. To overcome this limitation, we used a novel paradigm that experimentally induces, and then probes for, task-relevant knowledge during encoding of new information. Thirty-one children aged 8-12 years and 26 young adults participated in the experiment. While successfully retrieving schema-congruent events, children showed less medial PFC activity than adults. In addition, medial PFC activity during successful retrieval correlated positively with children's age. While successfully retrieving schema-incongruent events, children showed stronger hippocampus (HC) activation as well as weaker connectivity between the striatum and the dorsolateral PFC than adults. These findings were corroborated by an exploratory full-factorial analysis investigating age differences in the retrieval of schema-congruent versus schema-incongruent events, comparing the two conditions directly. Consistent with the findings of the separate analyses, two clusters, one in the medial PFC, one in the HC, were identified that exhibited a memory × congruency × age group interaction. In line with the two-component model of episodic memory development, the present findings point to an age-related shift from a more HC-bound processing to an increasing recruitment of prefrontal brain regions in the retrieval of schema-related events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. From random to regular: Neural constraints on the emergence of isochronous rhythm during cultural transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Haumann, Niels Trusbak; Brattico, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    A core design feature of human communication systems and expressive behaviours is their temporal organization. The cultural evolutionary origins of this feature remain unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that regularities in the temporal organization of signalling sequences arise in the course...

  6. The Neural Basis of Decision-Making and Reward Processing in Adults with Euthymic Bipolar Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibanez, Agustin; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Baez, Sandra; Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Kamienkowski, Juan Esteban; Torralva, Teresa; Torrente, Fernando; Strejilevich, Sergio; Teitelbaum, Julia; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Melloni, Margherita; Lischinsky, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share DSM-IV criteria in adults and cause problems in decision-making. Nevertheless, no previous report has assessed a decision-making task that includes the examination of the neural correlates of reward and gambling in adults with ADHD and those with BD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a task of rational decision-making under risk (RDMUR) and a rapid-decision gambling ...

  7. Can Older Adults Resist the Positivity Effect in Neural Responding: The Impact of Verbal Framing on Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited by Emotional Images

    OpenAIRE

    Rehmert, Andrea E.; Kisley, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have demonstrated an avoidance of negative information presumably with a goal of greater emotional satisfaction. Understanding whether avoidance of negative information is a voluntary, motivated choice, or an involuntary, automatic response will be important to differentiate, as decision-making often involves emotional factors. With the use of an emotional framing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm, the present study investigated whether older adults could alter neural respon...

  8. Differential alterations of phospholipid metabolism in cultured cells of neural origin by phorbol esters, fatty acids, diacylglycerols and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, H.W.; Spence, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of [ 3 H]methylcholine, [1,2- 14 C]-ethanolamine, [1- 14 C]fatty acids and [ 32 P] were studied in glioma (C6), neuroblastoma (N1E-115) and neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid (NG108-15) cells in culture in the presence of tetradecanoylphorbolacetate (TPA) and related analogues, fatty acids and diacylglycerol (DAG) to assess mechanisms of stimulation of phospholipid synthesis. Choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine (PC) was stimulated 1.5-3 fold by phorbol esters and 3-10 fold by 18:1(n-9) in C6 cultures; these agents were without effect on N1E-115 and had intermediate effects on NG108-15 cells. Stimulation of [ 32 P] incorporation was predominantly into PC, ethanolamine incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was less stimulated ( 3 H]choline and its incorporation via intracellular phosphocholine into PC whereas exogenous 18:1(n-9) stimulated only utilization of intracellular P-choline in C6 cells. Choline incorporation into PC and relative stimulation by TPA or 18:1 was influenced by medium glucose and choline. Thus, metabolism of phospholipids and their precursors in neural cells can be markedly influenced by phorbol esters and fatty acids but this stimulation is dependent on cell type, growth medium, phospholipid class and nature of the stimulator

  9. Assessment of Patient Safety Culture in an Adult Oncology Department in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alharbi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to evaluate patient safety culture across different healthcare professionals from different countries of origin working in an adult oncology department in a medical facility in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional survey of 130 healthcare staff (doctors, pharmacists, nurses was conducted in February 2017. We used the Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC to examine healthcare staff perceptions of safety culture. Results: A total of 127 questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 97.7%. Eight out of 12 HSOPSC composites were considered areas for improvement (percent positivity < 50.0%. Significantly different mean scores were observed across the three professional groups in all 12 HSOPSC composites. Doctors tended to rate patient safety culture significantly more positively than nurses or pharmacists. Nurses scored significantly lower than pharmacists in the majority of HSOPSC composites. No significant differences in patient safety culture composite scores were observed between Saudi/Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and non-Saudi/GCC groups. Regression analysis showed that the frequency of reported events is predicted by feedback and communication about errors, and teamwork across units. Perception of patient safety is associated with respondents’ profession and teamwork across units. Conclusions: This study brings to the fore the assumption that all healthcare professionals have a shared understanding of patient safety. We urge healthcare leaders and policy makers to look at patient safety culture at this granular level in their contexts and use this information to develop strategies and training to improve patient safety culture.

  10. Assessing Capacity for Providing Culturally Competent Services to LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Jennifer Dickman; Retrum, Jessica H.; Wright, Leslie A.; Boggs, Jennifer M.; Wilkins, Shari; Grimm, Cathy; Gilchrist, Kay; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, interview-based study assessed the cultural competence of health and social service providers to meet the needs of LGBT older adults in an urban neighborhood in Denver, Colorado, known to have a large LGBT community. Only 4 of the agencies were categorized as “high competency” while 12 were felt to be “seeking improvement” and 8 were considered “not aware.” These results indicate significant gaps in cultural competency for the majority of service providers. Social workers are well-suited to lead efforts directed at improving service provision and care competencies for the older LGBT community. PMID:24798180

  11. Neural correlates of psychological resilience and their relation to life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Hu, Siyuan; Liu, Jia

    2015-12-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the ability to thrive in the face of risk and adversity, which is crucial for individuals' mental and physical health. However, its precise neural correlates are still largely unknown. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to identify the brain regions underlying this construct by correlating individuals' psychological resilience scores with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and then examined how these resilience-related regions predicted life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults. We found that the ReHo in the bilateral insula, right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right rostral ACC (rACC) negatively predicted individual differences in psychological resilience, revealing the critical role of the salience network (SN) in psychological resilience. Crucially, the ReHo in the dACC within the SN mediated the effects of psychological resilience on life satisfaction. In summary, these findings suggest that spontaneous activity of the human brain reflect the efficiency of psychological resilience and highlight the dACC within the SN as a neural substrate linking psychological resilience and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Research Review: Neural response to threat in children, adolescents, and adults after child maltreatment - a quantitative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Tyler C; Monk, Christopher S

    2017-03-01

    Child maltreatment is common and has long-term consequences for affective function. Investigations of neural consequences of maltreatment have focused on the amygdala. However, developmental neuroscience indicates that other brain regions are also likely to be affected by child maltreatment, particularly in the social information processing network (SIPN). We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to: confirm that maltreatment is related to greater bilateral amygdala activation in a large sample that was pooled across studies; investigate other SIPN structures that are likely candidates for altered function; and conduct a data-driven examination to identify additional regions that show altered activation in maltreated children, teens, and adults. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation analysis with 1,733 participants across 20 studies of emotion processing in maltreated individuals. Maltreatment is associated with increased bilateral amygdala activation to emotional faces. One SIPN structure is altered: superior temporal gyrus, of the detection node, is hyperactive in maltreated individuals. The results of the whole-brain corrected analysis also show hyperactivation of the parahippocampal gyrus and insula in maltreated individuals. The meta-analysis confirms that maltreatment is related to increased bilateral amygdala reactivity and also shows that maltreatment affects multiple additional structures in the brain that have received little attention in the literature. Thus, although the majority of studies examining maltreatment and brain function have focused on the amygdala, these findings indicate that the neural consequences of child maltreatment involve a broader network of structures. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Over-expression of hNGF in adult human olfactory bulb neural stem cells promotes cell growth and oligodendrocytic differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.E.S. Marei (Hany); A. Althani (Asmaa); N. Afifi (Nahla); A. Abd-Elmaksoud (Ahmed); C. Bernardini (Camilla); F. Michetti (Fabrizio); M. Barba (Marta); M. Pescatori (Mario); G. Maira (Giulio); E. Paldino (Emanuela); L. Manni (Luigi); P. Casalbore (Patrizia); C. Cenciarelli (Carlo)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe adult human olfactory bulb neural stem/progenitor cells (OBNC/PC) are promising candidate for cell-based therapy for traumatic and neurodegenerative insults. Exogenous application of NGF was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for traumatic and neurodegenerative diseases,

  14. The Moral Reasoning of U.S. Evangelical and Mainline Protestant Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Cultural-Developmental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lene Arnett; McKenzie, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This cultural-developmental interview study examined moral reasoning in relation to religious culture (evangelical, mainline Protestants), age (children, adolescents, adults), and moral issue (public, private; N = 120). Compared to adolescents and adults, children used more Ethic of Autonomy and less Ethic of Community reasoning. With age, differences between religious cultures became pronounced. Mainline adults invoked an Ethic of Divinity for private issues. Evangelical adolescents and adults used this ethic frequently, but more for public than private issues. These and other findings indicate that evangelical and mainline Protestants diverge on what should be society's moral lingua franca, and cast new and nuanced light on America's "culture wars." Results furthermore highlight comodulation of development and culture that requires life course research on moral reasoning. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. A virtual water maze revisited: Two-year changes in navigation performance and their neural correlates in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2017-02-01

    Age-related declines in spatial navigation are associated with deficits in procedural and episodic memory and deterioration of their neural substrates. For the lack of longitudinal evidence, the pace and magnitude of these declines and their neural mediators remain unclear. Here we examined virtual navigation in healthy adults (N=213, age 18-77 years) tested twice, two years apart, with complementary indices of navigation performance (path length and complexity) measured over six learning trials at each occasion. Slopes of skill acquisition curves and longitudinal change therein were estimated in structural equation modeling, together with change in regional brain volumes and iron content (R2* relaxometry). Although performance on the first trial did not differ between occasions separated by two years, the slope of path length improvement over trials was shallower and end-of-session performance worse at follow-up. Advanced age, higher pulse pressure, smaller cerebellar and caudate volumes, and greater caudate iron content were associated with longer search paths, i.e. poorer navigation performance. In contrast, path complexity diminished faster over trials at follow-up, albeit less so in older adults. Improvement in path complexity after two years was predicted by lower baseline hippocampal iron content and larger parahippocampal volume. Thus, navigation path length behaves as an index of perceptual-motor skill that is vulnerable to age-related decline, whereas path complexity may reflect cognitive mapping in episodic memory that improves with repeated testing, although not enough to overcome age-related deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural correlates of cued recall in young and older adults: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Séverine; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Granjon, Lionel; Isingrini, Michel

    2009-01-07

    This experiment investigated age differences in electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success in a word-stem cued recall task. Young adults (M+/-SD: 21.4 years+/-1.9) performed this memory task more accurately than older participants (M+/-SD: 65.1 years+/-3.3). Robust event-related brain potential (ERP) old/new effects were identified in both age groups. The main age differences were observed in latency and lateralization of ERP effects. Young adults exhibited a parietal effect that became focused over left parietal electrodes, whereas no asymmetry was observed in older adults. Moreover, ERP effects were more delayed in the older group. Overall, these findings provide some evidence of the reduction of processing speed during aging and suggest that young and older adults may recruit distinct cerebral patterns during episodic cued recall.

  17. Network Events on Multiple Space and Time Scales in Cultured Neural Networks and in a Stochastic Rate Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gigante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cortical networks, in-vitro as well as in-vivo, can spontaneously generate a variety of collective dynamical events such as network spikes, UP and DOWN states, global oscillations, and avalanches. Though each of them has been variously recognized in previous works as expression of the excitability of the cortical tissue and the associated nonlinear dynamics, a unified picture of the determinant factors (dynamical and architectural is desirable and not yet available. Progress has also been partially hindered by the use of a variety of statistical measures to define the network events of interest. We propose here a common probabilistic definition of network events that, applied to the firing activity of cultured neural networks, highlights the co-occurrence of network spikes, power-law distributed avalanches, and exponentially distributed 'quasi-orbits', which offer a third type of collective behavior. A rate model, including synaptic excitation and inhibition with no imposed topology, synaptic short-term depression, and finite-size noise, accounts for all these different, coexisting phenomena. We find that their emergence is largely regulated by the proximity to an oscillatory instability of the dynamics, where the non-linear excitable behavior leads to a self-amplification of activity fluctuations over a wide range of scales in space and time. In this sense, the cultured network dynamics is compatible with an excitation-inhibition balance corresponding to a slightly sub-critical regime. Finally, we propose and test a method to infer the characteristic time of the fatigue process, from the observed time course of the network's firing rate. Unlike the model, possessing a single fatigue mechanism, the cultured network appears to show multiple time scales, signalling the possible coexistence of different fatigue mechanisms.

  18. Isolation and culture of primary adult skin fibroblasts from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntita Siengdee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Primary cultures from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus allow scientists to obtain representative cells that have conserved most of their original characteristics, function, physiology and biochemistry. This technique has thus gained significant importance as a foundation for further cellular, cell biology and molecular research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe conditions for the successful establishment of primary adult fibroblasts from Asian elephant carcasses. Methods Ear tissue sample collection from Asian elephant carcasses and our recommendations are given. We describe here a simple modified protocol for successful isolation and maintenance of primary adult fibroblasts from elephant ear skin. Ear samples from each individual (five 3 × 3 cm2 pieces were brought to the laboratory within 3 h after collection, kept in transportation medium at 0–4 °C. The ear tissues were prepared by a combination of 10% collagenase type II digestion procedure together with a simple explant procedure. Primary fibroblasts were cultured at 37 °C in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. After the third passage, fibroblasts were routinely trypsinized with 0.25% trypsin/EDTA and cultured in DMEM with 10% FCS at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Traditional cell counting method was used to measure cell viability and growth curve. Long-term storage of cells used freezing medium consisting of 40% FCS (v/v. Results We explored the most suitable conditions during sample collection (post-mortem storage time and sample storage temperature, which is the most important step in determining primary outgrowth. Our study successfully established and cultured primary adult skin fibroblasts obtained from post-mortem E. maximus ear skin tissues from six carcasses, with a success rate of around 83.3%. Outgrowth could be seen 4–12 days after explantation, and epithelial

  19. Impact of negative emotion on the neural correlates of long-term recognition in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria eKalpouzos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have suggested that the memory advantage for negative emotional information over neutral information (negativity effect is reduced in aging. Besides the fact that most findings are based on immediate retrieval, the neural underpinnings of long-term emotional memory in aging have so far not been investigated. To address these issues, we assessed recognition of neutral and negative scenes after one- and 3-week retention intervals in younger and older adults using fMRI. We further used an event-related design in order to disentangle successful, false and true recognition. This study revealed 4 key findings: 1 Increased retention interval induced an increased rate of false recognitions for negative scenes, cancelling out the negativity effect (present for hit rates only on discrimination in both younger and older adults; 2 In younger, but not older, adults, reduced activity of the medial temporal lobe was observed over time for neutral scenes, but not for negative scenes, where stable or increased activity was seen; 3 Engagement of amygdala was observed in older adults after a 3-week delay during successful recognition of negative scenes (hits versus misses in comparison with neutral scenes, which may indicate engagement of automatic processes, but engagement of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was unrelated to amygdala activity and performance; and 4 After 3 weeks, but not after one week, true recognition of negative scenes was characterized by more activity in left hippocampus and lateral occipito-temporal regions (hits versus false alarms. As these regions are known to be related to consolidation mechanisms, the observed pattern may indicate the presence of delayed consolidation of true memories. Nonetheless, older adults’ low performance in discrimination of negative scenes could reflect the fact that overall, after long delays of retention, they rely more on general information rather than on perceptual detail in making

  20. Long-Term Adult Feline Liver Organoid Cultures for Disease Modeling of Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig S. Kruitwagen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hepatic steatosis is a highly prevalent liver disease, yet research is hampered by the lack of tractable cellular and animal models. Steatosis also occurs in cats, where it can cause severe hepatic failure. Previous studies demonstrate the potential of liver organoids for modeling genetic diseases. To examine the possibility of using organoids to model steatosis, we established a long-term feline liver organoid culture with adult liver stem cell characteristics and differentiation potential toward hepatocyte-like cells. Next, organoids from mouse, human, dog, and cat liver were provided with fatty acids. Lipid accumulation was observed in all organoids and interestingly, feline liver organoids accumulated more lipid droplets than human organoids. Finally, we demonstrate effects of interference with β-oxidation on lipid accumulation in feline liver organoids. In conclusion, feline liver organoids can be successfully cultured and display a predisposition for lipid accumulation, making them an interesting model in hepatic steatosis research. : In this study Kruitwagen and colleagues establish and characterize a feline liver organoid culture, which has adult stem cell properties and can be differentiated toward hepatocyte-like cells. They propose liver organoids as a tool to model hepatic steatosis and show that feline liver organoids accumulate more lipids than human organoids when provided with excess fatty acids. Keywords: feline liver organoids, adult liver stem cells, hepatic steatosis, disease modeling, feline hepatic lipidosis, species differences

  1. Neural correlates of naturalistic social cognition: brain-behavior relationships in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuse, L; Rademacher, L M; Winkler, L; Schultz, R T; Gründer, G; Lammertz, S E

    2016-11-01

    Being able to infer the thoughts, feelings and intentions of those around us is indispensable in order to function in a social world. Despite growing interest in social cognition and its neural underpinnings, the factors that contribute to successful mental state attribution remain unclear. Current knowledge is limited because the most widely used tasks suffer from two main constraints: (i) They fail to capture individual variability due to ceiling effects and (ii) they use highly simplistic, often artificial stimuli inapt to mirror real-world socio-cognitive demands. In the present study, we address these problems by employing complex depictions of naturalistic social interactions that vary in both valence (positive vs negative) and ambiguity (high vs low). Thirty-eight healthy participants (20 female) made mental state judgments while brain responses were obtained using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Accuracy varied based on valence and ambiguity conditions and women were more accurate than men with highly ambiguous social stimuli. Activity of the orbitofrontal cortex predicted performance in the high ambiguity condition. The results shed light on subtle differences in mentalizing abilities and associated neural activity. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Older adult perspectives on physical activity and exercise: voices from multiple cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Walwick, Julie; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Schwartz, Sheryl; Taylor, Mary; LoGerfo, James

    2004-10-01

    Increasing physical activity is a goal of Healthy People 2010. Although the health benefits of physical activity are documented, older adults are less physically active than any other age group. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators to physical activity and exercise among underserved, ethnically diverse older adults. Seventy-one older adults were recruited through community agencies to participate in seven ethnic-specific focus groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, African American, Filipino, Chinese, Latino, Korean, and Vietnamese. Groups were conducted in the participants' primary language and ranged in size from 7-13 participants. Mean age was 71.6 years (range from 52 to 85 years; SD +/- 7.39). Professional translators transcribed audiotapes into the language of the group and then translated the transcript into English. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis. Suggested features of physical activity programs to enhance participation among ethnically diverse minority older adults included fostering relationships among participants; providing culture-specific exercise; offering programs at residential sites; partnering with and offering classes prior to or after social service programs; educating families about the importance of physical activity for older adults and ways they could help; offering low- or no-cost classes; and involving older adults in program development. Walking was the exercise of choice across all ethnic groups. Health served as both a motivator and a barrier to physical activity. Other factors influencing physical activity were weather, transportation, and personal safety. Findings from this study suggest strategies for culture-specific programming of community-based physical activity programs.

  3. Comparing the importance of different aspects of quality of life to older adults across diverse cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molzahn, Anita E; Kalfoss, Mary; Schick Makaroff, Kara; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-03-01

    there is limited research examining the relative importance of aspects of quality of life (QOL) to older adults across cultures. to examine the relative importance of 31 internationally agreed areas of QOL to older adults in 22 countries in relation to health status, age and level of economic development. a survey quota sampling design was used to collect cross-cultural data. This study reports a secondary analysis of WHOQOL-OLD pilot study, which was collected simultaneously in 22 centres. a variety of community, primary, secondary and tertiary health care settings located in Australia, France, Switzerland, England, Scotland, USA, Israel, Spain, Japan, China (mainland and Hong Kong), Turkey, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Hungary, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Brazil and Uruguay. the total sample contained 7,401 people over 60 years with a mean age of 73.1 years; 57.8% were women and 70.1% considered themselves 'healthy'. there were significant differences in the importance given to various aspects of QOL for people living in medium and high-development countries. Culture explained 15.9% of the variance in the importance ratings of QOL. However, the interaction showed that cultural differences were reduced once health status, gender and age were taken into account. The importance of QOL to age bands in different cultures was not significantly affected by whether or not participants perceived themselves to be healthy. understanding the self-reported importance of diverse aspects of QOL for different cultures and for healthy and less healthy people may assist national and international policy makers to decide on priorities for the development of programmes for the ageing population.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of the endogenous neural peptide apelin in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiang Jun; Yu, Shan Ping; Zhang, Like; Wei, Ling

    2010-01-01

    The adipocytokine apelin and its G protein-coupled APJ receptor were initially isolated from a bovine stomach and have been detected in the brain and cardiovascular system. Recent studies suggest that apelin can protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. Here, we investigated the effect of apelin on apoptosis in mouse primary cultures of cortical neurons. Exposure of the cortical cultures to a serum-free medium for 24 h induced nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic death; apelin-13 (1.0-5.0 nM) markedly prevented the neuronal apoptosis. Apelin neuroprotective effects were mediated by multiple mechanisms. Apelin-13 reduced serum deprivation (SD)-induced ROS generation, mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. Apelin-13 prevented SD-induced changes in phosphorylation status of Akt and ERK1/2. In addition, apelin-13 attenuated NMDA-induced intracellular Ca 2+ accumulation. These results indicate that apelin is an endogenous neuroprotective adipocytokine that may block apoptosis and excitotoxic death via cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that apelins may be further explored as a potential neuroprotective reagent for ischemia-induced brain damage.

  5. Transplanted Adult Neural Stem Cells Express Sonic Hedgehog In Vivo and Suppress White Matter Neuroinflammation after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve M. Sullivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs delivered intraventricularly may be therapeutic for diffuse white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI. To test this concept, NSCs isolated from adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult mice at two weeks post-TBI followed by analysis at four weeks post-TBI. We examined sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling as a candidate mechanism by which transplanted NSCs may regulate neuroregeneration and/or neuroinflammation responses of endogenous cells. Mouse fluorescent reporter lines were generated to enable in vivo genetic labeling of cells actively transcribing Shh or Gli1 after transplantation and/or TBI. Gli1 transcription is an effective readout for canonical Shh signaling. In ShhCreERT2;R26tdTomato mice, Shh was primarily expressed in neurons and was not upregulated in reactive astrocytes or microglia after TBI. Corroborating results in Gli1CreERT2;R26tdTomato mice demonstrated that Shh signaling was not upregulated in the corpus callosum, even after TBI or NSC transplantation. Transplanted NSCs expressed Shh in vivo but did not increase Gli1 labeling of host SVZ cells. Importantly, NSC transplantation significantly reduced reactive astrogliosis and microglial/macrophage activation in the corpus callosum after TBI. Therefore, intraventricular NSC transplantation after TBI significantly attenuated neuroinflammation, but did not activate host Shh signaling via Gli1 transcription.

  6. Cognitive and neural plasticity in older adults' prospective memory following training with the Virtual Week computer game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S; Rendell, Peter G; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bidelman, Gavin M; Craik, Fergus I M

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) - the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities - is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training) control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex) associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood.

  7. Endogenous neural stem cells in central canal of adult rats acquired limited ability to differentiate into neurons following mild spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Tan, Botao; Wang, Li; Long, Zaiyun; Li, Yingyu; Liao, Weihong; Wu, Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem cells in central canal of adult mammalian spinal cord exhibit stem cell properties following injury. In the present study, the endogenous neural stem cells were labeled with Dil to track the differentiation of cells after mild spinal cord injury (SCI). Compared with 1 and 14 days post mild injury, the number of endogenous neural stem cells significantly increased at the injured site of spinal cord on 3 and 7 days post-injury. Dil-labeled βIII-tublin and GFAP expressing cells could be detected on 7 days post-injury, which indicated that the endogenous neural stem cells in central canal of spinal cord differentiated into different type of neural cells, but there were more differentiated astrocytes than the neurons after injury. Furthermore, after injury the expression of inhibitory Notch1 and Hes1 mRNA began to increase at 6 hours and was evident at 12 and 24 hours, which maintained high levels up to 7 days post-injury. These results indicated that a mild SCI in rat is sufficient to induce endogenous neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation. However, the ability to differentiate into neurons is limited, which may be, at least in part, due to high expression of inhibitory Notch1 and Hes1 genes after injury. PMID:26097566

  8. Lunatic fringe-mediated Notch signaling regulates adult hippocampal neural stem cell maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerci, Fatih; Choi, William Tin-Shing; Bajic, Aleksandar; Thakkar, Aarohi; Encinas, Juan Manuel; Depreux, Frederic; Segil, Neil; Groves, Andrew K; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2017-07-12

    Hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) integrate inputs from multiple sources to balance quiescence and activation. Notch signaling plays a key role during this process. Here, we report that Lunatic fringe ( Lfng), a key modifier of the Notch receptor, is selectively expressed in NSCs. Further, Lfng in NSCs and Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged1, expressed by their progeny, together influence NSC recruitment, cell cycle duration, and terminal fate. We propose a new model in which Lfng-mediated Notch signaling enables direct communication between a NSC and its descendants, so that progeny can send feedback signals to the 'mother' cell to modify its cell cycle status. Lfng-mediated Notch signaling appears to be a key factor governing NSC quiescence, division, and fate.

  9. Spontaneous trait inference is culture-specific: behavioral and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2011-08-01

    People with an independent model of the self may be expected to develop a spontaneous tendency to infer a personality trait from another person's behavior, but those with an interdependent model of the self may not show such a tendency. We tested this prediction by assessing the cumulative effect of both trait activation and trait binding in a diagnostic task that required no trait inference. Participants first memorized pairings of facial photos with trait-implying behavior. In a subsequent lexical decision task, European Americans showed clear evidence of spontaneous trait inference: When they were primed with a previously studied face, lexical decision for the word for the implied trait associated with that face was facilitated, and the antonym of the implied trait elicited an electrophysiological sign associated with processing of semantically inconsistent information (i.e., the N400). As predicted, however, neither effect was observed for Asian Americans. The cultural difference was mediated by independent self-construal.

  10. Me or you? Neural correlates of moral reasoning in everyday conflict situations in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Monika; Meinhardt, Jörg; Rothmayr, Christoph; Döhnel, Katrin; Hajak, Göran; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sodian, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Throughout adolescence, progress in the understanding of the moral domain as well as changes in moral behavior is observable. We tested 16 adolescents (14-16 years of age) and 16 healthy adults (22-31 years of age) on the developmental changes in everyday moral decision making using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using verbal stories describing everyday moral conflict situations, subjects had to decide between a moral standard or a personal desire. In the moral conflict situations, adolescents not only chose significantly more often the hedonistic alternative than adults, but they also reported higher certainty ratings. Contrasted with everyday social conflict situations that required a decision between a social-oriented behavior and a personal need, moral conflict situations induced an activity increase in frontal areas, the middle temporal gyrus, the thalamus, and the parahippocampal gyrus in adolescents compared to adults. Moreover, a closer look at the moral conflict situations revealed that adolescents showed more activity than adults in brain areas that are also centrally involved in theory of mind (ToM) during morally oriented decisions in contrast to personal-oriented decisions. This indicated that the development of moral reasoning may be strongly correlated with the development of ToM reasoning.

  11. Explaining individual differences in alcohol intake in adults: evidence for genetic and cultural transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; Geels, Lot M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to describe what proportion of variation in adult alcohol intake is attributable to genetic differences among individuals and what proportion to differences in environmental experiences individuals have been exposed to. Effects of age, gender, spousal resemblance, and cultural transmission of alcohol intake from parents to offspring were taken into account. In a twin-family design, the effects of genetic and cultural transmission and shared and nonshared environment on alcohol intake were estimated with genetic structural equation models. Data originated from adult twins, their siblings, parents (n = 12,587), and spouses (n = 429) registered with the population-based Netherlands Twin Register (63.5% female; ages 18-97 years). Alcohol intake (grams per day) was higher among men than women and increased with age. Broad-sense heritability estimates were similar across sex and age (53%). Spousal resemblance was observed (r = .39) but did not significantly affect the heritability estimates. No effects of cultural transmission were detected. In total, 23% of the variation in alcohol intake was explained by additive genetic effects, 30% by dominant (nonadditive) gene action, and 47% by environmental effects that were not shared among family members. Individual differences in adult alcohol intake are explained by genetic and individual-specific environmental effects. The same genes are expressed in males and females and in younger and older participants. A substantial part of the heritability of alcohol intake is attributable to nonadditive gene action. Effects of cultural transmission that have been reported in adolescence are not present in adulthood.

  12. Adult Attachment Affects Neural Response to Preference-Inferring in Ambiguous Scenarios: Evidence From an fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM. Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The fMRI results demonstrated that adult attachment influenced the activation of anterior insula (AI and inferior parietal lobule (IPL in response to ambiguous preference-inferring. More specifically, in the ambiguous preference condition, the avoidant attached groups exhibited a significantly enhanced activation than secure and anxious attached groups in left IPL; the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation secure attached group in left IPL. In addition, the anxious attached groups exhibited a significantly reduced activation than secure and avoidant attached groups in left AI. These results were also further confirmed by the subsequent PPI analysis. The results from current study suggest that, under ambiguous situations, the avoidant attached individuals show lower sensitivity to the preference of other individuals and need to invest more cognitive resources for preference-reasoning; while compared with avoidant attached group, the anxious attached individuals express high tolerance for uncertainty and a higher ToM proficiency. Results from the current study imply that differences in preference-inferring under ambiguous conditions associated with different levels of individual attachment may explain the differences in interpersonal interaction.

  13. Age and gender modulate the neural circuitry supporting facial emotion processing in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Emily M; Rapport, Lisa J; Kassel, Michelle T; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Weisenbach, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-03-01

    Emotion processing, supported by frontolimbic circuitry known to be sensitive to the effects of aging, is a relatively understudied cognitive-emotional domain in geriatric depression. Some evidence suggests that the neurophysiological disruption observed in emotion processing among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by both gender and age. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of gender and age on the neural circuitry supporting emotion processing in MDD. Cross-sectional comparison of fMRI signal during performance of an emotion processing task. Outpatient university setting. One hundred adults recruited by MDD status, gender, and age. Participants underwent fMRI while completing the Facial Emotion Perception Test. They viewed photographs of faces and categorized the emotion perceived. Contrast for fMRI was of face perception minus animal identification blocks. Effects of depression were observed in precuneus and effects of age in a number of frontolimbic regions. Three-way interactions were present between MDD status, gender, and age in regions pertinent to emotion processing, including frontal, limbic, and basal ganglia. Young women with MDD and older men with MDD exhibited hyperactivation in these regions compared with their respective same-gender healthy comparison (HC) counterparts. In contrast, older women and younger men with MDD exhibited hypoactivation compared to their respective same-gender HC counterparts. This the first study to report gender- and age-specific differences in emotion processing circuitry in MDD. Gender-differential mechanisms may underlie cognitive-emotional disruption in older adults with MDD. The present findings have implications for improved probes into the heterogeneity of the MDD syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Culture-specific programs for children and adults from minority groups who have asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Gabrielle B; Morris, Peter S; Brown, Ngiare; Chang, Anne B

    2017-08-22

    People with asthma who come from minority groups often have poorer asthma outcomes, including more acute asthma-related doctor visits for flare-ups. Various programmes used to educate and empower people with asthma have previously been shown to improve certain asthma outcomes (e.g. adherence outcomes, asthma knowledge scores in children and parents, and cost-effectiveness). Models of care for chronic diseases in minority groups usually include a focus of the cultural context of the individual, and not just the symptoms of the disease. Therefore, questions about whether tailoring asthma education programmes that are culturally specific for people from minority groups are effective at improving asthma-related outcomes, that are feasible and cost-effective need to be answered. To determine whether culture-specific asthma education programmes, in comparison to generic asthma education programmes or usual care, improve asthma-related outcomes in children and adults with asthma who belong to minority groups. We searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, Embase, review articles and reference lists of relevant articles. The latest search fully incorporated into the review was performed in June 2016. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of culture-specific asthma education programmes with generic asthma education programmes, or usual care, in adults or children from minority groups with asthma. Two review authors independently selected, extracted and assessed the data for inclusion. We contacted study authors for further information if required. In this review update, an additional three studies and 220 participants were added. A total of seven RCTs (two in adults, four in children, one in both children and adults) with 837 participants (aged from one to 63 years) with asthma from ethnic minority groups were eligible for inclusion in this review. The methodological quality of

  15. Six cloned calves produced from adult fibroblast cells after long-term culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chikara; Yamakuchi, Hiroshi; Todoroki, Junichi; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Tabara, Norio; Barber, Michele; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2000-01-01

    Cloning whole animals with somatic cells as parents offers the possibility of targeted genetic manipulations in vitro such as “gene knock-out” by homologous recombination. However, such manipulation requires prolonged culture of nuclear donor cells. Previous successes in cloning have been limited to the use of cells collected either fresh or after short-term culture. Therefore, demonstration of genetic totipotency of cells after prolonged culture is pivotal to combining site-specific genetic manipulations and cloning. Here we report birth of six clones of an aged (17-year-old) Japanese Black Beef bull using ear skin fibroblast cells as nuclear donor cells after up to 3 months of in vitro culture (10–15 passages). We observed higher developmental rates for embryos derived from later passages (10 and 15) as compared with those embryos from an early passage (passage 5). The four surviving clones are now 10–12 months of age and appear normal, similar to their naturally reproduced peers. These data show that fibroblasts of aged animals remain competent for cloning, and prolonged culture does not affect the cloning competence of adult somatic donor cells. PMID:10655472

  16. Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials: neural mechanisms and feasibility of a placebo-controlled design in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eGevensleben

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate basic mechanisms underlying neurofeedback we investigated neural mechanisms of training of slow cortical potentials by considering EEG- and fMRI. Additionally, we analyzed the feasibility of a double-blind, placebo-controlled design in NF research based on regulation performance during treatment sessions and self-assessment of the participants. Twenty healthy adults participated in 16 sessions of SCP training: 9 participants received regular SCP training, 11 participants received sham feedback. At three time points (pre, intermediate, post fMRI and EEG/ERP-measurements were conducted during a continuous performance test (CPT. Performance-data during the sessions (regulation performance in the treatment group and the placebo group were analyzed. Analysis of EEG-activity revealed in the SCP group a strong enhancement of the CNV (electrode Cz at the intermediate assessment, followed by a decrease back to baseline at the post-treatment assessment. In contrast, in the placebo group a continuous but smaller increase of the CNV could be obtained from pre to post assessment. The increase of the CNV in the SCP group at intermediate testing was superior to the enhancement in the placebo group. The changes of the CNV were accompanied by a continuous improvement in the test performance of the CPT from pre to intermediate to post assessment comparable in both groups. The change of the CNV in the SCP group is interpreted as an indicator of neural plasticity and efficiency while an increase of the CNV in the placebo group might reflect learning and improved timing due to the frequent task repetition.In the fMRI analysis evidence was obtained for neuronal plasticity. After regular SCP neurofeedback activation in the posterior parietal cortex decreased from the pre- to the intermediate measurement and increased again in the post measurement, inversely following the U-shaped increase and decrease of the tCNV EEG amplitude in the SCP-trained group

  17. Calpain Determines the Propensity of Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells to Autophagic Cell Death Following Insulin Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung Min; Park, Hyunhee; Jung, Seonghee; Ha, Shinwon; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Woo, Hanwoong; Lee, Hyang Ju; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Moon, Cheil; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2015-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has significant effects on the function of neural stem cells (NSCs) during brain development and degeneration. We have previously reported that adult rat hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells underwent autophagic cell death (ACD) rather than apoptosis following insulin withdrawal despite their intact apoptotic capabilities. Here, we report a switch in the mode of cell death in HCN cells with calpain as a critical determinant. In HCN cells, calpain 1 expression was barely detectable while calpain 2 was predominant. Inhibition of calpain in insulin-deprived HCN cells further augmented ACD. In contrast, expression of calpain 1 switched ACD to apoptosis. The proteasome inhibitor lactacystin blocked calpain 2 degradation and elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. In combination, these effects potentiated calpain activity and converted the mode of cell death to apoptosis. Our results indicate that low calpain activity, due to absence of calpain 1 and degradation of calpain 2, results in a preference for ACD over apoptosis in insulin-deprived HCN cells. On the other hand, conditions leading to high calpain activity completely switch the mode of cell death to apoptosis. This is the first report on the PCD mode switching mechanism in NSCs. The dynamic change in calpain activity through the proteasome-mediated modulation of the calpain and intracellular Ca(2+) levels may be the critical contributor to the demise of NSCs. Our findings provide a novel insight into the complex mechanisms interconnecting autophagy and apoptosis and their roles in the regulation of NSC death. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Adult attachment, perceived social support, cultural orientation, and depressive symptoms: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Wang, Chiachih Dc; Chong, Chu Chian

    2016-11-01

    In the current study, we tested a moderated mediation model in which cultural orientation moderated the mediation model of adult attachment-perceived social support-depressive symptoms, using 2 comparable cross-cultural samples of college students recruited from China and the U.S. (n = 363 for each group). Results indicated that perceived social support mediated the effect of attachment anxiety on depressive symptoms as well as the link between attachment avoidance and depression in both samples. Moderated mediation analyses using PROCESS revealed that interdependent self-construal significantly buffered the indirect effect of attachment avoidance (via perceived social support) on depressive symptoms. The findings indicated significant differences in the mediation models between the U.S. and China groups and interdependent self-construal accounted for the between-country differences. Limitations, implications of the findings, and future research directions are discussed from the perspectives of cross-cultural variation of adult attachment functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Maintenance of adult primate liver in organ culture: Potential use in toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; O'Brien, K.A.; Allen, L.; DeLuca, J.; Norman, B.; Keenan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Adult Rhesus monkey liver slices were incubated using a dynamic organ culture method to determine hepatocyte viability, drug biotransformation potential and the in vitro response to the hepatotoxicant, allyl alcohol (AA). After 1, 2, 4, or 8 hr, slices were removed from culture and analyzed for incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into acid-precipitable material, and medium alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was determined. Separate slices were taken for histological evaluation and for evaluation of microsomal 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin-O-deethylase (EFCOD) activity. Incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into slices was linear over the period of incubation and was specifically inhibited by cycloheximide (10 uM) at all time points. In the absence of AA, enzyme leakage was minimal over 8 hr. Marked ALT leakage occurred with 1 mM AA. Control slices had an initial fall to 55% of in vivo EFCOD activity that stabilized at 40-50% control slices indicated that there was minimal cellular degeneration and that, in PAS-stained sections, glycogen accumulation occurred over the incubation period. This system allows for maintenance and viability of adult primate liver slices in culture for at least 8 hr and may be useful for in vitro toxicity and biotransformation studies

  20. A voltage-sensitive dye-based assay for the identification of differentiated neurons derived from embryonic neural stem cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson N Leão

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells hold great therapeutical promise for the replacement of degenerated tissue in neurological diseases. To fulfill that promise we have to understand the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of multipotent cells into specific types of neurons. Embryonic stem cell (ESC and embryonic neural stem cell (NSC cultures provide a valuable tool to study the processes of neural differentiation, which can be assessed using immunohistochemistry, gene expression, Ca(2+-imaging or electrophysiology. However, indirect methods such as protein and gene analysis cannot provide direct evidence of neuronal functionality. In contrast, direct methods such as electrophysiological techniques are well suited to produce direct evidence of neural functionality but are limited to the study of a few cells on a culture plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe a novel method for the detection of action potential-capable neurons differentiated from embryonic NSC cultures using fast voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD. We found that the use of extracellularly applied VSD resulted in a more detailed labeling of cellular processes compared to calcium indicators. In addition, VSD changes in fluorescence translated precisely to action potential kinetics as assessed by the injection of simulated slow and fast sodium currents using the dynamic clamp technique. We further demonstrate the use of a finite element model of the NSC culture cover slip for optimizing electrical stimulation parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our method allows for a repeatable fast and accurate stimulation of neurons derived from stem cell cultures to assess their differentiation state, which is capable of monitoring large amounts of cells without harming the overall culture.

  1. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  2. Differential Neural Processing of Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Brown

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNon-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, NSSI often occurs independently of BPD. Altered neural processing of social exclusion has been shown in adolescents with NSSI and adults with BPD with additional alterations during social inclusion in BPD patients. Aims of this study were to investigate differences in neural processing of social inclusion and exclusion situations between adolescents with NSSI and young adults with BPD and NSSI.MethodsUsing fMRI, neural processing of positive and negative social situations (paradigm: “Cyberball” was explored. Participants were 14 adolescents with NSSI, but without BPD (Mage = 15.4; SD = 1.9, 15 adults with BPD and NSSI (Mage = 23.3; SD = 4.1, as well as 15 healthy adolescents (Mage = 14.5; SD = 1.7, and 16 healthy adults (Mage = 23.2; SD = 4.4.ResultsBehavioral results showed enhanced feelings of social exclusion in both patient groups as compared to healthy controls but only the NSSI group showed enhanced activation during social exclusion versus inclusion compared to the other groups. While both NSSI and BPD groups showed enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex during social exclusion as compared to their age-matched controls, enhanced activation during social inclusion as compared to a passive watching condition was mainly observed in the BPD group in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the anterior insula.DiscussionWhile neural processing of social exclusion was pronounced in adolescents with NSSI, BPD patients also showed increased activity in a per se positive social situation. These results might point toward a higher responsiveness to social exclusion in adolescents with NSSI, which might then develop into a generalized increased sensitivity to all kinds of social situations in adults with BPD.

  3. Differential Neural Processing of Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Groen, Georg; Neff, Dominik; Bonenberger, Martina; Abler, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, NSSI often occurs independently of BPD. Altered neural processing of social exclusion has been shown in adolescents with NSSI and adults with BPD with additional alterations during social inclusion in BPD patients. Aims of this study were to investigate differences in neural processing of social inclusion and exclusion situations between adolescents with NSSI and young adults with BPD and NSSI. Using fMRI, neural processing of positive and negative social situations (paradigm: "Cyberball") was explored. Participants were 14 adolescents with NSSI, but without BPD (M age  = 15.4; SD = 1.9), 15 adults with BPD and NSSI (M age  = 23.3; SD = 4.1), as well as 15 healthy adolescents (M age  = 14.5; SD = 1.7), and 16 healthy adults (M age  = 23.2; SD = 4.4). Behavioral results showed enhanced feelings of social exclusion in both patient groups as compared to healthy controls but only the NSSI group showed enhanced activation during social exclusion versus inclusion compared to the other groups. While both NSSI and BPD groups showed enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex during social exclusion as compared to their age-matched controls, enhanced activation during social inclusion as compared to a passive watching condition was mainly observed in the BPD group in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the anterior insula. While neural processing of social exclusion was pronounced in adolescents with NSSI, BPD patients also showed increased activity in a per se positive social situation. These results might point toward a higher responsiveness to social exclusion in adolescents with NSSI, which might then develop into a generalized increased sensitivity to all kinds of social situations in adults with BPD.

  4. Adult English Language Learners Constructing and Sharing Their Stories and Experiences: The Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography Writing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…

  5. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  6. Geminin Participates in Differentiation Decisions of Adult Neural Stem Cells Transplanted in the Hemiparkinsonian Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taouki, Ioanna; Tasiudi, Eve; Lalioti, Maria-Eleni; Kyrousi, Christina; Skavatsou, Eleni; Kaplani, Konstantina; Lygerou, Zoi; Kouvelas, Elias D; Mitsacos, Adamantia; Giompres, Panagiotis; Taraviras, Stavros

    2017-08-15

    Neural stem cells have been considered as a source of stem cells that can be used for cell replacement therapies in neurodegenerative diseases, as they can be isolated and expanded in vitro and can be used for autologous grafting. However, due to low percentages of survival and varying patterns of differentiation, strategies that will enhance the efficacy of transplantation are under scrutiny. In this article, we have examined whether alterations in Geminin's expression, a protein that coordinates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, can improve the properties of stem cells transplanted in 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian mouse model. Our results indicate that, in the absence of Geminin, grafted cells differentiating into dopaminergic neurons were decreased, while an increased number of oligodendrocytes were detected. The number of proliferating multipotent cells was not modified by the absence of Geminin. These findings encourage research related to the impact of Geminin on transplantations for neurodegenerative disorders, as an important molecule in influencing differentiation decisions of the cells composing the graft.

  7. Optimizing culture medium composition to improve oligodendrocyte progenitor cell yields in vitro from subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cell neurospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula G Franco

    Full Text Available Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC.

  8. Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Hansel, Gisele; Arús, Bernardo Assein; Bellaver, Gabriela; Longoni, Aline; Kolling, Janaina; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT 1 proteins in cells by immunofluorescence. Next, we determined the concentrations of thirteen amino acids, ATP, ADP, adenosine and calcium in astrocyte cultures, as well as the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase. Furthermore, we assessed the presence of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1) in the astrocytes. Cells demonstrated the presence of glutamine, consistent with their role in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as glutamate and D-serine, amino acids classically known to act as gliotransmitters. ATP was produced and released by the cells and ADP was consumed. Calcium levels were in agreement with those reported in the literature, as were the enzymatic activities measured. The presence of GAT 1 was detected, but the presence of CB 1 was not, suggesting a decreased neuroprotective capacity in adult astrocytes under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our results show cellular functionality regarding the astrocytic role in gliotransmission and neurotransmitter management since they are able to produce and release gliotransmitters and to modulate the cholinergic and GABAergic systems.

  9. Baby, you light-up my face: culture-general physiological responses to infants and culture-specific cognitive judgements of adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Esposito

    Full Text Available Infants universally elicit in adults a set of solicitous behaviors that are evolutionarily important for the survival of the species. However, exposure, experience, and prejudice appear to govern adults' social choice and ingroup attitudes towards other adults. In the current study, physiological arousal and behavioral judgments were assessed while adults processed unfamiliar infant and adult faces of ingroup vs. outgroup members in two contrasting cultures, Japan and Italy. Physiological arousal was investigated using the novel technique of infrared thermography and behavioral judgments using ratings. We uncovered a dissociation between physiological and behavioral responses. At the physiological level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant activation (increase of facial temperature for both ingroup and outgroup infant faces. At the behavioral level, both Japanese and Italian adults showed significant preferences for ingroup adults. Arousal responses to infants appear to be mediated by the autonomic nervous system and are not dependent on direct caregiving exposure, but behavioral responses appear to be mediated by higher-order cognitive processing based on social acceptance and cultural exposure.

  10. Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions : are models of self and of other pancultural constructs?

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David P.; Diniz, Glaucia; Alcalay, Lidia; Durkin, Kevin; Allensworth, Melissa; Echegaray, Marcela; Allik, Juri; Eremsoy, Ekin; Ault, Lara; Euler, Harald A.; Austers, Ivars; Falzon, Ruth; Bennett, Kevin L.; Fisher, Maryanne L.; Bianchi, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-cat...

  11. Cultural differences in perceptual reorganization in US and Pirahã adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M D Yoon

    Full Text Available Visual illusions and other perceptual phenomena can be used as tools to uncover the otherwise hidden constructive processes that give rise to perception. Although many perceptual processes are assumed to be universal, variable susceptibility to certain illusions and perceptual effects across populations suggests a role for factors that vary culturally. One striking phenomenon is seen with two-tone images-photos reduced to two tones: black and white. Deficient recognition is observed in young children under conditions that trigger automatic recognition in adults. Here we show a similar lack of cue-triggered perceptual reorganization in the Pirahã, a hunter-gatherer tribe with limited exposure to modern visual media, suggesting such recognition is experience- and culture-specific.

  12. Social Representation of "Loud Music" in Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zhao, Fei; Widen, Stephen; Auzenne, Jasmin; Beukes, Eldré W; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Mahadeva, Deepthi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to recreational noise, particularly music exposure, is considered one of the biggest public health hazards of our time. Some important influencing factors such as socioeconomic status, educational background, and cross-cultural perspectives have previously been found to be associated with attitudes toward loud music and the use of hearing protection. Although culture seems to play an important role, there is relatively little known about how it influences perceptions regarding loud music exposure in young adults. The present study was aimed to explore cross-cultural perceptions of and reactions to loud music in young adults (18-25 yr) using the theory of social representations. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The study sample included young adults (n = 534) from five different countries (India, Iran, Portugal, the United States, and the United Kingdom) who were recruited using convenience sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and also χ² analysis. Fairly equal numbers of positive and negative connotations (∼40%) were noted in all countries. However, the χ² analysis showed significant differences between the countries (most positive connotations were found in India and Iran, whereas the most negative connotations were found in the United Kingdom and Portugal) regarding the informants' perception of loud music. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "negative emotions and actions" occurred most frequently, immediately followed by the category "positive emotions and actions." The other most frequently occurring categories included "acoustics," "physical aliment," "location," and "ear and hearing problems." These six categories formed the central nodes of the social representation of loud music exposure in the global index. Although some similarities and differences were noted among the social representations toward loud

  13. Identity and Integration of Young People in the Adult World in Times of Digital Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bernete

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the discussion about the place of identity on contemporary life, this article seeks to provide some clues to understand that "youth identity”, traditionally sought as a way to distance itself from the old to gain autonomy, is now more associated than ever to the ability to handle exchanges of information or, if preferred, to the communications revolution. In the era of globalization and the "digital culture", we do not know yet how the familiarity of young people with ICT and its languages will impact on integration processes with the adult world.

  14. Innovative practice: exploring acculturation theory to advance rehabilitation from pediatric to adult "cultures" of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tram; Baptiste, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper explores the application of acculturation and the inherent concepts and ideas associated with this theory in rehabilitation to provide a framework for interpreting patient circumstances, responses and behaviours as they move from one culture to the next. Traditionally acculturation theory has been use to examine changes in culture in an ethnic or country sense, however, this paper is among the first to apply acculturation theory to the rehabilitation service cultures from pediatric to adult care for youth with chronic health conditions. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to critically appraise key literature in the development of acculturation theory, (2) to discuss how acculturation theory can be applied in rehabilitation practice through a clinical vignette, and finally (3) to discuss how acculturation theory can advance rehabilitation by enhancing client-centered practice. Acculturation theory can provide insight into how patients are experiencing a change in health care "cultures", in the context of their overarching life circumstances. This, coming from a broader societal perspective can in turn inform an optimal approach to client-centered practice, and the application of rehabilitation-specific team inputs. This theoretical framework can heighten practitioners' awareness of patients' unique worldviews related to their expectations for care and treatment thus reducing fear of diversity to establish positive partnerships between patients and clinicians. An understanding of patients' acculturation processes will add new insight into how we can best deliver services and supports to optimise health, opportunities and experiences for youth with chronic conditions.

  15. Chronic lead intoxication affects glial and neural systems and induces hypoactivity in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2011-10-01

    Lead is an environmental toxin and its effects are principally manifested in the brain. Glial and neuronal changes have been described during development following chronic or acute lead intoxication, however, little is known about the effects of chronic lead intoxication in adults. In this study we evaluated immunohistochemically the glial and dopaminergic systems in adult male Wistar rats. 0.5% (v/v) lead acetate in drinking water was administrated chronically over a 3-month period. Hypertrophic immunoreactive astrocytes were observed in the frontal cortex and other brain structures of the treated animals. Analysis of the astroglial features showed increased number of astrocyte cell bodies and processes in treated rats, an increase confirmed by Western blot. Particular distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was observed within the blood vessel walls in which dense immunoreactive glial processes emanate from astrocytes. Glial changes in the frontal cortex were concomitant with reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neuronal processes, which seem to occur as a consequence of significantly reduced dopaminergic neurons within the nucleus of origin in the substantia nigra. These glial and neuronal changes following lead intoxication may affect animal behavior as evidenced by reduced locomotor activity in an open field test. These findings demonstrate that chronic lead exposure induces astroglial changes, which may compromise neuronal function and consequently animal behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from immature and adult bovine testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyatno; Kitamura, Yuka; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Minami, Naojiro; Yamada, Masayasu; Imai, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Undifferentiated spermatogonia eventually differentiate in the testis to produce haploid sperm. Within this cell population, there is a small number of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSCs are rare cells in the testis, and their cellular characteristics are poorly understood. Establishment of undifferentiated cell line would provide an indispensable tool for studying their biological nature and spermiogenesis/spermatogenesis in vitro. However, there have been few reports on the long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia in species other than rodents. Here, we report the derivation and long-term in vitro culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia cell lines from immature and adult bovine testes. Cell lines from immature testes were maintained in serum-free culture conditions in the presence of glial-cell-line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) and bovine leukemia inhibitory factor (bLIF). These cell lines have embryonic stem (ES)-like cell morphology, express pluripotent-stem-cell-specific and germ-cell-specific markers at the protein and mRNA levels, and contributed to the inner cell mass (ICM) of embryos in the blastocyst stage. Meanwhile, cell lines established from adult testes were maintained in low-serum media in the presence of 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO). These cell lines have characteristics resembling those of previously reported male mouse germ cell lines as confirmed by their botryoidally aggregated morphology, as well as the expression of germ-cell-specific markers and pluripotent stem cell markers. These findings could be useful for the development of long-term culture of undifferentiated spermatogonia, which could aid in conservation of species and improvement of livestock production through genome editing technology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex differences in neural activation following different routes of oxytocin administration in awake adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Kulkarni, Praveen P; Ferris, Craig F; Veenema, Alexa H

    2017-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates social behavior in sex-specific ways across species. OT has promising effects on alleviating social deficits in sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. However little is known about potential sexually dimorphic effects of OT on brain function. Using the rat as a model organism, we determined whether OT administered centrally or peripherally induces sex differences in brain activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity changes in the brains of awake rats during the 20min following intracerebroventricular (ICV; 1μg/5μl) or intraperitoneal (IP; 0.1mg/kg) OT administration as compared to baseline. ICV OT induced sex differences in BOLD activation in 26 out of 172 brain regions analyzed, with 20 regions showing a greater volume of activation in males (most notably the nucleus accumbens and insular cortex), and 6 regions showing a greater volume of activation in females (including the lateral and central amygdala). IP OT also elicited sex differences in BOLD activation with a greater volume of activation in males, but this activation was found in different and fewer (10) brain regions compared to ICV OT. In conclusion, exogenous OT modulates neural activation differently in male versus female rats with the pattern and magnitude, but not the direction, of sex differences depending on the route of administration. These findings highlight the need to include both sexes in basic and clinical studies to fully understand the role of OT on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of neural progenitors from embryogenesis to juvenile adult in Xenopus laevis reveals biphasic neurogenesis and continuous lengthening of the cell cycle

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    Raphaël Thuret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenopus laevis is a prominent model system for studying neural development, but our understanding of the long-term temporal dynamics of neurogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we present the first continuous description of neurogenesis in X. laevis, covering the entire period of development from the specification of neural ectoderm during gastrulation to juvenile frog. We have used molecular markers to identify progenitors and neurons, short-term bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation to map the generation of newborn neurons and dual pulse S-phase labelling to characterise changes in their cell cycle length. Our study revealed the persistence of Sox3-positive progenitor cells from the earliest stages of neural development through to the juvenile adult. Two periods of intense neuronal generation were observed, confirming the existence of primary and secondary waves of neurogenesis, punctuated by a period of quiescence before metamorphosis and culminating in another period of quiescence in the young adult. Analysis of multiple parameters indicates that neural progenitors alternate between global phases of differentiation and amplification and that, regardless of their behaviour, their cell cycle lengthens monotonically during development, at least at the population level.

  19. Store-Operated Calcium Entries Control Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal in the Adult Brain Subventricular Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, Florence; Terrié, Elodie; Arnault, Patricia; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bois, Patrick; Constantin, Bruno; Coronas, Valérie

    2018-05-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the major stem cell niche in the brain of adult mammals. Within this region, neural stem cells (NSC) proliferate, self-renew and give birth to neurons and glial cells. Previous studies underlined enrichment in calcium signaling-related transcripts in adult NSC. Because of their ability to mobilize sustained calcium influxes in response to a wide range of extracellular factors, store-operated channels (SOC) appear to be, among calcium channels, relevant candidates to induce calcium signaling in NSC whose cellular activities are continuously adapted to physiological signals from the microenvironment. By Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate that SVZ cells express molecular actors known to build up SOC, namely transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) and Orai1, as well as their activator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). Calcium imaging reveals that SVZ cells display store-operated calcium entries. Pharmacological blockade of SOC with SKF-96365 or YM-58483 (also called BTP2) decreases proliferation, impairs self-renewal by shifting the type of SVZ stem cell division from symmetric proliferative to asymmetric, thereby reducing the stem cell population. Brain section immunostainings show that TRPC1, Orai1, and STIM1 are expressed in vivo, in SOX2-positive SVZ NSC. Injection of SKF-96365 in brain lateral ventricle diminishes SVZ cell proliferation and reduces the ability of SVZ cells to form neurospheres in vitro. The present study combining in vitro and in vivo approaches uncovers a major role for SOC in the control of SVZ NSC population and opens new fields of investigation for stem cell biology in health and disease. Stem Cells 2018;36:761-774. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  20. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  1. Prion protein cleavage fragments regulate adult neural stem cell quiescence through redox modulation of mitochondrial fission and SOD2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Steven J; Tumpach, Carolin; Groveman, Bradley R; Drew, Simon C; Haigh, Cathryn L

    2018-03-24

    Neurogenesis continues in the post-developmental brain throughout life. The ability to stimulate the production of new neurones requires both quiescent and actively proliferating pools of neural stem cells (NSCs). Actively proliferating NSCs ensure that neurogenic demand can be met, whilst the quiescent pool makes certain NSC reserves do not become depleted. The processes preserving the NSC quiescent pool are only just beginning to be defined. Herein, we identify a switch between NSC proliferation and quiescence through changing intracellular redox signalling. We show that N-terminal post-translational cleavage products of the prion protein (PrP) induce a quiescent state, halting NSC cellular growth, migration, and neurite outgrowth. Quiescence is initiated by the PrP cleavage products through reducing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. First, inhibition of redox signalling results in increased mitochondrial fission, which rapidly signals quiescence. Thereafter, quiescence is maintained through downstream increases in the expression and activity of superoxide dismutase-2 that reduces mitochondrial superoxide. We further observe that PrP is predominantly cleaved in quiescent NSCs indicating a homeostatic role for this cascade. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation of NSC quiescence, which potentially could influence brain health throughout adult life.

  2. Neural correlates of childhood trauma with executive function in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Pan, Fen; Gao, Weijia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Wang, Dandan; Hu, Shaohua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi; Li, Lingjiang

    2017-10-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among childhood trauma, executive impairments, and altered resting-state brain function in young healthy adults. Twenty four subjects with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched subjects without childhood trauma were recruited. Executive function was assessed by a series of validated test procedures. Localized brain activity was evaluated by fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method and compared between two groups. Areas with altered fALFF were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis. Correlations of fALFF and connectivity values with severity of childhood trauma and executive dysfunction were analyzed as well. Subjects with childhood trauma exhibited impaired executive function as assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Color Word Test. Traumatic individuals also showed increased fALFF in the right precuneus and decreased fALFF in the right superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations of specific childhood trauma severity with executive dysfunction and fALFF value in the right precuneus were found in the whole sample. In addition, individuals with childhood trauma also exhibited diminished precuneus-based connectivity in default mode network with left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, left orbitofrontal cortex, and right cerebellum. Decreased default mode network connectivity was also associated with childhood trauma severity and executive dysfunction. The present findings suggest that childhood trauma is associated with executive deficits and aberrant default mode network functions even in healthy adults. Moreover, this study demonstrates that executive dysfunction is related to disrupted default mode network connectivity.

  3. Odor experiences during preimaginal stages cause behavioral and neural plasticity in adult honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela eRamirez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In eusocial insects, experiences acquired during the development have long-term consequences on mature behavior. In the honeybee that suffers profound changes associated with metamorphosis, the effect of odor experiences at larval instars on the subsequent physiological and behavioral response is still unclear. To address the impact of preimaginal experiences on the adult honeybee, colonies containing larvae were fed scented food. The effect of the preimaginal experiences with the food odor was assessed in learning performance, memory retention and generalization in 3-5- and 17-19-day-old bees, in the regulation of their expression of synaptic-related genes and in theperception and morphology of their antennae. Three-5 day old bees that experienced 1-hexanol (1-HEX as food scent responded more to the presentation of the odor during the 1-HEX conditioning than control bees (i.e. bees reared in colonies fed unscented food. Higher levels of PER to 1-HEX in this group also extent to HEXA, the most perceptually similar odor to the experienced one that we tested. These results were not observed for the group tested at older ages. In the brain of young adults, larval experiences triggered similar levels of neurexins and neuroligins expression, two proteins that have been involved in synaptic formation after associative learning. At the sensory periphery, the experience did not alter the number of the olfactory sensilla placoidea, but did reduce the electrical response of the antennae to the experienced and novel odor. Our study provides a new insight into the effects of preimaginal experiences in the honeybee and the mechanisms underlying olfactory plasticity at larval stage of holometabolous insects.

  4. Low levels of endogenous or X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks activate apoptosis in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara; Rickett, Nicole; Ju, Limei; Jeggo, Penny A

    2015-10-01

    The embryonic neural stem cell compartment is characterised by rapid proliferation from embryonic day (E)11 to E16.5, high endogenous DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and sensitive activation of apoptosis. Here, we ask whether DSBs arise in the adult neural stem cell compartments, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and whether they activate apoptosis. We used mice with a hypomorphic mutation in DNA ligase IV (Lig4(Y288C)), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm(-/-)) and double mutant Atm(-/-)/Lig4(Y288C) mice. We demonstrate that, although DSBs do not arise at a high frequency in adult neural stem cells, the low numbers of DSBs that persist endogenously in Lig4(Y288C) mice or that are induced by low radiation doses can activate apoptosis. A temporal analysis shows that DSB levels in Lig4(Y288C) mice diminish gradually from the embryo to a steady state level in adult mice. The neonatal SVZ compartment of Lig4(Y288C) mice harbours diminished DSBs compared to its differentiated counterpart, suggesting a process selecting against unfit stem cells. Finally, we reveal high endogenous apoptosis in the developing SVZ of wild-type newborn mice. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Vitamin E-Mediated Modulation of Glutamate Receptor Expression in an Oxidative Stress Model of Neural Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifah Abd Jalil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Excessive concentrations of glutamate in the brain can be excitotoxic and cause oxidative stress, which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, the effects of vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF and alpha-tocopherol (α-TCP in modulating the glutamate receptor and neuron injury markers in an in vitro model of oxidative stress in neural-derived embryonic stem (ES cell cultures were elucidated. A transgenic mouse ES cell line (46C was differentiated into a neural lineage in vitro via induction with retinoic acid. These cells were then subjected to oxidative stress with a significantly high concentration of glutamate. Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS was performed after inducing glutamate excitotoxicity, and recovery from this toxicity in response to vitamin E was determined. The gene expression levels of glutamate receptors and neuron-specific enolase were elucidated using real-time PCR. The results reveal that neural cells derived from 46C cells and subjected to oxidative stress exhibit downregulation of NMDA, kainate receptor, and NSE after posttreatment with different concentrations of TRF and α-TCP, a sign of neurorecovery. Treatment of either TRF or α-TCP reduced the levels of ROS in neural cells subjected to glutamate-induced oxidative stress; these results indicated that vitamin E is a potent antioxidant.

  6. Co-cultures provide a new tool to probe communication between adult sensory neurons and urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, Lauren M; Keast, Janet R; Osborne, Peregrine B

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the urothelium functions as a sensory transducer of chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli and signals to nerve terminals and other cells in the bladder wall. The cellular and molecular basis of neuro-urothelial communication is not easily studied in the intact bladder. This led us to establish a method of co-culturing dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and bladder urothelial cells. Sensory neurons and urothelial cells obtained from dorsal root ganglia and bladders dissected from adult female Sprague-Dawley® rats were isolated by enzyme treatment and mechanical dissociation. They were plated together or separately on collagen coated substrate and cultured in keratinocyte medium for 48 to 72 hours. Retrograde tracer labeling was performed to identify bladder afferents used for functional testing. Neurite growth and complexity in neurons co-cultured with urothelial cells was increased relative to that in neuronal monocultures. The growth promoting effect of urothelial cells was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a but upstream inhibition of nerve growth factor signaling with TrkA-Fc had no effect. Fura-2 calcium imaging of urothelial cells showed responses to adenosine triphosphate (100 μM) and activation of TRPV4 (4α-PDD, 10 μM) but not TRPV1 (capsaicin, 1 μM), TRPV3 (farnesyl pyrophosphate, 1 μM) or TRPA1 (mustard oil, 100 μM). In contrast, co-cultured neurons were activated by all agonists except farnesyl pyrophosphate. Co-culturing provides a new methodology for investigating neuro-urothelial interactions in animal models of urological conditions. Results suggest that neuronal properties are maintained in the presence of urothelium and neurite growth is potentiated by a nerve growth factor independent mechanism. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure of neural stem cell niches and neurogenic complexes maintaining adult neurogenesis in the olfactory midbrain of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D

    2011-08-15

    New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a "neurogenic complex." Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labeling with cell-type-selective markers. The clump of cells is composed of unique bipolar clump-forming cells that collectively completely envelop the adult neuroblast and are themselves ensheathed by a layer of processes of multipolar cell body glia. An arteriole is attached to the clump of cells, but dye perfusion experiments show that hemolymph has no access to the interior of the clump of cells. Thus, the clump of cells fulfills morphological criteria of a protective stem cell niche, with clump-forming cells constituting the adult neuroblast's microenvironment together with the cell body glia processes separating it from other tissue components. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments with short survival times suggest that adult neuroblasts are not quiescent but rather cycle actively during daytime. We propose a cell lineage model in which an asymmetrically dividing adult neuroblast repopulates the pool of neuronal progenitor cells in the associated proliferation zone. In conclusion, as in mammalian brains, adult neurogenesis in crustacean brains is fueled by neural stem cells that are maintained by stem cell niches that preserve elements of the embryonic microenvironment and contain glial and vascular elements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Cross-cultural differences in oral impacts on daily performance between Greek and British older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakos, G; Marcenes, W; Sheiham, A

    2001-12-01

    To examine whether there are significant cross-cultural differences in oral health-related quality of life and perceived treatment need between older people of similar clinical oral status living in Greece and Britain. Cross-sectional surveys of adults living independently aged 65 years or older. In Britain, data from the national diet and nutrition survey were used, while the Greek sample was drawn from two municipalities in Athens. Participants 753 in Britain and 681 in Greece. Oral health-related quality of life, assessed through the modified Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) indicator, and perceived need for dental treatment. Thirty-nine per cent of Greek and 12.3% of British dentate and 47.6% of Greek and 16.3% of British edentulous participants had experienced oral impacts affecting their daily life in the last six months. The most prevalent impact was difficulty eating. Apart from that, 56.3% of Greek and 37.1% of British dentate and 33.5% of Greek and 25.3% of British edentulous participants perceived dental treatment need. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, perceived general health and clinical oral status, Greek dentate and edentulous participants were significantly more likely to experience oral impacts than their British counterparts, while in relation to perceived treatment need significant cross-cultural differences existed only between dentate respondents. The results indicated an independent cultural influence in the perception of oral impacts in older people.

  10. A narrative inquiry into the Hong Kong Chinese adults' concepts of health through their cultural stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Engle Angela; Cheung, Kin; Mok, Esther; Cheung, Sharon; Tong, Edmond

    2006-03-01

    Abundant studies have investigated how health concepts held by individuals shape and are shaped by psychosocial and cultural factors, though many were limited to the conceptual level. The meaning and significance of health behaviours are better understood as an expression of something occurring over time. This narrative study explores how Hong Kong Chinese adults understand the meaning of health and the ways by which they construct and express these meanings in their lives. Additionally, by recognizing the central features of temporality, personal-social interactions within a place/culture in narrative thinking, this narrative inquiry may help health-care professionals to revisit the meaning of health promotion within the context of an individual's life situation. Five participants were recruited for the study. Data were collected through a series of audio-taped unstructured interviews and conversations with each participant. Findings underscore several features of participants' concepts and expressions of health: the significance of Confucian teachings on roles and responsibilities, Eastern view of self, Western biomedical orientation, and Hong Kong's unique work culture. Their responses not only express the attitudes and behaviours of individuals, but also the ways they engage in their constructed identity. Participants' concepts of health evolved over time according to the personal meanings attached to them at various life stages. While participants recognized the interconnectedness of the mind and body, the physical foci of traditional Western medicine remained salient in their health stories. Furthermore, there is a clear delineation of personal management of the psychological health and professional management of physical health.

  11. The organizational culture of emergency departments and the effect on care of older adults: a modified scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Pål; Bruce, Anne; Sheets, Debra

    2015-04-01

    How does the organizational micro culture in emergency departments (EDs) impact the care of older adults presenting with a complaint or condition perceived as non-acute? This scoping study reviews the literature and maps three levels of ED culture (artifacts, values and beliefs, and assumptions). Findings on the artifact level indicate that EDs are poorly designed for the needs of older adults. Findings on the ED value and belief level indicate that EDs are for urgent cases (not geriatric care), that older adults do not receive the care and respect they should be given, that older adults require too much time, and that the basic nursing needs of older adults are not a priority for ED nurses. Finally, finding on the assumptions level underpinning ED behaviors suggest that older adults do not belong in the ED, most older adults in the ED are not critically ill and therefore can wait, and staff need to be available for acute cases at all times. A systematic review on the effect of ED micro culture on the quality of geriatric care is warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cultural Identity of Young Deaf Adults with Cochlear Implants in Comparison to Deaf without Cochlear Implants and Hard-of-Hearing Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblat, Ester; Most, Tova

    2018-07-01

    This study examined the relationships between cultural identity, severity of hearing loss (HL), and the use of a cochlear implant (CI). One hundred and forty-one adolescents and young adults divided into three groups (deaf with CI, deaf without CI, and hard-of-hearing (HH)) and 134 parents participated. Adolescents and young adults completed questionnaires on cultural identity (hearing, Deaf, marginal, bicultural-hearing, and bicultural-deaf) and communication proficiencies (hearing, spoken language, and sign language). Parents completed a speech quality questionnaire. Deaf participants without CI and those with CI differed in all identities except marginal identity. CI users and HH participants had similar identities except for a stronger bicultural-deaf identity among CI users. Three clusters of participants evolved: participants with a dominant bicultural-deaf identity, participants with a dominant bicultural-hearing identity and participants without a formed cultural identity. Adolescents and young adults who were proficient in one of the modes of communication developed well-established bicultural identities. Adolescents and young adults who were not proficient in one of the modes of communication did not develop a distinguished cultural identity. These results suggest that communication proficiencies are crucial for developing defined identities.

  13. Decreased proliferative, migrative and neuro-differentiative potential of postnatal rat enteric neural crest-derived cells during culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hui; Pan, Wei-Kang; Zheng, Bai-Jun; Wang, Huai-Jie; Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Yong; Gao, Ya

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the potential use of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) as a cell replacement therapy for Hirschsprung's disease. Based on previous observations of robust propagation of primary ENCCs, as opposed to their progeny, it is suggested that their therapeutic potential after in vitro expansion may be restricted. We therefore examined the growth and differentiation activities and phenotypic characteristics of continuous ENCC cultures. ENCCs were isolated from the intestines of postnatal rats and were identified using an immunocytochemical approach. During continuous ENCC culture expansion, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation potentials were monitored. The Cell Counting Kit-8 was used for assessment of ENCC vitality, Transwell inserts for cell migration, immunocytochemistry for cell counts and identification, and flow cytometry for apoptosis. Over six continuous generations, ENCC proliferation potency was reduced and with prolonged culture, the ratio of migratory ENCCs was decreased. The percentage of apoptosis showed an upward trend with prolonged intragenerational culture, but showed a downward trend with prolonged culture of combined generations. Furthermore, the percentage of peripherin"+ cells decreased whilst the percentage of GFAP"+ cells increased with age. The results demonstrated that alterations in ENCC growth characteristics occur with increased culture time, which may partially account for the poor results of proposed cell therapies. - Highlights: • Differences were identified between primary and daughter ENCCs. • Daughter ENCCs had reduced proliferation, migration and differentiation. • Daughter ENCCs also had increased apoptosis. • These altered characteristics warrant further investigation.

  14. Decreased proliferative, migrative and neuro-differentiative potential of postnatal rat enteric neural crest-derived cells during culture in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hui [Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 157, Xi Wu Road, Xi’an 710004, Shaanxi (China); Institute of Neurobiology, Environment and Genes Related to Diseases Key Laboratory of Chinese Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 96, Yan Ta Xi Road, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi (China); Pan, Wei-Kang; Zheng, Bai-Jun; Wang, Huai-Jie [Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 157, Xi Wu Road, Xi’an 710004, Shaanxi (China); Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Yong [Institute of Neurobiology, Environment and Genes Related to Diseases Key Laboratory of Chinese Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 96, Yan Ta Xi Road, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi (China); Gao, Ya, E-mail: ygao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No 157, Xi Wu Road, Xi’an 710004, Shaanxi (China)

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the potential use of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) as a cell replacement therapy for Hirschsprung's disease. Based on previous observations of robust propagation of primary ENCCs, as opposed to their progeny, it is suggested that their therapeutic potential after in vitro expansion may be restricted. We therefore examined the growth and differentiation activities and phenotypic characteristics of continuous ENCC cultures. ENCCs were isolated from the intestines of postnatal rats and were identified using an immunocytochemical approach. During continuous ENCC culture expansion, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation potentials were monitored. The Cell Counting Kit-8 was used for assessment of ENCC vitality, Transwell inserts for cell migration, immunocytochemistry for cell counts and identification, and flow cytometry for apoptosis. Over six continuous generations, ENCC proliferation potency was reduced and with prolonged culture, the ratio of migratory ENCCs was decreased. The percentage of apoptosis showed an upward trend with prolonged intragenerational culture, but showed a downward trend with prolonged culture of combined generations. Furthermore, the percentage of peripherin{sup +} cells decreased whilst the percentage of GFAP{sup +} cells increased with age. The results demonstrated that alterations in ENCC growth characteristics occur with increased culture time, which may partially account for the poor results of proposed cell therapies. - Highlights: • Differences were identified between primary and daughter ENCCs. • Daughter ENCCs had reduced proliferation, migration and differentiation. • Daughter ENCCs also had increased apoptosis. • These altered characteristics warrant further investigation.

  15. Relative cortico-subcortical shift in brain activity but preserved training-induced neural modulation in older adults during bimanual motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Monteiro, Thiago; Beets, Iseult A M; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Gooijers, Jolien; Pauwels, Lisa; Chalavi, Sima; King, Brad; Albouy, Geneviève; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-10-01

    To study age-related differences in neural activation during motor learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 25 young (mean 21.5-year old) and 18 older adults (mean 68.6-year old) while performing a bimanual coordination task before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 2-week training intervention on the task. We studied whether task-related brain activity and training-induced brain activation changes differed between age groups, particularly with respect to the hyperactivation typically observed in older adults. Findings revealed that older adults showed lower performance levels than younger adults but similar learning capability. At the cerebral level, the task-related hyperactivation in parietofrontal areas and underactivation in subcortical areas observed in older adults were not differentially modulated by the training intervention. However, brain activity related to task planning and execution decreased from pretest to posttest in temporo-parieto-frontal areas and subcortical areas in both age groups, suggesting similar processes of enhanced activation efficiency with advanced skill level. Furthermore, older adults who displayed higher activity in prefrontal regions at pretest demonstrated larger training-induced performance gains. In conclusion, in spite of prominent age-related brain activation differences during movement planning and execution, the mechanisms of learning-related reduction of brain activation appear to be similar in both groups. Importantly, cerebral activity during early learning can differentially predict the amplitude of the training-induced performance benefit between young and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary Spinal OPC Culture System from Adult Zebrafish to Study Oligodendrocyte Differentiation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kroehne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs are a promising target to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI by remyelinating denuded, and therefore vulnerable, axons. Demyelination is the result of a primary insult and secondary injury, leading to conduction blocks and long-term degeneration of the axons, which subsequently can lead to the loss of their neurons. In response to SCI, dormant OPCs can be activated and subsequently start to proliferate and differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs. Therefore, researchers strive to control OPC responses, and utilize small molecule screening approaches in order to identify mechanisms of OPC activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation. In zebrafish, OPCs remyelinate axons of the optic tract after lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC-induced demyelination back to full thickness myelin sheaths. In contrast to zebrafish, mammalian OPCs are highly vulnerable to excitotoxic stress, a cause of secondary injury, and remyelination remains insufficient. Generally, injury induced remyelination leads to shorter internodes and thinner myelin sheaths in mammals. In this study, we show that myelin sheaths are lost early after a complete spinal transection injury, but are re-established within 14 days after lesion. We introduce a novel, easy-to-use, inexpensive and highly reproducible OPC culture system based on dormant spinal OPCs from adult zebrafish that enables in vitro analysis. Zebrafish OPCs are robust, can easily be purified with high viability and taken into cell culture. This method enables to examine why zebrafish OPCs remyelinate better than their mammalian counterparts, identify cell intrinsic responses, which could lead to pro-proliferating or pro-differentiating strategies, and to test small molecule approaches. In this methodology paper, we show efficient isolation of OPCs from adult zebrafish spinal cord and describe culture conditions that enable

  17. Examining Korean and Korean American older adults' perceived acceptability of home-based monitoring technologies in the context of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire J; Joe, Jonathan; Hall, Amanda; Demiris, George

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of home-based monitoring technologies by older adults, few studies have examined older adults' acceptance of these technologies, especially among people from diverse cultural groups. The purpose of this study was to explore Korean and Korean American older adults' attitudes toward and perceptions of home-based monitoring technologies in a cultural context. A qualitative analysis of focus groups and individual interviews using inductive coding methods and a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Several cultural factors that determine the acceptability of home-based monitoring technologies were identified. Most notably, the necessity of living alone due to loosened filial tradition and immigration was a main motivator for adopting these technologies for both Korean and Korean Americans. The level of satisfaction with the health care system or therapeutic interaction affected participants' perceived need for technologies. Compared with the Korean American group, Korean older adults regarded the government's role as more important in increasing adoption and use of new technologies. Contextual factors need to be considered when explaining perceptions of home-based monitoring technologies among older adults from various ethnic groups and developing diffusion strategies according to end users' attitudes, experiences, and cultural backgrounds.

  18. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleoni, Silvia; Galli, Cesare; Giannelli, Serena G.; Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio; Broccoli, Vania; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  19. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Silvia, E-mail: silviacolleoni@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Galli, Cesare [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Dipartimento Clinico Veterinario, Universita di Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (Italy); Giannelli, Serena G. [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio [Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, Interdepartmental Research Center for Parkinson' s Disease, Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Broccoli, Vania, E-mail: broccoli.vania@hsr.it [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Lazzari, Giovanna, E-mail: giovannalazzari@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  20. Dutch translation and cross-cultural validation of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje Pd; Rand, Stacey E; Towers, Ann-Marie; Smith, Nick; Razik, Kamilla; Trukeschitz, Birgit; van Tulder, Maurits W; van der Horst, Henriette E; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2015-05-13

    The Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit was developed to measure outcomes of social care in England. In this study, we translated the four level self-completion version (SCT-4) of the ASCOT for use in the Netherlands and performed a cross-cultural validation. The ASCOT SCT-4 was translated into Dutch following international guidelines, including two forward and back translations. The resulting version was pilot tested among frail older adults using think-aloud interviews. Furthermore, using a subsample of the Dutch ACT-study, we investigated test-retest reliability and construct validity and compared response distributions with data from a comparable English study. The pilot tests showed that translated items were in general understood as intended, that most items were reliable, and that the response distributions of the Dutch translation and associations with other measures were comparable to the original English version. Based on the results of the pilot tests, some small modifications and a revision of the Dignity items were proposed for the final translation, which were approved by the ASCOT development team. The complete original English version and the final Dutch translation can be obtained after registration on the ASCOT website ( http://www.pssru.ac.uk/ascot ). This study provides preliminary evidence that the Dutch translation of the ASCOT is valid, reliable and comparable to the original English version. We recommend further research to confirm the validity of the modified Dutch ASCOT translation.

  1. Cultural Beliefs and Mental Health Treatment Preferences of Ethnically Diverse Older Adult Consumers in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Cardenas, Veronica; Daliwal, Sanam S.; Alegría, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This study applies the Cultural Influences on Mental Health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in: (1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness; (2) preferences for type of treatment; and (3) provider characteristics. Method Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the Cultural Attitudes toward Healthcare and Mental Illness Questionnaire, developed for the PRISM-E (Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly) study, a multi-site randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1257 non-Latino Whites, 536 African-Americans, 112 Asian-Americans, and 303 Latinos. Results African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared to Non-Latino Whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Conclusions This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services. PMID:21992942

  2. Cultural beliefs and mental health treatment preferences of ethnically diverse older adult consumers in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Bartels, Stephen J; Cardenas, Veronica; Dhaliwal, Sanam S; Alegría, Margarita

    2012-06-01

    Beliefs concerning the causes of mental illness may help to explain why there are significant disparities in the rates of formal mental health service use among racial/ethnic minority elderly as compared with their white counterparts. This study applies the cultural influences on mental health framework to identify the relationship between race/ethnicity and differences in 1) beliefs on the cause of mental illness, 2) preferences for type of treatment, and 3) provider characteristics. Analyses were conducted using baseline data collected from participants who completed the cultural attitudes toward healthcare and mental illness questionnaire, developed for the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for the Elderly study, a multisite randomized trial for older adults (65+) with depression, anxiety, or at-risk alcohol consumption. The final sample consisted of 1,257 non-Latino whites, 536 African Americans, 112 Asian Americans, and 303 Latinos. African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos had differing beliefs regarding the causes of mental illness when compared with non-Latino whites. Race/ethnicity was also associated with determining who makes healthcare decisions, treatment preferences, and preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. This study highlights the association between race/ethnicity and health beliefs, treatment preferences, healthcare decisions, and consumers' preferred characteristics of healthcare providers. Accommodating the values and preferences of individuals can be helpful in engaging racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health services.

  3. Long-Term Adult Feline Liver Organoid Cultures for Disease Modeling of Hepatic Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Hedwig S; Oosterhoff, Loes A; Vernooij, Ingrid G W H; Schrall, Ingrid M; van Wolferen, Monique E; Bannink, Farah; Roesch, Camille; van Uden, Lisa; Molenaar, Martijn R; Helms, J Bernd; Grinwis, Guy C M; Verstegen, Monique M A; van der Laan, Luc J W; Huch, Meritxell; Geijsen, Niels; Vries, Robert G; Clevers, Hans; Rothuizen, Jan; Schotanus, Baukje A; Penning, Louis C; Spee, Bart

    2017-04-11

    Hepatic steatosis is a highly prevalent liver disease, yet research is hampered by the lack of tractable cellular and animal models. Steatosis also occurs in cats, where it can cause severe hepatic failure. Previous studies demonstrate the potential of liver organoids for modeling genetic diseases. To examine the possibility of using organoids to model steatosis, we established a long-term feline liver organoid culture with adult liver stem cell characteristics and differentiation potential toward hepatocyte-like cells. Next, organoids from mouse, human, dog, and cat liver were provided with fatty acids. Lipid accumulation was observed in all organoids and interestingly, feline liver organoids accumulated more lipid droplets than human organoids. Finally, we demonstrate effects of interference with β-oxidation on lipid accumulation in feline liver organoids. In conclusion, feline liver organoids can be successfully cultured and display a predisposition for lipid accumulation, making them an interesting model in hepatic steatosis research. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived discrimination, cultural identity development, and intimate partner violence among a sample of Hispanic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Myriam; Grigsby, Timothy J; Soto, Daniel W; Sussman, Steve Y; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of interpersonal violence (IPV), scientific understanding of the risk and protective factors for unidirectional and bidirectional IPV, and especially the role of sociocultural variables in these behaviors, is limited. This study investigates the association between ethnic-identity search, ethnic-identity affirmation, perceived discrimination, and unidirectional (victimization only, perpetration only) and bidirectional (reciprocal violence) IPV behaviors among foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanic young adults. Data are from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a study investigating the effect of psychosocial and sociocultural factors on health behavior among a community sample of Hispanic young adults in Southern California (n = 1,267). Approximately 40% of the sample reported unidirectional or bidirectional IPV, with significant gender differences across the three categories. Compared with men, women had approximately 70% lower odds of victimization (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15-0.71), over twice the odds of perpetration (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.98-3.62), and 35% higher odds (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.81) of bidirectional IPV. Higher ethnic-identity affirmation was protective for victimization (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99) and bidirectional IPV (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.89), whereas higher perceived discrimination scores increased the odds for bidirectional IPV (OR = 1.37 95% CI = 1.26-1.56) and was particularly detrimental for foreign-born participants. Intervention strategies should consider gender-specific risk profiles, cultural contexts, and the influence of sociocultural stressors. Addressing the harmful effects of perceived discrimination and leveraging the protective effects of ethnic-identity affirmation may be promising IPV-prevention strategies for Hispanic young adults. Future research directions and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Acute stress evokes sexually dimorphic, stressor-specific patterns of neural activation across multiple limbic brain regions in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ankit; Chaudhari, Karina; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2018-03-01

    Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker. AIS evoked a sex-dependent pattern of neural activation within the cingulate and infralimbic subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral septum (LS), habenula, and hippocampal subfields. The degree of neural activation in the mPFC, LS, and habenula was higher in males. Female rats exhibited reduced Fos positive cell numbers in the dentate gyrus hippocampal subfield, an effect not observed in males. We addressed whether the sexually dimorphic neural activation pattern noted following AIS was also observed with the short-term stress of FS. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the amygdala, FS similar to AIS resulted in robust increases in neural activation in both sexes. The pattern of neural activation evoked by FS was distinct across sexes, with a heightened neural activation noted in the prelimbic mPFC subdivision and hippocampal subfields in females and differed from the pattern noted with AIS. This indicates that the sex differences in neural activation patterns observed within stress-responsive brain regions are dependent on the nature of stressor experience.

  6. A septo-temporal molecular gradient of sfrp3 in the dentate gyrus differentially regulates quiescent adult hippocampal neural stem cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiaqi; Bonaguidi, Michael A; Jun, Heechul; Guo, Junjie U; Sun, Gerald J; Will, Brett; Yang, Zhengang; Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li; Christian, Kimberly M

    2015-09-04

    A converging body of evidence indicates that levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis vary along the septo-temporal axis of the dentate gyrus, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this regional heterogeneity are not known. We previously identified a niche mechanism regulating proliferation and neuronal development in the adult mouse dentate gyrus resulting from the activity-regulated expression of secreted frizzled-related protein 3 (sfrp3) by mature neurons, which suppresses activation of radial glia-like neural stem cells (RGLs) through inhibition of Wingless/INT (WNT) protein signaling. Here, we show that activation rates within the quiescent RGL population decrease gradually along the septo-temporal axis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus, as defined by MCM2 expression in RGLs. Using in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified an inverse septal-to-temporal increase in the expression of sfrp3 that emerges during postnatal development. Elimination of sfrp3 and its molecular gradient leads to increased RGL activation, preferentially in the temporal region of the adult dentate gyrus. Our study identifies a niche mechanism that contributes to the graded distribution of neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus and has important implications for understanding functional differences associated with adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the septo-temporal axis.

  7. Organotypic brain slice cultures of adult transgenic P301S mice--a model for tauopathy studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Mewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid β deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1 and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO(2 concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study

  8. Dedifferentiation of intrinsic response properties of motoneurons in organotypic cultures of the spinal cord of the adult turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J.F.; Noraberg, J.; Simon, M.

    2000-01-01

    Explant cultures from the spinal cord of adult turtles were established and used to study the sensitivity of the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons to the changes in connectivity and milieu imposed by isolation in culture. Transverse sections 700 microm thick were explanted on cover slips...... the ability to fire repetitively. By the second week in culture, a fraction of motoneurons displayed fast and slow transient outward rectification and low-threshold calcium spikes, features not seen in turtle motoneurons in acute slices. On the other hand, properties mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels...

  9. When Age and Culture Interact in an Easy and Yet Cognitively Demanding Task: Older Adults, But Not Younger Adults, Showed the Expected Cultural Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Jinkyung; Huang, Chih-Mao; Park, Denise C.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (l...

  10. Enhanced viability and neural differential potential in poor post-thaw hADSCs by agarose multi-well dishes and spheroid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoling; Li, Shanyi; Ji, Qingshan; Lian, Ruiling; Chen, Jiansu

    2015-10-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are potential adult stem cells source for cell therapy. But hADSCs with multi-passage or cryopreservation often revealed poor growth performance. The aim of our work was to improve the activity of poor post-thaw hADSCs by simple and effective means. We describe here a simple method based on commercially available silicone micro-wells for creating hADSCs spheroids to improve viability and neural differentiation potential on poor post-thaw hADSCs. The isolated hADSCs positively expresse d CD29, CD44, CD105, and negatively expressed CD34, CD45, HLA-DR by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, they had adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. The post-thaw and post-spheroid hADSCs from poor growth status hADSCs showed a marked increase in cell proliferation by CKK-8 analysis, cell cycle analysis and Ki67/P27 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. They also displayed an increase viability of anti-apoptosis by annexin v and propidium iodide assays and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. After 3 days of neural induction, the neural differentiation potential of post-thaw and post-spheroid hADSCs could be enhanced by qPCR analysis and western blotting analysis. These results suggested that the spheroid formation could improve the viability and neural differentiation potential of bad growth status hADSCs, which is conducive to ADSCs research and cell therapy.

  11. Increased Neural Responses to Reward in Adolescents and Young Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Rhein, Daniel; Cools, Roshan; Zwiers, Marcel P.; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Franke, Barbara; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; van Rooij, Daan; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Lojowska, Maria; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder associated with abnormal reward processing. Limited and inconsistent data exist about the neural mechanisms underlying this abnormality. Furthermore, it is not known whether reward processing is

  12. Cultural Codes as Catalysts for Collective Conscientisation in Environmental Adult Education: Mr. Floatie, Tree Squatting and Save-Our-Surfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how cultural codes in environmental adult education can be used to "frame" collective identity, develop counterhegemonic ideologies, and catalyse "educative-activism" within social movements. Three diverse examples are discussed, spanning environmental movements in urban Victoria, British Columbia, Canada,…

  13. Images of Mathematics in Popular Culture/Adults' Lives: A Study of Advertisements in the UK Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeff; Tsatsaroni, Anna; Staub, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    The success of policies to attract adults back to the learning of mathematics, at various levels, is often linked to questions of motivation. However, motivations depend on relevant beliefs, attitudes and emotions about mathematics--which themselves reflect, together with experiences with maths in school and in the home, wider cultural discourses…

  14. Novel chemometric strategy based on the application of artificial neural networks to crossed mixture design for the improvement of recombinant protein production in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Caroline; Forno, Guillermina; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Goicoechea, Héctor

    2009-09-21

    The optimal blends of six compounds that should be present in culture media used in recombinant protein production were determined by means of artificial neural networks (ANN) coupled with crossed mixture experimental design. This combination constitutes a novel approach to develop a medium for cultivating genetically engineered mammalian cells. The compounds were collected in two mixtures of three elements each, and the experimental space was determined by a crossed mixture design. Empirical data from 51 experimental units were used in a multiresponse analysis to train artificial neural networks which satisfy different requirements, in order to define two new culture media (Medium 1 and Medium 2) to be used in a continuous biopharmaceutical production process. These media were tested in a bioreactor to produce a recombinant protein in CHO cells. Remarkably, for both predicted media all responses satisfied the predefined goals pursued during the analysis, except in the case of the specific growth rate (mu) observed for Medium 1. ANN analysis proved to be a suitable methodology to be used when dealing with complex experimental designs, as frequently occurs in the optimization of production processes in the biotechnology area. The present work is a new example of the use of ANN for the resolution of a complex, real life system, successfully employed in the context of a biopharmaceutical production process.

  15. Muscle and neural isoforms of agrin increase utrophin expression in cultured myotubes via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramolini, A O; Burton, E A; Tinsley, J M; Ferns, M J; Cartaud, A; Cartaud, J; Davies, K E; Lunde, J A; Jasmin, B J

    1998-01-09

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a prevalent X-linked neuromuscular disease for which there is currently no cure. Recently, it was demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model that utrophin could functionally compensate for the lack of dystrophin and alleviate the muscle pathology (Tinsley, J. M., Potter, A. C., Phelps, S. R., Fisher, R., Trickett, J. I., and Davies, K. E. (1996) Nature 384, 349-353). In this context, it thus becomes essential to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms presiding over utrophin expression in attempts to overexpress the endogenous gene product throughout skeletal muscle fibers. In a recent study, we showed that the nerve exerts a profound influence on utrophin gene expression and postulated that nerve-derived trophic factors mediate the local transcriptional activation of the utrophin gene within nuclei located in the postsynaptic sarcoplasm (Gramolini, A. O., Dennis, C. L., Tinsley, J. M., Robertson, G. S., Davies, K. E, Cartaud, J., and Jasmin, B. J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8117-8120). In the present study, we have therefore focused on the effect of agrin on utrophin expression in cultured C2 myotubes. In response to Torpedo-, muscle-, or nerve-derived agrin, we observed a significant 2-fold increase in utrophin mRNAs. By contrast, CGRP treatment failed to affect expression of utrophin transcripts. Western blotting experiments also revealed that the increase in utrophin mRNAs was accompanied by an increase in the levels of utrophin. To determine whether these changes were caused by parallel increases in the transcriptional activity of the utrophin gene, we transfected muscle cells with a 1. 3-kilobase pair utrophin promoter-reporter (nlsLacZ) gene construct and treated them with agrin for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, both muscle- and nerve-derived agrin increased the activity of beta-galactosidase, indicating that agrin treatment led, directly or indirectly, to the transcriptional activation of the utrophin gene

  16. LGBTQ Youth and Young Adult Perspectives on a Culturally Tailored Group Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Shuh, Alanna; Wong-Francq, Katy; Dash, Darly; Abramowicz, Aneta

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of smoking among LGBTQ youth and young adults (YYAs) is much higher than that of non-LGBTQ young people. The current study explored LGBTQ YYA perceptions of a culturally tailored group smoking cessation counselling program, along with how the intervention could be improved. We conducted focus groups (n = 24) with 204 LGBTQ YYAs in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada. Open-ended questions focused on their feelings, likes and dislikes, concerns and additional ideas for a culturally tailored group cessation counselling intervention. Focus group transcripts were coded thematically and analyzed. Overall, YYAs were ambivalent towards the concept of a culturally tailored, group cessation counselling program. Although several participants were attracted to the LGBTQ friendly and social benefits of such a program (eg, good support system), many also had concerns. Particularly, the possibility that other group members might trigger them to smoke was a frequently stated issue. Focus group members also noted lack of motivation to attend the group, and that the group program may be inaccessible depending on where and when the program was offered. Several suggestions were made as to how to ameliorate the expressed issues related to inaccessibility or lack of attractiveness. This study is among the first to gain the perspectives of LGBTQ YYAs on culturally tailored group cessation strategies in Canada. We identified components of group cessation programs that are both favored and not favored among LGBTQ YYAs, as well as suggestions as to how to make group cessation programs more appealing. This study is particularly relevant as smoking cessation programs are one of the most commonly offered and published cessation interventions for the LGBTQ community, yet little is understood in terms of preferences of LGBTQ YYA smokers. Given the disparity in the prevalence of smoking among LGBTQ young people compared to their non-LGBTQ peers, research on effective intervention strategies

  17. Effects of adult stocking density on egg production and viability in cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Andersen, Nikolaj; Holm, Thue

    2007-01-01

    was 84.7±4.8% and was never observed below 76.1%, with no significant differences across the stocking densities. Conclusively, as a practical recommendation for the aquaculture industry, copepod cultures with densities ranging from 100 to 600 adults L−1 and presumably even more dense cultures......The effect of stocking density of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was evaluated in a 96 h rearing experiment. Possible density-dependent egg production and egg viability were analysed at stocking densities of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 adults L−1. Temperature, oxygen saturation and algal...... concentration were kept optimal. A non-density-dependent mortality rate of 15–19% day−1 was documented. A non-significant density-dependent egg production was observed between 100 and 600 adults L−1. The average egg production was 22.5±8.8 egg female−1 day−1 in all densities. The average egg hatching success...

  18. Cross-cultural temperamental differences in infants, children, and adults in the United States of America and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaias, Larissa M; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina; Gartstein, Maria A; Fisher, Philip A; Putnam, Samuel P

    2012-04-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the US during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  20. Adult fast myosin pattern and Ca2+-induced slow myosin pattern in primary skeletal muscle culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Haller, Ernst-August; Wetzel, Petra; Gros, Gerolf

    1997-01-01

    A primary muscle cell culture derived from newborn rabbit muscle and growing on microcarriers in suspension was established. When cultured for several weeks, the myotubes in this model develop the completely adult pattern of fast myosin light and heavy chains. When Ca2+ ionophore is added to the culture medium on day 11, raising intracellular [Ca2+] about 10-fold, the myotubes develop to exhibit properties of an adult slow muscle by day 30, expressing slow myosin light as well as heavy chains, elevated citrate synthase, and reduced lactate dehydrogenase. The remarkable plasticity of these myotubes becomes apparent, when 8 days after withdrawal of the ionophore a marked slow-to-fast transition, as judged from the expression of isomyosins and metabolic enzymes, occurs. PMID:9108130

  1. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent, inactivated, mammalian cell culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults, seniors, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Scott A; Smith, Bruce; Mabrouk, Taoufik; Germain, Marc; Trépanier, Pierre; Hassell, Thomas; Treanor, John; Gauthier, Richard; Mills, Elaine L

    2002-01-15

    We performed randomized, double-blind, controlled trials to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated, Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)-derived cell line produced influenza vaccine in healthy adults (19-50 years), children (3-12 years) and the elderly (> or =65 years). We studied three lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of licensed egg-derived vaccine in healthy adults (n=462), two lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of egg-derived vaccine in seniors (n=269), and one lot of each vaccine in children (n=209). Adverse events were collected during the first 3 days post-immunization; serum was collected before and 1 month after immunization. Rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were similar with both vaccines. An injection site adverse event rated at least moderate severity was reported by 21.9% of children who received the egg-derived vaccine and 25.0% of those who received the cell culture-derived vaccine. In healthy adults the proportions were 12.1 and 15.3%, respectively and 6.7 and 6.3%, respectively in seniors. Systemic events of at least moderate severity were 12.4 and 12.5% in children, 19.8 and 13.6% in healthy adults, and 14.1 and 9.7% in seniors; none of these differences were statistically significant. The antibody response against all three viruses was similar between the two vaccines. From 83 to 100% of children, healthy adults and seniors achieved hemagglutination inhibition titers in excess of 40 post-immunization. We conclude that the cell culture-derived vaccine was safe and immunogenic in children, healthy adults and seniors.

  3. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Interaction of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells with a nanoporous titanium surface is sufficient to induce their osteogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schürmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenic differentiation of various adult stem cell populations such as neural crest-derived stem cells is of great interest in the context of bone regeneration. Ideally, exogenous differentiation should mimic an endogenous differentiation process, which is partly mediated by topological cues. To elucidate the osteoinductive potential of porous substrates with different pore diameters (30 nm, 100 nm, human neural crest-derived stem cells isolated from the inferior nasal turbinate were cultivated on the surface of nanoporous titanium covered membranes without additional chemical or biological osteoinductive cues. As controls, flat titanium without any topological features and osteogenic medium was used. Cultivation of human neural crest-derived stem cells on 30 nm pores resulted in osteogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase activity after seven days as well as by calcium deposition after 3 weeks of cultivation. In contrast, cultivation on flat titanium and on membranes equipped with 100 nm pores was not sufficient to induce osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate an increase of osteogenic transcripts including Osterix, Osteocalcin and up-regulation of Integrin β1 and α2 in the 30 nm pore approach only. Thus, transplantation of stem cells pre-cultivated on nanostructured implants might improve the clinical outcome by support of the graft adherence and acceleration of the regeneration process.

  5. Generation of hyaline cartilaginous tissue from mouse adult dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Sasagawa, Satoru; Outani, Hidetatsu; Nakagawa, Kanako; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tsumaki, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Repair of cartilage injury with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical problem. Because of the limited number of chondrocytes in vivo, coupled with in vitro de-differentiation of chondrocytes into fibrochondrocytes, which secrete type I collagen and have an altered matrix architecture and mechanical function, there is a need for a novel cell source that produces hyaline cartilage. The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has provided a tool for reprogramming dermal fibroblasts to an undifferentiated state by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors. Here, we show that retroviral expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4) and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9) induces polygonal chondrogenic cells directly from adult dermal fibroblast cultures. Induced cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, i.e., the promoters of type I collagen genes were extensively methylated. Although some induced cell lines formed tumors when subcutaneously injected into nude mice, other induced cell lines generated stable homogenous hyaline cartilage–like tissue. Further, the doxycycline-inducible induction system demonstrated that induced cells are able to respond to chondrogenic medium by expressing endogenous Sox9 and maintain chondrogenic potential after substantial reduction of transgene expression. Thus, this approach could lead to the preparation of hyaline cartilage directly from skin, without generating iPS cells. PMID:21293062

  6. Motivations for Selling Ecstasy among Young Adults in the Electronic Dance Music Club Culture in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Lysa S; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Pechansky, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder. Mean age was 22.92 (SD 2.77), 60% were male, 45% reported 12 or more years of education, 50% did not have a primary partner, 50% were living alone, and all had friends who also used ecstasy. Three main themes emerged: (1) "easy" transition from ecstasy user to seller; (2) desire to achieve popularity and fame; and (3) need to sell ecstasy to maintain the high cost of EDM club scene participation. This is one of the first studies of ecstasy sellers in Brazil. The results demonstrate the ease with which the participants transition from ecstasy user to seller. Given the potential health and social dangers associated with ecstasy use, public health campaigns to prevent ecstasy use and policy initiatives to limit the ecstasy supply are warranted.

  7. An Initial Cross-Cultural Comparison of Adult Playfulness in Mainland China and German-Speaking Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with playfulness in infants and children, playfulness in adults is relatively under-studied. Although there is no empirical research comparing differences in adult playfulness across cultures, one might expect variations between Western and Eastern societies such as China. While playfulness is typically seen as a positive trait in Western culture, there are hints in Chinese culture that being playful has negative connotations (e.g., associations with laziness and seeing play as the opposite of work. The aim of this study was to compare expressions of playfulness in one sample from German-speaking countries (n = 143 and two samples from China (Guangzhou: n = 176; Beijing: n = 100. Participants completed one playfulness scale developed in the West (Short Measure of Adult Playfulness, SMAP and one from the East (Adult Playfulness Questionnaire, APQ. Additional ratings of the participants were collected to measure: (a the level of playful behavior expressed by people in different situations (e.g., when being around family members, in public, or on social media, and (b individuals’ perceptions of society’s expectations concerning the appropriateness of being playful in the given situations. Overall, the results of the comparisons were mixed. Although SMAP scores did not vary significantly across the three samples, people from German-speaking countries tended to score higher on some facets of the APQ and some situational ratings. Stronger effects were found when comparing only the German-speaking sample and the Guangzhou sample. In addition to the cross-cultural differences that we expected, we also detected Chinese regional variations (North vs. South. We conclude that societal rules and cultural factors may impact expressions of playfulness in a society.

  8. An Initial Cross-Cultural Comparison of Adult Playfulness in Mainland China and German-Speaking Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Dandan; Proyer, René T.

    2018-01-01

    Compared with playfulness in infants and children, playfulness in adults is relatively under-studied. Although there is no empirical research comparing differences in adult playfulness across cultures, one might expect variations between Western and Eastern societies such as China. While playfulness is typically seen as a positive trait in Western culture, there are hints in Chinese culture that being playful has negative connotations (e.g., associations with laziness and seeing play as the opposite of work). The aim of this study was to compare expressions of playfulness in one sample from German-speaking countries (n = 143) and two samples from China (Guangzhou: n = 176; Beijing: n = 100). Participants completed one playfulness scale developed in the West (Short Measure of Adult Playfulness, SMAP) and one from the East (Adult Playfulness Questionnaire, APQ). Additional ratings of the participants were collected to measure: (a) the level of playful behavior expressed by people in different situations (e.g., when being around family members, in public, or on social media), and (b) individuals’ perceptions of society’s expectations concerning the appropriateness of being playful in the given situations. Overall, the results of the comparisons were mixed. Although SMAP scores did not vary significantly across the three samples, people from German-speaking countries tended to score higher on some facets of the APQ and some situational ratings. Stronger effects were found when comparing only the German-speaking sample and the Guangzhou sample. In addition to the cross-cultural differences that we expected, we also detected Chinese regional variations (North vs. South). We conclude that societal rules and cultural factors may impact expressions of playfulness in a society. PMID:29651265

  9. An Initial Cross-Cultural Comparison of Adult Playfulness in Mainland China and German-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Dandan; Proyer, René T

    2018-01-01

    Compared with playfulness in infants and children, playfulness in adults is relatively under-studied. Although there is no empirical research comparing differences in adult playfulness across cultures, one might expect variations between Western and Eastern societies such as China. While playfulness is typically seen as a positive trait in Western culture, there are hints in Chinese culture that being playful has negative connotations (e.g., associations with laziness and seeing play as the opposite of work). The aim of this study was to compare expressions of playfulness in one sample from German-speaking countries ( n = 143) and two samples from China (Guangzhou: n = 176; Beijing: n = 100). Participants completed one playfulness scale developed in the West (Short Measure of Adult Playfulness, SMAP) and one from the East (Adult Playfulness Questionnaire, APQ). Additional ratings of the participants were collected to measure: (a) the level of playful behavior expressed by people in different situations (e.g., when being around family members, in public, or on social media), and (b) individuals' perceptions of society's expectations concerning the appropriateness of being playful in the given situations. Overall, the results of the comparisons were mixed. Although SMAP scores did not vary significantly across the three samples, people from German-speaking countries tended to score higher on some facets of the APQ and some situational ratings. Stronger effects were found when comparing only the German-speaking sample and the Guangzhou sample. In addition to the cross-cultural differences that we expected, we also detected Chinese regional variations (North vs. South). We conclude that societal rules and cultural factors may impact expressions of playfulness in a society.

  10. The Role of Confucian Cultural Values and Politics in Planning Educational Programs for Adults in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kiung; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Program planning activities are not culturally neutral but are replete with various cultural values and affected by them. This qualitative study was conducted in Korea and examines how cultural values influence educational planning in Korea. Specifically, the study was to examine how Confucian cultural values play out in educational planning in…

  11. Factors Affecting Time to Sputum Culture Conversion in Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Historical Cohort Study without Censored Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Rie; Nagao, Taishi; Tho, Nguyen Van; Ogawa, Emiko; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Osawa, Makoto; Saika, Yoshinori; Doi, Kenji; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), shortening the time to sputum culture conversion is desirable to reduce the likelihood of mycobacterial transmission. A persistent positive sputum culture after 2 months of treatment is reported to be associated with the presence of cavitation and the extent of disease on chest X-ray, high colony count, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, little is known about factors affecting the time to sputum culture conversion. This study was conducted to evaluate factors affecting the time to sputum culture conversion throughout the course of treatment in adults with pulmonary TB. This study was performed using a database of the medical records of patients with active pulmonary TB who were treated at Hirakata Kohsai Hospital in Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan, from October 2000 to October 2002. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to evaluate factors affecting the time to sputum culture conversion after adjusting for potential confounders. The data of 86 patients with pulmonary TB were analyzed. The median time to sputum culture conversion was 39 days, and the maximum time was 116 days. The Cox proportional-hazards analysis showed that a higher smear grading (HR, 0.40; 95%CI, 0.23-0.71) and a history of ever smoking (HR, 0.48; 95%CI, 0.25-0.94) were associated with delayed sputum culture conversion. High smear grading and smoking prolonged the time to sputum culture conversion in adults with pulmonary TB. To effectively control TB, measures to decrease the cigarette smoking rate should be implemented, in addition to early detection and timely anti-TB treatment.

  12. Factors Affecting Time to Sputum Culture Conversion in Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Historical Cohort Study without Censored Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Kanda

    Full Text Available In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, shortening the time to sputum culture conversion is desirable to reduce the likelihood of mycobacterial transmission. A persistent positive sputum culture after 2 months of treatment is reported to be associated with the presence of cavitation and the extent of disease on chest X-ray, high colony count, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, little is known about factors affecting the time to sputum culture conversion. This study was conducted to evaluate factors affecting the time to sputum culture conversion throughout the course of treatment in adults with pulmonary TB.This study was performed using a database of the medical records of patients with active pulmonary TB who were treated at Hirakata Kohsai Hospital in Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan, from October 2000 to October 2002. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to evaluate factors affecting the time to sputum culture conversion after adjusting for potential confounders.The data of 86 patients with pulmonary TB were analyzed. The median time to sputum culture conversion was 39 days, and the maximum time was 116 days. The Cox proportional-hazards analysis showed that a higher smear grading (HR, 0.40; 95%CI, 0.23-0.71 and a history of ever smoking (HR, 0.48; 95%CI, 0.25-0.94 were associated with delayed sputum culture conversion.High smear grading and smoking prolonged the time to sputum culture conversion in adults with pulmonary TB. To effectively control TB, measures to decrease the cigarette smoking rate should be implemented, in addition to early detection and timely anti-TB treatment.

  13. Novel insights into the role of NF-κB p50 in astrocyte-mediated fate specification of adult neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bortolotto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the CNS nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB transcription factors are involved in a wide range of functions both in homeostasis and in pathology. Over the years, our and other groups produced a vast array of information on the complex involvement of NF-κB proteins in different aspects of postnatal neurogenesis. In particular, several extracellular signals and membrane receptors have been identified as being able to affect neural progenitor cells (NPC and their progeny via NF-κB activation. A crucial role in the regulation of neuronal fate specification in adult hippocampal NPC is played by the NF-κB p50 subunit. NF-κB p50KO mice display a remarkable reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis which correlates with a selective defect in hippocampal-dependent short-term memory. Moreover absence of NF-κB p50 can profoundly affect the in vitro proneurogenic response of adult hippocampal NPC (ahNPC to several endogenous signals and drugs. Herein we briefly review the current knowledge on the pivotal role of NF-κB p50 in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition we discuss more recent data that further extend the relevance of NF-κB p50 to novel astroglia-derived signals which can influence neuronal specification of ahNPC and to astrocyte-NPC cross-talk.

  14. Opposing Effects of α2- and β-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation on Quiescent Neural Precursor Cell Activity and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosper, Boris W.; Marathe, Swanand; Husain, Basma F. A.; Kernie, Steven G.; Bartlett, Perry F.; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2014-01-01

    Norepinephrine regulates latent neural stem cell activity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and has an important role in modulating hippocampal functions such as learning, memory and mood. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a multi-stage process, spanning from the activation and proliferation of hippocampal stem cells, to their differentiation into neurons. However, the stage-specific effects of noradrenergic receptors in regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we used transgenic Nestin-GFP mice and neurosphere assays to show that modulation of α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity directly affects Nestin-GFP/GFAP-positive precursor cell population albeit in an opposing fashion. While selective stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors decreases precursor cell activation, proliferation and immature neuron number, stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors activates the quiescent precursor pool and enhances their proliferation in the adult hippocampus. Furthermore, our data indicate no major role for α1-adrenergic receptors, as we did not observe any change in either the activation and proliferation of hippocampal precursors following selective stimulation or blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, our data suggest that under physiological as well as under conditions that lead to enhanced norepinephrine release, the balance between α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity regulates precursor cell activity and hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:24922313

  15. High-Content Screening in hPSC-Neural Progenitors Identifies Drug Candidates that Inhibit Zika Virus Infection in Fetal-like Organoids and Adult Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Tan, Lei; Cederquist, Gustav Y; Fan, Yujie; Hartley, Brigham J; Mukherjee, Suranjit; Tomishima, Mark; Brennand, Kristen J; Zhang, Qisheng; Schwartz, Robert E; Evans, Todd; Studer, Lorenz; Chen, Shuibing

    2017-08-03

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infects fetal and adult human brain and is associated with serious neurological complications. To date, no therapeutic treatment is available to treat ZIKV-infected patients. We performed a high-content chemical screen using human pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and found that hippeastrine hydrobromide (HH) and amodiaquine dihydrochloride dihydrate (AQ) can inhibit ZIKV infection in hNPCs. Further validation showed that HH also rescues ZIKV-induced growth and differentiation defects in hNPCs and human fetal-like forebrain organoids. Finally, HH and AQ inhibit ZIKV infection in adult mouse brain in vivo. Strikingly, HH suppresses viral propagation when administered to adult mice with active ZIKV infection, highlighting its therapeutic potential. Our approach highlights the power of stem cell-based screens and validation in human forebrain organoids and mouse models in identifying drug candidates for treating ZIKV infection and related neurological complications in fetal and adult patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Adult Stem Cells Maintain a Constant Phenotype Profile Irrespective of Their Origin, Basal Media, and Long Term Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indumathi Somasundaram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the phenotypic marker expressions of different human adult stem cells derived from, namely, bone marrow, subcutaneous fat, and omentum fat, cultured in different media, namely, DMEM-Low Glucose, Alpha-MEM, DMEM-F12 and DMEM-KO and under long term culture conditions (>P20. We characterized immunophenotype by using various hematopoietic, mesenchymal, endothelial markers, and cell adhesion molecules in the long term cultures (Passages-P1, P3, P5, P9, P12, P15, and P20. Interestingly, data revealed similar marker expression profiles irrespective of source, basal media, and extensive culturing. This demonstrates that all adult stem cell sources mentioned in this study share similar phenotypic marker and all media seem appropriate for culturing these sources. However, a disparity was observed in the markers such as CD49d, CD54, CD117, CD29, and CD106, thereby warranting further research on these markers. Besides the aforesaid objective, it is understood from the study that immunophenotyping acts as a valuable tool to identify inherent property of each cell, thereby leading to a valuable cell based therapy.

  17. Exploring the potential relationship between indoor air quality and the concentration of airborne culturable fungi: a combined experimental and neural network modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Cheng, Kewei; Li, Hao; Cao, Guoqing; Wu, Di; Shi, Yunjie

    2018-02-01

    Indoor airborne culturable fungi exposure has been closely linked to occupants' health. However, conventional measurement of indoor airborne fungal concentration is complicated and usually requires around one week for fungi incubation in laboratory. To provide an ultra-fast solution, here, for the first time, a knowledge-based machine learning model is developed with the inputs of indoor air quality data for estimating the concentration of indoor airborne culturable fungi. To construct a database for statistical analysis and model training, 249 data groups of air quality indicators (concentration of indoor airborne culturable fungi, indoor/outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations, indoor temperature, indoor relative humidity, and indoor CO 2 concentration) were measured from 85 residential buildings of Baoding (China) during the period of 2016.11.15-2017.03.15. Our results show that artificial neural network (ANN) with one hidden layer has good prediction performances, compared to a support vector machine (SVM). With the tolerance of ± 30%, the prediction accuracy of the ANN model with ten hidden nodes can at highest reach 83.33% in the testing set. Most importantly, we here provide a quick method for estimating the concentration of indoor airborne fungi that can be applied to real-time evaluation.

  18. CD133-enriched Xeno-Free human embryonic-derived neural stem cells expand rapidly in culture and do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Haus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Common methods for the generation of human embryonic-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs result in cells with potentially compromised safety profiles due to maintenance of cells in conditions containing non-human proteins (e.g. in bovine serum or on mouse fibroblast feeders. Additionally, sufficient expansion of resulting hNSCs for scaling out or up in a clinically relevant time frame has proven to be difficult. Here, we report a strategy that produces hNSCs in completely “Xeno-Free” culture conditions. Furthermore, we have enriched the hNSCs for the cell surface marker CD133 via magnetic sorting, which has led to an increase in the expansion rate and neuronal fate specification of the hNSCs in vitro. Critically, we have also confirmed neural lineage specificity upon sorted hNSC transplantation into the immunodeficient NOD-scid mouse brain. The future use or adaptation of these protocols has the potential to better facilitate the advancement of pre-clinical strategies from the bench to the bedside.

  19. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...

  20. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...... that modulation of host immunity is likely necessary for prolonged xenograft survival in this model....

  1. Teaching Culture to Adult Indonesian Students in English Classrooms: a Mutual Understanding Approach

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hendra Tedjasuksmana

    2013-01-01

    Culture is often neglected in FL classrooms while it is important to teach it to the students. In the EFL classrooms in Indonesia, teachers should equip their students not only with the English culture but also other ethnic cultures in Indonesia as Indonesia is a multicultural and multiethnic country. It is English that becomes the bridge for the national unity. This paper describes that students get mutual benefits through learning cultures and it is teachers of English who...

  2. Perceived Discrimination and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Sleep Duration and Variability: The Moderating Role of Cultural Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; McHale, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination is central to the experiences of Latino young adults, yet we know little about the ways in which and the conditions under which ethnic discrimination relates to Latino young adults' sleep patterns. Using a sample of 246 Mexican-origin young adults (M age  = 21.11, SD = 1.54; 50 % female), the current study investigated the longitudinal links between perceived ethnic discrimination and both sleep duration and night-to-night variability in duration, while also examining the moderating roles of Anglo and Mexican orientations in the associations. The results revealed that perceived discrimination predicted greater sleep variability, and this link was not moderated by cultural orientations. The relation between perceived discrimination and hours of sleep, however, was moderated by Anglo and Mexican orientations. Individuals with high Anglo and Mexican orientations (bicultural) and those with only high Mexican orientations (enculturated), showed no association between discrimination and hours of sleep. Individuals with low Anglo and Mexican orientations (marginalized) displayed a positive association, whereas those with high Anglo and low Mexican orientations (acculturated) displayed a negative association. The results suggest that discrimination has long term effects on sleep variability of Mexican-origin young adults, regardless of cultural orientations; however, for sleep duration, bicultural and enculturated orientations are protective.

  3. When does meaning making predict subjective well-being? Examining young and older adults in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Two studies in different cultures (Study 1: USA, N=174, Study 2: Trinidad, N=167) examined whether meaning making, (i.e., both searching for meaning, and directing behaviour) is positively related to subjective well-being (SWB) by age (younger, older adults). In both studies, participants self-reported engagement in meaning making, and SWB (e.g., affect, future time perspective, psychological well-being). In Study 1, young Americans (compared to older) more frequently used their past to direct behaviour but doing so was unrelated to SWB. In older Americans, both types of meaning making were positively associated with SWB. In Study 2, Trinidadian younger adults were again more likely than older adults to engage in meaning making. Unlike in the American sample, however, directing behaviour was positively related to SWB for both young and older adults. The studies demonstrate that whether meaning making shows benefits for SWB may depend on type of meaning, age and culture. Note that although meaning making was sometimes unrelated to SWB, no detrimental relations to meaning making were found. The discussion focuses on the role of moderators in understanding when meaning making should lead to benefits versus costs to SWB.

  4. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  5. Motivators of and Barriers to Engaging in Physical Activity: Perspectives of Low-Income Culturally Diverse Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Tucker, Carolyn M; Kaye, Lily B; Desmond, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Obesity rates are rising in the United States, especially among low-income and racial/ethnic minority individuals. Exploring motivators and barriers relative to engaging in physical activity is imperative. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators and barriers relative to engagement in physical activity as reported by culturally diverse low-income adolescents and adults. A total of 91 adolescent (11 to 15 years of age) and adult (18 years of age or older) participants who self-identified as African American, Hispanic, or non-Hispanic White engaged in age group-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-concordant focus groups. Qualitative data analysis indicated that the motivators and barriers most commonly identified among the adolescent and adult focus groups were: social influence; time and priorities; physical environment; fun and enjoyment; inherently physical activities; weight concerns; fatigue, physical discomfort and current fitness level; and immediate positive feelings. Findings were generally similar across age group, gender and race/ethnicity. Age group-specific, gender-specific and race/ethnicity-specific motivators and barriers were related to how commonly the motivators and barriers were identified among each group. Implications for increasing physical activity among low-income culturally diverse adolescents and adults are discussed.

  6. Neural mechanisms of behavioral change in young adults with high-functioning autism receiving virtual reality social cognition training: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J Daniel; Allen, Tandra; Abdullahi, Sebiha M; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Volkmar, Fred R; Chapman, Sandra B

    2018-05-01

    Measuring treatment efficacy in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relies primarily on behaviors, with limited evidence as to the neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral gains. This pilot study addresses this void by investigating neural and behavioral changes in a Phase I trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD who received an evidence-based behavioral intervention, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training over 5 weeks for a total of 10 hr. The participants were tested pre- and post-training with a validated biological/social versus scrambled/nonsocial motion neuroimaging task, previously shown to activate regions within the social brain networks. Three significant brain-behavior changes were identified. First, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, a hub for socio-cognitive processing, showed increased brain activation to social versus nonsocial stimuli in individuals with greater gains on a theory-of-mind measure. Second, the left inferior frontal gyrus, a region for socio-emotional processing, tracked individual gains in emotion recognition with decreased activation to social versus nonsocial stimuli. Finally, the left superior parietal lobule, a region for visual attention, showed significantly decreased activation to nonsocial versus social stimuli across all participants, where heightened attention to nonsocial contingencies has been considered a disabling aspect of ASD. This study provides, albeit preliminary, some of the first evidence of the harnessable neuroplasticity in adults with ASD through an age-appropriate intervention in brain regions tightly linked to social abilities. This pilot trial motivates future efforts to develop and test social interventions to improve behaviors and supporting brain networks in adults with ASD. Autism Res 2018, 11: 713-725. © 2018 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This study addresses how the behavioral

  7. Cytoskeleton and pericellular matrix organization of pure adult human keratinocytes cultured from suction-blister roof epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniemi, A L; Lehto, V P; Vartio, T; Virtanen, I

    1982-12-01

    Pure adult human keratinocyte cultures were raised from suction-blister roof epidermis and cultured in MCDB-151 medium. In primary culture the epidermal cells rapidly adhered, spread and began to proliferate on collagen-coated growth substrata but not on uncoated plastic or glass substrata. A fibrillar keratin-specific fluorescence, showing a typical cell-cell arrangement, was seen in all cells in indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, whereas only some cells also showed vimentin-specific staining. A fine fibrillar fibronectin-specific surface staining was seen at the margin of attaching cells and in marginal cells of spreading cell islands, whereas no fluorescence could be seen in epidermal cells, with antibodies against type IV collagen or laminin. Interestingly, the marginal cells also showed intracellular fibronectin. The synthesis of fibronectin in epidermal cell cultures could also be revealed by metabolic labelling experiments with [35S]methionine. In contrast to primary cultures, subcultivated keratinocytes also adhered to uncoated plastic and glass substrata. After subcultivation, keratin and surface fibronectin distribution remained unaltered but after some subcultivations, most of the cells also showed fibrillar vimentin and expressed fibronectin intracellularly. The results show that the suction-blister method provides an easy way to obtain pure epidermal cell cultures without contaminating mesenchymal cells. Our results also suggest a direct role for fibronectin but not for collagen type IV or laminin in adhesion and spreading of epidermal cells in vitro.

  8. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous findings of differences in hammer selection when nut cracking between neighboring communities despite similar ecological conditions. We now further investigated the diversity and maintenance of cultural traits within one chimpanzee community and were able to show high levels of uniformity in group-specific behavior. Fidelity to the behavior pattern did not vary between dispersing females and philopatric males. Furthermore, group-specific tool selection remained similar over a period of 25 years. Additionally, we present a study case on how one newly immigrant female progressively behaved more similar to her new group, suggesting that the high level of similarity in behavior is actively adopted by group members possibly even when originally expressing the behavior in another form. Taken together, our data support a cultural transmission process in adult chimpanzees, which leads to persisting cultural behavior of one community over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. In vivo fate analysis reveals the multipotent and self-renewal capacities of Sox2+ neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hoonkyo; Consiglio, Antonella; Ray, Jasodhara; Sawai, Toru; D'Amour, Kevin A.; Gage, Fred H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary To characterize the properties of adult neural stem cells (NSCs), we generated and analyzed Sox2-GFP transgenic mice. Sox2-GFP cells in the subgranular zone (SGZ) express markers specific for progenitors, but they represent two morphologically distinct populations that differ in proliferation levels. Lentivirus- and retrovirus-mediated fate tracing studies showed that Sox2+ cells in the SGZ have potential to give rise to neurons and astrocytes, revealing their multipotency at the population as well as a single cell level. More interestingly, a subpopulation of Sox2+ cells gives rise to cells that retain Sox2, highlighting Sox2+ cells as a primary source for adult NSCs. In response to mitotic signals, increased proliferation of Sox2+ cells is coupled with the generation of Sox2+ NSCs as well as neuronal precursors. An asymmetric contribution of Sox2+ NSCs may play an important role in maintaining the constant size of the NSC pool and producing newly born neurons during adult neurogenesis. PMID:18371391

  10. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide promote survival of adult rat myenteric neurons in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgren, Katarina; Lin, Zhong; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex

    2003-01-01

    of VIP, NO donor, VIP antiserum, or NOS inhibitor. A marked loss of neurons was noted during culturing. VIP and NO significantly promoted neuronal survival. Corroborating this was the finding of an enhanced neuronal cell loss when cultures were grown in the presence of VIP antiserum or NOS inhibitor....... adaptation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VIP and nitric oxide (NO) influence survival of cultured, dissociated myenteric neurons. Neuronal survival was evaluated after 0, 4, and 8 days in culture. Influence of VIP and NO on neuronal survival was examined after culturing in the presence...

  11. Cultural capital and smoking in young adults: applying new indicators to explore social inequalities in health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Thierry; Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Associations between social status and health behaviours are well documented, but the mechanisms involved are less understood. Cultural capital theory may contribute to a better understanding by expanding the scope of inequality indicators to include individuals' knowledge, skills, beliefs and material goods to examine how these indicators impact individuals' health lifestyles. We explore the structure and applicability of a set of cultural capital indicators in the empirical exploration of smoking behaviour among young male adults. We analysed data from the Swiss Federal Survey of Adolescents (CH-X) 2010-11 panel of young Swiss males (n = 10 736). A set of nine theoretically relevant variables (including incorporated, institutionalized and objectified cultural capital) were investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Regression models were run to observe the association between factor scores and smoking outcomes. Outcome measures consisted of daily smoking status and the number of cigarettes smoked by daily smokers. Cultural capital indicators aggregated in a three-factor solution representing 'health values', 'education and knowledge' and 'family resources'. Each factor score predicted the smoking outcomes. In young males, scoring low on health values, education and knowledge and family resources was associated with a higher risk of being a daily smoker and of smoking more cigarettes daily. Cultural capital measures that include, but go beyond, educational attainment can improve prediction models of smoking in young male adults. New measures of cultural capital may thus contribute to our understanding of the social status-based resources that individuals can use towards health behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive and Neural Effects of Vision-Based Speed-of-Processing Training in Older Adults with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tivarus, Madalina E; Brasch, Judith; Chen, Ding-Geng; Mapstone, Mark; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Tadin, Duje

    2016-06-01

    To examine the cognitive and neural effects of vision-based speed-of-processing (VSOP) training in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and contrast those effects with an active control (mental leisure activities (MLA)). Randomized single-blind controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Individuals with aMCI (N = 21). Six-week computerized VSOP training. Multiple cognitive processing measures, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and two resting state neural networks regulating cognitive processing: central executive network (CEN) and default mode network (DMN). VSOP training led to significantly greater improvements in trained (processing speed and attention: F1,19  = 6.61, partial η(2)  = 0.26, P = .02) and untrained (working memory: F1,19  = 7.33, partial η(2)  = 0.28, P = .01; IADLs: F1,19  = 5.16, partial η(2)  = 0.21, P = .03) cognitive domains than MLA and protective maintenance in DMN (F1, 9  = 14.63, partial η(2)  = 0.62, P = .004). VSOP training, but not MLA, resulted in a significant improvement in CEN connectivity (Z = -2.37, P = .02). Target and transfer effects of VSOP training were identified, and links between VSOP training and two neural networks associated with aMCI were found. These findings highlight the potential of VSOP training to slow cognitive decline in individuals with aMCI. Further delineation of mechanisms underlying VSOP-induced plasticity is necessary to understand in which populations and under what conditions such training may be most effective. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Got Rhythm? Better Inhibitory Control Is Linked with More Consistent Drumming and Enhanced Neural Tracking of the Musical Beat in Adult Percussionists and Nonpercussionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Ashley, Richard; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Musical rhythm engages motor and reward circuitry that is important for cognitive control, and there is evidence for enhanced inhibitory control in musicians. We recently revealed an inhibitory control advantage in percussionists compared with vocalists, highlighting the potential importance of rhythmic expertise in mediating this advantage. Previous research has shown that better inhibitory control is associated with less variable performance in simple sensorimotor synchronization tasks; however, this relationship has not been examined through the lens of rhythmic expertise. We hypothesize that the development of rhythm skills strengthens inhibitory control in two ways: by fine-tuning motor networks through the precise coordination of movements "in time" and by activating reward-based mechanisms, such as predictive processing and conflict monitoring, which are involved in tracking temporal structure in music. Here, we assess adult percussionists and nonpercussionists on inhibitory control, selective attention, basic drumming skills (self-paced, paced, and continuation drumming), and cortical evoked responses to an auditory stimulus presented on versus off the beat of music. Consistent with our hypotheses, we find that better inhibitory control is correlated with more consistent drumming and enhanced neural tracking of the musical beat. Drumming variability and the neural index of beat alignment each contribute unique predictive power to a regression model, explaining 57% of variance in inhibitory control. These outcomes present the first evidence that enhanced inhibitory control in musicians may be mediated by rhythmic expertise and provide a foundation for future research investigating the potential for rhythm-based training to strengthen cognitive function.

  14. Quantitative Analyses of Synergistic Responses between Cannabidiol and DNA-Damaging Agents on the Proliferation and Viability of Glioblastoma and Neural Progenitor Cells in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liting; Ng, Lindsay; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Stella, Nephi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the nonpsychotropic cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol (CBD), has antineoplastic activity in multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). DNA-damaging agents remain the main standard of care treatment available for patients diagnosed with GBM. Here we studied the antiproliferative and cell-killing activity of CBD alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents (temozolomide, carmustine, or cisplatin) in several human GBM cell lines and in mouse primary GBM cells in cultures. This activity was also studied in mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture to assess for potential central nervous system toxicity. We found that CBD induced a dose-dependent reduction of both proliferation and viability of all cells with similar potencies, suggesting no preferential activity for cancer cells. Hill plot analysis indicates an allosteric mechanism of action triggered by CBD in all cells. Cotreatment regimens combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents produced synergistic antiproliferating and cell-killing responses over a limited range of concentrations in all human GBM cell lines and mouse GBM cells as well as in mouse NPCs. Remarkably, antagonistic responses occurred at low concentrations in select human GBM cell lines and in mouse GBM cells. Our study suggests limited synergistic activity when combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents in treating GBM cells, along with little to no therapeutic window when considering NPCs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Identification of the Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I-binding protein as a unique glycoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule in the olfactory sensory axons of adults rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestean, A; Krizbai, I; Böttcher, H; Párducz, A; Joó, F; Wolff, J R

    1995-08-04

    Histochemical localization of two lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Tetragonolobus purpureus (TPA), was studied in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. In contrast to TPA, UEA-I detected a fucosylated glycoprotein that is only present in the surface membranes of olfactory sensory cells including the whole course of their neurites up to the final arborization in glomeruli. Immunoblotting revealed that UEA-I binds specifically to a protein of 205 kDa, while TPA stains several other glycoproteins. Affinity chromatography with the use of a UEA-I column identified the 205 kDa protein as a glycoform of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), specific for the rat olfactory sensory nerves.

  16. Bioprinting for Neural Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Anand, Shivesh; Shah, Twisha; Tasoglu, Savas

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a method by which a cell-encapsulating bioink is patterned to create complex tissue architectures. Given the potential impact of this technology on neural research, we review the current state-of-the-art approaches for bioprinting neural tissues. While 2D neural cultures are ubiquitous for studying neural cells, 3D cultures can more accurately replicate the microenvironment of neural tissues. By bioprinting neuronal constructs, one can precisely control the microenvironment by specifically formulating the bioink for neural tissues, and by spatially patterning cell types and scaffold properties in three dimensions. We review a range of bioprinted neural tissue models and discuss how they can be used to observe how neurons behave, understand disease processes, develop new therapies and, ultimately, design replacement tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A method for the isolation and culture of adult rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells to study retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch Peter Heller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD affect the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and lead to the death of the epithelial cells and ultimately blindness. RPE transplantation is currently a major focus of eye research and clinical trials using human stem cell-derived RPE cells are ongoing. However, it remains to be established to which extent the source of RPE cells for transplantation affects their therapeutic efficacy and this needs to be explored in animal models. Autotransplantation of RPE cells has attractions as a therapy, but existing protocols to isolate adult RPE cells from rodents are technically difficult, time-consuming, have a low yield and are not optimized for long-term cell culturing. Here, we report a newly devised protocol which facilitates reliable and simple isolation and culture of RPE cells from adult rats. Incubation of a whole rat eyeball in 20 U/ml papain solution for 50 minutes yielded 4 x 104 viable RPE cells. These cells were hexagonal and pigmented upon culture. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that the cells expressed RPE cell-specific marker proteins including cytokeratin 18 and RPE65, similar to RPE cells in vivo. Additionally, the cells were able to produce and secrete Bruch’s membrane matrix components similar to in vivo situation. Similarly, the cultured RPE cells adhered to isolated Bruch’s membrane as has previously been reported. Therefore, the protocol described in this article provides an efficient method for the rapid and easy isolation of high quantities of adult rat RPE cells. This provides a reliable platform for studying the therapeutic targets, testing the effects of drugs in a preclinical setup and to perform in vitro and in vivo transplantation experiments to study retinal diseases.

  18. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloner, A.; Rao, A.; Al-Chaer, E.D.; Meerveld, B. Greenwood-Van

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liqui...

  19. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  20. "I know you are but what am I?!": neural bases of self- and social knowledge retrieval in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Lieberman, Matthew D; Dapretto, Mirella

    2007-08-01

    Previous neuroimaging research with adults suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the medial posterior parietal cortex (MPPC) are engaged during self-knowledge retrieval processes. However, this has yet to be assessed in a developmental sample. Twelve children and 12 adults (average age = 10.2 and 26.1 years, respectively) reported whether short phrases described themselves or a highly familiar other (Harry Potter) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. In both children and adults, the MPFC was relatively more active during self- than social knowledge retrieval, and the MPPC was relatively more active during social than self-knowledge retrieval. Direct comparisons between children and adults indicated that children activated the MPFC during self-knowledge retrieval to a much greater extent than adults. The particular regions of the MPPC involved varied between the two groups, with the posterior precuneus engaged by adults, but the anterior precuneus and posterior cingulate engaged by children. Only children activated the MPFC significantly above baseline during self-knowledge retrieval. Implications for social cognitive development and the processing functions performed by the MPFC are discussed.

  1. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R Isasi

    Full Text Available The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084, a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing, and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and percentage body fat (%BF. Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background. Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF. These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  2. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Kaplan, Robert C; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  3. Rotating three-dimensional dynamic culture of adult human bone marrow-derived cells for tissue engineering of hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinsuke; Mishima, Hajime; Ishii, Tomoo; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Ohyabu, Yoshimi; Chang, Fei; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2009-04-01

    The method of constructing cartilage tissue from bone marrow-derived cells in vitro is considered a valuable technique for hyaline cartilage regenerative medicine. Using a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor developed in a NASA space experiment, we attempted to efficiently construct hyaline cartilage tissue from human bone marrow-derived cells without using a scaffold. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the iliac crest of nine patients during orthopedic operation. After their proliferation in monolayer culture, the adherent cells were cultured in the RWV bioreactor with chondrogenic medium for 2 weeks. Cells from the same source were cultured in pellet culture as controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluations (collagen type I and II) and quantification of glycosaminoglycan were performed on formed tissues and compared. The engineered constructs obtained using the RWV bioreactor showed strong features of hyaline cartilage in terms of their morphology as determined by histological and immunohistological evaluations. The glycosaminoglycan contents per microg DNA of the tissues were 10.01 +/- 3.49 microg/microg DNA in the case of the RWV bioreactor and 6.27 +/- 3.41 microg/microg DNA in the case of the pellet culture, and their difference was significant. The RWV bioreactor could provide an excellent environment for three-dimensional cartilage tissue architecture that can promote the chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived cells.

  4. From Cultural Deprivation to Individual Deficits: A Genealogy of Deficiency in Inuit Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Adult education programs are often grounded in problematic assumptions about learners' inadequacies. The purpose of this article is to critique such assumptions through presenting a history of the manner in which representatives of Canadian governments conceptualized the education of Inuit adults from the 1940s through the 1980s. Using…

  5. Co-culture of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nucleus Pulposus Cells in Bilaminar Pellets for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, Aliza A; Schneider, Richard A; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Our goal is to optimize stem cell-based tissue engineering strategies in the context of the intervertebral disc environment. We explored the benefits of co-culturing nucleus pulposus cells (NPC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using a novel spherical bilaminar pellet culture system where one cell type is enclosed in a sphere of the other cell type. Our 3D system provides a structure that exploits embryonic processes such as tissue induction and condensation. We observed a unique phenomenon: the budding of co-culture pellets and the formation of satellite pellets that separate from the main pellet. MSC and NPC co-culture pellets were formed with three different structural organizations. The first had random organization. The other two had bilaminar organization with either MSC inside and NPC outside or NPC inside and MSC outside. By 14 days, all co-culture pellets exhibited budding and spontaneously generated satellite pellets. The satellite pellets were composed of both cell types and, surprisingly, all had the same bilaminar organization with MSC on the inside and NPC on the outside. This organization was independent of the structure of the main pellet that the satellites stemmed from. The main pellets generated satellite pellets that spontaneously organized into a bilaminar structure. This implies that structural organization occurs naturally in this cell culture system and may be inherently favorable for cell-based tissue engineering strategies. The occurrence of budding and the organization of satellite pellets may have important implications for the use of co-culture pellets in cell-based therapies for disc regeneration. From a therapeutic point of view, the generation of satellite pellets may be a beneficial feature that would serve to spread donor cells throughout the host matrix and restore normal matrix composition in a sustainable way, ultimately renewing tissue function.

  6. Fluvoxamine stimulates oligodendrogenesis of cultured neural stem cells and attenuates inflammation and demyelination in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareghani, Majid; Zibara, Kazem; Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Dokoohaki, Shima; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aryanpour, Roya; Ghanbari, Amir

    2017-07-07

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) require medications controlling severity of the pathology and depression, affecting more than half of the patients. In this study, the effect of antidepressant drug fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Nanomolar concentrations of fluvoxamine significantly increased cell viability and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) through increasing mRNA expression of Notch1, Hes1 and Ki-67, and protein levels of NICD. Also, physiological concentrations of fluvoxamine were optimal for NSC differentiation toward oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons. In addition, fluvoxamine attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity, a rat MS model, by significantly decreasing its clinical scores. Moreover, fluvoxamine treated EAE rats showed a decrease in IFN-γ serum levels and an increase in IL-4, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines respectively, compared to untreated EAE rats. Furthermore, immune cell infiltration and demyelination plaque significantly decreased in spinal cords of fluvoxamine-treated rats, which was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of MBP and GFAP positive cells and a decrease in lactate serum levels, a new biomarker of MS progression. In summary, besides its antidepressant activity, fluvoxamine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of NSCs particularly toward oligodendrocytes, a producer of CNS myelin.

  7. Pediatric and Adult High-Grade Glioma Stem Cell Culture Models Are Permissive to Lytic Infection with Parvovirus H-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josupeit, Rafael; Bender, Sebastian; Kern, Sonja; Leuchs, Barbara; Hielscher, Thomas; Herold-Mende, Christel; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Dinsart, Christiane; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Lacroix, Jeannine

    2016-05-19

    Combining virus-induced cytotoxic and immunotherapeutic effects, oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for high-grade glioma (HGG). A clinical trial has recently provided evidence for the clinical safety of the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) in adult glioblastoma relapse patients. The present study assesses the efficacy of H-1PV in eliminating HGG initiating cells. H-1PV was able to enter and to transduce all HGG neurosphere culture models (n = 6), including cultures derived from adult glioblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Cytotoxic effects induced by the virus have been observed in all HGG neurospheres at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) doses of input virus between 1 and 10 plaque forming units per cell. H-1PV infection at this dose range was able to prevent tumorigenicity of NCH421k glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) "stem-like" cells in NOD/SCID mice. Interestingly NCH421R, an isogenic subclone with equal capacity of xenograft formation, but resistant to H-1PV infection could be isolated from the parental NCH421k culture. To reveal changes in gene expression associated with H-1PV resistance we performed a comparative gene expression analysis in these subclones. Several dysregulated genes encoding receptor proteins, endocytosis factors or regulators innate antiviral responses were identified and represent intriguing candidates for to further study molecular mechanisms of H-1PV resistance.

  8. Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using "culture" as the unit of analysis. DESIGN: Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. Independent coders rated the frequency and harshness of corporal punishment of children, inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, interpersonal violence among adults, and demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting covariates. RESULTS: More frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. These relations held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds. CONCLUSION: More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher prevalence of violence and endorsement of violence at a societal level. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent in contexts in which corporal punishment is frequent, that the use of corporal punishment increases the probability that children will engage in violent behaviors during adulthood, and that violence in one social domain tends to influence behavior in other domains. If corporal punishment leads to higher levels of societal violence, then reducing parents' use of corporal punishment should lead to reductions in societal violence manifested in other ways.

  9. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1 at the crossroads of diverse pathways during adult neural fate specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios eStergiopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, adult neurogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a fundamental process underlying physiology and disease. Recent evidence indicates that the homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is a critical intrinsic regulator of neurogenesis in the embryonic CNS and adult dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus, acting in multiple ways and instructed by extrinsic cues and intrinsic factors. In the embryonic CNS, Prox1 is mechanistically involved in the regulation of proliferation versus differentiation decisions of NSCs, promoting cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation, while inhibits astrogliogenesis. During the complex differentiation events in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, Prox1 is required for maintenance of intermediate progenitors (IPs, differentiation and maturation of glutamatergic interneurons, as well as specification of DG cell identity over CA3 pyramidal fate. The mechanism by which Prox1 exerts multiple functions involves distinct signaling pathways currently not fully highlighted. In this mini-review, we thoroughly discuss the Prox1-dependent phenotypes and molecular pathways in adult neurogenesis in relation to different upstream signaling cues and cell fate determinants. In addition, we discuss the possibility that Prox1 may act as a cross-talk point between diverse signaling cascades to achieve specific outcomes during adult neurogenesis.

  10. Components of Culture that Preclude Rejection of Developmentally Disabled Persons--Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Frederick A.; Radtke, Jean C.

    The paper deals primarily with the components of culture that preclude rejection of developmentally disabled persons with a view toward minifying these attitudes in the future. Reviewed are such components of culture as democratic ideals, religious factors, economic factors, and educational practices which foster negative attitudes toward the…

  11. On Becoming an Educated Person: Salvadoran Adult Learners' Cultural Model of Educacion/Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: In contrast to cultural constructs that equate education with cognitive development and formal schooling, the Latin American cultural model of educacion encompasses academic knowledge and social competence. Prior scholarship has mainly investigated parental notions of educacion vis-a-vis childrearing and schooling, primarily…

  12. Online version of the food allergy quality of life questionnaire-adult form: validity, feasibility and cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, N J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Duiverman, E J; Weiss, C C; Furlong, T J; Dubois, A E J

    2011-04-01

    Food-allergic reactions occur in 3-4% of the adult population in Western countries. It has been shown that food allergy may impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Food allergy quality of life questionnaires (FAQLQs) have been developed and validated, including an adult form (FAQLQ-AF). These questionnaires may be particularly useful for cross-cultural comparisons. The aims of this study were to translate the FAQLQ-AF from Dutch into English and validate an online version in the United States. Additionally, HRQL of American and Dutch food-allergic adults was compared. The Dutch FAQLQ-AF was translated into English as set out by the World Health Organization and converted to an electronic online format. Participants (food allergic American adults) were recruited through the 'Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network' website and completed the questionnaire online. Construct validity, internal consistency, discriminative ability and feasibility were analysed. A cross-cultural comparison was made using the Dutch FAQLQ-AF scores. Data from 180 American participants were analysed. The online FAQLQ-AF had a good construct validity (correlation with FAIM: ρ=0.72; P<0.001), internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.95) and was discriminative for 'anaphylaxis' vs. 'no anaphylaxis' and 'number of food allergies'. The most striking finding was a significantly greater impairment in HRQL in the American participants, as compared with their Dutch counterparts (the total FAQLQ-AF scores were 4.3 vs. 3.5, respectively; P<0.001, where 1 signifies no impairment and 7 signifies extreme impairment in HRQL). The online American FAQLQ-AF is a valid instrument to measure HRQL in food-allergic patients in the United States. Additionally, HRQL of American food-allergic adults may be more impaired than Dutch food-allergic adults. The FAQLQ-AF can now be used to determine the HRQL in American food-allergic adults and can assist clinicians in optimizing management strategies for food

  13. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-05

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor α triggers proliferation of adult neural stem cells via IKK/NF-κB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltschmidt Christian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain inflammation has been recognized as a complex phenomenon with numerous related aspects. In addition to the very well-described neurodegenerative effect of inflammation, several studies suggest that inflammatory signals exert a potentially positive influence on neural stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is one of the best-characterized mediators of inflammation. To date, conclusions about the action of TNF on neural stem or progenitor cells (NSCs, NPCs have been conflicting. TNF seems to activate NSC proliferation and to inhibit their differentiation into NPCs. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the molecular signal transduction mechanisms induced by TNF and resulting in NSC proliferation. Results Here we describe for the first time the TNF-mediated signal transduction cascade in neural stem cells (NSCs that results in increased proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrate IKK-α/β-dependent proliferation and markedly up-regulated cyclin D1 expression after TNF treatment. The significant increase in proliferation in TNF-treated cells was indicated by increased neurosphere volume, increased bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU incorporation and a higher total cell number. Furthermore, TNF strongly activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB as measured by reporter gene assays and by an activity-specific antibody. Proliferation of control and TNF-treated NSCs was strongly inhibited by expression of the NF-κB super-repressor IκB-AA1. Pharmacological blockade of IκB ubiquitin ligase activity led to comparable decreases in NF-κB activity and proliferation. In addition, IKK-β gene product knock-down via siRNA led to diminished NF-κB activity, attenuated cyclin D1 expression and finally decreased proliferation. In contrast, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1 is partially dispensable for TNF-mediated and endogenous proliferation. Understanding stem cell proliferation is crucial

  15. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder in adults: a cross-cultural survey of Israeli Jewish and Arab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Vera; Koran, Lorrin M; Murad, Sari; Siam, Ihab; Odlaug, Brian L; Mandelkorn, Uri; Feldman-Weisz, Vera; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-04-01

    We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder (SPD) in the Israeli adult population as a whole and compare SPD prevalence in the Jewish and Arab communities. We also explored demographic, medical and psychological correlates of SPD diagnosis. Questionnaires and scales screening for SPD, and assessing the severity of perceived stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), alcohol use, illicit drug use, and medical disorders were completed in a sample of 2145 adults attending medical settings. The lifetime prevalence of SPD was 5.4% in the total sample; it did not differ between genders or within Jewish and Arab subsamples. Severity of depression (pcross-cultural variation in the correlates of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  17. Differences in receptor binding affinity of several phytocannabinoids do not explain their effects on neural cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthaler, Sarah; Pöhn, Birgit; Kolmanz, Caroline; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Krewenka, Christopher; Huber, Alexandra; Kranner, Barbara; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Moldzio, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids are potential candidates for neurodegenerative disease treatment. Nonetheless, the exact mode of action of major phytocannabinoids has to be elucidated, but both, receptor and non-receptor mediated effects are discussed. Focusing on the often presumed structure-affinity-relationship, Ki values of phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), THC acid (THCA) and THC to human CB1 and CB2 receptors were detected by using competitive inhibition between radioligand [(3)H]CP-55,940 and the phytocannabinoids. The resulting Ki values to CB1 range from 23.5 nM (THCA) to 14711 nM (CBDV), whereas Ki values to CB2 range from 8.5 nM (THC) to 574.2 nM (CBDV). To study the relationship between binding affinity and effects on neurons, we investigated possible CB1 related cytotoxic properties in murine mesencephalic primary cell cultures and N18TG2 neuroblastoma cell line. Most of the phytocannabinoids did not affect the number of dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, whereas propidium iodide and resazurin formation assays revealed cytotoxic properties of CBN, CBDV and CBG. However, THC showed positive effects on N18TG2 cell viability at a concentration of 10 μM, whereas CBC and THCA also displayed slightly positive activities. These findings are not linked to the receptor binding affinity therewith pointing to another mechanism than a receptor mediated one. [Corrected] Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study of myosin and its subunits in adult and neonatal-rat hearts and in rat heart cells from young and old cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanbari, H A; McCarl, R L

    1980-01-01

    A possible explanation for the decrease in myosin Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity as rat heart cells age in culture is presented. The subunit structure and enzyme kinetics of myosin from adult and neonatal rat hearts and from rat heart cells of young and old cultures are compared. These studies indicate that the loss in Ca-ATPase activity of myosin from older cultures was an intrinsic property of the myosin itself. Myofibrillar fractions from the indicated four sources showed no qualitative or...

  19. Effect of homologous synovial membrane on adult human articular cartilage in organ culture, and failure to influence it with D-penicillamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, R K

    1980-01-01

    Adult human articular cartilage has been maintained in organ culture for 8 days, and the culture medium, which was changed on alternate days, was pooled. Normal and rheumatoid cartilage was obtained from patients and 4 types of culture were prepared: (1) cartilage alone; (2) cartilage + D-penicillamine; (3) cartilage + homologous synovium; (4) cartilage, synovium, and D-penicillamine. The hexosamines and hexuronic acid were measured in the cartilage explants and in the medium. The quantity re...

  20. Celebrating diversity: the significance of cultural differences on reading comprehension processes of the young adult EFL learner in a matriculation preparation programme in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hellerstein-Yehezkel, Devora

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension in English as a foreign language (EFL) is a key to success in academic studies in Israel. As Israel is a cultural melting pot, adult students come from widely diverse educational backgrounds, often determined by their cultural environment. They arrive at the university or college classroom with vastly different approaches to learning and reading, in general, and to reading in EFL, in particular. The challenge for the EFL teacher is to help students draw from their cultur...

  1. Estimation of network structure for signal propagations by the analysis of multichannel action potentials in cultured neural networks; Ta channel katsudo den`i kaiseki ni yoru baiyo shinkei kairomonai kofun denpa keiro no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, N.; Fukami, T.; Shiina, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Jinbo, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    We have fabricated a 64 embedded microelectrode-array substrate using semiconductor technology to investigate the biological signal processing in brain by using cultured neural networks of fetal rat neocortex in vitro. We analyzed temporal and spatial neural networks patterns cultured on electrode-array substrate and attempted to examine the network structure constituted by neurons and the propagating patterns of electrical activity induced by the electric stimulus. In the experiments, each microelectrode size was 30 {mu}m squared and 150{mu} m spaced. For stimulation, one of the electrodes was selected and current pulses were applied through an isolated circuit. After the network was cultured in about 50 days, responses of neurons to electric stimulus were monitored extracellularly through 64-channel electrode array. Data recorded at each electrode consist of several spike trains generated by different cells. Therefore, these trains were separated by using wavelet transform and template matching for each electrode. We referred the temporal patterns of generated spikes for each electrode to as `spike sequences`. Next, we compared With the spike sequences among multichannel data and visualized the Cultured neural networks structure by identifying the directions of propagations and cell connections. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Correction: Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    There are errors in the fourth and fifth sentences of the Abstract. The correct sentences are: Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship

  3. Age-Related Differences in Face Recognition: Neural Correlates of Repetition and Semantic Priming in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Komes, Jessica; Tüttenberg, Simone; Leidinger, Jana; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in person recognition are among the common complaints associated with cognitive ageing. The present series of experiments therefore investigated face and person recognition in young and older adults. The authors examined how within-domain and cross-domain repetition as well as semantic priming affect familiar face recognition and…

  4. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  5. Normative functional fitness standards and trends of Portuguese older adults: cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to develop normative functional fitness standards for the Portuguese older adults, to analyze age and gender patterns of decline, to compare the fitness level of Portuguese older adults with that of older adults in other countries, and to evaluate the fitness level of Portuguese older adults relative to recently published criterion fitness standards associated with maintaining physical independence. A sample of 4,712 independent-living older adults, age 65-103 yr, was evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test battery. Age-group normative fitness scores are reported for the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles. Results indicate that both women and men experience age-related losses in all components of functional fitness, with their rate of decline being greater than that observed in other populations, a trend which may cause Portuguese older adults to be at greater risk for loss of independence in later years. These newly established normative standards make it possible to assess individual fitness level and provide a basis for implementing population-wide health strategies to counteract early loss of independence.

  6. Chitosan derived co-spheroids of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells for neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan has been considered as candidate biomaterials for neural applications. The effective treatment of neurodegeneration or injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is still in lack nowadays. Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) represents a promising cell source to treat the CNS diseases but they are limited in number. Here, we developed the core-shell spheroids of NSCs (shell) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, core) by co-culturing cells on the chitosan surface. The NSCs in chitosan derived co-spheroids displayed a higher survival rate than those in NSC homo-spheroids. The direct interaction of NSCs with MSCs in the co-spheroids increased the Notch activity and differentiation tendency of NSCs. Meanwhile, the differentiation potential of MSCs in chitosan derived co-spheroids was significantly enhanced toward neural lineages. Furthermore, NSC homo-spheroids and NSC/MSC co-spheroids derived on chitosan were evaluated for their in vivo efficacy by the embryonic and adult zebrafish brain injury models. The locomotion activity of zebrafish receiving chitosan derived NSC homo-spheroids or NSC/MSC co-spheroids was partially rescued in both models. Meanwhile, the higher survival rate was observed in the group of adult zebrafish implanted with chitosan derived NSC/MSC co-spheroids as compared to NSC homo-spheroids. These evidences indicate that chitosan may provide an extracellular matrix-like environment to drive the interaction and the morphological assembly between NSCs and MSCs and promote their neural differentiation capacities, which can be used for neural regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural correlates of atomoxetine improving inhibitory control and visual processing in Drug-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-Ying; Chou, Tai-Li; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-10-01

    Atomoxetine improves inhibitory control and visual processing in healthy volunteers and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of these two functions after chronic treatment with atomoxetine. This study aimed to use the counting Stroop task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to investigate the changes related to inhibitory control and visual processing in adults with ADHD. This study is an 8-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of atomoxetine in 24 drug-naïve adults with ADHD. We investigated the changes of treatment with atomoxetine compared to placebo-treated counterparts using the counting Stroop fMRI and two CANTAB tests: rapid visual information processing (RVP) for inhibitory control and delayed matching to sample (DMS) for visual processing. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, which were correlated with the improvement in inhibitory control assessed by the RVP. Also, atomoxetine increased activation in the left precuneus, which was correlated with the improvement in the mean latency of correct responses assessed by the DMS. Moreover, anterior cingulate activation in the pre-treatment was able to predict the improvements of clinical symptoms. Treatment with atomoxetine may improve inhibitory control to suppress interference and may enhance the visual processing to process numbers. In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex might play an important role as a biological marker for the treatment effectiveness of atomoxetine. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4850-4864, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Deficient neural activity subserving decision-making during reward waiting time in intertemporal choice in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Ayako; Tanaka, Saori C; Kawakubo, Yuki; Yahata, Noriaki; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Nishimura, Yukika; Kano, Yukiko; Ohtake, Fumio; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2018-04-24

    Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision-making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting (i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward) is altered in adults with ADHD. The participants included 14 medication-free adults with ADHD and 16 healthy controls matched for age, sex, IQ, and handedness. The behavioral task had participants choose between a delayed, larger monetary reward and an immediate, smaller monetary reward, where the reward waiting time actually occurred during functional magnetic resonance imaging measurement. We tested for group differences in the contrast values of blood-oxygen-level dependent signals associated with the length of waiting time, calculated using the parametric modulation method. While the two groups did not differ in the time discounting rate, the delay-sensitive contrast values were significantly lower in the caudate and visual cortex in individuals with ADHD. The higher impulsivity scores were significantly associated with lower delay-sensitive contrast values in the caudate and visual cortex. These results suggest that deficient neural activity affects decision-making involving reward waiting time during intertemporal choice tasks, and provide an explanation for the basis of impulsivity in adult ADHD. © 2018 The Author. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2018 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Transfer Effects to a Multimodal Dual-Task after Working Memory Training and Associated Neural Correlates in Older Adults - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Stephan; Rimpel, Jérôme; Stelzel, Christine; Rapp, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination. A sample of older adults (age 60-72) was assigned to either a training or control group. The training group participated in 12 sessions of an adaptive n-back training. At pre and post-measurement, a multimodal dual-task was performed in all participants to assess transfer effects. This task consisted of two simultaneous delayed match to sample WM tasks using two different stimulus modalities (visual and auditory) that were performed either in isolation (single-task) or in conjunction (dual-task). A subgroup also participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of the n-back task before and after training. While no transfer to single-task performance was found, dual-task costs in both the visual modality ( p task costs, while neural activity changes in right DLPFC during three-back predicted visual dual-task costs. Results might indicate an improvement in central executive processing that could facilitate both WM and dual-task coordination.

  10. In vitro evaluation of biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene and carbon nanotube-loaded PVDF membranes with adult neural stem cell-derived neurons and glia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çagla Defterali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs are being investigated as potential substrates for the growth of neural cells. However, in most in vitro studies the cells were seeded on these materials coated with various proteins implying that the observed effects on the cells could not solely be attributed to the GBN and CNT properties. Here we studied the biocompatibility of uncoated thermally reduced graphene (TRG and poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membranes loaded with multi walled CNTs (MWCNTs using neural stem cells (NSCs isolated from the adult mouse olfactory bulb (termed aOBSCs. When aOBSCs were induced to differentiate on coverslips treated with TRG or control materials (polyethyleneimine-PEI and polyornithine plus fibronectin-PLO/F in a serum-free medium, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes were generated in all conditions, indicating that TRG permits the multi-lineage differentiation of aOBSCs. However, the total number of cells was reduced on both PEI and TRG. In a serum-containing medium, aOBSC-derived neurons and oligodendrocytes grown on TRG were more numerous than in controls; the neurons developed synaptic boutons and oligodendrocytes were more branched. In contrast, neurons growing on PVDF membranes had reduced neurite branching and on MWCNTs-loaded membranes, oligodendrocytes were lower in numbers than in controls. Overall, these findings indicate that uncoated TRG may be biocompatible with the generation, differentiation, and maturation of aOBSC-derived neurons and glial cells, implying a potential use for TRG to study functional neuronal networks.

  11. Steroid metabolism by purified adult rat Leydig cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, J.Y.; Tcholakian, R.K.; Kessler, M.J.; Grotjan, H.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    To characterize Leydig cell steroidogensis, we examined the metabolism of [3H]pregnenolone (3 beta-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one) to androgens in the presence and absence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a function of culture duration. Approximately 20-30% of the (3H)pregnenolone was converted to testosterone (17 beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one) by purified Leydig cells at 0, 3 and 5 days (d) of culture. Androstenedione (4-androstene-3,17-dione) and dihydrotestosterone (17 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstan-3-one) were also produced while on day 5 of culture, significant amounts of progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione) were isolated. The delta 5 intermediates, 17-hydroxypregnenolone (3 beta, 17-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one) and dehydroepiandrosterone (3 beta-hydroxy-5-androsten-17-one), accounted for less than 1% of substrate conversion, indicating a clear preference for Leydig cells to metabolize (3H)pregnenolone via the delta 4 pathway. On day 0 of culture, unidentified metabolites considered of predominately polar steroids while on day 5 of culture, the unidentified metabolites consisted of predominately nonpolar steroids. In the presence of hCG, (3H-pregnenolone metabolism did not differ from basal on day 0 or 3 of culture. HCG increased the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione) on 5d. This suggests that Leydig cells cultured for 5d have decreased C17-20 desmolase activity or that hCG acutely stimulates 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and delta 5-delta 5 isomerase activities

  12. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A culture of future planning: perceptions of sexual risk among educated young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Ann M; Ostrach, Bayla; Marcus, Ruthanne; Frank, Cynthia; Ball, Cassandra; Erickson, Pamela I

    2014-10-01

    In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants' narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educators need to address how social processes shape sexual practices, encourage educated young adults to challenge unequal gender expectations, and consider how sexually transmitted infections might also interfere with life plans. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Harnessing Youth and Young Adult Culture: Improving the Reach and Engagement of the truth® Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Elizabeth; Pitzer, Lindsay; Bennett, Morgane; Halenar, Michael; Rath, Jessica; Cantrell, Jennifer; Dorrler, Nicole; Asche, Eric; Vallone, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The national youth and young adult tobacco prevention mass media campaign, truth®, relaunched in 2014 with the goal of creating "the generation that ends smoking." The objective of this study was to assess whether the strategy of airing truth ads during popular, culturally relevant televised events was associated with higher ad and brand awareness and increases in social media engagement. Awareness of six truth advertisements that aired during popular television events and self-reported social media engagement were assessed via cross-sectional online surveys of youth and young adults aged 15-21 years. Social engagement was also measured using separate Twitter and YouTube metrics. Logistic regression models predicted self-reported social engagement and any ad awareness, and a negative binomial regression predicted the total social media engagement across digital platforms. The study found that viewing a popular televised event was associated with higher odds of ad awareness and social engagement. The results also indicate that levels of social media engagement for an event period are greater than for a nonevent period. The findings demonstrate that premiering advertisements during a popular, culturally relevant televised event is associated with higher awareness of truth ads and increased social engagement related to the campaign, controlling for variables that might also influence the response to campaign messages.

  15. Increased adipogenesis in cultured embryonic chondrocytes and in adult bone marrow of dominant negative Erg transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Flajollet

    Full Text Available In monolayer culture, primary articular chondrocytes have an intrinsic tendency to lose their phenotype during expansion. The molecular events underlying this chondrocyte dedifferentiation are still largely unknown. Several transcription factors are important for chondrocyte differentiation. The Ets transcription factor family may be involved in skeletal development. One family member, the Erg gene, is mainly expressed during cartilage formation. To further investigate the potential role of Erg in the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, we isolated and cultured chondrocytes from the rib cartilage of embryos of transgenic mice that express a dominant negative form of Erg (DN-Erg during cartilage formation. DN-Erg expression in chondrocytes cultured for up to 20 days did not affect the early dedifferentiation usually observed in cultured chondrocytes. However, lipid droplets accumulated in DN-Erg chondrocytes, suggesting adipocyte emergence. Transcriptomic analysis using a DNA microarray, validated by quantitative RT-PCR, revealed strong differential gene expression, with a decrease in chondrogenesis-related markers and an increase in adipogenesis-related gene expression in cultured DN-Erg chondrocytes. These results indicate that Erg is involved in either maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype in vitro or in cell fate orientation. Along with the in vitro studies, we compared adipocyte presence in wild-type and transgenic mice skeletons. Histological investigations revealed an increase in the number of adipocytes in the bone marrow of adult DN-Erg mice even though no adipocytes were detected in embryonic cartilage or bone. These findings suggest that the Ets transcription factor family may contribute to the homeostatic balance in skeleton cell plasticity.

  16. The role of attitudes and culture in family caregiving for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anngela-Cole, Linda; Hilton, Jeanne M

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated cultural differences in attitudes toward caregiving and the stress levels of family caregivers. Participants included 98 Japanese American and 86 Caucasian American family caregivers caring for frail elders. Analyses using MANOVA and multiple regression analyses revealed that the Caucasian caregivers had more positive attitudes and provided more hours of care than the Japanese caregivers but that both groups had elevated levels of caregiver stress. The stress that family caregivers currently experience could lead to a future generation of care recipients who enter old age in worse condition than their predecessors. Professionals need to work together to develop culturally appropriate, evidence-based interventions to address this issue.

  17. PARP Inhibition Prevents Ethanol-Induced Neuroinflammatory Signaling and Neurodegeneration in Rat Adult-Age Brain Slice Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Nuzhath; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2018-01-01

    Using rat adult-age hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) slice cultures, we examined the role of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) in binge ethanol’s brain inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms. Activated by DNA strand breaks, PARP (principally PARP1 in the brain) promotes DNA repair via poly [ADP-ribose] (PAR) products, but PARP overactivation triggers regulated neuronal necrosis (e.g., parthanatos). Previously, we found that brain PARP1 levels were upregulated by neurotoxic ethanol binges in adult rats and HEC slices, and PARP inhibitor PJ34 abrogated slice neurodegeneration. Binged HEC slices also exhibited increased Ca+2-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoenzymes (cPLA2 IVA and sPLA2 IIA) that mobilize proinflammatory ω6 arachidonic acid (ARA). We now find in 4-day–binged HEC slice cultures (100 mM ethanol) that PARP1 elevations after two overnight binges precede PAR, cPLA2, and sPLA2 enhancements by 1 day and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), an ethanol-responsive alarmin that augments proinflammatory cytokines via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), by 2 days. After verifying that PJ34 effectively blocks PARP activity (↑PAR), we demonstrated that, like PJ34, three other PARP inhibitors—olaparib, veliparib, and 4-aminobenzamide—provided neuroprotection from ethanol. Importantly, PJ34 and olaparib also prevented ethanol’s amplification of the PLA2 isoenzymes, and two PLA2 inhibitors were neuroprotective—thus coupling PARP to PLA2, with PLA2 activity promoting neurodegeneration. Also, PJ34 and olaparib blocked ethanol-induced HMGB1 elevations, linking brain PARP induction to TLR4 activation. The results provide evidence in adult brains that induction of PARP1 may mediate dual neuroinflammatory pathways (PLA2→phospholipid→ARA and HMGB1→TLR4→proinflammatory cytokines) that are complicit in binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:29339456

  18. Adult Educators' Perceptions of Their Organization Promoting Learning Practices and Culture: A Caribbean Law Enforcement Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne; Closson, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations, whether private or public, invest extensively in training and development. Such investment in training and development does not guarantee that the organization is perceived as a learning organization. This study examined law enforcement adult educators' (training facilitators') perceptions of their organization promoting…

  19. Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)

  20. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    , therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model...... on Tarlov's scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys. CONCLUSION: Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation....

  1. Polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM in the human trigeminal ganglion and brainstem at prenatal and adult ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Tiziana

    2008-11-01

    , the distribution pattern remains fairly steady, whereas the density of immunoreactive structures and the staining intensity may change and are usually higher in newborn than in adult specimens. Conclusion The results obtained show that, in man, the expression of PSA-NCAM in selective populations of central and peripheral neurons occurs not only during prenatal life, but also in adulthood. They support the concept of an involvement of this molecule in the structural and functional neural plasticity throughout life. In particular, the localization of PSA-NCAM in TG primary sensory neurons likely to be involved in the transmission of protopathic stimuli suggests the possible participation of this molecule in the processing of the relevant sensory neurotransmission.

  2. Adult Learners' Perceptions of the Significance of Culture in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Lewis, Kimberly Anne

    2014-01-01

    Is learning about culture important when learning a foreign language? One would think that after its long history in the field of foreign language teaching this question had been answered with a resounding "yes". However, I saw little evidence of this in the classroom when I returned to the university to learn a foreign language or when…

  3. Towards a Culturally Sensitive and Deeper Understanding of "Rote Learning" and Memorisation of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Po-Li

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to provide evidence that "rote learning" or "memorisation" is a complex construct and is deeply embedded in the East Asian culture. An in-depth understanding of this learning approach is increasingly crucial considering the complex demography of contemporary higher education nowadays. Not only is there a rise…

  4. A Systematic Review of Culturally Tailored Obesity Interventions among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wanda Martin; White, Ashley N.; Knowlden, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: African Americans have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity at 48.1%. High rates of obesity contribute to the disproportionate share of chronic health conditions. In order to reduce these high rates and achieve health equity, intervention programs must address racial health disparities in culturally meaningful ways. Methods: The…

  5. The Influence of Popular Culture and Entertainment Media on Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that popular culture and entertainment media influence us in both conscious and unconscious ways is not new. The use of alternative spaces, such as internet sites, for creating entertainment will continue to influence society and challenge educators. The importance of the internet was reflected in Time magazine's choosing YOU (meaning the…

  6. Cultural Competence Training for Healthcare Professionals Working with LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Tracey; Maddux, Stu; Krinsky, Lisa; White, Jay; Lockeman, Kelly; Metcalfe, Yohvane; Aggarwal, Sadashiv

    2013-01-01

    The population of the aging lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community is significant and growing rapidly. As LGBT individuals age and begin to move into healthcare communities, they are fearful of apathy, discrimination, and abuse by healthcare providers and other residents. Person-centered cultural competence and sensitivity among…

  7. The neural basis of decision-making and reward processing in adults with euthymic bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Ibanez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and bipolar disorder (BD share DSM-IV criteria in adults and cause problems in decision-making. Nevertheless, no previous report has assessed a decision-making task that includes the examination of the neural correlates of reward and gambling in adults with ADHD and those with BD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Iowa gambling task (IGT, a task of rational decision-making under risk (RDMUR and a rapid-decision gambling task (RDGT which elicits behavioral measures as well as event-related potentials (ERPs: fERN and P3 in connection to the motivational impact of events. We did not observe between-group differences for decision-making under risk or ambiguity (RDMUR and IGT; however, there were significant differences for the ERP-assessed RDGT. Compared to controls, the ADHD group showed a pattern of impaired learning by feedback (fERN and insensitivity to reward magnitude (P3. This ERP pattern (fERN and P3 was associated with impulsivity, hyperactivity, executive function and working memory. Compared to controls, the BD group showed fERN- and P3-enhanced responses to reward magnitude regardless of valence. This ERP pattern (fERN and P3 was associated with mood and inhibitory control. Consistent with the ERP findings, an analysis of source location revealed reduced responses of the cingulate cortex to the valence and magnitude of rewards in patients with ADHD and BD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that neurophysiological (ERPs paradigms such as the RDGT are well suited to assess subclinical decision-making processes in patients with ADHD and BD as well as for linking the cingulate cortex with action monitoring systems.

  8. The neural basis of decision-making and reward processing in adults with euthymic bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Agustin; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Baez, Sandra; Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Kamienkowski, Juan Esteban; Torralva, Teresa; Torrente, Fernando; Strejilevich, Sergio; Teitelbaum, Julia; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Melloni, Margherita; Lischinsky, Alicia; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share DSM-IV criteria in adults and cause problems in decision-making. Nevertheless, no previous report has assessed a decision-making task that includes the examination of the neural correlates of reward and gambling in adults with ADHD and those with BD. We used the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a task of rational decision-making under risk (RDMUR) and a rapid-decision gambling task (RDGT) which elicits behavioral measures as well as event-related potentials (ERPs: fERN and P3) in connection to the motivational impact of events. We did not observe between-group differences for decision-making under risk or ambiguity (RDMUR and IGT); however, there were significant differences for the ERP-assessed RDGT. Compared to controls, the ADHD group showed a pattern of impaired learning by feedback (fERN) and insensitivity to reward magnitude (P3). This ERP pattern (fERN and P3) was associated with impulsivity, hyperactivity, executive function and working memory. Compared to controls, the BD group showed fERN- and P3-enhanced responses to reward magnitude regardless of valence. This ERP pattern (fERN and P3) was associated with mood and inhibitory control. Consistent with the ERP findings, an analysis of source location revealed reduced responses of the cingulate cortex to the valence and magnitude of rewards in patients with ADHD and BD. Our data suggest that neurophysiological (ERPs) paradigms such as the RDGT are well suited to assess subclinical decision-making processes in patients with ADHD and BD as well as for linking the cingulate cortex with action monitoring systems.

  9. Cultural Differences in Young Adults' Perceptions of the Probability of Future Family Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Calandra; Huang, Vivian; Konnert, Candace

    2017-09-01

    Most young adults are exposed to family caregiving; however, little is known about their perceptions of their future caregiving activities such as the probability of becoming a caregiver for their parents or providing assistance in relocating to a nursing home. This study examined the perceived probability of these events among 182 young adults and the following predictors of their probability ratings: gender, ethnicity, work or volunteer experience, experiences with caregiving and nursing homes, expectations about these transitions, and filial piety. Results indicated that Asian or South Asian participants rated the probability of being a caregiver as significantly higher than Caucasian participants, and the probability of placing a parent in a nursing home as significantly lower. Filial piety was the strongest predictor of the probability of these life events, and it mediated the relationship between ethnicity and probability ratings. These findings indicate the significant role of filial piety in shaping perceptions of future life events.

  10. How necessary is the vasculature in the life of neural stem and progenitor cells? Evidence from evolution, development and the adult nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS eKOUTSAKIS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Augmenting evidence suggests that such is the functional dependence of neural stem cells (NSCs on the vasculature that they normally reside in perivascular niches. Two examples are the neurovascular and the oligovascular niches of the adult brain, specialized microenvironments where NSCs or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells survive and remain mitotically active in close proximity to blood vessels. In addition, the often observed co-ordination of angiogenesis and neurogenesis led to these processes being described as coupled. Here, we adopt an evo-devo approach to argue that some stages in the life of a NSC, such as specification and commitment, are independent of the vasculature, while stages such as proliferation and migration are largely dependent on blood vessels. We also explore available evidence on the possible involvement of the vasculature in other phenomena such as the diversification of NSCs during evolution and we provide original data on the senescence of NSCs in the subependymal zone stem cell niche. Finally, we will comment on the other side of the story; on how much is the vasculature dependent on NSCs and their progeny.

  11. Chinese parenting and children's compliance to adults: a cross-cultural comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ching-Yu Soar

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the parenting beliefs and practices of Taiwanese, Chinese immigrant (all first-generation immigrants in the UK) and English mothers, and the compliance of their young children (aged 5–7), in order to elucidate the effects of child temperament, culture and acculturation strategies on reported parenting beliefs and practices, observed parental behaviour, child behaviour, mother–child interaction dynamics and children’s compliance. The data were colle...

  12. Radiation-induced apoptosis of neural precursors cell cultures: early modulation of the response mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Robello, E.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M. R.

    2004-07-01

    Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of ROS/RNS has been observed after exposures to low radiation doses leading to cellular amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. Moreover Nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical are implicated in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in different parading. This study is an attempt to address the participation of radiation-induced free radicals production, the contribution of endogenous NO generation, and the excitonic pathway, in the radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from at 17 gestational day (gd) were irradiated with doses from 0,2 Gy to 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/m. A significant decrease of Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence was evident 30 m after irradiation reaching basal levels at 120 m follow for a tendency to increasing values Incubations with Superoxide Dismatuse (SOD) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples NO content estimated by measuring the stable products NO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3} released to the culture medium in the same period, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 1 h post-irradiation. the apoptosis, determined 24 h post-irradiation by flow cytometry, morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-effect relationship with significant differences from 0.4 Gy. The samples pre-treated with 10 mM of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, shown a significant decrease of the apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in irradiated cells after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) byL-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathways leading to a radiation-induced cell death. (Author) 40 refs.

  13. Radiation-induced apoptosis of neural precursors cell cultures: early modulation of the response mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Robello, E.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of ROS/RNS has been observed after exposures to low radiation doses leading to cellular amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. Moreover Nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical are implicated in dopaminergic neurotoxicity in different parading. This study is an attempt to address the participation of radiation-induced free radicals production, the contribution of endogenous NO generation, and the excitonic pathway, in the radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from at 17 gestational day (gd) were irradiated with doses from 0,2 Gy to 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/m. A significant decrease of Luminol-dependent Chemiluminescence was evident 30 m after irradiation reaching basal levels at 120 m follow for a tendency to increasing values Incubations with Superoxide Dismatuse (SOD) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples NO content estimated by measuring the stable products NO 2 and NO 3 released to the culture medium in the same period, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 1 h post-irradiation. the apoptosis, determined 24 h post-irradiation by flow cytometry, morphology and DNA fragmentation revealed a dose-effect relationship with significant differences from 0.4 Gy. The samples pre-treated with 10 mM of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) a precursor of intracellular GSH synthesis, shown a significant decrease of the apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in irradiated cells after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) byL-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathways leading to a radiation-induced cell death. (Author) 40 refs

  14. Patterns and peculiarities of romatic attachment in adults from 62 cultural regions. Are "Model of Self" and "Model of Other" pancultural constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ, a self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the “Model of Self” and “Model of Other” scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within the most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that Secure romantic attachment was normative in 79% of cultures, and Preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies. 

  15. Cultural Practice of Children's-adult Research Activity in Pre-school Education: Content and Risks (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieva T.I.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of children's "research" activities, discusses the features and examples of its existence in pre-school education. Kinds of activity in which the child shows an educational initiative and curiosity, and also the contents of interests of children of preschool age are discussed. The author shows how everyday life situations, communication with adults and peers become sources of children's "research". In such situations, samples are set and the model of the cultural practices of cognition implemented. The author analyses the elements of technology of children's "research" according to empirical material. This work was supported by Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services (project № 2.48.2016/НМ.

  16. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christina L; Harden, Scott W; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J; Wallet, Shannon M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cross-cultural Differences in Preferred Forms of Address: Implications for Work with African American Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Lott Collins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using an individual’s last name indicates respect and contributes to positive interaction with African American clients and adults of African descent. This paper discusses the importance of using social titles as a proper form of address during, and sometimes after, the initial professional relationship. Two case vignettes will highlight potential difficulties that non-African American practitioners may experience when using first names with African Americans within the professional realm. The vignettes include a scenario for a supervisor and a client.

  18. Activation of different neural precursor populations in the adult hippocampus: does this lead to new neurons with discrete functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Dhanisha J; Taylor, Chanel J; Bartlett, Perry F

    2012-07-01

    Resident populations of stem and precursor cells drive the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Recent discoveries have highlighted that a large proportion of these precursor cells are in fact quiescent and can be activated by distinct neuronal activity under both normal physiological and pathological conditions. As growing evidence indicates that newborn neurons play a critical role in cognitive functions such as learning and memory and in mood regulation, it is paramount that we obtain a better understanding of how the reservoirs of stem and precursor cells are maintained and activated. In this review, we critically examine the roles of key molecular mechanisms that have been shown to regulate hippocampal precursor cells, especially their activation. We believe that understanding the mechanistic details of the activity-driven regulation of precursor cells will equip us with the ability to develop tailored strategies to trigger the generation of new neurons, thereby improving the functional outcomes in various neurological and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Social representation of "music" in young adults: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zhao, Fei; Widén, Stephen; Auzenne, Jasmin; Beukes, Eldré W; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Mahadeva, Deepthi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore perceptions of and reactions to music in young adults (18-25 years) using the theory of social representations (TSR). The study used a cross-sectional survey design and included participants from India, Iran, Portugal, USA and UK. Data were analysed using various qualitative and quantitative methods. The study sample included 534 young adults. The Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the countries regarding the informants' perception of music. The most positive connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Iranian participants (82.2%), followed by Portuguese participants (80.6%), while the most negative connotations about music were found in the responses obtained from Indian participants (18.2%), followed by Iranian participants (7.3%). The participants' responses fell into 19 main categories based on their meaning; however, not all categories were found in all five countries. The co-occurrence analysis results generally indicate that the category "positive emotions or actions" was the most frequent category occurring in all five countries. The results indicate that music is generally considered to bring positive emotions for people within these societies, although a small percentage of responses indicate some negative consequences of music.

  20. A cultural take on the links between religiosity, identity, and meaning in life in religious emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Tiganasu, Alexandra; Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen

    2017-03-01

    Identity and meaning in life are core developmental assets in emerging adulthood. We analysed how religiosity is related to these intentional strivings in emerging adults enrolled in theological education, by depicting (1) identity strivings and meaning in life accounts in faith narratives (Study 1) and (2) links between personal identity and meaning in life profiles and religious beliefs, behaviours, and subjective experiences (Study 2). Both studies highlighted that a Foreclosed status, with high personal commitment and reduced exploration, was dominant in faith narratives and personal identity profiles. Also, in narratives meaning in life was reflected by a strong focus on presence of meaning through religious insights. Nonetheless, global meaning in life profiles indicated that many emerging adults were searching for a meaning in their lives, while reporting lower levels of presence of meaning. Identity Achievement and High Presence-High Search profiles were linked to the highest levels of subjective, behavioural, and cognitive religiosity. We highlighted the multidimensionality of identity and meaning in life strivings in emerging adults attending theological schools. We pointed out that even in a somewhat foreclosed cultural context (e.g., Romanian Christian Orthodox theological schools), religion represents a dynamic social and ideological context for self-development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious beliefs increase in emerging adults, doubled by decreases in religious behaviours, linked to an adherence to a more personal approach to religion. Religious youth are more committed to their faith and also explore identity and life meaning in relation to their religious strivings. Youth religious exemplars report close links between their religious faith and strivings for meaningful life goals. What does this study add? We investigated Christian Orthodox theology students, for whom religion is a normative dimension of

  1. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  2. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  3. Behavioral and neural markers of cigarette-craving regulation in young-adult smokers during abstinence and after smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Dara G; Faulkner, Paul; M Cox, Chelsea; London, Edythe D

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette craving contributes substantially to the maintenance of tobacco use disorder. Behavioral strategies to regulate craving may facilitate smoking cessation but remain underexplored. We adapted an emotion-regulation strategy, using proximal/distal self-positioning, to the context of cigarette craving to examine craving regulation in 42, daily smokers (18-25 years old). After overnight abstinence from smoking, before and after smoking their first cigarette of the day, participants viewed videos of natural scenes presenting young adults who were either smoking cigarettes ("smoke") or not ("non-smoke"). Before each video, participants were instructed to imagine themselves either immersed in the scene ("close") or distanced from it ("far"). They rated their craving after each video. Task-based fMRI data are presented for a subsample of participants (N = 21). We found main effects of smoking, instruction, and video type on craving-lower ratings after smoking than before, following the "far" vs. "close" instructions, and when viewing non-smoke vs. smoke videos. Before smoking, "smoke" vs. "non-smoke" videos elicited activation in, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, mid-occipital cortex, ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, and midbrain. Smoking reduced activation in anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, and bilateral temporal poles. Activation was reduced in the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex after the "far" vs. the "close" instruction, suggesting less engagement with the stimuli during distancing. The results indicate that proximal/distal regulation strategies impact cue-elicited craving, potentially via downregulation of the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex, and that smoking during abstinence may increase cognitive control capacity during craving regulation.

  4. Spatial, temporal, and health associations of eating alone: A cross-cultural analysis of young adults in urban Australia and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Wakako; Melby, Melissa K

    2017-11-01

    Eating alone is driven by social and cultural factors, not solely by individual preferences. In academic research, eating alone is often simply treated as an alternative to social, commensal eating, and little is known about the practice of eating alone itself. This study employs a cross-cultural analysis to explore social and cultural associations of eating alone. The analysis is based on 1) cultural domain data, derived from principal component analysis of freelist responses, a set of words or phrases related to the topic of eating alone; and 2) in-depth interviews with 72 young adults aged 20-40 in urban Australia and Japan. Many Australian and Japanese young adult participants associated eating alone with both pleasure and stress of being isolated from others. However, the comparison of principal components between Australian and Japanese groups and gender subgroups showed cross-cultural variations and complexity in the context of eating alone including: locations and timings of eating alone, and associations with healthy/unhealthy eating. Analyses of interviews are included to deepen understandings of cultural domains. These key associations are influenced by a range of social and cultural environments such as fast food cultures, work and life environments, and the scope of public health nutrition programs. The association between eating alone and healthy eating among young adults indicates that individualistic understandings of food intake in current public health nutrition programs are more favorable to eating alone and foster a gap between ideas of healthy eating and commensal eating as a cultural ideal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of receptive and creative cultural activities and their association with perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life among adults: the HUNT study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Koenraad; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Bygren, Lars Olov; Holmen, Jostein

    2012-08-01

    Cultural participation has been used both in governmental health policies and as medical therapy, based on the assumption that cultural activities will improve health. Previous population studies and a human intervention study have shown that religious, social and cultural activities predict increased survival rate. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between cultural activity and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life in both genders. The study is based on the third population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (2006-2008), including 50,797 adult participants from Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Data on cultural activities, both receptive and creative, perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life were collected by comprehensive questionnaires. The logistic regression models, adjusted for relevant cofactors, show that participation in receptive and creative cultural activities was significantly associated with good health, good satisfaction with life, low anxiety and depression scores in both genders. Especially in men, attending receptive, rather than creative, cultural activities was more strongly associated with all health-related outcomes. Statistically significant associations between several single receptive, creative cultural activities and the health-related outcome variables were revealed. This population-based study suggests gender-dependent associations between cultural participation and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life. The results support hypotheses on the effect of cultural activities in health promotion and healthcare, but further longitudinal and experimental studies are warranted to establish a reliable cause-effect relationship.

  6. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabiri, Azadeh, E-mail: z_kabiri@resident.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiari, Ebrahim, E-mail: esfandiari@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemibeni, Batool, E-mail: hashemibeni@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_kazemi@med.mui.ac.i [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mardani, Mohammad, E-mail: mardani@med.mui.ac.ir [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: abesmaeili@yahoo.com [Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology Division, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  7. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. ► We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. ► FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which •Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. ► The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Tissue culture of adult larch as a tool for breeding purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, D.; Kretzschmar, U. [Federal Research Centre of Forestry and Forest Products, Waldsieversdorf (Germany). Inst. for Forest Tree Biology

    1995-12-31

    Aimed at the identical reproduction of genotypes which are considered superior different methods were tested to establish and to propagate tissue cultures from old larch trees (L. decidua, L. kaempferi, L. sukaczewii, L. gmelinii, L. eurolepis). Serial subcultures without phytohormones (shoot tip propagation) led to the establishment of clone lines. After ten subcultures propagation velocity, shoot morphology and rooting behavior were similar to juvenile plant material. Serial subcultures which included a cytokinin induction led to the formation of adventitious shoot clusters (adventitious bud propagation). Adventitious shoots derived from male flowers of one L. kaempferi clone could be propagated via shoot tip propagation. Micrografting of meristems in vitro resulted in a regained rooting capacity of green cuttings from micrografts. Combining these in vitro techniques offers now the possibility to propagate selected mature larch trees for different breeding purposes. 23 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Tissue culture of adult larch as a tool for breeding purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, D; Kretzschmar, U [Federal Research Centre of Forestry and Forest Products, Waldsieversdorf (Germany). Inst. for Forest Tree Biology

    1996-12-31

    Aimed at the identical reproduction of genotypes which are considered superior different methods were tested to establish and to propagate tissue cultures from old larch trees (L. decidua, L. kaempferi, L. sukaczewii, L. gmelinii, L. eurolepis). Serial subcultures without phytohormones (shoot tip propagation) led to the establishment of clone lines. After ten subcultures propagation velocity, shoot morphology and rooting behavior were similar to juvenile plant material. Serial subcultures which included a cytokinin induction led to the formation of adventitious shoot clusters (adventitious bud propagation). Adventitious shoots derived from male flowers of one L. kaempferi clone could be propagated via shoot tip propagation. Micrografting of meristems in vitro resulted in a regained rooting capacity of green cuttings from micrografts. Combining these in vitro techniques offers now the possibility to propagate selected mature larch trees for different breeding purposes. 23 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Ethnic differences of medicines-taking in older adults: a cross cultural study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Clarke, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata

    2012-04-01

    The literature identifies many barriers to medicines use, including bio-psycho-social issues, but less is known regarding ethno-cultural barriers, which are important in culturally diverse nations. The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in attitudes to medicines and medicines-taking, focusing on the main constituents of the New Zealand (NZ) population: NZ European, Māori (the indigenous people of NZ), Pacific and Asian peoples. A qualitative study involving a series of focus groups was conducted. Participants (>50 years old) taking medicines were recruited from various community-based groups. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed for key themes via manual inductive coding and constant comparison. Twenty focus groups (n=100 participants) were conducted. Three key common themes emerged: (1) conception of a medicine; (2) self-management of medication; and (3) seeking further medicines information. In general, NZ European participants had a very narrow view of what a medicine is, were motivated to source medicines information independently and were very proactive in medicines management. At the other end of the spectrum, Pacific peoples expressed a broad view of what constitutes a medicine, were not motivated to source medicines information independently and were not proactive in medicines management, tending to instead rely on healthcare professionals for answers. The findings from the various ethnic groups highlight differences in attitudes to medicines per se and medicines-taking; these influences on medication-taking behaviour need to be considered in the provision of pharmaceutical care. Ethnic differences in attitudes to medicines and medicines-taking are apparent, although there are some commonalities in terms of needs regarding support and advice around medicines' use. This will help inform the development of resources and communication tools to assist pharmacists in providing pharmaceutical care to diverse patient

  11. Effects of Electroacupuncture Combined with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Expression of Nestin in Neural Stem Cell after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guofu; HUANG Xiaolin; CHEN Hong; HAY Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with repetitive transeranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS) on the temporal profile of nestin expression after induction of focal cerebral isehemia in adult rats and to explore the mechanism of EA combined with rTMS in treating ischemic brain injury. Method: The model of transient focal ischemia was produced by occlusion of middle cerebral artery. Seventy-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, EA group, rTMS group and EA +rTMS group. The neurologic impairment rating and ability of learning and memory were observed at the 7th、14th and 28th d after infarction respectively. Meanwhile, Western blotting was used to observe the number of nestin expression positive cells. Result: Nestin-positive cells were found in cortex, subgranular zone (SGZ), subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ipsilateral side at different time points after cerebral isehemia. The number of nestin-positive cells peaked at the 7th d, began to decrease at the 14th d and was significantly higher in EA+rTMS group than that in model group (P<0.05), then almost reached normal at the 28th d. The improvement of neural motor function deficits as well as the indexes of learning and memory were more obvious in EA+rTMS group compared with model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). These effects were most obvious in EA+rTMS group compared with the EA and rTMS group (P<0.05). Conclusion: EA and rTMS possess the potency of building up and can increase the number of nestin-positive cells in some brain regions after focal cerebral ischemia, which might be one of the important mechanisms of EA combined with rTMS in treating ischemia brain injury.

  12. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities-Parental and young adult perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M N Renzaho

    Full Text Available Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2 to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth.A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18-24 of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker. Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English.The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country's cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts; and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and family rules; and

  13. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities—Parental and young adult perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole

    2017-01-01

    Background Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18–24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. Results The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country’s cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and

  14. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities-Parental and young adult perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole

    2017-01-01

    Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18-24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country's cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and family rules; and parental use

  15. Cross-cultural validation of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowkar, Bahram; Friborg, Oddgeir; Hjemdal, Odin

    2010-10-01

    Resilience, as an ability to withstand and rebound from crisis and adversity, is becoming an increasingly popular concept in research on intervention and prevention of mental health. The present study examined psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), a scale intended to measure protective factors presumed to enhance resilience. The participants were 373 university undergraduate students, as well as 30 pairs of run-away girls and a matched control group. A confirmatory factor analysis verified the Norwegian five-factor structure. All subscale scores, personal competence, social competence, family cohesion, social resources and structured style, had good reliability. The convergent validity of the RSA was supported by showing positive associations with another resilience scale, i.e., a Persian version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Predictive validity of the RSA was supported, as well, by significantly differentiating between girls who had run away from home and a matched control group. The results indicate that the RSA may be a valid and reliable scale for the assessment of resilience protective resources in an Iranian population. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  16. Biochemical analyses of secretory and excretory products of adult Dipetalonema viteae in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnewski, N.; Saz, H.J.; Moessinger, Jd.; deBruyn, B.S.; Weinstein, P.P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioisotopically labeled glucose and pyruvate were employed to elucidate biochemical mechanisms utilized by the filariid Dipetalonema viteae during cultivation. Adults isolated from amicrofilaremic hamsters were incubated at 37 C in a mixture of NCTC135:IMDM (NI), with either D-[ 14 C-(U)]glucose or [1- 14 C]pyruvate, under a gas phase of 5% CO 2 /N 2 for 3 days. Labeled organic acids were separated and quantified by ion exchange chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for separation and quantification of the 23 free amino acids in the NI medium. Ion exchange chromatography revealed that lactate was the major glycolytic end product, accounting for 90-97% of the original carbon utilized. Small amount