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Sample records for culture theory pp

  1. Matrix Theory of pp Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, J

    2004-01-01

    The Matrix Theory that has been proposed for various pp wave backgrounds is discussed. Particular emphasis is on the existence of novel nontrivial supersymmetric solutions of the Matrix Theory. These correspond to branes of various shapes (ellipsoidal, paraboloidal, and possibly hyperboloidal) that are unexpected from previous studies of branes in pp wave geometries.

  2. String Theory on Parallelizable PP-Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadri, Darius J

    2003-05-05

    The most general parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds which are non-dilatonic solutions in the NS-NS sector of type IIA and IIB string theories are considered. We demonstrate that parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds are necessarily homogeneous plane-waves, and that a large class of homogeneous plane-waves are parallelizable, stating the necessary conditions. Such plane-waves can be classified according to the number of preserved supersymmetries. In type IIA, these include backgrounds preserving 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 supercharges, while in the IIB case they preserve 16, 20, 24 or 28 supercharges. An intriguing property of parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds is that the bosonic part of these solutions are invariant under T-duality, while the number of supercharges might change under T-duality. Due to their {alpha}{prime} exactness, they provide interesting backgrounds for studying string theory. Quantization of string modes, their compactification and behavior under T-duality are studied. In addition, we consider BPS Dp-branes, and show that these Dp-branes can be classified in terms of the locations of their world volumes with respect to the background H-field.

  3. String Theory on Parallelizable PP-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadri, D; Sadri, Darius; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.

    2003-01-01

    The most general parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds which are non-dilatonic solutions in the NS-NS sector of type IIA and IIB string theories are considered. We demonstrate that parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds are necessarily homogeneous plane-waves, and that a large class of homogeneous plane-waves are parallelizable, stating the necessary conditions. Such plane-waves can be classified according to the number of preserved supersymmetries. In type IIA, these include backgrounds preserving 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 supercharges, while in the IIB case they preserve 16, 20, 24 or 28 supercharges. An intriguing property of parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds is that the bosonic part of these solutions are invariant under T-duality, while the number of supercharges might change under T-duality. Due to their $\\alpha^\\prime$ exactness, they provide interesting backgrounds for studying string theory. Quantization of string modes, their compactification and behaviour under T-duality are studied. In addition, we consider...

  4. Theories of Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2012-01-01

      “Culture” is such a broad concept which is understood and defined differently by different people and has been remaining a focus for research. Some view culture as skills, values, understandings, knowledge or ways of being achieved as members of society and it is acquired and transmitted over generations; some regard culture as meaning which is established and constructed in practice and it is the context of production of new meaning and constraint of action. In this article it will focus on two theories of culture, namely, Cultural Relativism and Cultural Structuralism, and will illustrate the general ideas, main representatives and their arguments of these two theories.

  5. Chiral Perturbation Theory and the $pp \\to pp \\pi^0$ Reaction Near Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T; Myhrer, F; Kubodera, K

    1997-01-01

    A chiral-perturbative consideration of the near-threshold pp -> pp pi0 reaction indicates that the pion-rescattering term has a substantial energy and momentum dependence. The existing calculations that incorporate this dependence give pion rescattering contributions significantly larger than those of the conventional treatment, and this enhanced rescattering term interferes destructively with the one-body impulse term, leading to theoretical cross sections that are much smaller than the observed values. However, since the existing calculations are based on coordinate-space representation, they involve a number of simplifying assumptions about the energy-momentum flow in the rescattering diagram, even though the delicate interplay between the one-body and two-body terms makes it desirable to avoid these kinematical assumptions. We carry out here a momentum-space calculation that retains the energy-momentum dependence of the vertices as predicted by chiral perturbation theory. Our improved treatment increases ...

  6. On the spectrum of pp-wave matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nakwoo E-mail: kim@aei.mpg.de; Plefka, Jan E-mail: plefka@aei.mpg.de

    2002-11-04

    We study the spectrum of the recently proposed matrix model of DLCQ M-theory in a parallel plane (pp)-wave background. In contrast to matrix theory in a flat background this model contains mass terms, which lift the flat directions of the potential and renders its spectrum discrete. The supersymmetry algebra of the model groups the energy eigenstates into supermultiplets, whose members differ by fixed amounts of energy in great similarity to the representation of supersymmetry in AdS spaces. There is a unique and exact zero-energy ground state along with a multitude of long and short multiplets of excited states. For large masses the quantum mechanical model may be treated perturbatively and we study the leading order energy shifts of the first excited states up to level two. Most interestingly we uncover a protected short multiplet at level two, whose energies do not receive perturbative corrections. Moreover, we conjecture the existence of an infinite series of similar protected multiplets in the pp-wave matrix model.

  7. Cinema and Culture in Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4.......Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4....

  8. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening of ‘‘high......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening......, and art); and (c) an international and a local or national orientation stand out as the most important. We discuss whether these oppositions can usefully be conceptualised as cultural capital. We argue that such a conceptualisation demands, first, that cultural capital is understood in relative rather...... than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features...

  9. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  10. Two-graviton interaction in pp-wave background in Matrix theory and Supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hok Kong E-mail: hok@theory.caltech.edu; Wu Xinkai E-mail: xinkaiwu@theory.caltech.edu

    2003-08-18

    We compute the two-body one-loop effective action for the Matrix theory in the pp-wave background, and compare it to the effective action on the Supergravity side in the same background. Agreement is found for the effective actions on both sides. This points to the existence of a supersymmetric nonrenormalization theorem in the pp-wave background.

  11. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  12. Twisted Backgrounds, PP-Waves and Nonlocal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Alishahiha, M; Alishahiha, Mohsen; Ganor, Ori J.

    2003-01-01

    We study partially supersymmetric plane-wave like deformations of string theories and M-theory on brane backgrounds. These deformations are dual to nonlocal field theories. We calculate various expectation values of configurations of closed as well as open Wilson loops and Wilson surfaces in those theories. We also discuss the manifestation of the nonlocality structure in the supergravity backgrounds. A plane-wave like deformation of little string theory has also been studied.

  13. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  14. Towards a Theory of Organisational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Robert G.; Steinhoff, Carl R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the paper-and-pencil instrument called the Organizational Culture Assessment Inventory (OCAI) is based on the theory of organizational culture. Recent literature and organizational analysis are combined with Schein's model of organizational culture to provide the background for metaphorical analysis of organizational culture…

  15. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B.; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed. PMID:20592044

  16. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-02-12

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory.

  17. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

  18. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  19. Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-24

    Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution. Furthermore, cultural and genetic evolution can interact with one another and influence both transmission and selection. This interaction requires theoretical treatments of gene-culture coevolution and dual inheritance, in addition to purely cultural evolution. In addition, cultural evolutionary theory is a natural component of studies in demography, human ecology, and many other disciplines. Here, we review the core concepts in cultural evolutionary theory as they pertain to the extension of biology through culture, focusing on cultural evolutionary applications in population genetics, ecology, and demography. For each of these disciplines, we review the theoretical literature and highlight relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the societal implications of the study of cultural evolution and of the interactions of humans with one another and with their environment.

  20. Instantons of M(atrix) Theory in PP-Wave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, J T; Yee, Jung-Tay; Yi, Piljin

    2003-01-01

    M(atrix) theory in PP-wave background possesses a discrete set of classical vacua, all of which preserves 16 supersymmetry and interpretable as collection of giant gravitons. We find Euclidean instanton solutions that interpolate between them, and analyze their properties. Supersymmetry prevents direct mixing between different vacua but still allows effect of instanton to show up in higher order effective interactions, such as analog of v^4 interaction of flat space effective theory. An explicit construction of zero modes is performed, and Goldstone zero modes, bosonic and fermionic, are identified. We further generalize this to massive M(atrix) theory that includes fundamental hypermultiplets, corresponding to insertion of longitudinal fivebranes in the background. After a brief comparison to their counterpart in AdS\\times S, we close with a summary.

  1. Null Aether Theory: $pp$-Wave and AdS Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gurses, Metin

    2016-01-01

    General quantum gravity arguments predict that Lorentz symmetry might not hold exactly in nature. This has motivated much interest in Lorentz breaking gravity theories recently. Among such models are vector-tensor theories with preferred direction established at every point of spacetime by a fixed-norm vector field. The dynamical vector field defined in this way is referred to as the aether. In this work, we study plane wave metrics in such a theory. For this purpose, we assume that the aether field is a null vector field satisfying certain conditions--we refer to the theory constructed in this way as Null Aether Theory (NAT). Assuming the Kerr-Schild form for such metrics we show that the theory admits exact plane wave solutions in any dimension $D\\geq3$. The field equations are reduced to two, in general coupled, differential equations when the background metric assumes the maximally symmetric form. Specifically, when the background metric is flat, i.e. for the $pp$-wave spacetimes, these equations decouple...

  2. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and proposition...... that, captured through the metaphor of 'flattening', invite a rethinking of how ontologies of consumption-its subjects, objects and devices, content and contexts, materiality and socioculturality-are enacted through precarious networks of heterogeneous relations. © The Author(s) 2013....

  3. Is Consumer Culture Theory research or realpolitik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Per; Bode, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    When Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) was introduced by Arnould and Thompson (2005) it was part of a strategy to create legitimacy for interpretive research. It was argued that interpretive researchers needed to be more pragmatic in their attitude. This was a fundamental change in the scientific...... culture in this stream of research. This paper analyses these changes and studies how CCT represents a new and pragmatic attitude. It is shown how the changes intended by CCT can imply a shift from a focus on new groundbreaking research to an awareness of the consequences of realpolitik. This strategic...... move can be seen as an example of how scientific cultures try to move from a marginal position to the mainstream. The consequences of this attempt to manage science are analysed, and solutions to problems created by these changes are developed....

  4. Working With Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of two researchers, Wolff-Michael ROTH and Luis RADFORD, using cultural-historical activity theory in mathematics education. The aim is to provide insights into the ways these researchers see and engage with activity theory, how they have come to adopt and expand it, and some of the challenges and concerns that they have had using it. These questions are not usually addressed within typical scientific papers. Yet, they are important for understanding both the dynamics of research and the practical use of cultural-historical activity theory. Since the format of research report papers is not necessarily well suited to convey personal experiences and thinking, the present article takes the form of a conversation, which provides an effective vehicle for exploring and articulating these matters. This provides a basis for understanding more deeply the underlying assumptions of this theory; its dynamics and how it is applied in research of mathematics practice, thinking, and learning; and insights into the manner in which experienced researchers grapple with the theoretical dimensions of their research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202232

  5. Oppositional Culture Theory and the Delusion of Colorblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Hutchins, Brandi N.; Jenkins, Derrick J.; Mussman, Mark P.; Schneider, Carri A.

    2006-01-01

    Oppositional culture theory is a widely accepted explanation for disparities in academic performance between middle class Whites and middle class African Americans. The authors make the case that oppositional culture theory has its roots in cultural deficit theory popularized in the early 1960s and present a significant body of evidence to refute…

  6. Type IIB String Backgrounds on Parallelizable PP-Waves and Conformal Liouville Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hssaini, M

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this work concerns the adaptation of the parallelizability pp-wave (Ppp-wave) process to D=10 type IIB string backgrounds in the presence of the non-trivial anti-self dual R-R 5-form $\\QTR{cal}{F}$. This is important in the sense that it gives rise to some unsuspected properties. In fact, exact solutions of type IIB string backgrounds on Ppp-waves are discussed. For the $u$-dependence of the dilaton field $\\Phi $, we establish explicitly a correspondence between type IIB supergravity equations of motion and 2d-conformal Liouville field theory. We show also that the corresponding conserved conformal current $T(\\Phi)$ coincides exactly with the trace of the symmetric matrix $\\mu_{ij}$ appearing in the quadratic front factor $F=\\mu _{ij}x^{i}x^{j}$ of the Ppp-wave. Furthermore, we consider the transverse space dependence of the dilaton $\\Phi $ and show that the supergravity equations are easily solved for the linear realization of the dilaton field. Other remarkable properties related to this case a...

  7. On the Conformal Field Theories for Bosonic Strings in PP-Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Recently Kazama and Yokoi (arXiv:0801.1561 [hep-th]) have used a phase-space method to study the Virasoro algebra of type IIB superstring theory in the maximally supersymmetric R-R plane wave background in a semi-light-cone gauge. Two types of normal ordering have been considered, namely "phase space normal ordering" (PNO) and "massless normal ordering" (MNO). The second one, which is the right one to choose in flat background, has been discarded with the argument that the Virasoro algebra closes only in the first case. To understand this issue better with a completely covariant treatment we consider the easiest case of bosonic strings propagating in an arbitrary pp-wave of the simplest kind. Using the phase-space method we show that MNO is in fact the right one to choose because of the following reason. For both types of normal ordering the energy-momentum tensor satisfies the desired Virasoro algebra up to anomalous terms proportional to the space-time equation of motion of the background. However, it is MN...

  8. On the conformal field theories for bosonic strings in PP-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2008-11-01

    Recently Kazama and Yokoi (arXiv:0801.1561 [hep-th]) have used a phase-space method to study the Virasoro algebra of type IIB superstring theory in the maximally supersymmetric R-R plane wave background in a semi-light-cone gauge. Two types of normal ordering have been considered, namely ``phase space normal ordering" (PNO) and ``massless normal ordering" (MNO). The second one, which is the right one to choose in flat background, has been discarded with the argument that the Virasoro algebra closes only in the first case. To understand this issue better with a completely covariant treatment we consider the easiest case of bosonic strings propagating in an arbitrary pp-wave of the simplest kind. Using the phase-space method we show that MNO is the right one to choose, at least in this case, because of the following reason. For both types of normal ordering the energy-momentum tensor satisfies the desired Virasoro algebra up to anomalous terms proportional to the space-time equation of motion of the background. However, it is MNO which gives rise to the correct spectrum - we compute the quadratic space-time action by restricting the string field inside a transverse Hilbert space. This turns out to be non-diagonal. Diagonalizing this action reproduces the spectrum directly obtained in light-cone quantization. The same method with PNO gives rise to a spectrum with negative dimensions.

  9. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  10. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  11. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  12. Conversation at the Border Between Organizational Culture Theory and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Zilber, Tammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects our conversation at the border - a dividing line but also a potential meeting place - of organizational culture theory and institutional theory. First, we discuss the border between institutional theory and organizational culture theory by exploring two notions central to both...

  13. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  14. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on culture as a dynamic process situated in a social context, and has been valued in diverse fields for yielding rich understandings of complex issues and key factors involved. This paper explains how activity theory can be used in (cross-)cultural medical education research. We discuss activity theory's theoretical background and principles, and we show how these can be applied to the cultural research practice by discussing the steps involved in a cross-cultural study that we conducted, from formulating research questions to drawing conclusions. We describe how the activity system, the unit of analysis in activity theory, can serve as an organizing principle to grasp cultural complexity. We end with reflections on the theoretical and practical use of activity theory for cultural research and note that it is not a shortcut to capture cultural complexity: it is a challenge for researchers to determine the boundaries of their study and to analyze and interpret the dynamics of the activity system.

  15. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  16. Making Career Theories More Culturally Sensitive: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Valach, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is whether and how career theories can be more culturally sensitive without losing value as conceptual explanations or their usefulness for counselors. Contextual action theory is identified as a means to develop culturally sensitive explanations. Six steps are proposed and illustrated, including…

  17. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  18. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  19. Whose Culture Has Capital? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosso, Tara J.

    2005-01-01

    This article conceptualizes community cultural wealth as a critical race theory (CRT) challenge to traditional interpretations of cultural capital. CRT shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of Communities of Color as places full of cultural poverty disadvantages, and instead focuses on and learns from the array of cultural knowledge,…

  20. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-04-01

    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological "hub," linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people's behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research.

  1. CULTURAL GLOBALISATION AND CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Movius

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews existing traditional media theories, and analyses the challenges that the current developments of globalisation present to them. The article provides a short history of the concept of globalisation, and reviews the primary theoretical approaches to globalisation that are critical to communication scholars. The article also examines how globalisation challenges the ways in which media and communication have traditionally been theorised. Specifically, the cultural imperialism theory is discussed, as well as the main challenges to the theory. Audience reception studies, which focus on how audiences negotiate meaning differently in specific cultural contexts, are highlighted as the key critique of cultural imperialism

  2. Cultural Organization: Fragments of a Theory,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    been trying for almost a century to nail down the notion of culture with little success ( Kroeber and Kluckholn, 1952). In fact, Williams (1976) claims...Network Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1982. Kroeber , A. L. and Kluckholn, C. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, MA

  3. Teaching French Culture. Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ross; Suozzo, Andrew

    In today's global village, the choice of languages and cultures offered to the high school and college student in constantly increasing. Several reasons are offered for choosing the more traditional option of French/Francophone culture: internationalism, political contributions, intellectual achievements, France's role in Europe and in technology,…

  4. Toward a General Theory of Cultural Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Fred O.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that (1) the cultural system of any society consists of diverse but interlocking equivalences of meaning transacted in the course of recurrent encounters of each group member with others; and (2) culture transmission consists of such transactions of equivalences in certain encounters, principally of nonadults with adults and with each…

  5. Software theory a cultural and philosophical study

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.

  6. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Sievers, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Understanding differences in environmental risk perception and risk judgments might facilitate the development of effective environmental risk management strategies, including risk communication. Cultural theory holds that systematic individual differences exist in the perception of environmental ri

  7. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    hypothesis about certain individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field, habitus, and strategy in Bourdieu’s sociology. This article reintroduces field theory into cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns...

  8. An Exchange on Theory and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The following exchange grew out of a series of posts to the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia discussion list.1 As a talking point leading into a regular meeting for early career cultural studies researchers in Brisbane, Melissa Gregg, Jean Burgess and Joshua Green quoted a passage from Simon During’s recent Cultural Studies: A Critical Introduction (Routledge, 2005 in the hope of provoking a wider debate about the current state of Australian cultural studies. Various members of the list were duly provoked, and the ensuing discussion was later picked up in a paper by John Frow and continued in private correspondence and then in invited responses to the developing exchange.

  9. Consumer Culture Theory: Ideology, Mythology and Meaning in Technology Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    Consumer culture theory helps us take note of the cultural forces and dynamics in which technology consumption is entangled. It enables people to articulate the cultural processes (ideological, mythic, ritualistic, etc.) through which cultural meanings become granted to or denied to technological...... innovations, thus shaping the value of technologies as cultural resources sustaining consumer identities. In its urge to shed light on these aspects, CCT tends to reinforce the gaps and asymmetries between the “socio-cultural” and the “techno-material”, leaving plenty of room for further study. The authors...

  10. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  11. The Frankfurt School: Critical Theory as the Negation of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Beverly

    In examining the Frankfurt School's critical theory of society in an effort to discover the theoretical basis for the school's inability to merge theory with praxis, this paper points out that the school's analysis of culture in the 1930s and 1940s presents a radical, penetrating critique of the role of mass communication in advanced…

  12. Culturally Responsive Computing: A Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kimberly A.; Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Clark, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts and considerable funding, historically marginalized groups (e.g., racial minorities and women) continue not to enter or persist in the most lucrative of fields--technology. Understanding the potency of culturally responsive teaching (CRT), some technology-enrichment programs modified CRP principles to establish a…

  13. Theory and Observation in Cultural Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey designed to evaluate the importance of some components of cultural transmission on a variety of traits showed that religion and politics are mostly determined in the family, a mode of transmission which guarantees high evolutionary stability and maintenance of high variation between and within groups. (Author/JN)

  14. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  15. Voice and culture: A prospect theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paddock, E.L.; Ko, Junsu; Cropanzano, R.; Bagger, J.; El Akremi, A.; Camerman, A.; Greguras, G. J.; Mladinic, A.; Moliner, C.; Nam, K.; Törnblom, K.; Van den Bos, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the congruence of individuals' minimum preferred amounts of voice with the prospect theory value function across nine countries. Accounting for previously ignored minimum preferred amounts of voice and actual voice amounts integral to testing the steepness of gain and loss

  16. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed.

  17. Mapping Cultural Frame Shifting in Interaction Design with Blending Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Krogh, Peter Gall

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner's blending theory as a new conceptual framework for explaining ‘cultural frame shifting' in interaction design. Cultural frame shifting is when people, through their explorative use of technology, are required imaginatively to reorganize...... their cultural background knowledge and expectations. In current HCI research it has occasionally been pointed out that a proper understanding of this phenomenon hinges on addressing the relationship between embodied interaction and cultural meaning construction as part of a larger interactive system. However...... the network model of mental spaces from Fauconnier & Turner's blending theory onto video material and interviews from initial qualitative use studies of a design case. In so doing we explore and argue for how meaning formation and embodied cognition coalesce in cultural frame shifting and provide a tool...

  18. Sexuality and psychoanalytic aggrandisement: Freud's 1908 theory of cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    In 1908, in his article "'Civilized" sexual morality and modern nervous illness', Freud presented neuroses as the consequence of a restrictive state of cultural development and its 'civilized morality'. He found the inspiration for this idea by expanding upon previous formulations in this area by his predecessors (notably Christian von Ehrenfels) that focused on a cultural process earlier introduced by Kant, while also integrating in his analysis the principles of Haeckel's evolutionism (history of development, recapitulation) which eventually re-defined the psychoanalytic theory of neuroses. These new theoretical elements became the basis of psychoanalytic theory and thereby influenced subsequent thinking in the cultural process itself and in human sciences. This transformation of underlying theory provided a unique historical and analytical framework for psychoanalysis which allowed Freud to claim for it a pre-eminent position among the human sciences.

  19. Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin MacDonald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1 general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology; (2 explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations of the world. Explicit processing allows humans to regulate modular mechanisms in accordance with culturally constructed norms and culturally constructed cost/benefit payoff schedules. It also enables active attempts to construct culture in accordance with explicit perceptions of possible costs and benefits. Because people have different construals of the costs and benefits of particular forms of culture, there is conflict over the construction of culture. Social controls and ideologies are introduced as general cultural categories that are enabled by explicit processing and which are able to regulate and motivate behavior within particular historical contexts, at times in ways that conflict with evolved predispositions. Ideologies are often intimately intertwined with various social controls but are logically and psychologically independent from social controls. Ideologies typically rationalize extant social controls but they also benefit from the power of social controls to enforce ideological conformity in schools or in religious institutions. Because of the control of explicit processing over behavior, this theory predicts that conflicts over culture will often be intense. Discussion deals with the implications of this model for group selection, cultural transmission, gene-culture co-evolution, and the various types of conflicts of interest apparent in conflicts over the construction of culture.

  20. Anticapitalism and culture: radical theory and popular politics

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert , Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    What does 'anticapitalism' really mean for the politics and culture of the twenty-first century? Anticapitalism is an idea which, despite going global, remains rooted in the local, persisting as a loose collection of grassroots movements and actions. Anticapitalism needs to develop a coherent and cohering philosophy, something which cultural theory and the intellectual legacy of the New Left can help to provide, notably through the work of key radical thinkers, such as Ernesto Laclau, Stua...

  1. Cultural Consumption Patterns in South Africa: An Investigation of the Theory of Cultural Omnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowball, J. D.; Jamal, M.; Willis, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to Bourdieu's theory ("Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste". Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (1984)) that cultural consumption of so-called "high" versus popular culture is determined by socio-economic class, Peterson ("Poetics" 21:243-258, 1992; "Poetics"…

  2. Theory in social simulation: Status-Power theory, national culture and emergence of the glass ceiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This is a conceptual exploration of the work of some
    eminent social scientists thought to be amenable to agent-based
    modelling of social reality. Kemper’s status-power theory and
    Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the central
    theories. The article reviews empirical work on

  3. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    certain isolated individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field in Bourdieu’s sociology. We (re)emphasize the role of field theory in cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns in international quantitative......This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about...

  4. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double recession in international mainstream research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical recession, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical recession, since cultural capital is now seen as a simple...... hypothesis about certain individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field, habitus, and strategy in Bourdieu’s sociology. This article reintroduces field theory into cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns...

  5. "Vygotsky's Neglected Legacy": Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew-Jin

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an evolving theoretical framework that has been called one of the best kept secrets of academia: cultural-historical activity theory, the result of proposals Lev Vygotsky first articulated but that his students and followers substantially developed to constitute much expanded forms in its second and third generations. Besides…

  6. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    certain isolated individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field in Bourdieu’s sociology. We (re)emphasize the role of field theory in cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns in international quantitative...

  7. "Vygotsky's Neglected Legacy": Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew-Jin

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe an evolving theoretical framework that has been called one of the best kept secrets of academia: cultural-historical activity theory, the result of proposals Lev Vygotsky first articulated but that his students and followers substantially developed to constitute much expanded forms in its second and third generations. Besides…

  8. Between Faith and Science: World Culture Theory and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy; Silova, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    World culture theory seeks to explain an apparent convergence of education through a neoinstitutionalist lens, seeing global rationalization in education as driven by the logic of science and the myth of progress. While critics have challenged these assumptions by focusing on local manifestations of world-level tendencies, such critique is…

  9. New Institutional Theory and a Culture of Safety in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Brandi; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    Health and safety professionals often call for an improved safety culture in agriculture. Such a shift would result in agricultural practices that prioritize safe work habits and see safety as both an effective means to improve production and a goal worth pursuing in its own right. This article takes an anthropological approach and demonstrates the potential for new institutional theory to conceptualize broader cultural change in agriculture. New institutional theory examines the roles of organizations and the ways that they inform and support broad social institutions. Using preliminary data from the agricultural lending industry in Iowa and integrated poultry production in Texas, this article considers the ability of these organizations to contribute to systemic change and an improved culture of safety in agriculture.

  10. CULTURAL HISTORICAL ACTIVITY THEORY: EXPLORING PRINCIPALS’ INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Damla Kentli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Instructional leadership activities are significant for school development. Although many researchers in this field consider leadership activities relating to the work of school principals, in effect, leadership is a network activity that includes all school staff. This study aims to show this interdependence network activity within Cultural Historical Activity Theory. The research question is “what are the activities of an instructional leader?” in order to understand instructional leadership activities in school from perspectives of Turkish graduate students and Cultural Historical Activity Theory. The answers are conceptualized within the framework of an Activity Theory. The students were asked to write about the activities of an instructional leader in the first and last course of the semester. Eighteen graduate students participated in this study.

  11. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  12. Cultural Consensus Theory: Aggregating Continuous Responses in a Finite Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H.; Strashny, Alex; Romney, A. Kimball

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) consists of cognitive models for aggregating responses of "informants" to test items about some domain of their shared cultural knowledge. This paper develops a CCT model for items requiring bounded numerical responses, e.g. probability estimates, confidence judgments, or similarity judgments. The model assumes that each item generates a latent random representation in each informant, with mean equal to the consensus answer and variance depending jointly on the informant and the location of the consensus answer. The manifest responses may reflect biases of the informants. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were used to estimate the model, and simulation studies validated the approach. The model was applied to an existing cross-cultural dataset involving native Japanese and English speakers judging the similarity of emotion terms. The results sharpened earlier studies that showed that both cultures appear to have very similar cognitive representations of emotion terms.

  13. The role of culture in contemporary theories of sustainable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    climate change and energy shortages, but it also has the ability to mediate between the existing cultural heritage and the future built environment. Ensuring that the architecture of tomorrow represents the culture embodied in our cities. Sustainable architecture can contribute to solving these issues......As the world becomes more globalized, modern cities are becoming more and more indistinguishable. All too often the identity of the modern city turns its back on the cultural built environment of the past. Sustainable architecture and design are rapidly addressing many of the key issues around...... as it has the potential to bridge between the practical and the symbolic elements of the city. It negotiates the relationships between humans and the physical world both manmade and natural. The role of culture is established in many theories of sustainable architecture and is significant in ensuring...

  14. Using Game Theory to Study the Evolution of Cultural Norms

    CERN Document Server

    De, Soham; Gelfand, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how to use evolutionary game theory (EGT) as a framework for studying how cultural dynamics and structural properties can influence the evolution of norms and behaviors within a society. We provide a brief tutorial on how EGT works, and discuss what kinds of insights it can provide. We then describe three published studies in which we have developed EGT models that help explain how structural and external conditions in a society affect the emergence of social norms.

  15. Urban vs. Rural Lifestyles in terms of Theories of Cultural Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najjarzadeh

    2013-02-01

    data which are included the interviews and also explaining the theories in cultural globalization theories and cultural differentialism; it could be understood that the third paradigm which is glocalization and hybridization could illustrate and be fit and explain the case study region.   The results also show the fact that the link between cultural globalization and local lifestyle cannot only be explained by glocalization and hybridization theories but also other theories are needed to explain the exact facts in the case study; these theories could be culture industry and media globalization. This means, for instance, in the one hand the diversity of national or regional lifestyle and tradition in the region of study has still strong power, and on the other hand the power of globalization and media diversity is affecting people’s lifestyle; the front line of this process are young people and specially students in both rural and urban areas.   References   Anderson, B. (1983. Imagined Communities, London: Verso.   Appadurai, Arjun (1995 ‘Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy’, in Mike Featherstone (ed. Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization, and Modernity, 6th edn, pp. 295–310. London: Sage.   Amini Fashkhodi, A. 1983. Analyzing on Cultural Behaviors Condition in Rural Area, Vo. 1, No. 3, pp: 52-82.   Azadarmaki, T and T. Shalchi, 2005. Tow Iranian worlds, mosque and coffee shop, Cultural Studies and Communications, 1(4:163-183.   Blackmore, J. (2000. "Hanging onto the edge": An Austrian case study of women, universities, and globalization. In N. P. Stromquist & K. Monkman (Eds., Globalization and Education: Integration and Contestation Across Cultures (pp. 333-352. Lanham: MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.   Bourdieu, P. (1979. Algeria 1960, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.   Bourdieu, P. (1984. Distinction, A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste

  16. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  17. Gender, home and family in cultural capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elizabeth B

    2005-03-01

    The paper argues that Bourdieu's stress on early familiarization for the highest value of cultural capital is closely linked to his idea, strongly emphasized in Distinction, about the role of family and domestic life for individual development and social positions. The role of women, as mothers and homemakers, is crucial in this process. Yet, Bourdieu defines social origin as deriving from the father. The centrality to Bourdieu's thinking of a resilient traditional pattern of masculine domination and feminine submission constitutive of the Western gender habitus explains both his stress on 'normalcy' for the production of legitimate dispositions, and his resistance to incorporating into his thinking the implications of recent transformations in home family living, which have destabilized the gender order. It is thus important to consider contemporary feminist analyses of the family and home life and their significance for a renewed theory of cultural capital. The paper considers two sets of literature. Firstly, it addresses the manners in which home and family are conceptualized in Bourdieu's key texts where these issues were prominent in the development of his thinking on cultural capital. The second set of literature includes texts by feminist academics in the fields of family, gender and the body, which analyse the destabilizing of the gender order and everyday family living in contemporary society. Two questions are addressed on the basis of these reflections: (1) Is cultural capital an individual or a household resource? (2) How does cultural capital relate to personal interdependencies at the level of family and households?

  18. Cultural care of older Greek Canadian widows within Leininger's theory of culture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J N

    1990-01-01

    Cultural care themes were abstracted from a large scale study of older Greek Canadian widows conceptualized within Leininger's theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Ethnonursing, ethnographic, and life health-care history methods were used. Data were collected using observation-participation and interviews in three Greek Canadian communities with 12 widowed key informants and 30 general informants. Enabling tools used were interview inquiry guides, Leininger's Life History Health Care Protocol, Leininger's Acculturation Rating and Profile Scale of Traditional and Non-Traditional Lifeways, and field journal recordings. Data were analyzed using Leininger's phases of analysis for qualitative data. The two major cultural care themes which were abstracted from the raw data and patterns were: (1) Cultural care for Greek Canadian widows meant responsibility for, reciprocation, concern, love, companionship, family protection, hospitality, and helping, primarily derived from their kinship, religious, and cultural beliefs, and values, and (2) Cultural care continuity diminished the spousal care void and contributed to the health of Greek Canadian widows. These findings will stimulate future nursing research related to cultural care of diverse populations and guide nursing practice to provide culturally congruent care which will assist widows to reduce their spousal care void. The author thanks Dr. Madeleine Leininger, Dr. Judith Floyd, Dr. Marjorie Isenberg, and Dr. Bernice Kaplan for their guidance in completing the large scale study on which this article is based.

  19. Another Route to a General Theory of Cultural Transmission: A Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbert, Marion L.

    1975-01-01

    A cultural transmission theory is presented. The model has two uses: to provide a guide for gathering cultural transmission data; and to set up a computerized cultural transmission simulation. Availability information is given in SO 504 073. (Author/RM)

  20. Unified theory of γd-->np, π0d, πNN, and pp-->ppγ and the chiral bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, M.; Afnan, I. R.

    1988-07-01

    A unified theory of photopion reactions in two-nucleon systems (γd-->pn, π0d, and πNN) and NN bremsstrahlung (NN-->NNγ) is presented. By exposing the two-body [BB, where B=N or Δ(1232)] and three-body (πBB and γBB) unitarity, we derive a set of coupled integral equations to determine the amplitudes for these reactions. These equations have the same kernel as the equations one gets for the BB-πBB system. The two-body input amplitudes are the result of a coupled channel unitary theory for πN-->πN and pion photoproduction on a single baryon, within the framework of a gauge and chirally invariant Lagrangian, which is obtained from the chiral bag model Lagrangian. The renormalization due to the πB interaction is incorporated in a consistent manner.

  1. Unified theory of. gamma. d. -->. np,. pi. /sup 0/d,. pi. NN, and pp. -->. pp. gamma. and the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, M.; Afnan, I.R.

    1988-07-01

    A unified theory of photopion reactions in two-nucleon systems (..gamma..d..-->..pn, ..pi../sup 0/d, and ..pi..NN) and NN bremsstrahlung (NN..-->..NN..gamma..) is presented. By exposing the two-body (BB, where B = N or ..delta..(1232)) and three-body (..pi..BB and ..gamma..BB) unitarity, we derive a set of coupled integral equations to determine the amplitudes for these reactions. These equations have the same kernel as the equations one gets for the BB-..pi..BB system. The two-body input amplitudes are the result of a coupled channel unitary theory for ..pi..N..--> pi..N and pion photoproduction on a single baryon, within the framework of a gauge and chirally invariant Lagrangian, which is obtained from the chiral bag model Lagrangian. The renormalization due to the ..pi..B interaction is incorporated in a consistent manner.

  2. Exploring Themes in the Movie Australia on Culture Identity Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成珍

    2014-01-01

    Gathering the history and emotions of the nation of Australia, the movie Australia not only reflects Australians’exer-tion to construct an equal harmonious diversified new Australia but also incarnates Australian people ’s nisus to pursue the sense of belonging internally and seek international recognition externally. In order to expand the perspective of researching this movie and give enlightenment on constructing an equal harmonious diversified international community, based on culture identity theo-ries, this paper tries exploring the themes of this movie.

  3. "This Is No Slum!": A Critical Race Theory Analysis of Community Cultural Wealth in Culture Clash's "Chavez Ravine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosso, Tara J.; Garcia, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a critical race theory framework, this article weaves together sociology, education, history, and performance studies to challenge deficit interpretations of Pierre Bourdieu's cultural capital theory and to analyze Culture Clash's play Chavez Ravine. The play recounts a decade of Los Angeles history through the perspectives of displaced…

  4. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  5. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  6. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  7. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  8. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and

  9. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and

  10. IMPLICITE THEORIES OF CREATIVITY: CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Kankaras

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons’ implicit theories of creativity in twodifferent national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America(N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed aquestionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personalcharacteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of theircreativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptionsof a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, giftedwith creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profoundemotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is thatrespondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceivecharacteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication tocreativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, althoughthere is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of theircreativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability aretwo distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon andcreative person as such.

  11. Implicit theories of creativity: Cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons' implicit theories of creativity in two different national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America (N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed a questionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personal characteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of their creativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptions of a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, gifted with creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profound emotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is that respondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceive characteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication to creativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, although there is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of their creativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability are two distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon and creative person as such.

  12. The Anthropology of Clifford Geertz. Cultural Theory and the Interpretative Analysis of Cultures by Gordana Gorunović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gordana Gorunović. Antropologija Kliforda Gerca. Kulturna teorija i interpretativna analiza kultura. 2010. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar i Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta. str. 286. [The Anthropology of Clifford Geertz. Cultural Theory and the Interpretative Analysis of Cultures

  13. Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning: A Critical Perspective. Critical Perspectives on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Porter, Jill, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Educational Theories, Cultures and Learning" focuses on how education is understood in different cultures, the theories and related assumptions we make about learners and students and how we think about them, and how we can understand the principle actors in education--learners and teachers. Within this volume, internationally renowned…

  14. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Compatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Several theories suggest that African American culture facilitates academic achievement, but others suggest that identifying with Black culture contributes to the achievement gap by undermining the academic performance among youth. These opposing perspectives are labeled "cultural compatibility theories" and "cultural incompatibility theories,"…

  15. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and identity it has often been hindered by conceptual limitations when faced with the ambiguities, variety, conflict and change within societies. This paper queries a communitarian belief that morality c...

  16. Using Social Scientific Criteria to Evaluate Cultural Theories: Encoding/Decoding Evaluated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. Kropp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article transcends the issue of conflicting theoretical schools of thought to formulate a method of social scientific style theory evaluation for cultural studies. It is suggested that positivist social scientific models of theory critique can be used to assess cultural models of communication to determine if they should be classified as theories. A set of evaluation criteria is formulated as a guide and applied to Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding to determine if it is a theory. Conclusions find the sharing of criteria between schools of thought is judicious, Encoding/Decoding fits the established criteria, and Encoding/Decoding should be referred to as a theory.

  17. Homelessness as culture: How transcultural nursing theory can assist caring for the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kate; John, William

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups.

  18. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  19. An Overview of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Use in Classroom Research 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Western educational researchers have eagerly accepted activity theory (AT) also known as cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to collect and analyze data in rich description of complex situations. As this theory is applicable to a wide variety of disciplines, this review is limited to education and specifically to qualitative studies of…

  20. Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory to Design and Evaluate an Educational Game in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) at the initial stages of the design process of an educational game, by exploring how the theory can be used as a framework for producing not only usable but also useful computer tools. The research also aimed to investigate how the theory could…

  1. Creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship across cultures theory and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to further develop the relationship between culture and manifold phenomena of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in order to promote further and better understanding how, why, and when these phenomena are manifested themselves across different cultures.   Currently, cross-cultural research is one of the most dynamically and rapidly growing areas. At the same time, creativity, inventiveness, innovation, and entrepreneurship are championed in the literature as the critical element that is vital not just for companies, but also for the development of societies. A sizable body of research demonstrates that cultural differences may foster or inhibit creative, inventive, innovative and entrepreneurial activities; and each culture has its own strengths and weaknesses in these regards.  Better understanding of cultural diversity in these phenomena can help to build on strengths and overcome weaknesses.   Cross-cultural studies in this field represent a comparatively new class of ...

  2. On Translation of Ren in The Analects in Terms of Cultural Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qin

    2013-01-01

    In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.

  3. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2008-10-01

    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  4. Does Parental Mind-Mindedness Account for Cross-Cultural Differences in Preschoolers' Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-02-03

    This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind.

  5. Personality maturation around the world: a cross-cultural examination of social-investment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-12-01

    During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely determined by genetic factors, whereas social-investment theory proposes that personality maturation in early adulthood is largely the result of normative life transitions to adult roles. In the research reported here, we conducted the first systematic cross-cultural test of these theories using data from a large Internet-based sample of young adults from 62 nations (N = 884,328). We found strong evidence for universal personality maturation from early to middle adulthood, yet there were significant cultural differences in age effects on personality traits. Consistent with social-investment theory, results showed that cultures with an earlier onset of adult-role responsibilities were marked by earlier personality maturation.

  6. An Interpretation of Stuart Hall’s Cultural Identity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yan’e

    2016-01-01

    Stuart Hall is a leading figure in the development of contemporary cultural studies. In his celebrated“CulturalIdentity and Diaspora”, he mainly discusses the relationship between cultural identity and representation. According to him, there are two kinds of identity, identity as being and identity as becoming. Hall sees the formation of identity as a process of temporary po-sitioning and reposition. He then borrows the metaphor of presence to illustrate the idea of“traces”in our identity.

  7. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogimen, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  8. Two Cultures, Two Dialogists and Two Intersecting Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some possibilities for applying the linguistic and psychological theories of two dialogists, Mikhail Bakhtin and Jacques Lacan, to the classroom. There is a short summary of how the two theories may interact with each other and then a discussion of their two opposing views of identity formation. Bakhtin was a Russian, coming…

  9. Parental Acceptance-Rejection: Theory, Methods, Cross-Cultural Evidence, and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald P. Rohner; Abdul Khaleque; David E. Cournoyer

    2005-01-01

    ...). The theory focuses primarily on parental love-its expressions, impact, and origins. Nearly 2,000 studies in the United States and cross-culturally confirm the widely held belief that children everywhere need acceptance (love...

  10. Nursing Theory Utilization and Application Alligood Martha Raile Nursing Theory Utilization and Application 560pp £42.99 Elsevier Fifth edition 9780323091893 032309189X [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-25

    THIS BOOK has a logical format making it easy to follow. It begins with the conceptualisation of nursing knowledge by discussing the nature of knowledge, nursing models, theories, philosophies and practice.

  11. (-p)p and pp Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the eikonalized Glauber representation of hadron-hadron scattering, we study the diffractive processes of -pp and pp elastic scattering at high energies. From our theoretical calculations and fits to the corresponding experimental data at high energies and all available momentum transfer, we find that the Pomeron exchange contributions play a significant role in description of differential cross section dσ/dt in the whole experimental domain. The Pomeron exchange contributions are related to multi-gluon exchanges in QCD, which are color singlet bound state of Reggeized gluons, such as tensor glueball and Odderon. Accordingly, we may claim that the -pp and pp diffractive processes at high energies s and moderate momentum transfer t would be a good tool to verify the existence of the color singlet multigluon bound states and to test QCD since QCD theory does predict the existence of these states. Therefore, we believe that the experimental measurement should be done for these diffractive processes.

  12. Adopting a Grounded Theory Approach to Cultural-Historical Research: Conflicting Methodologies or Complementary Methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Seaman PhD

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory has long been regarded as a valuable way to conduct social and educational research. However, recent constructivist and postmodern insights are challenging long-standing assumptions, most notably by suggesting that grounded theory can be flexibly integrated with existing theories. This move hinges on repositioning grounded theory from a methodology with positivist underpinnings to an approach that can be used within different theoretical frameworks. In this article the author reviews this recent transformation of grounded theory, engages in the project of repositioning it as an approach by using cultural historical activity theory as a test case, and outlines several practical methods implied by the joint use of grounded theory as an approach and activity theory as a methodology. One implication is the adoption of a dialectic, as opposed to a constructivist or objectivist, stance toward grounded theory inquiry, a stance that helps move past the problem of emergence versus forcing.

  13. Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Thomas, M. Shelley

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore early childhood educators' cultural competence through a lens of racial identity development theory, a case study was conducted with four White Kindergarten teachers. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to understand their racial identity development as well as perspectives of teaching culturally diverse early childhood…

  14. Literary Theory as Socio-Historical Convention and Cultural Transfer in the Classroom: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes-Brown, Malcolm; Innes-Brown, Angela

    1992-01-01

    Examines the implications of literary theory in light of social patterns defining the parameters of culture in the classroom. Considers literature a means of giving expression to the social forces at work in schools, providing a frame of reference for the transfer of culture. (DMM)

  15. The Theory of Reasoned Action and Self-Construal: Evidence from Three Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of self-construals on the attitudinal and normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in the cultures of Korea, Hawaii, and the mainland United States. Finds that undergraduate students in all three locations scored higher on independence than interdependence, and culture appears to affect the extent to which…

  16. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  17. Grid, Group, and Grade : Challenges in Operationalizing Cultural Theory for Cross-National Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleki, A.; Hendriks, F.

    2015-01-01

    Grid–Group Cultural Theory (CT), developed by Mary Douglas and followers, is a well-known and often-used framework for the analysis of culture in the political–administrative world. Although Douglas herself was rather wary of detailed operationalization of CT, many scholars have tried to measure Gri

  18. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  19. Comparison between American and Chinese Cultures Based on Theories of Cultural Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying the cultural differences between China and America on the basis of the cultural dimen-sions presented by Hofstede, Hall, Trompenaars and Tunner, in order to raise the cultural awareness when people are interacting in these two super countries of the world. A new scale of cultural dimensions include individualism/collectivism, power distance, low/high context, and diffuse/specific.

  20. "Parallel Leadership in an "Unparallel" World"--Cultural Constraints on the Transferability of Western Educational Leadership Theories across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin

    2009-01-01

    With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…

  1. Provincialising the World Culture Theory Debate: Critical Insights from a Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Neo-institutionalist theory of global "isomorphism", or so-called World Culture Theory (WCT), has been much debated in comparative education. One notable feature of the debate is that the vast majority of its participants belong to a handful of closely knit comparative education communities. Ironically enough then, a debate that…

  2. Militarist, Marxian, and Non-Marxian Materialist Theories of Gender Inequality: A Cross-Cultural Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen K.; Heckert, D. Alex; Dubrow, Joshua K.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested three types of theories of gender inequality in preindustrial societies by using half the societies in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: militarist, Marxian, and non-Marxian materialist theories. The first phase of the research used simple cross-tabulations with chi-square as a test of significance and gamma as a measure of…

  3. Understanding Synchronous Computer-Mediated Classroom Discussion through Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yangjoo

    2015-01-01

    This study is about graduate students' discourse practices in classroom text-based synchronous computer mediated discussions (SCMD). Cultural historical activity theory (in short, Activity Theory) is the primary theoretical lens through which the data are analyzed. Engeström's (1987) Activity System model among the various theoretical positions or…

  4. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: Vygotsky's Forgotten and Suppressed Legacy and Its Implication for Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory--with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise--has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is…

  5. Revisiting Bourdieu: Alternative Educational Systems in the Light of the Theory of Social and Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…

  6. Revisiting Bourdieu: Alternative Educational Systems in the Light of the Theory of Social and Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…

  7. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  8. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  9. Application of Information Processing Theory on the inter-relationship of organizational culture and organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Li, YIH; Fellows, RF; Liu, AMM

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model of the inter-relationship between organizational culture and organizational structure has been formulated. However, it is still unable to explain the direction of interaction of organizational culture and organizational structure in real day-to-day operation. This paper explains this relationship through the application of Information-Processing Theory. It has been established that, on one hand, organizational structure modifies organizational culture and, on the other hand...

  10. Motivated cultural cognition: the impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C Y; Morris, M W; Hong, Y Y; Menon, T

    2000-02-01

    The authors propose that need for closure (NFC) leads attributors to respond to an ambiguous social event by increasing reliance on implicit theories received from acculturation. Hence, the influence of NFC should be shaped by chronically accessible knowledge structures in a culture, and, likewise, the influence of culture should be moderated by epistemic motives such as NFC. The specific hypotheses drew on past findings that North American and Chinese attributors possess differing implicit social theories, North Americans conceiving of individuals as autonomous agents and Chinese conceiving of groups as autonomous. The present studies found the predicted pattern that among North American participants, NFC increased attributions to personal but not group dispositions. Among Chinese participants, NFC increased attributions to group but not personal dispositions. The findings are discussed in light of an emerging dynamic account of culture and cognition.

  11. Hermeneutics and inter-cultural dialog: linking theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmayr, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Inter-cultural dialog is frequently treated as either unnecessary or else impossible. It is said to be unnecessary, because we all are the same or share the same ‘human nature'; it is claimed to be impossible because cultures seen as language games or forms or life are so different as to be radically incommensurable. The paper steers a course between absolute universalism and particularism by following the path of dialog and interrogation - where dialog does not mean empty chatter but the exp...

  12. Culture, needs and nursing: a critical theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C A; Warelow, P J

    1997-03-01

    This paper will bring the critique of culture, notably that undertaken by the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Science, to bear on the problem of needs, and expose its significance for the practice and discipline of nursing. The paper begins by reviewing ways in which the idea of 'needs' has been depicted in nursing literature, and it is suggested that this depiction is inadequate in fundamental ways. The critique of existing culture is then outlined and the implications for nursing are suggested in terms of the dissolution of hegemonic practices and the development of a concept of need built around the notion of 'praxis'.

  13. The Language-Culture Connection in ELT : Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Paul; Paul, ROSS

    2004-01-01

    Defining the nature of the language-culture connection and proposing how that connection should be addressed in the language classroom have long been major issues in the ELT field, and these issues remain contested and largely unresolved to this day. This paper attempts to clarify some of the major ways that the language-culture connection is conceived of in the field, and it will also outline the influences that those conceptions may be having on both course content and language pedagogy. Th...

  14. Applications of Cognitive Flexibility Theory in Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of American efforts to influence global peace and security through development assistance to foreign police and other security forces reveals that they have a record of mixed results. The pitfalls arising from cultural dissonance in international training programs is a significant factor in why some police reform initiatives fail.…

  15. Reconnecting Proficiency, Literacy, and Culture: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warford, Mark K.; White, William L.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to capably communicate across languages? This article introduces two theoretical models and a lesson plan format designed to facilitate the integration of proficiency, literacy, and culture teaching in foreign language teaching. The Second Symbolic Competencies Model configures proficiency and literacy as subordinate clusters of…

  16. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein.

  17. Voices Off: Reconstructing Career Theory and Practice for Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    The most fundamental challenge that career psychology faces is the construction of a new identity that will challenge the career theories and counselling practices that have occupied centre stage in evolving forms for over a century. As part of that challenge, career practitioners and career educators need to address the critical question of what…

  18. Anthropological Approach and Activity Theory: Culture, Communities and Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropological approach (AA) concurrently to Activity Theory (AT) in view of overarching questions about classroom use of technology for teaching and learning mathematics. I will do it first from a philosophical point of view, presenting the main notions of AA that have been used to…

  19. Recensión: Hauke Brunkhorst, Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alvear

    Full Text Available Resumen Erigido sobre un intento de armonización de las posibilidades de observación (externa e interna que ofrecen la teoría de sistemas y la teoría crítica, Hauke Brunkhorst desarrolla en Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions una comprensión de la evolución social que, en concordancia con aquellas tradiciones, no sólo da cuenta de la posibilidad de cambios evolutivos de carácter gradual (por incremento de complejidad sistémica sino también de carácter revolucionario (a través de conflictos de tipo estructural. Si bien estos últimos necesitan de los primeros para poder ser estabilizados y así producir nuevas coacciones normativas que actúan como direccionadores del curso de la evolución social general, aquellos no quedarían exentos de la lógica que el autor resume con su reminiscencia a la dialéctica de la ilustración. En ésta queda claro que el progreso moral y/o los avances sociales y jurídicos siempre pueden ser leídos y utilizados para generar nuevas formas de opresión y dominación.

  20. Innovative practice: exploring acculturation theory to advance rehabilitation from pediatric to adult "cultures" of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tram; Baptiste, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This perspective paper explores the application of acculturation and the inherent concepts and ideas associated with this theory in rehabilitation to provide a framework for interpreting patient circumstances, responses and behaviours as they move from one culture to the next. Traditionally acculturation theory has been use to examine changes in culture in an ethnic or country sense, however, this paper is among the first to apply acculturation theory to the rehabilitation service cultures from pediatric to adult care for youth with chronic health conditions. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (1) to critically appraise key literature in the development of acculturation theory, (2) to discuss how acculturation theory can be applied in rehabilitation practice through a clinical vignette, and finally (3) to discuss how acculturation theory can advance rehabilitation by enhancing client-centered practice. Acculturation theory can provide insight into how patients are experiencing a change in health care "cultures", in the context of their overarching life circumstances. This, coming from a broader societal perspective can in turn inform an optimal approach to client-centered practice, and the application of rehabilitation-specific team inputs. This theoretical framework can heighten practitioners' awareness of patients' unique worldviews related to their expectations for care and treatment thus reducing fear of diversity to establish positive partnerships between patients and clinicians. An understanding of patients' acculturation processes will add new insight into how we can best deliver services and supports to optimise health, opportunities and experiences for youth with chronic conditions.

  1. A quantitative test of the cultural theory of risk perceptions: comparison with the psychometric paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, C; Langford, I H; O'Riordan, T

    1998-10-01

    This paper seeks to compare two frameworks which have been proposed to explain risk perceptions, namely, cultural theory and the psychometric paradigm. A structured questionnaire which incorporated elements from both approaches was administered to 129 residents of Norwich, England. The qualitative risk characteristics generated by the psychometric paradigm explained a far greater proportion of the variance in risk perceptions than cultural biases, though it should be borne in mind that the qualitative characteristics refer directly to risks whereas cultural biases are much more distant variables. Correlations between cultural biases and risk perceptions were very low, but the key point was that each cultural bias was associated with concern about distinct types of risks and that the pattern of responses was compatible with that predicted by cultural theory. The cultural approach also provided indicators for underlying beliefs regarding trust and the environment; beliefs which were consistent within each world view but divergent between them. An important drawback, however, was that the psychometric questionnaire could only allocate 32% of the respondents unequivocally to one of the four cultural types. The rest of the sample expressed several cultural biases simultaneously, or none at all. Cultural biases are therefore probably best interpreted as four extreme world views, and a mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies would generate better insights into who might defend these views in what circumstances, whether there are only four mutually exclusive world views or not, and how these views are related to patterns of social solidarity, and judgments on institutional trust.

  2. Cultural Studies and the Subaltern: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Györke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available My article discusses the theoretical and practical implications of applying the methodology of cultural studies, as it is delineated by Stuart Hall, in the East-Central European context. Despite the celebrated “internationalization” of the discipline as well as “de-Eurocentrizing” initiatives, a number of scholars, such as G. C. Spivak and Hall himself, claim that research taking a cultural studies approach has offered little innovative intervention in recent years, and the discipline remains defined by a Western, (postmodern theoretical framework. I argue that scholars in Hungary (and Slovenia have an unprecedented opportunity to contribute to the field, yet in order to avoid falling into the trap of repeating obvious claims and conclusion, we need to take an approach that Spivak associates with the toleration of uncertainty and paradox, and Jessica Benjamin calls intersubjective interaction.

  3. Statistical Development and Application of Cultural Consensus Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-31

    1988), the full GCM was developed that allowed heterogeneity in informants, guessing bias as well as heterogeneity in item difficulty (cultural...Research Associates ( ARA ) and includes faculty researchers from several universities. Batchelder is a researcher on this grant, and Mark Steyvers is...using that software. First, as mentioned, it only applies to a special case of the GCM for T/F items, where there is no informant heterogeneity in

  4. Civilization, culture and neurotic depression: in view of the Freudian theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K

    1995-12-01

    Our discussion is based on the psychoanalytic theory of Freud. We, however, discuss a case of neurotic depression which is not considered a subtype in Freud's concept of neurosis. We discuss the difference between culture and civilization, referring to what Freud discussed in Totem and Taboo and Moses and Monotheism. We then discuss two matters specific to Japanese culture; the assimilation of foreign cultures, and the sexual differences found in Japanese culture. On the basis of these discussions, we attempt to link these with the problem of structure of the neurotic depression. We conclude with Confucianism which we can consider as relative to the East-Asian world.

  5. Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhan, Donna P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

  6. Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhan, Donna P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

  7. Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Leadership for School-Community Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraise, Nicole Jaenee; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore concepts related to culturally relevant pedagogy and connect them to nascent theoretical work in the field of educational leadership. The article begins with a review of literature on educational leadership and culture and then suggests shortcomings in the way these concepts are currently conceptualized.…

  8. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  9. McLuhan and the Cultural Theory of Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Poster

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Media are surely central to Western societies of the past several centuries and to the emerging global societies of the contemporary era and the future. There is a thickening, an intensification and an increasing complexity to the use of information machines, technologies that are necessary in the production, reproduction, storing and distribution of texts, images and sounds, the constituent elements of culture. The phenomenon has been termed a “media ecology,” adding a new layer to the ecologies of animal, vegetable and mineral. It behooves anyone engaged in critical discourse to take serious account of media. I argue they offer a key to understanding the process of globalization in relation to a new configuration of interaction between humans and machines.

  10. Culture and global thought: Chinese international theory in the making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yaqing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author examines the study of international relations in China, a discipline that has proliferated as the country has opened up to the rest of the world. He examines the three main trends of international thought that have become most widespread: the first, which the author calls the obverse approach, situates Chinese thought as the theoretical basis for considering a genuine worldism, thanks to traditional concepts such as Tianxia and Confucian family bonds. Secondly, there is the reverse approach, which applies Western theoretical paradigms to the concept of power in ancient Chinese thinkers; this is a theory that emphasises the hierarchy of the international system and seeks international Chinese dominance. Finally, the third is more interactive, and which constructs an intercultural, thoughtful and critical dialogue, at the same time as applying autochthonous conceptual frameworks such as Confucian relationism, and foreign ones, such as rationalism.

  11. High theory/mass markets: Newsweek magazine and the circuits of medical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Medicine is driven by much more than science and reason (ethics); it is also driven by the circuits of culture within which it operates. This article examines how postmodern theory deconstructs standard ideals of science and reason and allows medical humanities scholars to better contextualize the world of medicine. As such, postmodern theory provides an invaluable tool for understanding the circuits of popular culture and medicine's place within these circuits. Using a recent issue of Newsweek magazine devoted to health and technology to illustrate the main points, this essay argues that contemporary popular influences on medicine are deeply problematic, and that through an appreciation of the dynamics of culture, medical humanities scholars can join the struggle over medical culture. This perspective allows medical humanities to make important contributions toward alternative circuits of medical representation, consumption, and identification.

  12. On the Cultural Conflicts in The Wedding Banquet Based on Hall's High-Low Context Culture Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀红; 王慧烨

    2016-01-01

    The Wedding Banquet is a movie about a gay Taiwanese immigrant man who marries a mainland Chinese woman to pla?cate his parents and get her a green card. His plan backfires and things get out of hand when his parents arrive in the United States to plan his wedding banquet. Based on Hall's theory of high-context and low-context culture, this paper analyzes the cul?tural conflicts in the movie from six perspectives, and offers suggestions to the harmonious development of China and America. It is hoped that the paper can help readers get an in-depth comprehension of Hall's theory of high-context and low-context cul?ture and discover some invisible conflicts between China and the West and finally raise people 's consciousness of cultural con?flicts and ways of handling the conflicts. With the advancement of globalization, intercultural communicative competence is be?coming more and more important, and social communication between China and the West will become more relaxed and fruit?ful if people acquire more knowledge in intercultural communication.

  13. Vigilance as a caring expression and Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J M

    1998-01-01

    Vigilance, or the close, protective involvement of families caring for hospitalized relatives, was explored in this study using holistic ethnography. Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality provided direction for the researcher to generate substantive data about the meanings, patterns, and day-to-day experience of vigilance. Five categories of meaning were derived from the data: commitment to care, emotional upheaval, dynamic nexus, transition, and resilience. The research findings expand understanding of vigilance as a caring expression, suggest direction for nursing practice, and contribute to Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality and the development of nursing science.

  14. Testing ‘cultural reproduction theory’ against relative risk aversion theory – some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense of the conc......The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense...

  15. Culture and the Sequence of Steps in Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia; Wellman, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    To examine cultural contrasts in the ordered sequence of conceptual developments leading to theory of mind (ToM), we compared 135 3- to 6-year-olds (77 Australians; 58 Iranians) on an established 5-step ToM scale (Wellman & Liu, 2004). There was a cross-cultural difference in the sequencing of ToM steps but not in overall rates of ToM mastery.…

  16. "Because That's Who I Am": Extending Theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to Consider Religious Identity, Belief, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual article the author explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and religious school contexts. He extends theories of culturally responsive pedagogy to consider how religion, a dimension of student culture that has largely been overlooked in the literature surrounding culturally responsive pedagogy, can inflect…

  17. "Because That's Who I Am": Extending Theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to Consider Religious Identity, Belief, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual article the author explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and religious school contexts. He extends theories of culturally responsive pedagogy to consider how religion, a dimension of student culture that has largely been overlooked in the literature surrounding culturally responsive pedagogy, can inflect…

  18. Theory of mind and executive function during middle childhood across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Devine, Rory T; Wong, Keri K; Hughes, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies with preschoolers have reported "East-West" contrasts in children's executive function (East>West) and theory of mind (Eastchildren from the United Kingdom and Hong Kong aimed to test competing accounts of these contrasts that focus on either global effects of culture or more specific effects of pedagogical experience. Both groups of children in Hong Kong outperformed the British children on executive function tasks. That is, with respect to executive function, general cultural influences appear to be salient. In contrast, compared with their U.K. counterparts, children attending local schools in Hong Kong (but not those attending British-based international schools in Hong Kong) performed poorly on age-appropriate tests of theory of mind. With respect to theory of mind, therefore, pedagogical experiences appear to be more salient than factors related to the broad contrast between individualist and collectivist cultures. Our findings also contribute to the debate surrounding the relationship between theory of mind and executive function; although scores on these two sets of tasks were robustly correlated within each country, the double dissociation between delayed theory of mind but superior executive function for children in local schools in Hong Kong compared with their U.K. peers suggests that variation in executive function may be necessary but is not sufficient to explain variation in theory of mind.

  19. Cross-cultural perspectives: implications for attachment theory and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuchin, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Cross-cultural perspectives have always been useful for understanding behavior. They clarify the distinction between aspects that are essentially part of the human condition and those that are the most responsive to variation. The interesting article by Rothbaum and his colleagues is in that tradition, contrasting the cultural values and family patterns in Japanese society with those of Western cultures, including our own, and suggesting that these differences shape the nature and course of attachment. It stimulates questions about what we have taken for granted in our theories and in our evaluations of dysfunctional behavior.

  20. The Cooperative Principle: Is Grices Theory Suitable to Indonesian Language Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Herawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article discussed how native speakers of Indonesian observed Grices maxims. One hundred conversations contributed in live talk show from varied Indonesia television channels were analysed. The results show that Grices maxims are fulfilled in many conversations. Nevertheless, in other situations, two kinds of non-fulfilment of the maxims are observed. First, the speaker deliberately exploits a maxim, which is suitable to Grices theory. Second, the speaker fails to observe but does not exploit a maxim, which leads to some interpretations of the cultural patterns of the Indonesian language: communicative politeness, high context culture and the needs of harmony in communication that are considered as the manifesting of Indonesian culture.

  1. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a “culture-inclusive theory.” However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, “one mind, many mentalities”), this paper took the “cultural system approach” (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the “Face and Favor model” (Hwang, 1987) and the “Mandala Model of Self” (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein. PMID:27445894

  2. Educational Technology Acceptance across Cultures: A Validation of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology in the Context of Turkish National Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, Aytac; Nistor, Nicolae; Riley, Richard W.; Lerche, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh et al., 2003, 2012) proposes a major model of educational technology acceptance (ETA) which has been yet validated only in few languages and cultures. Therefore, this study aims at extending the applicability of UTAUT to Turkish culture. Based on acceptance and cultural data…

  3. Unknown Vygotsky: Cultural-Historical Theory in the Context of Pavlov’s Theory of Higher Nervous Activity and H. Werner’s Differential Development Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuprikova N.I.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The position about the internal connection between the cultural-historical theory of development of higher mental functions of L.S. Vygotsky and two prominent theories of the 20th century is substatianted. Firstly, this is the theory of conditioned reflex of I.P. Pavlov, including the idea of significant qualitative difference between human higher nervous activity and human behaviour and those of animals, due to the presence of the second signal system as a “grand speech signal” in humans. Second, this is the differential theory of development by H. Werner, which fits a number of key ideas of L.S. Vygotsky about the development of speech function and the role of the word in the psychological development of a child.

  4. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory logic...... of the theory, the relation of the concept in the theory of activity. The main section of the chapter provides a methodological discussion of ways to research the motive concept. The chapter concludes with three open research problems in relation to the motive concept....

  5. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  6. Cultural-historical activity theory: Vygotsky's forgotten and suppressed legacy and its implication for mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory—with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise—has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is only in the process of gaining larger levels of acceptance. Mathematics educators are only beginning to realise the tremendous advantages that the theory provides over other theories. In this review essay, I articulate the theory as it may relate to the issues that concern mathematics education and educators with a particular focus on the way in which it addresses logical contradictions in existing theories.

  7. A critical review of theory in breast cancer screening promotion across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J; Burke, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the contribution and potential of widely used health behavior theories in research designed to understand and redress the disproportionate burden of breast cancer borne by diverse race/ethnic, immigrant, and low-income groups associated with unequal use of mammography. We review the strengths and limitations of widely used theories and the extent to which theory contributes to the understanding of screening disparities and informs effective intervention. The dominant focus of most theories on individual cognition is critically assessed as the abstraction of behavior from its social context. Proposed alternatives emphasize multilevel ecological approaches and the use of anthropologic theory and methods for more culturally grounded understandings of screening behavior. Common and alternative treatments of fatalism exemplify this approach, and descriptive and intervention research exemplars further highlight the integration of screening behavior and sociocultural context.

  8. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice. The

  9. Self-Determination Theory: The Importance of Autonomy to Well-Being across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Sonia Secher

    2011-01-01

    According to proponents of self-determination theory, autonomous regulation is a universal psychological human need. Researchers have found autonomy (defined as acting in accordance with one's values) related to well-being across cultures. Encouraging client autonomy is therefore fundamental to the practice of humanistic counseling.

  10. Investigator Bias and Theory-Ladenness in Cross-Cultural Research: Insights from Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    A relatively under-explored topic in the current literature on and methods for research in the field of comparative and international education is the problem of investigator bias in cross-cultural research. This article discusses the nature of and an approach to address investigator bias in research that originates from the theory-ladenness of…

  11. The Transformation of Learning: Advances in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Bert, Ed.; Wardekker, Wim, Ed.; Elbers, Ed, Ed.; van der Veer, Rene, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Learning is a changing phenomenon, depending on the advances in theory and research. This book presents a relatively new approach to learning, based on meaningful human activities in cultural practices and in collaboration with others. It draws extensively from the ideas of Lev Vygotsky and his recent followers. The book presents ideas that…

  12. Understanding and Dismantling Barriers for Partnerships for Inclusive Education: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, universities and school districts share responsibility for teacher and student learning. Sharing responsibility demands that both institutions work to develop closer relationships through ongoing engagement, dialogue and negotiation. Drawing from Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), we examined one school/university…

  13. Methodologies in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: The Example of School-Based Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postholm, May Britt

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Relatively little research has been conducted on methodology within Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). CHAT is mainly used as a framework for developmental processes. The purpose of this article is to discuss both focuses for research and research questions within CHAT and to outline methodologies that can be used…

  14. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  15. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  16. Aversive Racism and Intergroup Contact Theories: Cultural Competence in a Segregated World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenborg, Nancy A.; Boisen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The United States remains highly segregated, and social work students are likely to live and work in segregated contexts. What implications does this have for their cultural competence? Does segregation affect social workers' ability to serve diverse clients without bias? This article reviews two social psychology theories, aversive racism…

  17. Translating Culture-Specific Items: From the Perspective of Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施蒙

    2012-01-01

      This paper offers an exploratory analysis of translating culture-specific items from the angle of relevance theory in terms of semantic level, syntactic level and contextual level. It was revealed that due to the translation dilemma in the translation process, seman-tic meaning and syntactic structure are usually sacrificed for optimal relevance in contextual level.

  18. Self-Determination Theory: The Importance of Autonomy to Well-Being across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Sonia Secher

    2011-01-01

    According to proponents of self-determination theory, autonomous regulation is a universal psychological human need. Researchers have found autonomy (defined as acting in accordance with one's values) related to well-being across cultures. Encouraging client autonomy is therefore fundamental to the practice of humanistic counseling.

  19. From the World-Systems Perspective to Institutional World History: Culture and Economy in Global Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Lauren

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes critical attacks on Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems approach to history and offers new critical evaluations. Wallerstein argued that an emerging capitalist world economy dominated politics and history from the 16th century to the present. Defines two new approaches, institutional analysis and post colonial cultural theory, that…

  20. Objectification Theory and Deaf Cultural Identity Attitudes: Roles in Deaf Women's Eating Disorder Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Rottenstein, Adena

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the generalizability of direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among internalization of sociocultural standards of beauty, body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of Deaf women. The study also examined the role of marginal Deaf cultural identity attitudes within this…

  1. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice.

  2. Using Relational-Cultural Theory to Conceptualize Couple Interventions in the Treatment of Sex Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…

  3. Ethical theory and stakeholder-related decisions: The role of stakeholder culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Jones; W.A. Felps (William); G. Bigley

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe use convergent elements of major ethical theories to create a typology of corporate stakeholder cultures—the aspects of organizational culture consisting of the beliefs, values, and practices that have evolved for solving problems and otherwise managing stakeholder relationships. We d

  4. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  5. Educating Students to Cross Boundaries between Disciplines and Cultures and between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Ir. Karen P. J.; Bush, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice. These boundary crossing skills are needed to develop…

  6. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  7. 费孝通文化论初探%Tentative Discussion towards the Theory of Culture of Fei Xiaotong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延中

    2003-01-01

    Professor Fei Xiao-tong is one of the world famous Chinese sociologists due to his socio-anthropology community studies on civilized nation. Culture theory is one major part of his communitystudies. This article draws the theoretically origins of his culture theory which was based on Malinovski'sfunctionalism and dynamics culture theory. His "diversified origins with one core" theory is not onlyidentified significantly in Chinese nation history, but also useful to explain the trend of the world's culturephenomena in the process of globalization. The Chinese culture and all other nations' cultures need to bere-identified through cross-culture communication and self-consciousness to learn to tolerate and admireeach other in order to create general common consensus of the world. All nations holding their own culturecharacteristics can exist peacefully with the general common consensus as the global culture roots.

  8. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A cogenerative inquiry using postcolonial theory to envisage culturally inclusive science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer; Luitel, Bal Chandra; Afonso, Emilia; Taylor, Peter Charles

    2008-12-01

    This forum constitutes a cogenerative inquiry using postcolonial theory drawn from the review paper by Zembylas and Avraamidou. Three teacher educators from African, Asian and Caribbean countries reflect on problems confronting their professional practices and consider the prospects of creating culturally inclusive science education. We learn that in Mozambique, Nepal and the Caribbean scientism patrols the borders of science education serving to exclude local epistemological beliefs and discourses and negating culturally contextualized teaching and learning. Despite the diverse cultural hybridities of these countries, science education is disconnected from the daily lives of the majority of their populations, serving inequitably the academic Western-oriented aspirations of an elite group who are "living hybridity but talking scientism." The discussants explore their autobiographies to reveal core cultural values and beliefs grounded in their non-Western traditions and worldviews but which are in conflict with the Western Modern Worldview (WMW) and thus have no legitimate role in the standard school/college science classroom. They reflect on their hybrid cultural identities and reveal the interplay of multiple selves grounded in both the WMW and non-WMWs and existing in a dialectical tension of managed contradiction in a Third Space. They argue for dialectical logic to illuminate a Third Space wherein students of science education may be empowered to challenge hegemonies of cultural reproduction and examine reflexively their own identities, coming to recognize and reconcile their core cultural beliefs with those of Western modern science, thereby dissipating otherwise strongly delineated cultural borders.

  10. Cultural planning and Chaos Theory in Cyberspace: some notes on a Digital Cultural Atlas Project for Western Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Lally

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the intersection between digital technologies and cultural planning. New information technologies ought to enable more powerful planning strategies. Yet a common seductive vision of planning is mirrored by utopian claims for cyberculture, which often fall short of the hoped-for reality. We suggest that one problem is the linear thinking common to mainstream planning and digital thinking, which leads to a cumulative lack of fit with the non-linear (chaotic world of social action. We draw on chaos and complexity theory to reframe planning problems and develop more creative digital strategies in a specific location, Western Sydney, using and adapting Geographic Information Systems.

  11. Community transformation through culturally competent nursing leadership: application of theory of culture care diversity and universality and tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mina L; Miller, June; White, Kathleen

    2006-04-01

    Transcultural knowledge and competency have become a critical need for nurses to accommodate the global trends in cultural diversity and health care disparities. Today, nurses are increasingly taking on leadership roles in community settings. This article addresses the application of Leininger's culture care theory with the sunrise model and Hersey and Blanchard's tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model as potential collaborating theories for capacity building and community transformation from a global, transcultural nursing perspective. The two theories, used in collaboration, view the provision of competent leadership as the delivery of effective, culturally congruent nursing care in promoting health and health equity at the community level.

  12. The parasite-stress theory may be a general theory of culture and sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2012-04-01

    In the target article, we presented the hypothesis that parasite-stress variation was a causal factor in the variation of in-group assortative sociality, cross-nationally and across the United States, which we indexed with variables that measured different aspects of the strength of family ties and religiosity. We presented evidence supportive of our hypothesis in the form of analyses that controlled for variation in freedom, wealth resources, and wealth inequality across nations and the states of the USA. Here, we respond to criticisms from commentators and attempt to clarify and expand the parasite-stress theory of sociality used to fuel our research presented in the target article.

  13. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  14. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: The Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBruder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766 supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476, we report (re-analyses of 3 datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy, other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism, and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control. Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  15. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  16. Corporate Culture in a University Setting: An Analysis of Theory "X," Theory "Y" and Theory "Z" Cultures within University Academic Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlak, William D.; And Others

    A study used M. Cuffe and J. F. Cragan's three-dimensional model for understanding corporate culture within an organization to describe the managerial styles of chairpersons at Illinois State University. Case studies were completed for 18 chairpersons, who then sorted 60 statements on leadership style on a forced choice continuum from most…

  17. The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part Two: Developments Based on Constructivist and Critical Theory Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…

  18. The Cultures of Contemporary Instructional Design Scholarship, Part Two: Developments Based on Constructivist and Critical Theory Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second in a series (see Willis, 2011) that looks at the current status of instructional design scholarship and theory. In this concluding article, the focus is on two cultures of ID work, one based on constructivist and interpretivist theory and the other based on critical theory and critical pedagogy. There are distinct…

  19. Causal structures of pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, V E; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the causal structure of pp-wave spacetimes using the ideal point construction outlined by Geroch, Kronheimer, and Penrose. This generalizes the recent work of Marolf and Ross, who considered similar issues for plane wave spacetimes. We address the question regarding the dimension of the causal boundary for certain specific pp-wave backgrounds. In particular, we demonstrate that the pp-wave spacetime which gives rise to the N = 2 sine-Gordon string world-sheet theory is geodesically complete and has a one-dimensional causal boundary.

  20. Construct comparisons of IT adoption theories across cultures and innovativeness of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Hye-Sook; Park, Young-Taek; Speedie, Stuart M

    2008-11-06

    This investigation verified the study model derived from TAM and tested path significance across moderating variables such as cultures, personal innovativeness in IT (PIIT), and two different health care professionals. The findings demonstrated that the theory can apply to other settings and to different work professionals as well as across PIIT. There were different aspects on path significance, which have managerial implications on how an organization can successfully use their IT resources without resistance.

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicit Theories of an Intelligent Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Stoeger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the assumption that implicit theories influence the subjective action space and hence the learning behavior of students. The implicit theory that an individual holds of an intelligent person is of particular importance in this context. For this cross-cultural study, we asked 200 students from Kenya and Germany to draw an intelligent person and then to rate the typicality of the drawing with respect to a number of attributes. The data indicated considerable differences among the students’ implicit theories of intelligence. Implicit theories of an intelligent person correlated with the nationality and the gender of the students who made the drawings. German girls, in particular, frequently ascribed a gender to their prototypically intelligent person which differed from their own. Our data offer evidence that implicit theories of an intelligent person reflect a multifaceted picture. The most meaningful single attribute identified by participants for the figures they had drawn was that of being hardworking. We conclude that future studies should further examine the influence of implicit theories on the learning behavior of gifted students.

  2. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  4. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-06-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  5. Cultural theories of postpartum bleeding in Matlab, Bangladesh: implications for community health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Lynn M; Hruschka, Daniel; Kalim, Nahid; Khan, Jasmin; Paul, Moni; Edmonds, Joyce K; Koblinsky, Marjorie A

    2009-06-01

    Early recognition can reduce maternal disability and deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage. This study identified cultural theories of postpartum bleeding that may lead to inappropriate recognition and delayed care-seeking. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained through structured interviews with 149 participants living in Matlab, Bangladesh, including women aged 18-49 years, women aged 50+ years, traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and skilled birth attendants (SBAs), were subjected to cultural domain. General consensus existed among the TBAs and lay women regarding signs, causes, and treatments of postpartum bleeding (eigenvalue ratio 5.9, mean competence 0.59, and standard deviation 0.15). Excessive bleeding appeared to be distinguished by flow characteristics, not colour or quantity. Yet, the TBAs and lay women differed significantly from the SBAs in beliefs about normalcy of blood loss, causal role of the retained placenta and malevolent spirits, and care practices critical to survival. Cultural domain analysis captures variation in theories with specificity and representativeness necessary to inform community health intervention.

  6. Children’s Self-Regulation in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Parental Socialization Theories, Goals, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge M.; Rendón, María I.; Muñoz, Lorena; Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children’s self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation. Thus, this article concludes that more specific research is required to relate both the developmental and the cultural aspects of children’s self-regulation. PMID:28634460

  7. Toward a Carribean cultural political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Sheller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Caribbean Postcolonial: Social Equality, Post-Nationalism and Cultural Hybridity. Shalini Puri. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ix + 300 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Miraculous Weapons: Revolutionary Ideology in Caribbean Culture. Joy A.I. Mahabir. New York: Peter Lang, 2003. ix + 167 pp. (Cloth US$ 58.95 The relation between cultural production and political struggle, and between the aesthetic and the material as expressions of social relations, are absolutely central themes within Caribbean studies in all of its disciplinary and interdisciplinary guises. A key question for the field as a whole is what role it might play in generating new approaches to “cultural political economy,” which is emerging as an effective bridging concept at the intersections of anthropology, sociology, economics, political theory, and literary and cultural studies.

  8. The paradoxes of gerotranscendence: The theory of gerotranscendence in a cultural gerontological and post-modernist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Thorsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThis article presents a theoretical analysis and discussion of the theory of gerotranscendence, formulatedby Lars Tornstam (University of Uppsala, Sweden. The theory is presented as a meta-theory ofageing, as a theory of universal and general ageing processes. Ageing is seen as an urge (a drivetowards a less engaged posititon in the wordly life, moving towards a higher degree of transcendence,with a more cosmic outlook and another definition of reality. In this article the theory is discussed fromanother theoretical position; Ageing seen in a cultural gerontological perspective, as a varied culturallyand historically situated phenomenon – differing in different times and different cultures. The theoreticalperspective underlines that ageing is complex dialectical processes, an intertwined interplay betweenindividual development and cultural change. The varied individual ageing processes are not seenas the result of «drives». In Western post-modern cultures the ageing processes are becoming manifold,often contradictory. Elderly present versions of the selves that are becoming complex, multiplied (multipleselves, acting at different scenes, stamped by varied cultural values, presenting mixed versions ofactivity and passivity, engagement and retractment, wordliness and transcendence.Key words:  Ageing theories; gerotranscendence; cultural gerontology; postmodernism

  9. Intangible Knowledge. The Culture of Knowledge within Organisations from the Perspective of the Sociological Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilia Stingl de Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge can get lost when workers leave the company, or it may be missed when new challenges emerge. Specific knowledge may be important for the value-added chain of an organization, and its inaccessibility could be a problem. The work on this paper seeks to juxtapose this problem with the concept of intangible knowledge. This concept is developed as an observation model for particular situations within organisations, in which specific, useful, knowledge is no longer available and is being missed. This paper considers a potentially useful way to deal with absence of such knowledge by using the social science approach. In addition to social systems theory, the communication and cultural science view was selected here to propose a new understanding of the function of knowledge as a communicational or cultural parameter within structures and meanings of a social system. This should facilitate a better perception of the actions and dynamics inside organizations regarding knowledge or the lack thereof.

  10. Advancing institutional anomie theory: a microlevel examination connecting culture, institutions, and deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R

    2006-12-01

    Institutional anomie theory (IAT) contends that crime can be explained by an examination of American society, particularly the exaggerated emphasis on economic success inherent in American culture, which has created a "cheating orientation" that permeates structural institutions, including academia. Consistent with its macrosocial perspective, previous tests of IAT have examined IAT variables at the structural level only. The current study tests the robustness of IAT by operationalizing IAT variables at the individual level and looking at a minor form of deviance, student cheating. The author also examines the role statistical modeling has in testing the theory at the microlevel. Undergraduates, 122 American born and 48 international, were surveyed about their cheating behaviors and adherence to economic goal orientations. Results related to the hypothesis that American students, relative to foreign-born students, will have an increased adherence to economic goal orientations that increase cheating behaviors are presented, as are suggestions for future studies.

  11. Discoursive Practice and Cultural Position——A Study of Introduction of Western Literary Theories:1993-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Specialty:Comparative Literature and World Literature Observing,examining and studying five theoretical periodicals of foreign literary theories in China,this dissertation aims at studying closely the introduction of western literary theories into China ever since the cultural transformation in 1990s.

  12. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed.

  13. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinYoung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  14. Rafael Mérida Jiménez, Transmisión y difusión de la literatura caballeresca. Doce estudios de recepción cultural hispánica (siglos XIII-XVII), Lleida, Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida,2013. 214 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Reseña del libro: Rafael Mérida Jiménez, Transmisión y difusión de la literatura caballeresca. Doce estudios de recepción cultural hispánica (siglos XIII-XVII), Lleida, Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida,2013. 214 pp.

  15. A Model for Translating Ethnography and Theory into Culturally Constructed Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J.; Schensul, Stephen L.; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J.; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts. PMID:25292448

  16. A model for translating ethnography and theory into culturally constructed clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Schensul, Jean J; Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts.

  17. Geertz versus Levi-Strauss: latent structural dispositions in Geertz "theory of culture"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Gorunović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available These are two authors, in Foucauldian terms that certainly belong to the most influential individuals in socio-cultural anthropology, as well as in the social sciences and interdisciplinary research more broadly. Claude Levi- Strauss became some kind of an "intellectual hero" during the domination of structuralism in the mid-twentieth century and during the 1960s, while Clifford Geertz was an ‘icon and ambassador’ of anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century. They are both one of the founders of the discourse theory. They not only established a distinct theoretical approaches and methods – structural (Levi-Strauss and interpretative anthropology (Clifford Geertz, but through their intellectual authority they also inspired paradigms and intellectual movements making structuralism and "interpretation of culture" more than some passing episodes in the history of social though (in terms of "trendy ideas". My aim is to make some parallels between these two authors, who despite all the differences that are evident in their epistemological discourses, theoretical approaches and methods (as well as in their ethnographic and anthropological writings itself still have some similarities in their theorisation and interpretation of culture, which I would like to stress in this paper.

  18. An Analysis on Cultural Values of Companies from China and the United States-Based on Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占小海; 张若晨

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, commercial competition is becoming fiercer and fiercer, and with the globalization proceeding, when a company tries to expand, promote and develop, it needs to adapt itself to the open business society while not losing its own cul-ture. Since English has been widely used in the world, an effective and suitable English website is essential for a company to use as a kind of advertisement and publicity, where its cultural values are presented.With companies’websites as subjects and Hofst-ede’s cultural dimension theory as the theoretical basis, this study, through text content and data analysis of company profiles, strategies and cultures, tries to find out the tendency of Chinese and American companies on the five cultural value dimensions, which is power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity and long-term orientation. Accordingly, constructive suggestions are put forward to help appease and avoid misunderstandings, and promote business communication and collabora-tion.

  19. The Controversy Around Tomboy: the Aversion to Gender Theory in French Education and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vilchez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the controversy around Céline Sciamma’s Tomboy (2011 and the concept of gender theory, this paper discusses a demonstration of various levels of aversion to gender theory in current French political discourses as represented in the media in relation to same-sex marriage, the family and state education. The social institution of the family—whose functions encompass marriage and the rearing of children—is often considered a foundational unit of the state and civil society. After the family, the institution of education continues lessons of belonging, history, culture and nationality. In France, Sciamma’s Tomboy repeatedly appeared in public debates related to gender theory, primary education and the family. In early 2014, parents received mobile text messages to participate in a collective action to keep their children out of school to protest curriculum which would allegedly teach gender theory and include Tomboy as part of the Ecole et Cinéma educational program. Former Minister of Education Vincent Peillon responded to this campaign by stating that the national school system is in no way teaching “gender theory”. This film is approached as a polemical and subversive work in which gender is represented and perceived as a construct and performative identity, challenging traditional institutions of gender logics and the institution of the family, and as a learning tool to discuss gender differences and questions of equality in school. Both Tomboy and gender theory are represented in manners that do not engage with either topics directly but instead push forward specific agendas of various political groups such as protection of family and programs of equality. This sense of aversion towards gender theory and works like Tomboy are a reaction to anxieties towards changing French national identity. Tomboy finds itself within these tensions in current French national identity through its representation of children, gender and

  20. Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy: A cultural theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J., E-mail: jodie.west@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bailey, I., E-mail: ian.bailey@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M., E-mail: d.m.winter@exeter.ac.u [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics.

  1. Career Development for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea: The Intersection of Culture, Theory, and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Chun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011, but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues, challenges, and solutions associated with the design and implementation of career development services for youth with disabilities, this article describes the status quo for students with disabilities in South Korea and then discusses career development services that potentially reduce variation, help facilitate optimal career development, and promote future employment opportunities. To accomplish this task, we explore the intersection of culture, theory, and policy in the Korean transition service delivery system.

  2. From activity to learning: using cultural historical activity theory to model school library programmes and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meyers

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. changes in educational policy and practice demand that we examine school library programmes from a new perspective. As a model that takes a developmental view of minds in context, Cultural Historical Activity Theory is particularly well suited to the study of school libraries and the learning that occurs therein. This paper focuses on the activity theoretic concepts of 'contradictions' and 'expansive learning' as they relate to the development of best practices. Method. Developmental Work Research was applied as a guiding methodology in an intervention study of six high school libraries in Washington State, USA. Library activity is illustrated from multiple perspectives using a triangulated, qualitative approach. Analysis. contradictions and tensions in the general school library activity system are identified, and an intervention was designed to facilitiate the development of expansive instruments. A case example illustrates a second level of analysis and specific points of intervention. Results. analysis reveals that the tensions and contradictions provide opportunities for expansive learning on the part of the teacher-Librarians. The research team can use practitioners' zones of proximal development to guide the alignment of library programme goals and practices. Conclusion. : some limitations and future promise of the framework and its application are discussed. The proposed activity theory toolkit suggest a new way of exploring the practices of teacher-librarians, incorporating research evidence, professional expertise, and reflective decision making.

  3. A study on the Translation of Cultural Elements in TV Subtitles-A Case Study of The Big Bang Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚庆

    2014-01-01

    With the growing popularity of one country’s TV series in foreign countries, subtitle translation has attracted consider-able attention in recent years. The Big Bang Theory (TBBT) is a widespread American TV series whose subtitles have been trans-lated into many foreign languages, and it also boasts its richness in cultural elements, the most typical ones including science ele-ments and religious cultural elements.

  4. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the "Cultural Myth of Stigma" Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R

    2015-11-01

    The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, the authors find no support for the corollary; where support is found, the findings are opposite expectations, with developed societies reporting lower stigma levels. Reconceptualizing of the cultural landscape on more specific dimensions also produces null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts.

  5. Evoked Culture and Evoked Nature: The Promise of Gene-Culture Co-Evolution Theory for Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Anthony; Yun, Ilhong

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sociological view of culture has been almost exclusively that of transmitted culture decoupled from biology. The concept of evoked culture brings biology “back in” since it identifies ecological challenges that evoked certain practices based on evolutionary imperatives. The practices are then passed on to subsequent generations as normative, and individuals best suited to these normative practices will enjoy greater fitness benefits than those less suited. In other words, prac...

  6. Theory and practice as cultural forms and the research design on The open school program in the Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Haastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    of teaching, supervising, mentoring and studying. We hereby took on the challenge of suggesting a ‘theory and practice didactics’ by turning to creativity research and social learning theory in order to transgress the observed routinized theory and practice relations embedded in the topos practices (Haastrup....... Eikeland, O. (2008). The Ways of Aristotle: Aristotelian Phrónêsis, Aristotelian Philosophy of Dialogue, and Action Research. Bern, Peter Lang. Højrup, T. (2003). State, Culture and Life-Modes. The Foundations of Life-Mode Analysis. Hants, Ashgate Publishing Limited Haastrup, L & Knudsen, L. E. D. (2014...

  7. Comparisons of Theory Predictions for the ttbar Process with Data from pp Collisions at sqrt(s)= 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Studies are presented comparing $t \\bar{t}$ differential distribution data collected with the CMS detector at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV to state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The predictions are accurate to next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics and interfaced with the PYTHIA 8 and HERWIG++ event generators. The predictions of these simulation tools and a next-to-next-to-leading order calculation are compared to unfolded data distributions. All deviations of the theory predictions from the data remain inside the envelope considered for factorization and renormalization scale variations.

  8. Putting Leininger's nursing theory "culture care diversity and universality" into operation in the curriculum--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, L; van der Wal, D

    1995-12-01

    The culturally diverse South African society necessitates inclusion of transcultural nursing in the curriculum. This article focuses on research regarding the putting of Leininger's nursing theory into operation in the curriculum to provide a scientific base for the inclusion of such nursing. The research process and results are discussed.

  9. Theory of Mind Development in Chinese Children: A Meta-Analysis of False-Belief Understanding across Cultures and Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Wellman, Henry M.; Tardif, Twila; Sabbagh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of mind is claimed to develop universally among humans across cultures with vastly different folk psychologies. However, in the attempt to test and confirm a claim of universality, individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes, sample specificities, and an overwhelming focus on Anglo-European children. The current meta-analysis…

  10. Vygotsky in 21st Century Society: Advances in Cultural Historical Theory and Praxis with Non-Dominant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Pedro R., Ed.; Salas, Spencer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Vygotsky in Twenty-first Century Society" is an ensemble of novel perspectives about the legacy of Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria. The book illustrates how well the legacy of their work is being applied and continued in contemporary research, and how cultural historical theory has been constructed and re-constructed. Together, these collected…

  11. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  12. Cross-Culture Adaptation in Business Context:the Implication of Adap-tation Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱玲; 石美

    2014-01-01

    Translating in business context involves considerable factors like culture, idioms besides language itself. This paper em-ploys adaptation theory and posed several examples commonly-seen in product, trademark and advertisement translating to show the essentials of translating in business context.

  13. Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

  14. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB

  15. Working with Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Critical Realism to Investigate and Expand Farmer Learning in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukute, Mutizwa; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the theoretical and methodological tools of cultural historical activity theory and critical realism to examine three case studies of the introduction and expansion of sustainable agricultural practices in southern Africa. The article addresses relevant issues in the field of agricultural extension, which lacks a theoretical…

  16. Vygotsky in 21st Century Society: Advances in Cultural Historical Theory and Praxis with Non-Dominant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Pedro R., Ed.; Salas, Spencer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Vygotsky in Twenty-first Century Society" is an ensemble of novel perspectives about the legacy of Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria. The book illustrates how well the legacy of their work is being applied and continued in contemporary research, and how cultural historical theory has been constructed and re-constructed. Together, these collected…

  17. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB ­relations

  18. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE; María ROMERO-CALMACHE; Alejandro ÁLVAREZ-NOBELL; Paz ARAGÜÉS-DUFOL

    2012-01-01

    ... subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o...

  19. General systems theory, cultural change, and a human science foundation for planning and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, J.L.; Woodfin, T.

    1993-12-31

    This paper integrates the knowledge-base concerning systems, their behavior and structure, and the management of complex systems - to provide insight to physical planning and design in equilibrium and rapidly-changing conditions. It contributes to the redefinition of the professions of physical planning and design; and the establishment of their human science foundations. This paper begins with a description of general systems theory, and the types of organizational structures that emerge in systems that are either in a state of equilibrium, controlled change, or chaos. It addresses the changes in system dynamics that occur as a culture moves from a condition of equilibrium or slow evolutionary change, to one of profound, rapid change. Conceptual approaches to decision-making to address these changing conditions are explored, with a focus on strategies to manage change and retard its rate, or conversely to maximize rate of change with reduced ability to manage that change. The paper presents the recent history of South Africa, Value Systems Theory and the differential manner in which people image the world - in an effort to establish intergroup harmony. It introduces problems that are emerging due to different value systems and need satisfaction; and on-going efforts to facilitate rapid paradigmatic change through equilibrium processes. The paper addresses recent efforts at the national level, roadblocks to change, and {open_quotes}change triggers{close_quotes} that can facilitate that change. It addresses case-study research to identify urbanization {open_quotes}delivery models{close_quotes} that can facilitate change at the local community-planning level. This paper develops the scientific basis within which to address urban planning and design as community facilitation, and as the management of ecological and human health. It establishes the need for a human science foundation for physical planning and design. 116 refs.

  20. NOTES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE THEORY AND PRAXIS TRAINING CURRICULUM FOR COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE OF PEACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Belandria Cerdeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to present theoretical considerations on the application of the Theory and Praxis Training Curriculum for Communication and Culture of Peace. The theoretical study is descriptive and documentary. In the first stage were analyzed and discussed theoretical material related to the category of analysis. In a second stage developed a series of notes and reflective-critical comments, which point to consider hybrid forms of theories when designing curricular training in Communication and Culture of Peace. In conclusion, we feel the need to open the Multidisciplinary discussion on the subject, where the curriculum, the humanistic, existential communicational and bring new ways of learning, being, doing, living together, but above all to communicate, in order to take a step to build a communicative culture.

  1. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G

    2015-01-01

    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  2. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  3. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  4. Restructuring Hong Kong's Schools: The Applicability of Western Theories, Policies, and Practices to an Asian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    1998-01-01

    Explores the appropriateness and synchrony between educational policy reforms imported into Hong Kong and central features of the host culture. Draws upon Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions to provide a framework for identifying and matching Hong Kong's culture in juxtaposition with other cultures. Despite powerful Western influences, Hong Kong…

  5. Virtualizing the Word: Expanding Walter Ong's Theory of Orality and Literacy through a Culture of Virtuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jennifer Camille

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to create a vision for virtuality culture through a theoretical expansion of Walter Ong's literacy and orality culture model. It investigates the ubiquitous and multimodal nature of the virtuality cultural phenomenon that is mediated by contemporary technology and not explained by pre-existing cultural conventions. Through…

  6. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  7. On Translation of Chinese Folk Culture Based on Skopos Theory-A Case Study of Commentary of Folk Custom Gallery in Ningbo Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tang

    2016-01-01

    Folk culture plays an indispensable role in the Chinese culture. Therefore, as cultural exchanges between countries be-come more and more frequent, promoting the folk culture has a profound effect on enhancement of cultural soft power. Further-more, this paper has explored translation of commentary of Folk Custom Gallery in Ningbo Museum and summarized six trans-lation methods based on Skopos theory.

  8. Territorial Cohesion through Spatial Policies: An Analysis with Cultural Theory and Clumsy Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hartmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Territorial Cohesion Policy has been the subject of numerous debates in recent years. Most contributions focus on understanding the term itself and figuring out what is behind it, or arguing for or against a stronger formal competence of the European Union in this field. This article will leave out these aspects and pay attention to (undefined and legally non-binding conceptual elements of territorial cohesion, focusing on the challenge of linking it within spatial policies and organising the relations. Therefore, the theoretical approach of Cultural Theory and its concept of clumsy solution are applied to overcome the dilemma of typical dichotomies by adding a third and a fourth (but not a fifth perspective. In doing so, normative contradictions between different rational approaches can be revealed, explained and approached with the concept of ‘clumsy solutions’. This contribution aims at discussing how this theoretical approach helps us explain and frame a coalition between the Territorial Cohesion Policy and spatial policies. This approach contributes to finding the best way of linking and organising policies, although the solution might be clumsy according to the different rationalities involved.

  9. Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy. A cultural theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.; Bailey, I. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Winter, M. [Centre for Rural Policy Research, Department of Politics, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Public opposition to the siting of renewable energy (RE) facilities and public reluctance to invest in RE remain key obstacles to the expansion of the renewables sector in the UK and a number of other European countries. Although there is a growing body of qualitative research on factors that inform public attitudes towards RE, the majority of studies have tended to be quantitative and to view 'the public' and 'public opinion' as homogeneous wholes. This study uses a cultural theory framework and focus groups conducted in the South West UK to develop deeper understandings of how individuals' worldviews can inform opinions and behaviour in relation to RE. These findings are used to explore ways in which government policies on RE might be tailored to engender greater public support and participation. Issues discussed include the provision of economic incentives, information on climate change and RE, linking renewables to overall energy behaviour, and landscape aesthetics. (author)

  10. The "New Institutionalism" in Organization Theory: Bringing Society and Culture Back in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, Konstanze

    2013-01-01

    This investigation will discuss the emergence of an economistical perspective among the dominant approaches of organization theory in the United States since the inception of "organization studies" as an academic discipline. It maintains that Contingency theory, Resource Dependency theory, Population Ecology theory, and Transaction Cost theory…

  11. Pragmatic Children's Nursing: A Theory for Children and their Childhoods Randall Duncan Pragmatic Children's Nursing: A Theory for Children and their Childhoods 148pp £95 Routledge 9781138898066 1138898066 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-07

    This book represents the first attempt to create a children's nursing theory that involves giving children with illnesses or disabilities access to childhoods as close as possible to those of their peers.

  12. PP-HBP改性PP/PVC的流变行为%Study on Rheologic Behavior of PP Grafted with Hyperbranched Poly (amide-ester)/PP/PVC Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁建志; 宋晓红; 张建民; 彭政

    2006-01-01

    研究了聚丙烯接枝超支化聚(酰胺-酯)(PP-HBP)/PP/聚氯乙烯(PVC)共混体系的流变行为.讨论了PP-HBP用量对PP/PVC共混体系流变行为的影响.结果表明,当PP/PVC共混体系中加入PP-HBP不大于5份时,PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系的表观粘度大于PP/PVC共混体系的;当加入PP-HBP大于5份时,PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系的表观粘度小于PP/PVC共混体系的;随着温度升高,PP/PVC和PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系表观粘度减小.

  13. The importance of theory of regional culture in city image shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷

    2015-01-01

    In this paper:Regional culture in a certain region within the scope and the integration of the environment, as a regional brand, unique. The development of regional culture and heritage have important influence on city image.

  14. Estimation Theory and Statistical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Guerra, F., L. Rosen and B. Simon (1975): The P(0) 2 Euclidean Quantum Field Theory as Classical Statistical Mechanics, Annals of Mathematics , 101, pp. 111...Scientia Sinica, XXIV, pp. 483-496. 19. Segal, I. (1970): Construction of Nonlinear Local Quantum Processes 1, Annals of Mathematics 92, pp. 462-481. - 20

  15. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    participate in social action (Bazerman 1988 & Miller 1984, 1994). To begin to define culture as situation, I will engage the cultural systems perspective (Kampf & Kastberg 2005). This perspective is based on the interaction between norms of behaviour and context in which Hofstede situated his dimensions....... 396 - 403 Miller, Carolyn R. (1984): "Genre as Social Action." Quarterly Journal of Speech. 70, pp.151-167. Miller, Carolyn R. (1994): "Rhetorical Community: The Cultural Basis of Genre." In Genre and the New Rhetoric, eds. Aviva Freedman & Peter Medway. London: Taylor & Francis. Pike, K.L. (1990...... to operationalize for technical communication and translation. One of the issues inherent in these models goes back to Pike's coining of the notions of emic and etic stemming from phonemics and phonetics in linguistic theory. He makes the distinction between etic tools which apply across cultures as the phonetic...

  16. Critical Race Theory and the Cultural Competence Dilemma in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Moio, Jene A.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competence is a fundamental tenet of social work education. Although cultural competence with diverse populations historically referred to individuals and groups from non-White racial origins, the term has evolved to encompass differences pertaining to sexuality, religion, ability, and others. Critics charge that the cultural competence…

  17. Revisiting a Theory-Supported Approach to Teaching Cross-Cultural Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Steve; Serrie, Hendrick; Shapero, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Cross-cultural skills are a major criterion for success in the global business environment. For American managers in multinational organizations, this means learning to manage cultural difference at three levels: self, interpersonal, and organizational. Since literature indicates that training programs based on cross-cultural and learning theories…

  18. Critical Race Theory and the Cultural Competence Dilemma in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Moio, Jene A.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competence is a fundamental tenet of social work education. Although cultural competence with diverse populations historically referred to individuals and groups from non-White racial origins, the term has evolved to encompass differences pertaining to sexuality, religion, ability, and others. Critics charge that the cultural competence…

  19. Critical Theory, Cultural Analysis, and the Ethics of Educational Technology as Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of this special issue that addresses the ethical position of educational technology in a society. Topics discussed include critical theory; an invisible college, i.e., a scholarly communication network; the humanistic approach to developing an ethical conscience; feminist theory; and postmodern and poststructural theory.…

  20. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  1. Hauke Brunkhorst: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions: Evolutionary Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...

  2. The leopard cannot change his spots, or can he? Culture and the development of lay theories of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Jun

    2008-05-01

    Chinese and Canadian children were compared to examine cultural and developmental differences in lay theories of change: implicit beliefs about how the world develops and changes over time. Chinese and Canadian children (ages 7, 9, and 11 years) made predictions about future performance, relationships, happiness, and parental incomes based on a series of scenarios. Overall, the Chinese children predicted greater change than did the Canadian children, indicating that they believed more in change than did the Canadians. Moreover, cultural differences increased significantly with age: In comparison with their Canadian counterparts, Chinese children made no more change predictions at age 7, made slightly more change predictions at age 9, and made significantly more change predictions at age 11. This was true for questions starting with an extremely positive or negative state and those starting with a neutral state. Reasons for cultural and developmental differences were discussed.

  3. Using cultural-historical activity theory to analyze social service practices evolving from the Norwegian HUSK projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The HUSK projects catalyzed innovation in the practices of providing social services that could yield useful insights both within and outside of Norway if analyzed in these two ways: (a) retrospective analysis of the development of individual HUSK projects in light of their cultural-historical contexts, and (b) comparative analysis of the efforts to advance multi-sector collaboration in some of the HUSK projects. Such analyses require a practice-based research approach that takes into account culture and history. In this article the author explains how cultural-historical activity theory provides such an approach, illustrated via several HUSK cases. The author suggests five questions for future analyses of the HUSK projects and argues that insights gleaned from such analyses could contribute significantly to research on-and the provision of-social services.

  4. Bringing culture to basic psychological theory--beyond individualism and collectivism: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeir (2002) offered a comprehensive literature review on individualism and collectivism that forwards valuable suggestions for ways to enhance future research conducted within this framework. The author argues that although their criticisms of much contemporary social psychological research on individualism and collectivism are valid, even more fundamental problems need to be recognized as characterizing work within this tradition, such as the insufficiently subtle nature of the views held of culture, the limited attention given to meanings, and the downplaying of contextual variation. The author suggests adopting more nuanced and process-oriented conceptions of culture and more contextually grounded views of its impact on psychological functioning as a way of realizing the promise of cultural psychology to broaden and provide insight into basic psychological theory.

  5. Narrated Political Theory: Theorizing Pop Culture in Dietmar Dath’s Novel Für immer in Honig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spitaler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, debates on the relationship between pop culture and the political have transgressed academia and have even been prominent in pop (media discourses and texts, including pop literature. Amongst the contributions at the inter-section of art, theory and entertainment are the novels and essays by the German author Dietmar Dath. Taking the example of his novel Für immer in Honig (Berlin 2005/2008, it will be discussed how the book reloads and theorizes pop culture, and how a common cultural-theoretical narrative of de-politicized pop is challenged by the imaginative narratives of the novel. It will be argued that Dath’s references to affective ‘mattering maps’ of pop culture, that on the one hand tend to fall into the pitfalls of exclusive ‘pop sophis-tication’, nevertheless play a key role for his aesthetical/theoretical project of political emancipation, and that these references can be viewed as examples of why popular passions matter for the formation of political identities/subjectivities as well as for the production and reading of political theory.

  6. An examination of cue redundancy theory in cross-cultural decoding of emotions in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, Soo-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of structural features of music (i.e., variations in tempo, loudness, or articulation, etc.) and cultural and learning factors in the assignments of emotional meaning in music. Four participant groups, young Koreans, young Americans, older Koreans, and older Americans, rated emotional expressions of Korean folksongs with three adjective scales: happiness, sadness and anger. The results of the study are in accordance with the Cue Redundancy model of emotional perception in music, indicating that expressive music embodies both universal auditory cues that communicate the emotional meanings of music across cultures and cultural specific cues that result from cultural convention.

  7. On Max Weber ’s Cultural Theory%论韦伯的文化理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单世联

    2015-01-01

    Max Weber,a German social thinker,was also an important cultural theorist.In the research of the origin of the capitalist spirit,Max Weber broadened the relationship between culture and economy deeply; as a result, his theory is parallel to Marxism to some degree. In the interpretation of the western world outlook about “disenchantment,”Weber revealed the competition and conflicts in the modern value outlook,and presented a complex entanglement about the “excessive order”and “excessive conflict”in modern culture.In the research of the western rational fate,Weber analyzed the relationships between formation and technology in western self-discipline art and progress in art.All of his important theories and views not only givea new interpretation of modern cultural production but also have an important influence on the contemporary cultural theory.So this paper generalizes Weber’s cultural viewsfrom three aspects,providing some new resources for the cultural issues being discussed.%德国社会思想家马克斯·韦伯实际上也是一位重要的文化理论家。在对资本主义精神起源的研究中,韦伯深度展开探讨了文化与经济之间的关系,其所论可以与马克思主义对话;在对西方世界观“除魅”的阐释中,韦伯揭示了现代价值观的竞争和冲突,呈现了现代文化“秩序过度”与“冲突过度”的复杂纠缠;在对西方理性化命运的探究中,韦伯分析了西方自律艺术的形成及技术与艺术进步的关系。这些重要观念,不但对现代文化生产提出了新的解释,而且对当代文化理论产生了重要影响。文章从三个方面概括韦伯的文化观点,为当前正在讨论的一些文化议题提供一些新的资源。

  8. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  9. The Challenge of Change: Using Activity Theory to Understand a Cultural Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Roseanna; McGee, Alyson

    2012-01-01

    This article explains how an inservice teacher education organisation in New Zealand embarked on a cultural innovation to challenge and build bicultural pedagogies, policies and practices. To understand the process and the impact of a three-year cultural innovation both intended and unintended changes need to be explored. Using a framework of…

  10. Theory with a Capital T: Cultural Studies' Assault on Popular Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, James

    2010-01-01

    Mainstream cultural studies, it seems, is unwilling to take art of any kind seriously, whether popular or classic. Richard Posner is not far wrong in suggesting that the aim of cultural studies "is to knock literature off its pedestal and find vehicles easier than literary works for making political points." To respond fully to literature and art…

  11. Cultural transfer in reading groups: From theory to practice and back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, Sandra; Visser, Saskia; den Toonder, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    People who discuss books in reading groups are playing a role in transferring cultural values, norms and ideas about themes present in the literature they read. How this cultural transfer takes place, and in which ways the process can be enhanced,has to date not been examined. Therefore, the Univers

  12. Genetic and Cultural Deficit Theories: Two Sides of the Same Racist Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persell, Caroline Hodges

    1981-01-01

    Examines the current models (genetic-deficit and cultural-deprivation) which explain IQ and achievement differences between members of the dominant and nondominant cultures. Concludes that both paradigms place blame on children and their families, and divert attention from the need to equalize wealth and power. (DA)

  13. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  14. Universality and Cultural Diversity in Professional Ethical Development: From Kohlberg to Dynamic Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang

    2012-01-01

    Upholding ethical standards is part of what it means to be a professional and therefore part of professional education, but to what extent is the development of ethical reasoning universal across cultures, or is it highly dependent on culture? If universal, how can we explain the unique patterns of moral reasoning and behaviour in Asia, which…

  15. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  16. PATH OF PREPARATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROPOSAL FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN VIEW OF BAURU THEORY PEDAGOGY OF HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL THEORY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro Alves Corrêa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the trajectory deployment of historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory in the Early Childhood Education from Municipal System of Education of Bauru and emphasize the process of formulating a new Pedagogical proposal anchored in the Marxist perspective, discussing the progress and difficulties encountered in the preparation of this document to ensure the principles of this concept in the theoretical and practical education of the collective. Therefore, it was necessary to recover the memory of the work at this stage of education since its implementation in the city, because it is understood that to investigate the educational past is possible to understand the theoretical position adopted for the realization of the formal character of the school children assumes within this pedagogy. For the organization of the study , we chose an experience report , for better suit the purposes of this paper and allow to know the variables that contributed to the choice of the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory as a theoretical unit privileged to teach the child zero to five years.

  17. Politics and care: a study of Czech Americans within Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J

    1997-01-01

    The domain of inquiry for this study was the influence of the American political environmental context on professional and generic care patterns, expressions, and meanings of Czech American immigrants. The purpose of the research was to document, describe, interpret, and analyze the diversities and universalities of professional and generic care for this cultural group, to provide culturally congruent care to Czech Americans, and to explicate the role of politics as an influence on care patterns, health, and well being. The researcher's former transcultural ethnonursing study in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1991 served as a stimulus for this in-depth study on politics and care. Twelve key and twenty general informants were interviewed. Five major themes were identified. The researcher discovered that the capitalist economic market structure of the United States influenced informant lifeways in all dimensions of Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, as depicted in the Sunrise Model. Specific care patterns discovered included care as choice, care as responsibility, and care as helping each other. Findings related to professional and generic care supported researcher predictions that generic culture care patterns would be important to immigrants. Provisions for culturally congruent nursing care were articulated based on research findings.

  18. Towards a Theory of Urban Fragmentation: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Fear, Privatization, and the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setha Low

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a cross-cultural analysis to explore regional and national variations in residential gating and enclosure as a first step in developing an integrated theory of urban fragmentation. Utilizing data from the urban and suburban United States, Latin America and China, a series of dimensions are compared: 1 domestic architecture, 2 urban/suburban settlement pattern, 3 the role of the state, 4 governance, 5 citizenship, 6 cultural meaning, 7 identity, 8 provision of goods and services, 9 taxation, 10 degree of privatization, 11 cultural pattern of social sanction, and 12 fear of crime and others. This comparative analysis locates culturally meaningful and theoretically significant distinctions among the regions and provides data for the development of explanatory models in which each region varies along a dimensional continuum.  At the macro-level of analysis, the impact of globalization and flexible accumulation with increased local heterogeneity, increases in inequality and changes in perceived crime rate emerge as the major underlying factors in the fear of crime and others found in all three regions.  At a micro-level, differences in cultural meanings are explained by local social and political contexts, while provision of goods and services and governance depend on club realm economic explanations.  

  19. Multicultural Personality: An Evolving Theory of Optimal Functioning in Culturally Heterogeneous Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    The present article provides an update of the author's evolving theory of the "multicultural personality" (MP). The MP is conceptualized as a narrow matrix of personality traits or dispositions (characteristic adaptations) that can be subsumed under broad trait models of personality (e.g., Big Five). MP theory posits that its constituent factors…

  20. Testing a Culture-Specific Extension of Objectification Theory regarding African American Women's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…

  1. Organizational Communication Based on Organizational Justice Theory for Motivating Workers with Different Cultural Values

    OpenAIRE

    山口,生史

    2002-01-01

    This study is based on organizational justice theory. Although organizational justice theory is useful for explaining organizational behavior, it has not focused on motivation, per se. ln this study, the linkage between organizational justice and motivation is explored with the mediating effect of interpersonal communication in an organization (i.e.,organizational communication).

  2. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Rebecca; Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment-that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil.

  3. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:19965815

  4. STUDY ON PP/PVC/PP-HBP BLENDS%PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁建志; 巴信武; 丁海涛; 李春子

    2005-01-01

    研究了聚丙烯接枝超支化聚(酰胺-酯)(PP-HBP)对聚丙烯/聚氯乙烯(PP/PVC)共混体系力学性能的影响.结果表明,在PP/PVC(质量比为70/30)共混体系中加入5份PP-HBP时,共混物拉伸强度和冲击强度均出现最大值.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)研究结果证明,PP-HBP增强了PP/PVC的界面粘结作用,减小了共混体系的相分离程度.

  5. The Theory of Social Control and the Social Psychology of Dissatisfaction: Inhibition, regression and isolation in a cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation

  6. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  7. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  8. Immigrants Between two Cultures: Social Representations Theory and Images of Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Experiencing nature, landscape and heritage, third chapter. Buijs presents a conceptual and epirical study of how different ethnic groups perceive nature, thereby touching on the problems of a multicultural society and hybrid cultural backgrounds.

  9. A Cultural Theory of Development: What Does It Imply about the Application of Scientific Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A critical approach to the application of research by developmental psychologists is proposed, using a concept of culture derived from agricultural metaphors in the English language. The approach is illustrated in a study of afterschool activities for California children. (SLD)

  10. Culture: the missing piece in theories of weak and strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Dwight

    2012-02-01

    Guala does not go far enough in his critique of the assumption that human decisions about sharing made in the context of experimental game conditions accurately reflect decision-making under real conditions. Sharing of hunted animals is constrained by cultural rules and is not "spontaneous cooperation" as assumed in models of weak and strong reciprocity. Missing in these models is the cultural basis of sharing that makes it a group property rather than an individual one.

  11. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback. ISBN 9781109025370.

  12. Conspiracy Theories as Alternative Regimes of Truth and as a Universal Socio-Cultural Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Diković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the universal phenomenon of conspiracy theories, which, depending on specific social or political circumstances and on the social context in general, exist as alternative regimes of truth. In both the institutional and private spheres, conspiracy theories represent a kind of cognitive apparatus by means of which individuals and groups gain certain "information" and interpretations of those levels of reality that seem exclusive, hidden and controlled by supposed centers of power. The ultimate implications of conspiracy theories can be seen in the forming of prejudices, which, particularly in certain political circumstances and in combination with populist doctrines, can have a great impact on the public and private spheres. The potential of conspiracy theories, therefore, goes beyond mere intellectual intrigue and diversion for the masses, as they lend themselves to all kinds of political instrumentalization.

  13. 威廉斯与马克思主义文化理论%Williams and Marxist Cultural Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒开智

    2014-01-01

    文化是近年来人文学科关注的焦点,也是文学与美学话语论述的对象。马、恩在创建唯物史观过程中,既确立了文化问题的唯物主义解释原则,把经济和文化区分为基础和上层建筑,但是也强调文化的相对自主性,揭示了文化与政治、经济结构和阶级关系之间更复杂的关系。威廉斯在20世纪中后期的资本主义历史语境中,面对工人阶级文化和大众文化的兴起,建构出文化唯物主义理论,突出文化生产的社会性、物质性。在法兰克福学派的大众文化批判模式之外,提出了大众文化的建设性维度,丰富和发展了历史唯物主义对文化的形态和社会功能的理解。这在今天依然具有深刻启示与借鉴作用。%Culture is the focus of attention from the humanities and social sciences, and also the target of literary and aesthetic discourse. While dividing economy and culture into foundation and super-structure, Marx and Engels stressed the relative freedom of culture, and discloses the complicated relationship between culture and politics and between economy structure and class relations. Facing the emergence of the working class culture and popular culture, Williams constructed the theory of materialist culture and highlighted the sociality and materiality of cultural production the mid-and later 20th century. He proposed the constructive dimension of popular culture, thus enriching and developing the social materialist understanding of the form and social functions of historical materialism.

  14. Social and Cultural Identity Pendekatan Face Negotation Theory dan Public Relations Multikulturalism Negara Jerman-China dan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasrun Hidayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examines the focus of social identity and cultural identity of individuals between states of Germany, China and Indonesia. Building a sense of one's cultural identity is comprised of various identities that are interconnected with face negotiation theory perspective. Research constructive significance intersubjective phenomenology with qualitative constructivist paradigm. The study found that the inter-state identity constructed in a different manner. Germany builds social identity because of the role of government not of the family. Germany does not take into account the family so that the identity of individual awakes more independent. Chinese social identity constructed by social status, stratum or class. China still sees a group of men as dominant and women as a minority. Socially constructed male identity as it is considered more capable than women. Social identity of opposites so that social structures are built are also different. Similarly, Indonesia, social identity is built almost the same as China, only differentiating factor lies in obedience to carry out the norms and values prevailing in the social strata. Indonesia and China still uphold the cultural dimension of collectivity than Germany Individual dimensions. Using multicultural Public Relations function approach finally be able to recognize the cultural identity of each country and each social identity

  15. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  16. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  17. 运动文化论的源流%The Origin and Development of the Sports Culture Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水泉

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at the one‐sided understanding of sports culture ,and took the con‐notation and the significance of clear sports culture as research purposes ,and selected sports culture theory advocated by Japanese school sports studies comrade as research object ,the ori‐gin and development of the sports culture theory has been analyzed .It is well accepted that the ideological origin of sports culture is the Marx ’s human overall development theory ,and is the sublation on the popular Japaese school life sports theory in the last fifty century .The develop‐ment of sports culture can be divided into three stages .The initial step development focused on exploration of “the theory of middle clause” which drew the blueprint and laid the cornerstone for being in full development of sprots culture theory ;The second step focused on probing the sports technology transfer system and the group learning theory ,criticizing the sports technique concept of “essentialism” ,at that basic ,the theory of sports culture conceived a sports technol‐ogy transfer system which made up of sports culture ,and adapted to the sports ability and knowledge level of learners .Meanwhile ,a group learning theory proposed in the meaning of curriculum which contained the learning of sports technique ,the organization mode of “hetero‐geneous group” and the principle of “common progress” ;The third step focused on elucidating the proper mode of physical education curriculum (“what’ s the real meaning of it”) ,and clearing the difference between the curriculum of physical education (“what’s the content does it teach”) and the physical education material (“what’s the tools been used to transfer”) ,that is ,conceiving a curriculum system of physical education for all students .%针对片面理解“运动文化”的状况,对“运动文化”的内涵及意义进行研究,选取日本学校体育研究同志会倡导的运动文化论为研究

  18. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  19. Modernization Theory Revisited: A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Conformity to Significant Others in Mainland China, Taiwan, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Darwin L.

    1994-01-01

    Responses from college students in differing cultural settings contradicted modernization theory (MT). Contrary to MT, education held less importance as a social institution. American society highly valued religion with the reverse holding true in the two Chinese societies. MT tests with cross-cultural data should always consider cultural…

  20. Micro-Cultural Influences on Theory of Mind Development: A Comparative Study of Middle-Class and "Pemulung" Children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntoro, Ike Anggraika; Saraswati, Liliek; Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cultural influences on young children's acquisition of social-cognitive concepts. A theory of mind (ToM) scale (Wellman & Liu, 2004) was given to 129 children (71 boys, 58 girls) ranging in age from 3 years 0 months to 7 years 10 months. The children were from three distinct cultural groups: (a) trash pickers…

  1. Cultural Differences in Implicit Theories of Citizenship Performance: A Comparative Study of MBA Students from the Czech Republic, India and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanik, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to (a) develop a culturally-universal measure of implicit citizenship performance theories and (b) examine cross-cultural differences in the construct. The final measure consisted of four factors--Discourtesy, Interpersonal Harmony, Conscientiousness, and Initiative. Cross-country comparisons using the new…

  2. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  3. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  4. Teaching culture in Colombia Bilingüe: From theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamith José Fandiño Parra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is concerned with the incorporation of culture into foreign language learning (EFL classes within the context of “Colombia Bilingüe”. More specifically, some consideration will be given to what culture is, how it can be taught and what Colombian authors have maintained in terms of its practicality and implementation. It will be suggested that teaching culture is not tantamount to promoting an English sociocultural domination or adapting ethnocentric practices, but mainly approaching and reflecting on one’s and others’ beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, which are intertwined with language itself. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to point out both the difficulties and complexities that Colombian EFL teachers need to be able to cope with when working with culture in their classes. The main premise of the paper is that effective teaching of culture can be achieved if the Colombian EFL community strives to construct a coherent discourse that allows developing teaching models and learning experiences within the theoretical framework of the postmethod condition, world Englishes, and critical multiculturalism.

  5. Activity Theory, Hybrid Experience Space Design and Cultural Heritage Communication at Lindholm Høje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Veirum, Niels Einar

    This paper deals with the questions of how to address the communication of cultural heritage in the post-industrialized societies of the globalized economy. The last two or three decades have radically changed the relationship between the individual and the national institutions, encompassing...... the institutions of cultural heritage, museums and foundations. From an expert founded representation of facts, based on a rational and linear understanding of knowledge being presented to a mass customer, to a situation where an individualized customer, accustomed to a range of choices and the ability to interact...

  6. Relevance Theory: A Guide to Culture-loaded Words in News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛

    2015-01-01

    1.Intorduction Ernst-August Gutt studies translation with relevance theory.He finds connection between translation and relevance,"…relevance is dependent on the interplay of two factors:contextual effects and processing effort…the notion of‘relevance’itself is context-dependent…"(Gutt,2004:31).We can see that relevance theory and translation are intertwined.As context and cognition are the focus of both.We could say that for most translations,translators are trying to build the

  7. Exploration and Analysis on the Theory of Confucian Moral Culture%儒家德育论探要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉

    2015-01-01

    The theory of moral culture for Confucianism has abundant connotation including the moral functional theory with changing folk customs and social governing , moral content theory centered around “the three cardinal guides and the five constant virtues”, the moral objective theory with saint as the ideal personal-ity, and the moral methodology theory emphasized by the religious education , music education , family educa-tion, local rules of a township and self -cultivation.We should reflect on the theory of moral culture for Con-fucianism based on the history of ebb and flow for Confucian ethics , which may make us find its constant value beyond the historical time and space , and also may make us realize its historical limitation so as to help us dig it as the thinking resources of the modern society ’ s fountainhead and running water and give it a just com-ment.%儒家德育论有着丰富的内容,包括强调变化民性和社会治理的德育功能论,以“三纲五常”为核心的德育内容论,以圣贤为理想人格的德育目标论,以神教、乐教、家教、乡约、修养为重点的德育方法论等。我们应该立足儒家伦理兴衰史的语境去反思儒家的德育论,既要看到它超越历史时空的永恒价值,也要对它的历史局限性有清醒的认识,从而深入挖掘它作为现代社会“活水源头”的思想资源并给予它公正的评判。

  8. 跨文化护理理论在临床肿瘤护理的应用%Application of trans cultural nursing theory in clinical oncology nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑儒君; 李俊英

    2011-01-01

    综述了文化的定义,跨文化理论的发展,Leininger跨文化护理理论的"日出模式"的提以及在临床肿瘤护理中的临床应用和理论评价.%Objective: It reviewed the definitions of culture, the development of trans cultural theory and successful application of "sunrise mode"of Leininger trans cultural nursing theory in clinical oncology nursing , so as to guide clinical nursing practice better.

  9. The Internalization Theory of Emotions: A Cultural Historical Approach to the Development of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holodynski, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Starting with an overview of theoretical approaches to emotion from an activity-oriented stance, this article applies Vygotsky's three general principles of development, sign mediation, and internalization to the development of emotional expressions as a culturally evolved sign system. The possible twofold function of expression signs as a means…

  10. Formative Assessment in Confucian Heritage Culture Classrooms: Activity Theory Analysis of Tensions, Contradictions and Hybrid Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Pham, Thi Hong; Renshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has recently become a preferred assessment strategy in educational institutions worldwide. However, it is not easy to implement in Asian classrooms, because local cultures and institutional constraints potentially hinder the practice. This one-semester study aimed to use the "third space", as the core of the third…

  11. Rethinking Community-Based Indigenous Language Revitalization Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Chiu Amay; Yudaw, Bowtung

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests a theoretical framework for re-examining the complex relationship of language, literacy, and cultural practices, across multiple generations in the context of community-based Indigenous language revitalization. In the scholarship of Indigenous language revitalization and education, researchers have shifted from viewing…

  12. Rethinking Community-Based Indigenous Language Revitalization Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Chiu Amay; Yudaw, Bowtung

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests a theoretical framework for re-examining the complex relationship of language, literacy, and cultural practices, across multiple generations in the context of community-based Indigenous language revitalization. In the scholarship of Indigenous language revitalization and education, researchers have shifted from viewing…

  13. Growth theory after Keynes, part II: 75 years of obstruction by the mainstream economics culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Van den Berg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Part I of this essay explained the sequence of events that enabled the neoclassical paradigm to regain its dominant position in mainstream economics following serious challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists. This second essay seeks to answer the question of why the economics profession was so willing to sustain the neoclassical paradigm in the face of the reality-based challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists like Harrod and Domar. The answer is sought in the culture of economics, the history of science in general, and the study of power in the field of political economy. This article draws heavily on the work of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, who divides culture into habitus (procedures and dispositions and doxa (more abstract beliefs and philosophies, in order to provide insight into how culture affects economic thinking. Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence helps to explain how a narrower neoclassical growth model was enthusiastically accepted as a replacement for the ‘Keynesian’ Harrod-Domar growth model. Financial and business interests clearly understood the power of culture and they used their accumulated wealth to support the neoliberal doxa and neoclassical habitus that would induce economists to willingly provide intellectual cover for policies that benefitted those financial and business interests. We conclude with a discussion on how the history of thought on economic development might have evolved if the Keynesian paradigm, and its dynamic Harrod-Domar model, had prevailed

  14. VIABILITY AND ISOLATION OF MARINE-BACTERIA BY DILUTION CULTURE - THEORY, PROCEDURES, AND INITIAL RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTON, DK; SCHUT, F; QUANG, P; MARTIN, R; ROBERTSON, BR

    1993-01-01

    Dilution culture, a method for growing the typical small bacteria from natural aquatic assemblages, has been developed. Each of 11 experimental trials of the technique was successful. Populations are measured, diluted to a small and known number of cells, inoculated into unamended sterilized seawate

  15. Organizational Culture--A Focus on Contemporary Theory/Research in Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirin, Patricia J.

    Defining organizational culture as the amalgam of beliefs, mythology, values, and rituals that, even more than its products, differentiates it from other organizations, this paper demonstrates its utility as a synthesizing focus on current ideas about communication in organizations. Modes of thought, dominant paradigms, perspectives on…

  16. The Health Culture Theory%健康文化论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    枟健康文化理论研究》课题组

    2015-01-01

    Health culture guides health behavior and the health behavior contributes to healthy condition . The traditional life‐preservation culture with a long history in China is an important ideological resource for the modern health culture construction ,and the pursuit for health is the strong internal motivation of the construction .The construction and transmission for health culture is the need of the cultural de‐velopment .Furthermore ,it is also the important foundation of the health promotion and the transfor‐mation from a big population country to strong human resource one .There are three core concepts of health culture put forward in this paper :health is a basic human right ,health is the basis of happy life , and health is an important human capital .The main contents of health culture are generalized into three aspects :health conception ,health behavior and health system ,w hich can be divided into nine points :the prevention being better than treatment ,the priority of taking care of the heart ,following nature , the unity of knowledge and action ,keeping a balanced diet ,enhancing personal hygiene ,combining work and rest ,doing proper exercises ,and health system .%健康文化引导健康行为,健康行为导致健康结局。我国悠久的传统养生文化是构建现代健康文化的重要思想资源,人们对健康的追求是构建健康文化的强大内在动力。构建和传播健康文化既是文化大发展大繁荣的需要,更是做好健康促进工作、变人口大国为人力资源强国的重要基础。健康文化的三大核心理念,即:健康是人的基本权利,健康是幸福生活的基础,健康是重要的人力资本;把健康文化的主要内容归纳为健康观念、健康行为和健康制度等三个方面,总结出了防重于治、养心为上、顺其自然、知行合一、合理饮食、讲究卫生、劳逸结合、适当运动、健康制度等九个方面的要点。

  17. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 2: Building a Culture of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-09-01

    research was social reform, while action research in education targeted self through the improvement of practice. The dichotomy between purposes of self and society is resolved by the Lewin‐Dewey connection, where the reiterative cycle of action and reflection is the basis for a common intent for both types of action research. Dewey’s approach comprises the metatheory for emerging theory: a philosophy of purpose and methodology that determines how the research is done.Results – The emerging theory developed in this paper postulates that evidence based information literacy instruction uses action research for two purposes. Self‐oriented action research (AR(S1 targets self‐improvement on the local level of teaching and learning in school libraries; social‐oriented action research (AR(S2 targets social reform on the global level of educational improvement. Corollaries of the theory indicate a research agenda and methodologies for the research.Conclusion – Implicit in the content of the research is methodology that evolves from the distinction between the purposes of self‐ and social‐oriented action research. Clearly, evidence is generated in the field of teaching and learning that is situated in theory‐based practices, such as user‐centered information processing, constructivist learning, and a culture of inquiry that grows from social processes. Librarianship is well suited to developing practitioner‐researchers who are proficient in making the information‐to‐knowledge connection that informs their professional performance.

  18. The Importance of the Cultural-Historical Theory for Education. Some Meditations on Learning, Development, Activity, and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Veresov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available “What are the main items showing the importance of cultural-historical psychology for education?” It is much easier to put such a question than to give an appropriate answer. Different experts in this area definitely propose different answers to it. In this article I would try to present my answer from my perspective. It seems that our understanding of Vygotsky’s theory is so deep and complete that any question of missed links or hidden messages does not make any sense. What essentially new could be found in this area after more than 40 years of discovering of the cultural-historical theory by generations of researchers? However, I will try to show that there are missed links in our understanding of Vygotsky’s theoretical approach. Even more, I will try to show that there is a hidden message from Vygotsky which remains unclaimed. I will try to show then that both items (the missed link and the hidden message are connected with the idea of development in terms of drama.

  19. Ageism Across Cultures and in Perspective of Sociobiologic and Psychodynamic Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon D.; Oakley, Fredericka B.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews data on behavior and attitudes towards the aged in preliterate societies, indicating that the aged maintain meaningful roles and are not subject to the pervasive discrimination and negative stereotyping existent in America. Discusses theories providing a perspective on and understanding of biologic and psychosocial causes of ageism.…

  20. Cross--Cultural Small Group Research: A Review, an Analysis, and a Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuter, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes research on cross-national small group behavior and offers a value theory of small group development. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  1. Interview with Raewyn Connell: The Cultural Politics of Queer Theory in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Gowlett, Christina; Connell, Raewyn

    2014-01-01

    The most attractive thing in queer theory is the social movement energy that's been in it, the sense of excitement and boundary-breaking, the sense of new perspectives. Given the social anxieties and manipulated fear and right-wing triumphalism around today, people need that excitement and boldness--in education and in society at large. In…

  2. Cultural landscape in theory. 2nd Part: Development of truth – paths and goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borut Juvanec

    2002-01-01

    ...) are closer to the circle and theory, than can be expected. Growth of architecture from the detail to spatial planning is the fruit of human balancing only in detail. Cities grow according to their own logic. The role of professions is therefore limited only to the establishment of strategies and controlling their growth. Things are much simpler, than we can imagine.

  3. Culture and Rationality in Frankfurt School Thought: Ideological Foundations for a Theory of Social Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the contributions of the "Frankfurt School" members to the development of critical theories of social education in the United States. Drawing from their sociohistorical analyses, Horkheimer, Marcuse, and Adorno theorized that the dominance of scientific, rational thought in the twentieth century was leading to highly technological,…

  4. Critical Race Theory and the Transfer Function: Introducing a Transfer Receptive Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dimpal; Herrera, Alfred; Bernal, Santiago; Solorzano, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In California, the majority of students of color who enter postsecondary education do so in the community colleges. However large numbers of them leave and do not transfer to four-year institutions; in particular to highly selective pubic four-year colleges and universities. By using the theoretical perspective of critical race theory, transfer…

  5. Culture and Rationality in Frankfurt School Thought: Ideological Foundations for a Theory of Social Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the contributions of the "Frankfurt School" members to the development of critical theories of social education in the United States. Drawing from their sociohistorical analyses, Horkheimer, Marcuse, and Adorno theorized that the dominance of scientific, rational thought in the twentieth century was leading to highly technological,…

  6. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  7. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  8. Extracting the Odderon from $pp$ and $\\bar pp$ scattering data

    CERN Document Server

    Ster, Andras; Csorgo, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a simple empirical parametrization of the scattering amplitude, successfully describing the dip-bump structure of elastic $pp$ scattering in $t$ at fixed values of $s$, we construct a toy model interpolating between missing energy gaps to extract the Odderon contribution from the difference between $\\bar pp$ and $pp$ elastic and total cross sections. The model is fitted to data from $\\sqrt s=23.5$ GeV to 7 TeV and used to extract the Odderon and its ratio to the Pomeron.

  9. Cybersemiotics: A New Foundation for Transdisciplinary Theory of Information, Cognition, Meaningful Communication and the Interaction Between Nature and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Brier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cybersemiotics constructs a non-reductionist framework in order to integrate third person knowledge from the exact sciences and the life sciences with first person knowledge described as the qualities of feeling in humanities and second person intersubjective knowledge of the partly linguistic communicative interactions, on which the social and cultural aspects of reality are based. The modern view of the universe as made through evolution in irreversible time, forces us to view man as a product of evolution and therefore an observer from inside the universe. This changes the way we conceptualize the problem and the role of consciousness in nature and culture. The theory of evolution forces us to conceive the natural and social sciences as well as the humanities together in one theoretical framework of unrestricted or absolute naturalism, where consciousness as well as culture is part of nature. But the theories of the phenomenological life world and the hermeneutics of the meaning of communication seem to defy classical scientific explanations. The humanities therefore send another insight the opposite way down the evolutionary ladder, with questions like: What is the role of consciousness, signs and meaning in the development of our knowledge about evolution? Phenomenology and hermeneutics show the sciences that their prerequisites are embodied living conscious beings imbued with meaningful language and with a culture. One can see the world view that emerges from the work of the sciences as a reconstruction back into time of our present ecological and evolutionary self-understanding as semiotic intersubjective conscious cultural and historical creatures, but unable to handle the aspects of meaning and conscious awareness and therefore leaving it out of the story. Cybersemiotics proposes to solve the dualistic paradox by starting in the middle with semiotic cognition and communication as a basic sort of reality in which all our knowledge is

  10. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  11. Work Factors, Work-Family Conflict, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Urban vs. Rural Lifestyles in terms of Theories of Cultural Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Najjarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Globalization has indubitably caused local, national, and international sections to meet and intertwine in ways that have historically been unimaginable. The discourse of globalization has become widespread around the world with ongoing discussions surrounding its economic, cultural, technological, and political aspects and implications (Roberts, 2008). As such, globalization has been viewed through the assortment lenses of finance and trade; communications and information tech...

  13. Bureaucracy and Culture: Toward Two-Factor Theory of Organizational Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Olejniczak; Kishi Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article we focus on the issue of organizational control in its bureaucratic and cultural forms. Methodology: This research uses exploratory case study analysis of Matsushita Konosuke’s management style of in the early years of the Panasonic Corporation. Findings: First of all, we fi nd that despite the impressive body of knowledge accumulated over the years, some questions concerning the relationship between two modes of control and their changes over time still remain ...

  14. Putative Androgen Exposure and Sexual Orientation: Cross-Cultural Evidence Suggesting a Modified Neurohormonal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini

    2015-12-01

    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Anomalies and the crisis of the Bohr-Sommerfeld atomic theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-01-01

    In: Scientific Cosmopolitanism and Local Cultures: Religions, Ideologies, Societies (5th ESHS Conference Proceedings, 2014), pp. 652-657.......In: Scientific Cosmopolitanism and Local Cultures: Religions, Ideologies, Societies (5th ESHS Conference Proceedings, 2014), pp. 652-657....

  16. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-02

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes.

  17. Quantitative analysis of organizational culture in occupational health research: a theory-based validation in 30 workplaces of the organizational culture profile instrument

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, 3rd, Victor Y; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study advances a measurement approach for the study of organizational culture in population-based occupational health research, and tests how different organizational culture types are associated...

  18. The Cultivation Theory: AResearch Towards to the Ideological Cultural Results of Living with Television

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Ozer

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we try find out if there is a role of television on the people’s per- ception of the world and their characterization of the social reality. In other words, we investigate the television’s cultivation role. To investigate the television’s cultivation role, we use the components of Cultural Indicators Project of George Gerbner such as Cultivation Analysis and Message System. Analysis To investigate the television’s cultiva- tion role, first of all, we analyze the prime t...

  19. The theory of bureaucratic caring for nursing practice in the organizational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, M A

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have raised many questions related to patient care. How are political, economic, legal, and technological caring decisions made? How is spiritual caring fostered? How can ethical caring be the grounds on which moral decisions are made? What new policies must be designed to enhance the human perspective in corporate policy, and how will these principles and policies guide actions? The impact of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring on the corporate enterprise will necessitate a system shift from a narrow to a broad focus where management and caring views can exist side by side and realistically represent the transformation of health care organizations to benefit humankind.

  20. Bureaucracy and Culture: Toward Two-Factor Theory of Organizational Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Olejniczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this article we focus on the issue of organizational control in its bureaucratic and cultural forms. Methodology: This research uses exploratory case study analysis of Matsushita Konosuke’s management style of in the early years of the Panasonic Corporation. Findings: First of all, we fi nd that despite the impressive body of knowledge accumulated over the years, some questions concerning the relationship between two modes of control and their changes over time still remain unanswered. As a result of case study analysis we put forward an original model illustrating the relationship between bureaucratic and cultural modes of control over stages of the organization life cycle. Research implications and limitations: Implications of the study consist of prescriptions on how to successfully exert control by combining formal and informal measures. Main limitations of the study are related to its generalizability. Originality: Originality of the study results both from putting forward a new theoretical models and using original historical case of Panasonic Corporation.

  1. Toward a theory for the evolution of cultural communication: coevolution of signal transmission and reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K; Feldman, M W

    1987-10-01

    A haploid sexual two-locus model of gene-culture coevolution is examined, in which a dichotomous phenotype subject to natural selection is transmitted vertically with probabilities dependent on the chosen parent's genotype and phenotype and the offspring's genotype. Stability conditions for the genetically monomorphic corner equilibria are obtained. In a specialization of this general model, one locus controls the transmission and the other controls the reception of adaptive information. The corner and edge equilibria of this doubly coevolutionary model are fully analyzed, and conditions for transmission and reception to coevolve are derived in terms of the efficiency of vertical transmission, the selective advantage gained from possessing the information, the costs of transmission and reception, and the recombination fraction between the two loci. Possible applications of the model are to the evolution of semantic alarm calls in vervet monkeys and the phonetic aspects of human language. In a third model with diploid genetics, we consider the initial increase of cultural transmission from a mutation-selection balance in which the adaptive phenotype is the consequence of a dominant gene at one locus. A second gene controls the transmission of the phenotype in such a way that a new mutant at this second locus permits learning of the adaptive phenotype from a parent who has it. This new mutant cannot increase when rare.

  2. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2016-08-24

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. PP/共聚PP/POE共混体系的研究%Study of PP/Co-PP/POE Blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西文; 纪立军; 王重

    2008-01-01

    研究了POE用量对T30S/POE和F401/POE体系的力学性能、流动性能的影响,并研究了POE质量分数为15%的情况下,共聚PP用量对PP/共聚PP/POE共混体系的力学性能、流动性能的影响.结果表明:与T30S/POE相比,F401/POE体系的冲击强度提高比较显著,而两种共混体系的加工性能均较好;共聚PP在PP/共聚PP/POE体系中明显起到了协同增韧作用,其中,F401/EPS30R/POE共混体系的综合性能最好.

  4. Educational policies and activities for preschool children: Reflections from the cultural-historical approach and activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena González-Moreno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational activities employed with preschool children have significance in their development and preparation for school learning. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze the relationship established between educational policies and educational activities for the preschool population in the Colombian context. In this paper, these two aspects interact to contribute to its conclusion. The teacher’s task is to promote the integral development of children and ensure an optimal level of preparation for schooling. Considering current pedagogical practice, this task is not successfully carried out as required by the objectives of educational policy. However, monitoring this psychological and pedagogical approach based on cultural-historical theory highlights both theoretical foundations and methodological pathways for innovating with regard to the educational status of preschool.

  5. Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored.

  6. $pp$ Elastic Scattering at LHC and Nucleon Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M M; Prokudin, A V

    2003-01-01

    High energy elastic pp differential cross section at LHC at the c.m. energy 14 TeV is predicted using the asymptotic behavior of sigma-tot(s) and rho(s), and the measured pbar-p differential cross section at sqrt{s}=546 GeV. The phenomenological investigation has progressively led to an effective field theory model that describes the nucleon as a chiral bag embedded in a quark-antiquark condensed ground state. The measurement of pp elastic scattering at LHC up to large |t| >~ 10 GeV^2 by the TOTEM group will be crucial to test this structure of the nucleon.

  7. 孔子论“学”中的文化育人观念%Concept of Cultural Education in Confucian Theory of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽萍

    2012-01-01

    孔子作为中国古代著名的教育家,在其思想中有许多发人深省的文化育人哲理。尤其是在教世人如何"学"中,对教育后人要以文化来熏陶自己、提高自己,从而更好地教育中国无数子孙,同时对于中华民族建立特有的文化体制有重要的借鉴意义。%Confucius was a famous ancient Chinese educator whose cultural education philosophy was thought-provoking.Among Confucius' philosophical theories were his theory of study which emphasized self-nuturing and self-promotion through culture.Confucian concept of cultural education has referential significance for educating Chinese descendants and building specific Chinese cultural system.

  8. Factors and Theory Model of Supply Chain Culture Synergy%供应链文化协同影响因素与模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诤; 李芊霖

    2014-01-01

    On the supply chain synergy theory and culture collaboration theory,we overview the intension and characteristic of supply chain culture synergy;the factors of supply chain culture synergy is analyzed and the cooperating process is described;and then the conceptual models which the effect of culture collaboration to the performance is built.%文中基于供应链协同理论和跨文化协同理论,概述供应链节点企业间文化协同的内涵和特征,分析了供应链节点企业文化协同的影响因素,描述了节点企业协同合作过程中三个阶段,进而构建文化协同对供应链绩效影响的概念模型。

  9. Caring for a Bedouin Female Patient with Breast Cancer: An Application of Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qadir J. Nashwan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leininger’s theory is to provide care measures that are in harmony with an individual or group’s cultural beliefs, practices, and values. In the 1960’s she coined the term culturally congruent care, which is the primary goal of Transcultural nursing practice. Recently, there is a noticeable increase in the usage of the advanced hospitals’ health services by the Bedouin; as their awareness developed in term of health issues, and this put the health care providers (especially nurses in a great chance to face this Bedouin’s culture in clinical areas. So we have to enrich our understanding of the Bedouin’s culture to deliver a culturally congruent and satisfying care. A personal experience of two oncology nurses in working with a female patient with breast cancer and her Bedouin family described, with application of Madeleine Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality. Concluding that understanding, considering and valuing cultural differences when delivering nursing care are vital to ensure providing a culturally congruent nursing care as well as avoid conflicts.

  10. A cultural historical activity theory perspective to understand preservice science teachers' reflections on and tensions during a microteaching experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher education program. During this secondary science teaching methods course, every pair of preservice teachers engaged in 20 minute microteaching activity with 3-5 middle school students. The microteaching was videotaped, and the teachers subsequently provided voice-over reflections on a second audio track. Transcriptions of the microteaching events were analyzed through the formation of event maps showing the phases of activity and the organizational sequence of actions. Event maps were used to investigate the focus of preservice teachers' reflections. The results showed that while learning from their microteaching, preservice teachers focused primarily on the mediating artifacts and gave least attention to the larger teaching community surrounding these activities. Use of CHAT helped to identify challenges in different elements of the microteaching activity. The study contributes to how reflective practice can be enhanced through attention to the social and cultural dimensions of the teaching.

  11. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  12. The Case of Youth Gangs in the Mormon Cultural Region A Synthetic, Dialectical Theory of Social Problems: Bridging Social Constructionism and Objectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Higley, Ramona Avis Linville

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation uses the case of youth gangs in the Mormon Cultural Region to present a synthetic, dialectical theory of social problems, bridging the perspectives of social constructionism and objectivism. The primary assertion of this dissertation is that communities use social problems as tools to establish and maintain social boundaries and to protect the core values and beliefs of the established communal order. The case of youth gangs in Utah, core of the Mormon Cultural Region, de...

  13. On Weakly P.P. Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yue-ming; Ouyang Lun-qun; Wang Shu-gui

    2015-01-01

    We introduce, in this paper, the right weakly p.p. rings as the generaliza-tion of right p.p. rings. It is shown that many properties of the right p.p. rings can be extended onto the right weakly p.p. rings. Relative examples are constructed. As applications, we also characterize the regular rings and the semisimple rings in terms of the right weakly p.p. rings.

  14. CULTURAL-HISTORICAL THEORY AND EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE: SOME RADICAL-LOCAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth David Chaiklin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We emphasize that pedagogical practice was not just a way of validating and testing scientific findings but it has also, to generate new hypotheses and new challenges and research directions. This relationship between research, knowledge, and practice was recognised from the beginning days of the cultural-historical tradition, such as Vygotsky’s focus on practice for resolving the crisis in psychology. In a dialectical conception, pedagogical research should be developed as an interaction between theoretical conceptions in the cultural-historical tradition and the demands and needs of the societal practices. This article illustrates this idea concretely, using the idea of radical-local teaching and learning (HEDEGAARD; CHAIKLIN, 2005. The discussion starts with a brief comment about the dialectical tradition; than we illustrate one way to engage with the idea of full human development, viewing this in terms of personality development. We first explain the general idea of radical-local teaching and learning as a way to address the practical problem, and then show how it embodies the philosophical concerns of the dialectical tradition. The main idea is that core conceptual relations within subject-matter areas have to be related specifically to children’s life situation so that this academic knowledge can become integrated with local knowledge, thereby qualitatively transforming children’s everyday concepts and their possibility to use this knowledge in their local practice. We want to highlight the idea of how working with subject-matter content in a radical-local perspective can provide conditions for children to develop theoretical thinking and motive orientation, which is relevant to personality development, and which can be oriented to their full human development.RESUMO: Enfatizamos que práticas pedagógicas não são somente formas de validação de investigações científicas, mas são também formas de se gerar novas hip

  15. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  16. Comparison of Single Loop and Dual Loop PP Reactors and PP Product Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yunfeng; Jiang Rong; Feng Suogui

    2003-01-01

    The present status of PP technology in China is presented. Through a review of single loop and dual loop PP reactor technology as well as development and utilization of PP products it is concluded that import of PP technology should be based on the demand of PP products and market trend with consideration of local conditions. The existing problems and future development of PP technology in China are discussed.

  17. Putting Leininger’s nursing theoryculture care diversity and universality’ into operation in the curriculum – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Villiers

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available The culturally diverse South African society necessitates inclusion of transcultural nursing in the curriculum. This article focuses on research regarding the putting of Leininger's nursing theory into operation in the curriculum to provide a scientific base for the inclusion of such nursing. The research process and results are discussed.

  18. A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Perspective to Understand Preservice Science Teachers' Reflections on and Tensions during a Microteaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher…

  19. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  20. Re-Shaping the Faculty: Emergence and Development of "Permanent-Contingent" Roles through the Lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Oleksandr; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2017-01-01

    This study retrospectively examines the emergence and development of a new class of full-time non-tenure track employees in a large land grant research university in the U.S., which created the employment category in 1980. We employ cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to explore how this class of employees became institutionalized within…

  1. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  2. CONCEPTION OF CULTURE IN THE RENÉ GIRARD’S THEORY – THINGS AND VALUES IN THE HIDDEN CONTEXT (CHOSES CACHÉES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a modest contribution to the reconstruction and systematization of a rich and seminal conception of René Girard. The letter belongs to a group of the most influential philosophers of culture of the XX and XXI century whose theories attempt at explaining the origins of this uniflue and diverse phenomen: culture Girard produces a coherent although a controversial theory of basic, fundament motives of human behavior (e.g. jalousie and strike for excellence and emulation which set in motion a series of symbolic reactions leading to the emergence of organized society and finally social behavior. Those reactions were mainly responsible for the cultural development and progress.

  3. 媒介文化:一种废弃论分析%Media Culture:Analysis of Waste Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘天波; 刘永宁

    2014-01-01

    在传媒时代,现代媒介已然开启知识的生产、消费与接受的新路径。现代性进程既是书写发展、进步与增益的文明史,也是书写过度、剩余、废弃物以及废弃物处理的荒野史。大规模的媒介文化生产也意味着废弃主义时代的来临,媒介技术缺陷、传播主观色彩、讯息光缆拥塞与他择性传播接受等都是媒介废弃物生产的致命隐患。对现代媒介的废弃论分析,旨在检阅与反思现代传媒及其背后的文化状态,以期诊断媒介文化的废弃假象以及救赎我们对媒介文化的理解力。%In the media era,the modern media have opened the door to a new path of knowledge production, consumption and accept.The process of modernity is not only to write a civilization history of development, progress and gains,but also make out a wilderness history of immoderacy,surplus,waste and waste han-dling.Mass media culture production also means the arrival of the rejecting era.Technical defects,commu-nication subj ective color,message transportation congestion and alternative spread and accept are fatal hid-den trouble of media waste production.Analysis of the modern media waste theory aims to review and re-flect on modern communication and the media culture,in order to diagnose and save our understanding of the media culture.

  4. 重探传播学研究中的文化帝国主义理论%Reconsidering Cultural Imperialism Theory in Communication Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭侃

    2014-01-01

    从传播学研究中发展出的文化帝国主义理论,已成为很多学科领域的重要理论,甚至被用于国际政治斗争中。但遗憾的是,这个理论的使用存在很大的随意性,甚至缺乏一个明确的定义,也在不同的理论语境中遭到了诸多批评。因此,本文旨在基于对文献的梳理,总结出文化帝国主义的研究者们所秉持的主要理论观点,进而探讨文化帝国主义理论所受到的批评,以及文化帝国主义理论家们对批评做出的回应。最后,本文提出了一种新的全球传播中的文化不对称互相依存模型,旨在为文化帝国主义理论的支持者和批评者之间搭建沟通的桥梁。%As a theory first emerged from communication research,cultural imperialism theory has become one of the most popular theories used in many academic areas,and it is also one of the powerful theories that have directly been incorporated into the world of international politics,but unfortunately,this theory is used in a well-defined way,and even lacks of a precise definition,which has been heavily attacked.Thus,this paper seeks to generalize the main propositions commonly held by the communication researchers who engaged with cultural imperialism theory based on an historic literature review.Moreover,this article also considers the vari-ous critiques of this theory and the responses to these critiques from cultural imperialism theory proponents. Then this paper concludes with a new Cultural Asymmetrical Interdependence Model to bridge the gulf between cultural imperialism proponents and its critics for future research.

  5. The Application of the Matrix Theory in the Enterprise Culture Evaluation%矩阵理论在企业文化评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田治平

    2014-01-01

    数学文化在企业管理中发挥着重要作用,推动着企业管理科学化的进程;通过建立一类机能管理矩阵并论述其在丰田生产方式(TPS:Toyota Production System)中的评价与企业“经营系统最适再设计”中的数据库作用,阐述数学文化与企业文化的有机联系。%The mathematical culture plays an important role in the enterprise culture management, and drives the scientific development of enterprise management. This essay expounds the organic connection of mathematical culture and enterprise culture through the evaluation function based on the matrix theory of the Toyota Management System.

  6. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  7. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  8. 西方文化中的“游戏”理论演变%The"Game"Theory in Western Cultural Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 李舒

    2016-01-01

    该文将主要以历史的发展为线索,对西方文化中有代表性的游戏理论进行简单的梳理和分类。从古代原始的游戏观,到近代基本的游戏理论,再到现代系统的游戏学说,“游戏”理论经历了漫长的发展过程。%This article make simple carding and classification for representative game theory in western culture mainly in the form of the history development, The game theory has experienced a long developing process from original game view in an-cient time to the basic game theory in recent time, and then to the systematic game theory in modern time.

  9. Development of a theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), culturally relevant intervention on cervical cancer prevention among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.

  10. Comparison of pp and pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$=53 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alpgard, K; Åsman, B; Berglund, S; Bertrand, D; Böckmann, Klaus; Booth, C N; Buffam, C; Burow, L; Carlson, Per J; Carter, J R; Chevalley, J L; Eckart, B; Ekspong, G; Fabre, Jean-Paul; French, K A; Gaudaen, J; Gijsen, M; Hospes, R; Johnson, D; Jon-And, K; Kokott, T; Leistam, L; MacKenzie, R; Maggs, M N; Meinke, R; Mulkens, H; Müller, T; Munday, D J; Odian, A; Rosenberg, M; Rushbrooke, John G; Saarikko, H; Saarikko, T; Tavernier, Stefaan; Triantis, F A; Von Holt, K; Walck, C; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Weidberg, A R; White, T O; Wilquet, G; Yamdagni, N

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented from the first pp colliding beam runs at the CERN ISR, using the UA5 streamer chamber detector. pp interactions at \\sqrt{s}=53 GeV are compared with pp data taken in the same experiment. The results are in good agreement with extrapolations of low-energy pp data.

  11. 红色文化融入高校思想政治理论课的思考%Red Culture into Ideological and Political Theory Course Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何沙沙; 胡建

    2015-01-01

    红色文化是中国共产党领导人民群众在革命、建设和改革中形成的一种特殊的文化形态,蕴含丰富的内涵和时代价值。红色文化在对大学生进行思想政治教育中发挥着重要作用,因此将红色文化融入高校思想政治理论课中具有极大的重要性。在当前形势下,红色文化融入高校思想政治理论课受到各种因素的限制,因此探索出一套系统的红色文化融入高校思想政治理论课的途径势在必行。%Red culture is a special cultural patterns of the people in the leadership of the Communist Party of China’s revolution,construction and reform in formation,rich in meaning and value of the times.Red culture plays an important role in the ideological and political education of college students,so the red culture into ideological and political theory courses in great importance.In the current situation,the red culture into ideological and political theory course is limited by various factors,therefore explore ways to integrate into a system of red culture ideological and political theory course is imperative.

  12. Culturally Relevant Teaching: Hip-Hop Pedagogy in Urban Schools. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.

    2012-01-01

    "Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…

  13. Unrelenting Expectations: A More Nuanced Understanding of the Broken Windows Theory of Cultural Management in Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Much has been written about the adaptation from criminology of the "Broken Windows" theory of order maintenance in successful urban educational models. Yet, the manner in which the theory is written and discussed often misses the nuances and feel of the theory as successfully applied. This misunderstanding has lead to its conflation with the "Zero…

  14. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the “Cultural Myth of Stigma” Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J. Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Better Prognosis Hypothesis” stems from World Health Organization studies known as the International Studies of Schizophrenia (ISoS). Despite greater availability and sophistication of treatment options in the West, schizophrenia appears to have a more benign course and better outcomes in “developing” societies. We focus on this finding's most common corollary: a simplified version of sociological notions of cultural reality shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures that neither develop nor endorse stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about persons with mental illness that exist in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. Using the Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study (SGC-MHS), we formalize the “Cultural Myth of Stigma,” propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, we find no support for the corollary. Where significant associations are documented, the findings are opposite expectations: the public in more developed societies reports lower stigma levels. Extensions to reconceptualizations of the cultural landscape also reveal null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts. PMID:26640277

  15. Importance of the ammonia assimilation by Penicillium purpurogenum in amino derivative Monascus pigment, PP-V, production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Teppei; Koganei, Kasumi; Umemura, Sara; Kojima, Ryo; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2013-03-28

    A fungal strain, Penicillium purpurogenum IAM 15392, produced the azaphilone Monascus pigment homolog when cultured in a medium composed of soluble starch, ammonium nitrate, yeast extract, and citrate buffer, pH 5.0. One of the typical features of violet pigment PP-V [(10Z)-12- carboxyl-monascorubramine] is that pyranoid oxygen is replaced with nitrogen. In this study, we found that glutamine synthetase (glnB) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1) genes were expressed in the culture conditions conducive to PP-V production. Gln and Glu both support PP-V biosynthesis, but PP-V biosynthesis was much more efficient with Gln. We determined that synthesis of Gln by glutamine synthetase from ammonium is important for PP-V production.

  16. pp-wave matrix models from point-like gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Rodriguez-Gomez, D. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The BFSS Matrix model can be regarded as a theory of coincident M-theory gravitons. In this spirit, we summarize how using the action for coincident gravitons proposed in hep-th/0207199 it is possible to go beyond the linear order approximation of Kabat and Taylor, and to provide a satisfactory microscopical description of giant gravitons in AdS{sub m} x S{sup n} backgrounds. We then show that in the M-theory maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background, the action for coincident gravitons, besides reproducing the BMN Matrix model, predicts a new quadrupolar coupling to the M-theory 6-form potential, which supports the so far elusive fuzzy 5-sphere giant graviton solution. Finally, we discuss similar Matrix models that can be derived in Type II string theories using dualities. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Pp-wave Matrix Models from Point-like Gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Y; Lozano, Yolanda; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego

    2007-01-01

    The BFSS Matrix model can be regarded as a theory of coincident M-theory gravitons. In this spirit, we summarize how using the action for coincident gravitons proposed in hep-th/0207199 it is possible to go beyond the linear order approximation of Kabat and Taylor, and to provide a satisfactory microscopical description of giant gravitons in $AdS_m\\times S^n$ backgrounds. We then show that in the M-theory maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background, the action for coincident gravitons, besides reproducing the BMN Matrix model, predicts a new quadrupolar coupling to the M-theory 6-form potential, which supports the so far elusive fuzzy 5-sphere giant graviton solution. Finally, we discuss similar Matrix models that can be derived in Type II string theories using dualities.

  18. Assessing migration and adaptation from two or more points of view: Cultural-historical theory and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Portes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study validates a new tool for assessing differences in cultural adaptation for both majority and less dominant minority/immigrant adults in college in general. The Cultural Adaptation and Development Inventory (CADI is a self-report measure validated across multi-ethnic groups. The reliability and validity of a four factor model are adequate based several replication studies. Overall, the CADI provided evidence for a culturally valid measurement that shows both convergent and discriminant validity. Predicted ethnic group and gender differences were replicated with new groups of respondents for factors measuring Inter-Cultural Stress, Helplessness/Optimism, Positive Inter-cultural Adaptation and Inter-cultural Insensitivity. The study’s socio-cultural and usual types of validity is discussed in relation Berry’s (2003, Portes (1999 and Vygotski’s (1978 views regarding sociogenesis.

  19. Military Cultural Theory Innovation in The Art of War%《孙子兵法》军事文化理论体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新

    2012-01-01

    The Art of War appeared more than 2500 years ago,which is the representative works of Chinese traditional military theory, the essence of Chinese traditional military culture and even the important cultural gene of the development of contemporary Chinese military thoughts and the construction of advanced military culture. This paper preliminarily discussed the significance of scientifically designing the military cultural theory system of The Art of War ,the construction of theory system and the measures to be taken to strengthen the study,so that the re- search in military culture of The Art of War can be promoted, new research field will be developed for the prosperi- ty and development of the study on Sun Tzu's military science,and that the breadth and depth of the application of The Art of War can be broadened.%诞生于2500多年前的《孙子兵法》,既是中国传统军事理论的代表性著作,也是中国传统军事文化的精华,更是当代中国军事思想发展和先进军事文化建设的重要文化基因。对科学设计《孙子兵法》军事文化理论体系的意义、理论体系构建与加强研究的措施进行了初步的探讨,以期推动《孙子兵法》军事文化研究,并为孙子兵学理论研究的繁荣与发展开辟新的研究领域,为拓展《孙子兵法》应用的广度与深度廓清基本途径。

  20. No Superior and Inferior Culture -Cultural Relativity Theory%文化没有上下和优劣之分--文化相对论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖璐娜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international communication and cooperation,people encounter a variety of difficulties in cross -cultural communication.Since most of people hold a sense of self -orientated ethnocentrism,it becomes difficult to communicate between people from contrasting culture.The paper analyzes the origin,characteristics and disadvantages of self-orientated ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.It studies the dynamics of anti -cultural relativism.We should hold the neutral,non -evaluation opinion about the existence of the relativity of culture,respecting and accepting each other.However, in the perspective of cross -cultural communication,cultural relativity is a double edged sword,which has only one side and defect,we should think critically.%随着越发频繁的国际交流与合作,人们在跨文化交流中遇到了各种各样的困难。由于绝大多数人对外国文化持有自民族中心主义,从而使不同文化背景的人们交流变得困难。本文关于自民族主义,文化相对论的由来、特征、缺点及关于反文化相对论动态进行了考察。我们应该持有文化是相对存在这样中立的,非评价的文化相对论观点,相互尊敬和接受。但是,从跨文化交流的视点来看,文化相对论却是一把双刃剑,存在一面性和缺陷,需要用批判的眼光再次思考认识。

  1. Quantitative analysis of organizational culture in occupational health research: a theory-based validation in 30 workplaces of the organizational culture profile instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie

    2013-05-04

    This study advances a measurement approach for the study of organizational culture in population-based occupational health research, and tests how different organizational culture types are associated with psychological distress, depression, emotional exhaustion, and well-being. Data were collected over a sample of 1,164 employees nested in 30 workplaces. Employees completed the 26-item OCP instrument. Psychological distress was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (12-item); depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (21-item); and emotional exhaustion with five items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory general survey. Exploratory factor analysis evaluated the dimensionality of the OCP scale. Multilevel regression models estimated workplace-level variations, and the contribution of organizational culture factors to mental health and well-being after controlling for gender, age, and living with a partner. Exploratory factor analysis of OCP items revealed four factors explaining about 75% of the variance, and supported the structure of the Competing Values Framework. Factors were labeled Group, Hierarchical, Rational and Developmental. Cronbach's alphas were high (0.82-0.89). Multilevel regression analysis suggested that the four culture types varied significantly between workplaces, and correlated with mental health and well-being outcomes. The Group culture type best distinguished between workplaces and had the strongest associations with the outcomes. This study provides strong support for the use of the OCP scale for measuring organizational culture in population-based occupational health research in a way that is consistent with the Competing Values Framework. The Group organizational culture needs to be considered as a relevant factor in occupational health studies.

  2. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  3. 周谷城“文化综合说”的形成%The Formation Of Zhou Gucheng’ s Cultures Synthesis Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢战国

    2014-01-01

    《生活系统》奠定周谷城文化观的基础,大革命失败后的中国社会研究使周谷城意识到产业革命对于中国现代化的重要性,周著《中国通史》的“中外文化汇合演进”说是其后“文化综合说”的源头和雏形,周著《世界通史》的编撰使周谷城意识到了欧洲中心论问题。1978年后,周谷城在上述文化思想的基础上提出了精辟独到的“文化综合说”。%Zhou Gucheng laid the foundation for his theory by System of Life , realized the importance of industrial revolution to China’ s modernization by the study of Chinese society after the the Great Revolution, the evolution of cultures both from China and foreign in Zhou’ s General History of China was the origin and rudiment of the Cultures Synthesis Theory, and noticed the problem of Eurocentrism by the written of General History of the World. After 1978, Zhou finally put forward the penetrating original cultural theory.

  4. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  5. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  6. Cultural Communication and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschumi, R.

    1973-01-01

    Part of a larger work, of which the French version, Theorie de la Culture'' (Theory of Culture), is to be published first; shorter version read at the International Federation for Modern Languages and Literatures Congress, Cambridge, England, 1972. (RS)

  7. Impact of nurses' cross-cultural competence on nursing intellectual capital from a social cognitive theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    To understand the relationships among certain key factors such as organizational climate, self-efficacy and outcome expectation on registered nurses, with regard to the development of registered nurses' cross-cultural competence. The focus is specifically on the use of a social cognitive framework for nurses for providing intercultural nursing care to international patients. This study also aims to examine the relationship between nurses' cross-cultural competence and nursing intellectual capital. Given the influence of globalization on healthcare services, healthcare providers need to have enough cross-cultural competence to effectively care for patients from different cultures. Thus, the development of cross-cultural competence in nursing care has become an important issue. A quantitative method and a cross-sectional design were employed in this study. Data were collected from 309 RN working in 16 healthcare institutions in Taiwan from May to August 2013. Structural equation modelling, in combination with the smart partial least squares method, was used to measure the relationships in the research model. The results show that outcome expectation has a stronger impact on nurses' cross-cultural competence than self-efficacy. In addition, it was found that the cross-cultural competence of nurses has a positive impact on nursing intellectual capital. Nursing supervisors should promote a higher level of outcome expectation on nurses to enhance the improvement of their cross-cultural competence. Raising the cross-cultural competence of nurses will aid in the accumulation of nursing intellectual capital. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High Energy (-p)p and pp Elastic Scatterings in QCD Inspired Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Juan; MA Wei-Xing; HE Xiao-Rong

    2007-01-01

    We propose QCD inspired model to calculate (p)p and pp elastic scatterings at high energies in this paper.A calculation for total cross section of (p)p and pp is performed in which the contributions from gluon-gluon,quark-quark,and gluon-quark interactions are included.Our results show that the QCD inspired model gives a perfect fit to experimental data of total cross section both for (p)p and pp elastic scatterings at the whole energy region where experimental data existed at FNAL and CERN.

  9. Differential risk theory as a subset of social exchange theory: implications for making gay marriage culturally normative and for understanding stigma against homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2004-02-01

    Differential risk theory, a subset of social exchange and equity theories, is proposed as an explanation for stigma towards homosexuals and as a basis for normative preferences for heterosexual marriage. Numerous gender differences involved in long-term relationships require members of such close relationships to assume greater interpersonal and social risks and thus costs, compared to same-gender relationships. Without compensating rewards or reduced costs, heterosexual relationships would be unfairly disadvantaged. Resistance to making gay marriage normative and/or equivalent legally to heterosexual marriage may be traced, rather than to homophobia, to societal attempts to maintain equity between classes of relationships characterized by inherent differential risks.

  10. BQP_p = PP for integer p > 2

    CERN Document Server

    Bebel, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    There's something really strange about quantum mechanics. It's not just that cats can be dead and alive at the same time, and that entanglement seems to violate the principle of locality; quantum mechanics seems to be what Aaronson calls "an island in theoryspace", because even slight perturbations to the theory of quantum mechanics seem to generate absurdities. In [Aar 04] and [Aar 05], he explores these perturbations and the corresponding absurdities in the context of computation. In particular, he shows that a quantum theory where the measurement probabilities are computed using p-norm instead of the standard 2-norm has the effect of blowing up the class BQP (the class of problems that can be efficiently solved on a quantum computer) to at least PP (the class of problems that can be solved in probabilistic polynomial time). He showed that PP \\subseteq BQP_p \\subseteq PSPACE for all constants p != 2, and that BQP_p = PP for even integers p > 2. Here, we show that this equality holds for all integers p > 2.

  11. 阿多尔诺的文化工业批判理论再研究%Further Research of Adorno’s Critical Theory against Culture Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋颖

    2015-01-01

    Adorno’s Critical Theory against Cultural Industry has gained an important meaning with⁃in the Critical Theory of Frankfurt School. With the view of Adorno, the fetishism of products in Cul⁃tural Industry has caused the end of true art; it seems that the interest of public consumption manip⁃ulates the Cultural Industry, but on the contrary it is deeply controlled by the later; the standardized and homogenized Cultural Industry has taken both individual subjects and the total society in its ma⁃nipulation. In a way Adorno has admitted the entertaining function of Public Culture, however, as a whole, he rejects the Cultural Industry. So in this society filled with Public Culture, Adorno’s Criti⁃cal Theory against Cultural Industry is still meaningful. But we naturally should be alert the one-sid⁃edness and radicalness in his critique.%在法兰克福学派批判理论中,阿多尔诺的文化工业批判理论占有重要地位。在阿多尔诺看来,文化工业产品的拜物教特性导致真正艺术的终结;大众消费兴趣表面上左右文化工业,实际上却落入文化工业操控的社会预构中;文化工业的标准化、齐一性,不仅操控了个体主体而且操控了整个社会。尽管阿多尔诺在一定程度上承认大众文化的娱乐作用,但在总体上对文化工业采取否定态度。在大众文化充斥整个社会的氛围中,阿多尔诺文化工业批判理论至今仍然具有重要意义。

  12. Thoughts toward a Theory on the Effect of the Common Individual on Socio-Cultural Change: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joy

    Studies show that culture change initiated by the common individual is slow, but like the geologic forces shaping our earth, it is persistent and inevitable. Anthropology's response to Freud began the culture-and-personality school that stressed psychological rather than biological foundations of behavior. Recent studies perceive individuals as…

  13. Theories of practices: Agency, technology, and culture. Exploring the relevance of practice theories for the governance of sustainable consumption practices in the new world-order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.

    2011-01-01

    Within the environmental social sciences, theories of practices are used by an increasing number of authors to analyze the greening of consumption in the new, global order of reflexive modernity. The use of practices as key methodological units for research and governance is suggested as a way to av

  14. The application of cultural schemata theory in interpretation%文化图式理论在口译中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚莉

    2015-01-01

    The schema theory is that people in the understanding and the understanding new things, absorb the input information, need to new things and input information and known information in mind, the experience of the past. Schema is in mind and orderly knowledge system about the outside world. Cross-cultural communication in the process of interpretation is the process of interpreting cultural schemata reconstruction. So translators must pay attention to the interpretation of the cultural differences, and be good at to rebuild cultural schemata, cultivate and strengthen cross-cultural pragmatic consciousness.%图式理论认为,人们在认识和理解新事物、吸收输入信息的时候,需要将新事物和输入信息与头脑中的已知信息、过去的经历联系起来。图式是人的头脑中关于外部世界的有序的知识系统。口译中的跨文化交际过程是口译中文化图式重建的过程。因此译员要注意口译中的文化差异,善于重建文化图式,培养和加强跨文化语用意识。

  15. 微发泡PP/云母粉复合材料的发泡行为%Foaming Behavior of Microfoam PP/Mica Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚维; 丁彤; 何颖; 朱建华; 何力

    2011-01-01

    采用化学发泡法,以异相成核理论为基础,研究不同含量云母粉对PP/云母粉复合材料发泡行为的影响,制备了微发泡PP/云母粉复合材料.结果表明:随云母粉含量的增加,泡孔平均直径逐渐减小,泡孔密度逐渐增加.云母粉质量含量为8%时,可得到泡孔直径22.1 μm左右、泡孔密度接近2.7×107的微发泡聚丙烯材料,可以作为聚丙烯发泡的良好发泡体系.%Effect of different content mica on foaming behavior of microfoam PP/Mica composite was studied by heterogeneous nucleation theory.Microfoam PP/Mica composite was prepared.The results indicated that with the increasing of mica content, cell diameter decreased gradually, cell density increased gradually.The polypropylene foam with cells about 22.1 μm in size and cell density of near 2.7 × 107cells/cm3 was produced by the use of PP/mica foaming system with 8wt % content,there was ideal foaming system in PP composite.

  16. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  17. ppGpp and polyphosphate modulate cell cycle progression in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Cara C; Henry, Jonathan T; Crosson, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus differentiates from a motile, foraging swarmer cell into a sessile, replication-competent stalked cell during its cell cycle. This developmental transition is inhibited by nutrient deprivation to favor the motile swarmer state. We identify two cell cycle regulatory signals, ppGpp and polyphosphate (polyP), that inhibit the swarmer-to-stalked transition in both complex and glucose-exhausted media, thereby increasing the proportion of swarmer cells in mixed culture. Upon depletion of available carbon, swarmer cells lacking the ability to synthesize ppGpp or polyP improperly initiate chromosome replication, proteolyze the replication inhibitor CtrA, localize the cell fate determinant DivJ, and develop polar stalks. Furthermore, we show that swarmer cells produce more ppGpp than stalked cells upon starvation. These results provide evidence that ppGpp and polyP are cell-type-specific developmental regulators.

  18. Study of pp{yields}pp{eta} reaction at threshold; Etude de la reaction pp{yields}pp{eta} au seuil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleb, A.

    1994-11-01

    The {eta} production has been studied through the pp {yields} pp{eta} reaction at threshold. Data were taken at the Synchrotron of the ``Laboratoire National Saturne``. The detection in coincidence of the two protons scattered near 0 deg and analysed with the magnetic spectrometer SPES3 allows the reconstruction of missing mass spectra for the {eta} signature. A simulation program which takes into account all the experimental set up characteristics has been realized and tested through the pp {yields} d{pi}{sup +} reaction detected simultaneously with pp {yields} pp{eta}. The generated proton momentum spectra for pp {yields} pp{eta} show a pronounced {eta} mass dependence. This characteristic, connected to the kinematical properties of pp {yields} pp{eta} at threshold, is used to extract the mass of the meson {eta}. The obtained value, m{sub {eta}} = 547.65 {+-} 0.18 MeV, is in good agreement with measurement done recently through the pd {yields} {sup H}e{eta} reaction. The total cross section {sigma}{sub t} of pp {yields} pp{eta} measured at 1260, 1265 and 1300 MeV presents a strong energy dependence. This cross section increases less with energy than the phase-space. The influence of p-p and {eta}-p final state interactions in our measurements is studied. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions and assess the dominant character of the baryonic resonance N{sup *}(1535) in the {eta} mechanism production at threshold. These experimental results give an energy dependence which is not well reproduced by the theoretical predictions. This discrepancy could be an incorrect description of the {eta}-p interaction in the models. (author). 48 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. A theory-driven, longitudinal evaluation of the impact of team training on safety culture in 24 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine J; Skinner, Anne M; High, Robin; Reiter-Palmon, Roni

    2013-05-01

    Effective teamwork facilitates collective learning, which is integral to safety culture. There are no rigorous evaluations of the impact of team training on the four components of safety culture-reporting, just, flexible and learning cultures. We evaluated the impact of a year-long team training programme on safety culture in 24 hospitals using two theoretical frameworks. We used two quasi-experimental designs: a cross-sectional comparison of hospital survey on patient safety culture (HSOPS) results from an intervention group of 24 hospitals to a static group of 13 hospitals and a pre-post comparison of HSOPS results within intervention hospitals. Dependent variables were HSOPS items representing the four components of safety culture; independent variables were derived from items added to the HSOPS that measured the extent of team training, learning and transfer. We used a generalised linear mixed model approach to account for the correlated nature of the data. 59% of 2137 respondents from the intervention group reported receiving team training. Intervention group HSOPS scores were significantly higher than static group scores in three dimensions assessing the flexible and learning components of safety culture. The distribution of the adoption of team behaviours (transfer) varied in the intervention group from 2.8% to 31.0%. Adoption of team behaviours was significantly associated with odds of an individual reacting more positively at reassessment than baseline to nine items reflecting all four components of safety culture. Team training can result in transformational change in safety culture when the work environment supports the transfer of learning to new behaviour.

  20. Intrinsic Fluctuations of the Proton Saturation Momentum Scale in High Multiplicity p+p Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, Larry

    2016-01-01

    High multiplicity events in p+p collisions are studied using the theory of the Color Glass Condensate. We show that intrinsic fluctuations of the proton saturation momentum scale are needed in addition to the sub-nucleonic color charge fluctuations to explain the very high multiplicity tail of distributions in p+p collisions. The origin of such intrinsic fluctuations are presumably non-perturbative in nature. Classical Yang Mills simulations using the IP-Glasma model are performed to make quantitative estimations. We find that fluctuations as large as $\\cal O$(1) of the average values of the saturation momentum scale can lead to rare high multiplicity events seen in p+p data at RHIC and LHC energies. Using the available data on multiplicity distributions we try to constrain the distribution of the proton saturation momentum scale and make predictions for the multiplicity distribution in 13 TeV p+p collisions.

  1. Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: Theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim

    2011-05-01

    It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined.

  2. ppGpp: magic beyond RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebroux, Zachary D; Swanson, Michele S

    2012-02-16

    During stress, bacteria undergo extensive physiological transformations, many of which are coordinated by ppGpp. Although ppGpp is best known for enhancing cellular resilience by redirecting the RNA polymerase (RNAP) to certain genes, it also acts as a signal in many other cellular processes in bacteria. After a brief overview of ppGpp biosynthesis and its impact on promoter selection by RNAP, we discuss how bacteria exploit ppGpp to modulate the synthesis, stability or activity of proteins or regulatory RNAs that are crucial in challenging environments, using mechanisms beyond the direct regulation of RNAP activity.

  3. Exploring and Analyzing the Origins of Simmel’s Theory of Monetary Culture%西美尔货币文化理论探源与论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福公

    2013-01-01

    Simmel’s theory of monetary culture is a cultural interpretation of the monetary economy. Proceeding from the realistic background of the division of labor and monetary economy, referring to the monetary philosophy of Marx, based on the philosophical basis of relativistic epistemology and the philosophy of life, Simmel has in⁃sights into modern people's experience of modernity and its internal essence in monetary economy, and formulates the "distance" breakthrough strategies. This makes his theory of monetary culture bear the pessimism in origins and the utopianism in breakthrough strategies.%  西美尔货币文化理论是对货币经济现象的一种文化解读。西美尔从劳动分工和货币经济的现实出发,以马克思的货币哲学思想为参照,基于其相对主义认识论和生命哲学的哲学基础,洞察到货币经济中现代人的种种现代性体验及其内在本质,提出相应的突围策略:“距离”。这使他的货币文化理论在根源论上带有悲观主义色彩,在突围策略上带有乌托邦主义色彩。

  4. 博弈论于文化的嬗变分析%The Analysis on the Evolution of Game Theory in Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丹

    2012-01-01

    The game is a study on how people make decisions and achieve the balance. Generally speaking, it explores the maximization of the profits or effectiveness by choosing the best action plan. Game Theory is a subject that bases on the mathematics, and studies the best solution in the conflicts and resistances ; it is also a branch of Operational Research. In the recent 20 or 30 years, Game Theory has been developing and improving, which is widely utilized in different social fields, such as politics, economy, military, diplomacy, language and culture. This thesis sets forth the reflection of the applications in five aspects : the linguistic culture game, the body culture game, the enterprise culture game, the screen culture game and the internet culture game. It points out that we should utilize the game strategies correctly, and guide life and work with the game theory.%博弈指魄是研究人们如何进行决策,以及这种决策如何达到均衡的活动。通俗地说,就是通过选择最佳行动计划来寻求收益或效用的最大化。博弈论是一门以数学为基础,研究对抗冲突中最优解的学科,是运筹学的一个分支。近二三十年来,博弈论得以发展和完善,并在政治、经济、军事、外交、语言和文化等各个社会领域都有广泛的运用。本文从语言文化博弈、身体文化博弈、企业文化博弈、影视文化博弈以及互联网文化博弈五方面的应用体现进行阐述,指出要正确运用博弈策略,用博弈学的眼光来指导生活和工作。

  5. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  6. Cultural Economy, Capitalism and the Logic of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Review essay: Promotional Cultures: The Rise and Spread of Advertising, Public Relations, Marketing and Branding/ by Aeron Davis. (Polity, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7456-3983-3, 247 + xi pp.......Review essay: Promotional Cultures: The Rise and Spread of Advertising, Public Relations, Marketing and Branding/ by Aeron Davis. (Polity, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7456-3983-3, 247 + xi pp....

  7. 葛兰西文化理论旨要及其意义%The Major Theme Theory and of Gramsci' s Cultural Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平功; 李昂

    2011-01-01

    从市民社会、文化霸权、意识形态及知识分子四个方面着重阐释葛兰西理论核心观念的内涵与表征.揭示其对建设具有中国特色政治文化机制,特别是构建核心文化价值观的意义。%This paper analyzes the major contents and features of Gramsci's cultural theory from the perspectives of civil society, cultural hegemony, ideology and the organic intellectual to expose his unique contribution to and inspiration for the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics, specifically the system of socialist core values.

  8. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wang, X. Christine; Chui, Wai Yip

    2017-01-01

    Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM) ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI) across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries. PMID:28559863

  9. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries.

  10. 基于共生理论的高校体育文化%College Sports Culture Based on Symbiosis Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢

    2012-01-01

    基于共生理论,通过对高校体育文化的共生单元、模式、环境的论述,阐释高校体育文化的共生现象,分析高校体育文化存在的现实困境,为打破体育文化在高校的局限壁垒,如何加强高校体育文化的实践与创新,加深对高校体育文化的认知,进一步推进高校体育文化的建设提供相应的理论依据。%Based on the symbiosis theory,this article illustrates the symbiosis phenomenon of sports culture in colleges and universities by elaborating symbiotic unit,mode and environment,and analyzes the realistic dilemmas existed in sports culture,so as to provide corresponding theoretical basis for breaking through the limits and barriers in sports culture,improving the practice and innovation,enhancing cognition to and further pushing forward the establishment of sports culture in colleges and universities.

  11. ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Development of a Culturally Based Nutrition Education Curriculum for Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors Using a Theory-Driven Procedural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycinena, Ana Corina; Jennings, Kerri-Ann; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pamela A; Contento, Isobel R; Gonzalez, Monica; Guidon, Ela; Karmally, Wahida; Hershman, Dawn; Greenlee, Heather

    2017-02-01

    We developed a theory-based dietary change curriculum for Hispanic breast cancer survivors with the goal of testing the effects of the intervention on change in dietary intake of fruits/vegetables and fat in a randomized, clinical trial. Social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model were used as theoretical frameworks to structure curriculum components using the Nutrition Education DESIGN Procedure. Formative assessments were conducted to identify facilitators and barriers common to Hispanic women and test the degree of difficulty and appropriateness of program materials. Focus groups provided valuable insight and informed preimplementation modifications to the dietary program. The result was a systematically planned, evidence-based, culturally tailored dietary intervention for Hispanic breast cancer survivors, ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (Cook for Your Health!). The methodology described here may serve as a framework for the development of future dietary interventions among diverse and minority populations. Short- and long-term study results will be reported elsewhere.

  12. A RADIOIMMUNOASSAY FOR PLACENTAL PROTEIN PP5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShui-Long; DUGuo-Guang; ZHENGShu-Rong; LIUXin-Jun; YANRen-Ying

    1989-01-01

    A radioimmunoasay of high sendtivity end smbility was developed For placental proteinPP5 (PP5), a syncytiotrophoblast product oF the human placenta. We measured 94 samples from 17 normal nonpregnant women, 47 normal pregnant women, and 30 samples

  13. No horizons in pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, V E; Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    We argue that pp-wave backgrounds can not admit event horizons. We also comment on pp-wave generalizations which would admit horizons and show that there exists a black string solution which asymptotes to a five dimensional plane wave background.

  14. ONKALO pose experiment. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254 and ONK-PP259...261

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-08-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254, ONKPP259, ONK-PP260 and ONK-PP261 at ONKALO in the investigation niche ONKTKU- 3 (POSE) between December 2009 and June 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  15. The Turn of Raymond Williams’Cultural Theories to Gramsci%雷蒙·威廉斯文化理论的葛兰西转向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炯斌

    2014-01-01

    葛兰西领导权概念的实证语义指涉无产阶级对领导权的夺取、领导权和分权的关系以及西方文化领导权的限度。尤其是后者,对于思考中国文化如何夺取一定的领导权,具有极强的历史意义。作为文化研究葛兰西转向的突出个案,威廉斯的领导权理论彰显出权力视角的理论优势,以及充分揭示文化场域权力关系的意义。文化研究语境中,威廉斯文化理论的葛兰西转向具有范式性,它深化和推进了文化主义与结构主义的研究,昭示着范式融合的必然性。%The concept of hegemony by Gramsci refers to the capture of hegemony by proletarians,the rela-tionship between hegemony and separation of powers,and the limitation of western cultural hegemony.The latter is especially full of historical meaning when considering how the Chinese people share hegemony with the world culture.As a famous case of the turn to Gramsci,the hegemony theory by Raymond Williams manifests the supe-riority of the viewing angle of this issue,and the theoretical meaning of the power relationship in the whole cul-tural field.In the context of the cultural studies,the turn of Raymond Williams’cultural theories to Gramsci has its own paradigm,which deepens and propels the study of culturalism and structuralism,showing the inevitability of paradigm confluence.

  16. Proving the PP-Wave/CFT_2 Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Gava, E; Gava, Edi

    2002-01-01

    We study the duality between IIB string theory on a pp-wave background, arising as a Penrose limit of the $AdS_3 \\times S^3\\times M$, where $M$ is $T^4$ (or $K3$), and the 2D CFT which is given by the ${\\cal N}=(4,4)$ orbifold $(M)^N/S_N$, resolved by a blowing-up mode. After analizying the action of the supercharges on both sides, we establish a correspondence between the states of the two theories. In particular and for the $T^4$ case, we identify both massive and massless oscillators on the pp-wave, with certain classes of excited states in the resolved CFT carrying large $R$-charge $n$. For the former, the excited states involve fractional modes of the generators of the ${\\cal N}=4$ chiral algebra acting on the $Z_n$ ground states. For the latter, they involve, fractional modes of the $U(1)^4_L\\times U(1)^4_R$ super-current algebra acting on the $Z_n$ ground states. By using conformal perturbation theory we compute the leading order correction to the conformal dimensions of the first class of states, due ...

  17. Glucose-induced posttranslational activation of protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 in yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dries Castermans; Ils Somers; Johan Kriel; Wendy Louwet; Stefaan Wera; Matthias Versele; Veerle Janssens; Johan M Thevelein

    2012-01-01

    The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 are major regulators of a variety of cellular processes in yeast and other eukaryotes.Here,we reveal that both enzymes are direct targets of glucose sensing.Addition of glucose to glucosedeprived yeast cells triggered rapid posttranslational activation of both PP2A and PP1.Glucose activation of PP2A is controlled by regulatory subunits Rts1,Cdc55,Rrd1 and Rrd2.It is associated with rapid carboxymethylation of the catalytic subnnits,which is necessary but not sufficient for activation.Glucose activation of PP1 was fully dependent on regulatory subunits Reg1 and Shp1.Absence of Gac1,GIc8,Reg2 or Red1 partially reduced activation while Pig1 and Pig2 inhibited activation.Full activation of PP2A and PP1 was also dependent on subunits classically considered to belong to the other phosphatase.PP2A activation was dependent on PP1 subunits Reg1 and Shpl while PP1 activation was dependent on PP2A subunit Rts1.Rts1 interacted with both Pph21 and Glc7 under different conditions and these interactions were Regl dependent.Regl-GIc7 interaction is responsible for PP1 involvement in the main glucose repression pathway and we show that deletion of Shpl also causes strong derepression of the invertase gene SUC2.Deletion of the PP2A subunits Pph21 and Pph22,Rrd1 and Rrd2,specifically enhanced the derepression level of SUC2,indicating that PP2A counteracts SUC2 derepression.Interestingly,the effect of the regulatory subunit Rtsl was consistent with its role as a subunit of both PP2A and PP1,affecting derepression and repression of SUC2,respectively.We also show that abolished phosphatase activation,except by reg1A,does not completely block Snf1 dephosphorylation after addition of glucose.Finally,we show that glucose activation of the cAMP-PKA (protein kinase A)pathway is required for glucose activation of both PP2A and PP1.Our results provide novel insight into the complex regulatory role of these two major protein phosphatases in glucose

  18. "You Look Like Them": Drawing on Counselling Theory and Practice to Reflexively Negotiate Cultural Difference in Research Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Located within a context of intercultural counselling research, this paper highlights the pertinence of the researcher's reflexivity and cultural awareness in relation to research relationships. It draws on an excerpt between a white European interviewer and an Asian trainee counsellor discussing the latter's experience of intercultural…

  19. Student-Centredness: Exploring the Culturally Appropriate Pedagogical Space in Vietnamese Higher Education Classrooms Using Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Recently leaders in many Asian countries have advocated for student-centred reform agendas. However, bringing about pedagogical change is not simply a technical issue of implementing practices designed elsewhere but is a more substantive issue concerned with local cultural values and context. Researchers have claimed that to sustain the reform,…

  20. An Examination of the Adoption of Preservation Metadata in Cultural Heritage Institutions: An Exploratory Study Using Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw

    2009-01-01

    Digital preservation is a significant challenge for cultural heritage institutions and other repositories of digital information resources. Recognizing the critical role of metadata in any successful digital preservation strategy, the Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) has been extremely influential on providing a "core" set…

  1. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  2. "You Look Like Them": Drawing on Counselling Theory and Practice to Reflexively Negotiate Cultural Difference in Research Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Located within a context of intercultural counselling research, this paper highlights the pertinence of the researcher's reflexivity and cultural awareness in relation to research relationships. It draws on an excerpt between a white European interviewer and an Asian trainee counsellor discussing the latter's experience of intercultural…

  3. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  4. Escaping Education: Living as Learning within Grassroots Cultures. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Vol. 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madhu Suri; Esteva, Gustavo

    This book challenges the modern certainty that education is a universal good and a human right and celebrates the well-being still enjoyed in the commons and cultures of people living at the grassroots. The first section describes how education is an instrument of acculturation. Within two generations of formal schooling, people are separated from…

  5. Analysis of Vernier Scans during the PP2PP run in 2009 (pp at 100 GeV/beam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A.

    2011-12-13

    At the end of RHIC's 2009 operation a dedicated run for the PP2PP experiment (part of the STAR experiment) took place from Jun 29 to Jul 06 2009. Polarized protons were accelerated to 100 GeV using ramp-file pp100-90pp2pp with a {beta}* = 22 m in IR6. Since only transverse polarization was required no rotator ramp was in use. The PP2PP experiment consists mainly of two Roman Pot detectors (one horizontal and one vertical) on either side of IR6 in the outgoing-beam arms between the Q3 and Q4 magnets. The yellow pots are in sector 5, the blue ones in sector 6. Roman Pot type detectors are installed inside the beampipe causing an accelerator safety concern. To address this concern there is a limit to the allowable total beam current in the machine while Roman Pots are enabled to move closer to the beam. This limit was set to a motion limit of 5 mm from the center of the beampipe and 50 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} beam current per ring. In order to reduce the background in the detectors, beams were scraped using the RHIC collimator system prior to moving the pots closer. This was typically repeated several times throughout a store since beam halo reforms over the course of hours.

  6. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  7. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  8. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  9. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  10. Portfolio selection theory and wildlife management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    folio Selection Theory to determine the optimal mix of species on game ... in South Africa covering more than 13% of the country's land area (ABSA Economic ..... of assets and liabilities, Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control, 28, pp.

  11. Cognitive load theory and e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Christa; Jarodzka, Halszka; Kirschner, Femke; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Van Mierlo, C. M., Jarodzka, H., Kirschner, F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Cognitive load theory in e-learning. In Z. Yan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cyber behavior (pp. 1178-1211). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

  12. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  13. "You look like them": Drawing on Counselling Theory and Practice to Reflexively Negotiate Cultural Difference in Research Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Located within a context of intercultural counselling research, this paper highlights the pertinence of the researcher's reflexivity and cultural awareness in relation to research relationships. It draws on an excerpt between a white European interviewer and an Asian trainee counsellor discussing the latter's experience of intercultural counselling practice. A reflexive analysis of a short passage aims to demonstrate how explicit negotiation of cultural difference within the interview setting advanced the researcher's understanding of the participant's experience, which was being investigated. The interrelated challenges, but also the importance of the interviewer's preparedness to explore power imbalances in the research relationship are also examined, as are some key limitations of such endeavours. This paper underlines the usefulness of counselling skills in qualitative research, hoping to function as an invitation for more practitioner involvement in therapeutic inquiry.

  14. 接受反应理论视阈下的大学英语跨文化教学%A Probe into College English Crossing Cultural Teaching from Theory of Reception-response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李异辉; 兰品之

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Reception-response emphasizes the subjectivity of the reader and the importance of readers' participation in and creation of literary works. The Theory of Reception-response is introduced into College English crossing cultural teaching. It plays a significant role in helping students naturally realizing the target culture reception process of cultural isolation-cultural fusion-cultural integration.%接受反应理论凸显读者的主体性,强调读者参与和创造文本。运用接受反应理论指导《大学英语》跨文化教学,对于引导学生循序渐进实现对异文化的文化隔离-文化融合-文化整合的接受过程有积极的实践意义。

  15. Integrating Theory, Content, and Method to Foster Critical Consciousness in Medical Students: A Comprehensive Model for Cultural Competence Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Diane K; Goss, Adeline L; Hoekzema, Andrew S; Kelly, Lauren A; Logan, Alexander A; Mehta, Sanjiv D; Sandesara, Utpal N; Munyikwa, Michelle R; DeLisser, Horace M

    2017-03-01

    Many efforts to design introductory "cultural competence" courses for medical students rely on an information delivery (competence) paradigm, which can exoticize patients while obscuring social context, medical culture, and power structures. Other approaches foster a general open-minded orientation, which can remain nebulous without clear grounding principles. Medical educators are increasingly recognizing the limitations of both approaches and calling for strategies that reenvision cultural competence training. Successfully realizing such alternative strategies requires the development of comprehensive models that specify and integrate theoretical frameworks, content, and teaching principles.In this article, the authors present one such model: Introduction to Medicine and Society (IMS), a required cultural competence course launched in 2013 for first-year medical students at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Building on critical pedagogy, IMS is centered on a novel specification of "critical consciousness" in clinical practice as an orientation to understanding and pragmatic action in three relational domains: internal, interpersonal, and structural. Instead of transmitting discrete "facts" about patient "types," IMS content provokes students to engage with complex questions bridging the three domains. Learning takes place in a small-group space specifically designed to spur transformation toward critical consciousness. After discussing the three key components of the course design and describing a representative session, the authors discuss the IMS model's implications, reception by students and faculty, and potential for expansion. Their early experience suggests the IMS model successfully engages students and prepares future physicians to critically examine experiences, manage interpersonal dynamics, and structurally contextualize patient encounters.

  16. “Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition”under the Influence of the“Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence”Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of second language vocabulary acquisition (SLVA) is to improve cross-cultural competence (CCC).From the perspective of CCC,this writing is to investigate the influence of the CCC on SLVA.Acquired vocabulary should be converted into lexical competence first and then in turn into communicative competence.Remembering a word needs to be changed into understanding a word,taking into account the semantic sense relations,and then SLVA will be more beneficial and effective.

  17. Book review: Seeing Lithics: A Middle-range Theory for Testing for Cultural Transmission in the Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Davenport-Mackey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeing Lithics represents a doctoral thesis submitted to Harvard University by Gilbert Tostevin in 2000. Tostevin is currently a professor of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota and has written extensively on human evolution, lithic technology, Old World archaeology, and Palaeolithic archaeology. These interests can be clearly seen in this book which develops a new theoretical and analytical approach to the study of cultural transmission in the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition. 

  18. Midrapidity inclusive densities in high energy pp collisions in additive quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelski, Yu. M.; Shuvaev, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    High energy (CERN SPS and LHC) inelastic pp (pbar{p}) scattering is treated in the framework of the additive quark model together with Pomeron exchange theory. We extract the midrapidity inclusive density of the charged secondaries produced in a single quark-quark collision and investigate its energy dependence. Predictions for the π p collisions are presented.

  19. Determinants of dietary compliance among Italian children: disentangling the effect of social origins using Bourdieu's cultural capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncini, Filippo; Guetto, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Bourdieu's threefold conceptualisation of cultural capital, this paper examines and disentangles the association between social origins and children's food consumption. The aim of the work is twofold. Using data from the Multipurpose survey on daily life conducted by Istat (2009-2012), we first show that children's compliance with dietary advice is indeed influenced by their social origins, but more so in terms of familial cultural resources than economic ones. All types of cultural capital enhance the quality of children's nutrition. Second, we concentrate on the role of the school canteen as a child-centred investment strategy intended to reduce health inequalities by providing a wholesome lunch for all children. Although the school meal effectively improves the degree of dietary compliance, the results indicate that this public service is less often used by children from lower social origins. Moreover, we do not find any equalising effect of the school meal on the diets of disadvantaged children. These findings are discussed in light of future research on sociology of health stratification and health promotion programmes. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  20. Cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior for predicting healthy food choice in secondary school students of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Bao, Hugejiletu; Deli, Geer; Uechi, Hiroaki; Lee, Ying-Hua; Miura, Kayo; Takenaka, Koji

    2017-04-04

    Unhealthy eating behavior is a serious health concern among secondary school students in Inner Mongolia. To predict their healthy food choices and devise methods of correcting unhealthy choices, we sought to confirm the cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior among Inner Mongolian students. A cross-sectional study, conducted between November and December 2014. Overall, 3047 students were enrolled. We devised a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior to measure its components (intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in relation to healthy food choices; we also assessed their current engagement in healthy food choices. A principal component analysis revealed high contribution rates for the components (69.32%-88.77%). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the components of the questionnaire had adequate model fit (goodness of fit index=0.997, adjusted goodness of fit index=0.984, comparative fit index=0.998, and root mean square error of approximation=0.049). Notably, data from participants within the suburbs did not support the theory of planned behavior construction. Several paths did not predict the hypothesis variables. However, attitudes toward healthy food choices strongly predicted behavioral intention (path coefficients 0.49-0.77, ptheory of planned behavior can apply to secondary school students in urban areas. Furthermore, attitudes towards healthy food choices were the best predictor of behavioral intentions to engage in such choices in Inner Mongolian students. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ppropriation of scientific discourse by protestant biology students: the contribution of Bakhtin's language theory to educational research and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sepulveda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the relations between classroom discourse interactions and processes of teaching and learning show that science learning is related to a process structured by speech genres and ways of establishing semantic links between events, objects, and people. Accordingly, it has been emphasized that science education research needs to incorporate theories and methods developed for the interpretative analysis of discourse. This paper shows the heuristic power that an interpretative analysis of discourse based on Bakhtin’s theory of language can have in the investigation of meaning making in science education in multicultural contexts. With this purpose, we discuss here results obtained in the analysis of the discourse about “nature” or “natural world” of protestant Biology preservice teachers of a Brazilian university, produced in the context of semi-structured interviews.

  2. 从文化翻译看诗歌英译中动物文化的传递%On the Translation of the Cultural Image of Animal in Classical Chinese Poetry from the Perspective of Cultural Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2015-01-01

    The image of animal plays an important role in the progress of providing accurate information of poetry.The essay pays its focus on the specific questions about poetry translation and the transfer of animal culture in poetry.Under the guidance of Bassnett's Cultural Translation Theory,translators can adopt translation strategies and methods to convey the rich connotations of animal image and deliver a unique cultural and aesthetic charm to the target language readers.The study found that the rich connotations of animal image can be displayed by the methods of adding words,conversing image ,editing and rearrangement. Translators should take culture as the target and unit of the translation.%动物意象为诗歌更为准确的表情达意提供了重要的载体,文章将重点放在诗歌英译与动物文化的传递的具体问题上进行探讨,在巴斯奈特文化翻译观的指导下分析如何采取翻译策略与方法,最大程度的传承诗歌中的动物文化,向译语读者展示其中独特的文化蕴含。研究发现,不同动物意象隐含的丰富情感和文化可以通过添词丰意、意象转换、嫁接剪辑等方法传递,以文化为单位进行翻译。

  3. Dificuldades de aprendizagem: reflexões a partir da teoria histórico-cultural / Learning difficulties: reflections based on culturalhistorical theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Adela Tonetto Costas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao estudar as dificuldades de aprendizagem não se pode esquecer que o aluno é um sujeito sociocultural com uma história e valores específicos aos quais se deve estar atento e que a escola também é atravessada por uma história e uma cultura específica. A reflexão proposta parte da Teoria Histórico-Cultural, tendo em Vygotsky a principal referência, além de outros autores como Luria, Leontiev e Duarte. Ressaltamos que nossa análise das dificuldades de aprendizagem pressupõe a presença de fatores sociais e culturais, enfocando as dificuldades que são produzidas no processo de escolarização e não os problemas/dificuldades de aprendizagem em si. Ao final, não chegamos a uma conclusão, restam-nos questões que mantêm a reflexão aberta.Abstract When studying learning difficulties one must not forget that the pupil is a sociocultural subject with a history and specific values to which one must be attentive to and that school is also per passed by a history and a specific culture. The reflection proposed here is based on Cultural-Historical Theory, which has in Vygotsky its main reference, besides other authors such as Luria, Leontiev and Duarte. We highlight that our analysis of learning difficulties assume in advance the presence of social and cultural factors, focusing on the difficulties which are produced in the educational process, and not on learning problems/difficulties themselves. Finally, we could not reach a conclusion, but we left many questions to be answered that keep the reflection open.

  4. “Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition” under the Influence of the “Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence” Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Ying

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of second language vocabulary acquisition(SLVA) is to improve cross-cultural competence(CCC).From the perspective of CCC,this writing is to investigate the influence of the CCC on SLVA.Acquired vocabulary should be converted into lexical competence first and then in turn into communicative competence.Remembering a word needs to be changed into understanding a word,taking into account the semantic sense relations,and then SLVA will be more beneficial and effective.

  5. Generalized pp-wave solutions on product of Ricci-flat spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchuk, V D

    2003-01-01

    A multidimensional gravitational model with several scalar fields and fields of forms is considered. A wide class of generalized pp-wave solutions defined on a product of n+1 Ricci-flat spaces is obtained. Certain examples of solutions (e.g. in supergravitational theories) are singled out. For special cone-type internal factor spaces the solutions are written in Brinkmann form. An example of pp-wave solution is obtained using Penrose limit of a solution defined on product of two Einstein spaces.

  6. GridPP returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Neasan O'Neill

    2011-01-01

    In early September, GridPP, the collaboration that manages the UK’s contribution to the worldwide LHC Computing Grid (wLCG), celebrated a decade of work by holding its twenty-seventh collaboration meeting at CERN.   Officially launched in September 2001, GridPP was one of the original partners in wLCG, funding much of the early work at CERN. Over the last decade GridPP has gone from a mere proposal to almost 30,000 CPUs working for researchers scattered across the globe. Twice a year, GridPP meets to discuss the progress and future plans of the community and this year, for the first time since 2004, decamped to CERN for this biannual meeting on the theme “GridPP in the International Context”. The main meeting was held over 2 days in the IT auditorium and was the perfect opportunity to have contributions from experts based at CERN, alongside those from within GridPP. Opening with a welcome from Frederic Hemmer, Head of the IT Department at CERN, the meeting began with...

  7. An Interpretation of The Kite Runner from the Perspective of Diasporic Theory--On the Lack and Pursuit of Cultural Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沫

    2015-01-01

    The Kite Runner was the first English novel created by an Afghan-American writer Khaled Hosseini.This novel has received widespread popularity since its publication in 2003,and it was translated into 42 languages.This novel tells a story of an Afghan boy Amir’s betrayal on friendship and his self-redemption.It not only expresses accusation against the war,but also reflects the racial and religious issues in Afghanistan.From the perspective of diaspora,this dissertation briefly introduces diasporic theory of Homi Bhabha and Said.As a post colonial writer,Khaled Hosseini has a dual identity.Therefore,this thesis studies The Kite Runner from the angle of cultural identity in order to put forward more research methods and deepen the understanding of post colonial writers and works.

  8. 人类学理论方法在高校民俗文化通识课中的应用%On the Application of Anthropology Theories and Methods ;in University Folk Culture General Education Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许钢伟

    2015-01-01

    民俗文化通识课是高校文化通识课的重要组成部分,其讲授需要科学的文化观和方法论的指导。人类学所贡献的文化整体观、文化相对论、主位和客位等理论与方法,对民俗文化通识课的讲授与学习具有重要的指导作用。%The instruction of folk culture general education course, as an important component of university culture general education courses, needs the guidance of a scientific outlook on culture and methodology. The theories and methods devoted by anthropology, such as cultural holism, cultural relativism, subject and object, are of important guiding role for the instruction and learning of folk culture general education course.

  9. College English Teaching under the Guidance of Social and Cultural Theory%试论社会文化理论指导下的大学英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志红

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the rise of social cultural theory study of second language acquisition, and to the progressive de velopment of cognitive linguistics rival. This paper discusses the main difference between the main content of the social and cultural theory and cognitive linguistics, pointed out that the social and cultural theory guidance for college English teaching.%20世纪80年代以来,研究二语习得的社会文化理论兴起,逐步发展到与认知语言学分庭抗礼。本文探讨了社会文化理论的主要内容以及与认知语言学的主要区别,指出了社会文化理论对大学英语教学的指导。

  10. Biocultural Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie

    2017-01-01

    Biocultural theory is an integrative research program designed to investigate the causal interactions between biological adaptations and cultural constructions. From the biocultural perspective, cultural processes are rooted in the biological necessities of the human life cycle: specifically human...... and ideological beliefs, and artistic practices such as music, dance, painting, and storytelling. Establishing biocultural theory as a program that self-consciously encompasses the different particular forms of human evolutionary research could help scholars and scientists envision their own specialized areas...... of research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...

  11. Blade-element/momentum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....

  12. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory of literacy Scaffolding children to read and write at an early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahzan Arshad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the concept of semiotic mediation, appropriation, internalization,Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD and scaffolding in particular werereviewed to provide understanding of the process. Under the concept ofsemiotic mediation, the issue of how children learn through imitating adults wasexamined with inputs from second language acquisition theories. Vygotsky’sconcept of appropriation provides the springboard for a discussion on howchildren may appropriate the psychological tool of language through modelingand text meditation in the context of second language learning. It is hopedthat the understanding of these concepts could lead to more insights in orderto understand the various changes observable in children at early age as theynudge to achieve their potential in their literacy development. The informationgathered in the paper may be used by parents or teachers in preschool as thefoundation to help children acquire literacy skills at early age.

  13. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don

    2014-01-01

    The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While ...

  14. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Joo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU. Despite KNOU’s quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the institution’s top-down, bureaucratic pedagogical system collided with individual expectations and needs. In particular, the participants’ critical viewpoints demonstrate the incompatible social roles that the open and distance higher education institution plays in Korean society. For example, while KNOU contributes to extending higher education opportunities for those who have unmet educational needs, the value of the KNOU degree has not been socially acknowledged since there is little, if any, competition in the entrance process. This study also documents how these contradictions were culturally and historically embedded in the participants’ distance higher education activities. Given the persistent contradictions, the research findings illuminate that KNOU’s efficiency-oriented model has not effectively facilitated the students’ learning as its distance higher education system is inevitably based on a compromise between a competitive, quality curriculum and the efficient extension of audiences.

  15. 顺应论视角下的跨文化语用失误%Cross- cultural Pragmatic Failure From the Perspective of Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓迪

    2011-01-01

    Jef Verschueren的顺应理论认为,使用语言即是不断做出选择的过程。文章从顺应论的视角探讨跨文化语用失误,并通过实例分析提出避免跨文化语用失误的对策:遵循动态顺应的原则,培养学生的顺应能力;创造语言环境,提高学生的语用能力。%In his Understanding Pragmatics, Verschueren assumes language use to be a continuous process of choice making. This paper provides a new perspective the adaptation theory to probe into cross - cultural pragmatic failure, then it puts forward the corresponding countermeasures to avoid cross - cultural pragmatic failure by studying cases : follow the principle of dynamic adaptation, cultivate Ss' ability of adaptation ; create language environment to enhance Ss' pragmatic competence.

  16. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  17. Culture evolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A; Laland, Kevin N; Stringer, Christopher B

    2011-04-12

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.

  18. 建构主义学习理论在计算机文化基础教学中的应用%On the Application of Constructivism Learning Theory in the Teaching of Computer Culture Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2011-01-01

    With constructivism theory as the supporting theory and combining teaching practice, this paper inquires into the constructivism teaching mode in the teaching of Computer Culture Foundation.%本文以构建主义理论为依据,结合教学实践,探讨了计算机文化基础课程教学中的构建主义教学模式。

  19. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Attenuates Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of PP2A Demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui-Cui; Kuai, Xue-Xian; Li, Ya-Li; Zhang, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on tau hyperphosphorylation induced by wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were preincubated with CIG (50, 100, and 200 µg/ml, resp.) for 24 h and then exposed to 10 µM WT and 10 µM GFX for 3 h after washing out CIG. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cultured cells. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation level of tau protein, glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3 β ), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The activity of PP2A was detected by a biochemical assay. Results. Preincubation of CIG significantly attenuated the WT/GFX-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Thr217, Ser396, and PHF-1 and improved the damage of morphology and microtubular cytoskeleton of the cells. CIG did not prevent the decrease in p-AKT-ser473 and p-GSK-3 β -ser9 induced by WT/GFX. However, CIG significantly elevated the activity of PP2A by reducing the demethylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) at Leu309 and the ratio of PME-1/LCMT in the WT/GFX-treated cells. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial to the treatment of AD.

  20. Viral epidemics in a cell culture: novel high resolution data and their interpretation by a percolation theory based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Gönci

    Full Text Available Because of its relevance to everyday life, the spreading of viral infections has been of central interest in a variety of scientific communities involved in fighting, preventing and theoretically interpreting epidemic processes. Recent large scale observations have resulted in major discoveries concerning the overall features of the spreading process in systems with highly mobile susceptible units, but virtually no data are available about observations of infection spreading for a very large number of immobile units. Here we present the first detailed quantitative documentation of percolation-type viral epidemics in a highly reproducible in vitro system consisting of tens of thousands of virtually motionless cells. We use a confluent astroglial monolayer in a Petri dish and induce productive infection in a limited number of cells with a genetically modified herpesvirus strain. This approach allows extreme high resolution tracking of the spatio-temporal development of the epidemic. We show that a simple model is capable of reproducing the basic features of our observations, i.e., the observed behaviour is likely to be applicable to many different kinds of systems. Statistical physics inspired approaches to our data, such as fractal dimension of the infected clusters as well as their size distribution, seem to fit into a percolation theory based interpretation. We suggest that our observations may be used to model epidemics in more complex systems, which are difficult to study in isolation.

  1. Cultural Influences on Play Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialas, Mateusz; Tekofsky, Shoshannah; Spronck, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    In general, video game researchers do not differentiate between players’ nationalities. Cultural theories, however, show that cultural differences concern numerous values, including values associated with interaction with media. We therefore ask the question whether there exist cross-cultural differ

  2. Psychodynamic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Holtz Deal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychodynamic theory, a theory of personality originated by Sigmund Freud, has a long and complex history within social work and continues to be utilized by social workers. This article traces the theory’s development and explains key concepts with an emphasis on its current relational focus within object relations theory and self-psychology. Empirical support for theoretical concepts and the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapies is reviewed and critiqued. Future directions are discussed, including addressing cultural considerations, increasing research, and emphasizing a relational paradigm

  3. “郁结”下的“求索”--叶维廉“文化模子”理论%The Search under the Depression:Cultural Mould Theory of Yip Wai-lim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志胜

    2016-01-01

    针对中国在现代性进程中所面临的文化主体性丧失的危机,叶维廉先生提出的”文化模子“理论具有启发性的意义:在理论层面上否决和消解了跨文化交流中的文化中心主义,通过多元文化的平等对话,来促进彼此间的”互照互识“;揭示了现代性进程下,西方工业文化对非西方国家民族意识弱化和文化独特性破坏的危害以及其中潜藏的某种权力关系,在方法论的层面,为我们反思中国的现代性进程和重塑当代中国的文化主体性提供了指导。%In face of the crisis of loss of cultural subjectivity during the process of modernity,Yip Wai—lim put forward Cultural Mould Theory,which has two great meanings:First,the meaning of Cross-cultural communication,which will conducive to realize Inter—cogmition of multi—culture;The second,under the wave of Globalization,the impact of western cultural hegemony has weaken the national conscious-ness,which has damaged the cultural diversity. Cultural Mould Theory has responsed to the cultural appeals,which contains the resistance of other nations to the impact of western culture,to establish and maintain its own cultural subjectivity,avoiding being the Others who were ruled and assimilated.

  4. Organic Intellectuals and Cultural Leadership Theory under Gramsci's Theory of Practice Philosophy%葛兰西实践哲学下的有机知识分子与文化领导权理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旸

    2015-01-01

    实践哲学是葛兰西思想的理论基础,是考察和理解其有机知识分子理论与文化领导权理论的重要基石. 葛兰西之所以研究实践哲学就是为了在历史中将之实现出来,以促成人民大众自觉批判的意识. 而实现人民大众自觉批判的意识则需要教育和培养自己的有机知识分子,组织和领导人民大众批判和超越共同感. 这是实现无产阶级文化领导权的重要保证,也是获得无产阶级革命胜利的必备条件之一.%Practical philosophy is the theoretical basis of Gramsci's thought, and is the important cornerstone to see and understand his theory of organic intellectuals and cultural leadership.Gramsci's research on practice philosophy is to come out it in the history and to promote the critical consciousness of the public.Realizing the public' s criticism consciousness requires organizing and leading the pub-lic to criticize and transcend common sense through training their own organic intellectuals.This is the important guarantee to realize cultural leadership of the proletariat and is also one of the essential conditions of proletarian revolution victory.

  5. Killing tensors in pp-wave spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keane, Aidan J [87 Carlton Place, Glasgow G5 9TD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Tupper, Brian O J, E-mail: aidan@countingthoughts.co, E-mail: bt32@rogers.co [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2010-12-21

    The formal solution of the second-order Killing tensor equations for the general pp-wave spacetime is given. The Killing tensor equations are integrated fully for some specific pp-wave spacetimes. In particular, the complete solution is given for the conformally flat plane wave spacetimes and we find that irreducible Killing tensors arise for specific classes. The maximum number of independent irreducible Killing tensors admitted by a conformally flat plane wave spacetime is shown to be six. It is shown that every pp-wave spacetime that admits an homothety will admit a Killing tensor of Koutras type and, with the exception of the singular scale-invariant plane wave spacetimes, this Killing tensor is irreducible.

  6. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  7. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  8. Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Bødker, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    the young HCI research tradition. But HCI was already facing problems: lack of consideration for other aspects of human behavior, for interaction with other people, for culture. Cognitive science-based theories lacked means to address several issues that came out of the empirical projects....

  9. Unpacking the Black Box: A Formative Research Approach to the Development of Theory-Driven, Evidence-Based, and Culturally Safe Text Messages in Mobile Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Toth, Zsolt; Barron, Marcia; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Perkins, Nancy; Sleeth, Jessica; Wabano, Mary Jo; Williamson, Pamela; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-22

    Mobile-cellular subscriptions have increased steadily over the past decade. The accessibility of SMS messages over existing mobile networks is high and has almost universal availability even on older and unsophisticated mobile phones and in geographic settings where wireless coverage is weak. There is intensive exploration of this inexpensive mobile telecommunication technology to improve health services and promote behavior change among vulnerable populations. However, a neglected area of research is the documentation and critical analysis of the formative research process required in the development and refinement of effective SMS messages. The objective of this qualitative research study was to identify major factors that may impact on the effectiveness of evidence-based SMS messages designed to reduce health inequities in hypertension management in low resource settings, including Aboriginal populations in high-income countries and rural populations in low-income countries. Specifically, we were interested in uncovering the range of mediators that impact on appropriate message content transmission and, ultimately, on health behavior improvements in a range of these sociocultural settings. Collaborative qualitative research with Canadian Aboriginal and Tanzanian participants was conducted to deconstruct the content and transmission of evidence-based health information contained in SMS messages in the context of an international research project designed to address health inequalities in hypertension, and to develop a grounded theory of the major factors that mediate the effectiveness of this communication. We also examined the interrelationship of these mediators with the three essential conditions of the behavior system of the Behavioral Change Wheel model (capability, opportunity, and motivation) and cultural safety. Four focus groups with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Our grounded theory research revealed how discrepancies develop between the

  10. Cultural Interpretation of TANG Zhen's Theory concerning Yue%唐甄“悦”道的文化阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程碧英

    2012-01-01

    唐甄所著《潜书》,汇集了众多的文化词,"悦"便是其一。长期以来,学界对唐甄晚年大力提倡的"悦"道说解纷纭,直接影响着人们对唐甄及其思想的解读与研判。从《潜书》文本语义分析,唐甄"悦"道不是走向自我适意和自我放任,而是由超越现实困境的个体自适与心忧天下的士子情怀构成,包含了旷达淡然的人生追求、超然物外的生命体悟、安贫乐道的士人情怀等文化内涵。唐甄"悦"道与其经世传统、批判精神并不矛盾,而是不同层面展开的问题,体现了不一样的人生追求。%The TANG Zhen's work A Book of Latency contains many cultural words and "yue" is one of them.For a long time,there have been a lot of interpretations of TANG's theory of "yue" which was proposed in his late years in the academic circle.These have directly exerted influence on people's understanding and judgment of the scholar and his thoughts.From the semantic analysis of the work,we can find that TANG's "yue" is not the movement to self-comfort and self-indulgence,but the individual comfort which surmounts the realistic predicament and the scholars' feelings,which include the cultural connotations as his broad-minded and calm life attitude,understanding of life above all things,and willingness to suffer and bowing to his fate.Such theory of "yue " is not contradicted with his tradition of experiencing life and critic spirit,but an issue on another level which shows his different life pursuit.

  11. Major depression in China-to-US immigrants and US-born Chinese Americans: testing a hypothesis from culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was used to test the hypothesis that major depression was less prevalent in China-to-US immigrants who migrated to the US as adults than in US-born adult Chinese Americans. Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) were extracted for secondary data analyses on the rates of major depression disorder (MDD) and major depressive episode (MDE) in the two groups. Findings showed that for life time MDD, the rates for China-to-US immigrant and US-born Chinese were 5.3% and 7.9% for men and 8.5% and 33.1% for women. For 12-month MDD, the corresponding rates were 2.2% and 3.4% for men, and 4.7% and 12.6% for women. For life time MDE, the corresponding rates were 6.8% and 8.8% for men; for women the rates were 8.5% and 33.1%. For 12-month MDE, the rates were 2.2% and 4.4% for men; the rates were 4.7% and 12.6% for women. Controlling for age, education level, income, BMI, marital status, and income-to-needs ratio, China-to-US immigrant women remained less likely to have life time major depression than US-born Chinese American women. While the study has the strength of utilizing nationally representative datasets, the approach is limited as the data sources lack the capacity to investigate how the strength of connection with the collectivist culture might be related to major depression in the immigrant group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Research on Business English Teaching Based on the Theory of Cultural Empathy%基于文化移情理论的商务英语教学实证研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海燕

    2016-01-01

    Based on the cultural empathy theory and the constructivist theory, and through the adoption of em-pirical study, questionnaire survey, statistic analysis, the research shows that cultivating cultural empathy compe-tence plays an important role in the realization of business English teaching objectives. Therefore, it is necessary to improve and strengthen business English teaching and cultivate the students’ cultural empathy competence.%在文化移情理论和建构理论的支撑下,通过运用实证研究、问卷调查和统计分析的研究方法,发现培养文化移情能力对实现商务英语教学目的有重要作用。因此改善和加强商务英语教学,培养学生文化移情能力具有必要性。

  13. New boundaries for the "ppK-" production in p+p collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, Eliane

    2014-11-01

    The HADES collaboration has searched for the anti-kaonic nuclear cluster "ppK-" in p+p collisions by its decay into pΛ. In the course of this analysis several cross checks had to be performed. This report discusses two examples thereof. In one test it was checked whether the presence of background events could introduce a bias on the applied partial wave analysis. The second item discussed here is the extraction of the total pK+Λ production cross section necessary to derive the absolute upper limit on the "ppK-" production cross section.

  14. New boundaries for the “ppK−” production in p+p collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epple Eliane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The HADES collaboration has searched for the anti-kaonic nuclear cluster “ppK−” in p+p collisions by its decay into pΛ. In the course of this analysis several cross checks had to be performed. This report discusses two examples thereof. In one test it was checked whether the presence of background events could introduce a bias on the applied partial wave analysis. The second item discussed here is the extraction of the total pK+Λ production cross section necessary to derive the absolute upper limit on the “ppK−” production cross section.

  15. Cultural mediation or brain drain?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chrischisoni

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... US Diversity Visa Lottery program claiming that can make the lives of Americans insecure by providing .... But other studies reveal negative effects of assimilation, ..... workplace and follow the code of conduct in that environment. Hence ...... The Brain Drain and Taxation II: Theory and Empirical Analysis (pp.

  16. El cuidado y la cultura: Génesis, lazos y referentes teóricos en enfermería The care and culture: Origin, connections and theories in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela Bonill de las Nieves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vivimos inmersos en una sociedad multicultural. La cultura da forma a la manera en la que la persona vive la salud y la enfermedad. Este hecho nos insta a que como profesionales dispongamos no solo del conocimiento necesario acerca de otras culturas y la propia, sino también de las actitudes y habilidades culturales necesarias para llevar a cabo unos cuidados culturalmente competentes en un contexto concreto. En este artículo se hace un recorrido por los conceptos de cultura y cuidados, sus conexiones y las principales corrientes y referentes teóricos con los que contamos en el campo de los cuidados culturales. Se trata de ofrecer alternativas que huyendo de una visión reduccionista de la persona defienden la importancia de atender las necesidades desde la perspectiva de la competencia cultural.We live immersed in a multicultural society. Culture determines the way in which a person lives in both health and illness. We need to have, as professionals, the necessary knowledge, not only about other cultures and their own, but also cultural attitudes, and have the skills needed to conduct culturally competent care in any given situation. This article discusses culture and care concepts, their connections and the current theories in the field of cultural care. The aims are to offer alternatives that defend the importance of seeing the needs of the patient from the perspective of cultural competence and to leave behind the reductionist view of the person.

  17. Noncommutative Field Theory on Homogeneous Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, S; Halliday, Sam; Szabo, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an algebraic approach to the time-dependent noncommutative geometry of a six-dimensional Cahen-Wallach pp-wave string background supported by a constant Neveu-Schwarz flux, and develop a general formalism to construct and analyse quantum field theories defined thereon. Various star-products are derived in closed explicit form and the Hopf algebra of twisted isometries of the plane wave is constructed. Scalar field theories are defined using explicit forms of derivative operators, traces and noncommutative frame fields for the geometry, and various physical features are described. Noncommutative worldvolume field theories of D-branes in the pp-wave background are also constructed.

  18. Small-Group Instruction. Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Human Relations, vol. 1, 1948, cation Association, Washington, pp. 512-532. 1961, pp. 34-47, 125 Preceding Page Blank References 21. Cartwright , Dorwin ...Rela- Membership," in Dorwin Cartwright tions and Administration, Harvard and A. Zander (eds,), Group University Press, Cambridge, Mass., Dynamics... Dorwin Cartwright and A. 54. Johnson, D.M., and Smith, H.C. Zander (eds.) Group Dynamics: "Democratic Leadership in the Research and Theory, Row

  19. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruuskanen, P.V. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  20. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...

  1. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Three Theories of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Comparison between Business Students of Chile and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert F.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed business students in the United States (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310) to compare three theories of pro-environmental behavior.We examined Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, Schawartz's norm activation theory, and the values-beliefs-norms theory created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and Kalof. We produced reliable…

  2. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium level decreased about 1.5-fold in conditions favoring PP-V production. Moreover, P. purpurogenum was transferred to medium in which it commonly produces the related pigment PP-O after cultivating it in the presence or absence of glutamine to investigate whether this fungus biosynthesizes PP-V using surplus ammonium in cells. Only mycelia cultured in medium containing 10 mM glutamine produced the violet pigment, and simultaneously intracellular ammonium levels decreased under this condition. From comparisons of the amount of PP-V that was secreted with quantity of surplus intracellular ammonium, it is suggested that P. purpurogenum maintains ammonium homeostasis by excreting waste ammonium as PP-V.

  3. PRESSUPOSTOS TEÓRICO-METODOLÓGICOS PARA FORMAÇÃO DOCENTE NA PERSPECTIVA DA TEORIA HISTÓRICO-CULTURAL. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN TEACHER TRAINING FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira Gonzaga Moraes

    2012-11-01

    the training process in the OPM/UEM (Mathematical Pedagogical Workshop of the State University of Maringá, in Maringá/PR, Brazil, in order to acknowledge its implications in teachers’ continuous training. This research was developed by analyses and investigations elaborated in the training meetings with participating teachers at the OPM/UEM. The target public of the OPM/UEM was mainly Early Years and Elementary School teachers. The essential characteristic of OPM/UEM is the appropriation of theoretical knowledge by Math teachers and their method in teaching the subject to students. OPM/UEM is a space of teaching knowledge for the participants and for the teacher-educators. The paper is organized into two parts: the first part deals with the significance and functioning of OPM/UEM; the second part deals with the fundamental concepts that underscore the formation process of OPM, which are supported by the historical and cultural theory. Considerations on the importance of the historical and cultural theory within the teachers’ formation process are provided. The theory presuppositions bond the concept of school education and types of human psychism. In fact, they are tools for the intervention and comprehension of teachers’ learning movement. It should be underscored that the establishment of a new context in the teachers’ continuous formation, marked by the promotion of human development, materializes the social aim of schooling education. In other words, it is the insertion of subjects in history through the appropriation of the highest human productions.

  4. ISAJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for pp and anti pp interactions. Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, F.E.; Protopopescu, S.D.

    1982-09-01

    ISAJET is a Monte Carlo computer program which simulates pp and anti pp reactions at high energy. It can generate minimum bias events representative of the total inelastic cross section, high PT hadronic events, and Drell-Yan events with a virtual ..gamma.., W/sup + -/, or Z/sup 0/. It is based on perturbative QCD and phenomeno-logical models for jet fragmentation.

  5. Polarization observables for the reaction pp -> pp. pi. /sup 0/ at 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, P.J.; Bachman, M.; Hollas, C.L.; McNaughton, K.H.; Xu Shenwu; Bonner, B.E.; Van Dyck, O.B.; McGill, J.; McNaughton, M.W.; Peng, J.C.

    1987-10-22

    The Wolfenstein polarization observables D/sub NN/, D/sub S..cap omega../ and D/sub L..cap omega../, where ..cap omega.. denotes a mixture of S and L polarization components, the induced polarization P, and the analysing power A have been measured for the reaction pp -> pp..pi../sup 0/ at 800, 733, and 647 MeV. Comparisons are made to theoretical predictions of the model of Dubach, Kloet and Silbar.

  6. P(P bar)P elastic scattering and cosmic ray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAZAL-E-ALEEM; Saleem, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the total cross section for pp elastic scattering at cosmic ray energies, as well as the total cross section, the slope parameter b(s,t) and the differential cross section for small momentum transfer at ISR and collider energies for p(p)p elastic scattering can be simultaneously fitted by using a simple Regge pole model. The results of this theory is discussed in detail.

  7. On the Translation of Cultural-loaded Words in the Analects from the Perspective of Relevance Theory%关联理论视角下《论语》中文化负载词的翻译研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢颖慧

    2016-01-01

    Relevance theory has a strong explanatory power in the classics translation. It is a big challenge for transla-tors since the translation of cultural-loaded expressions in classics is of vital importance for the cultural transmission and communication between China and western countries. By using the optimal relevance principle of relevance the-ory, the translator can better explain and restore the historical cultural information and customs. This paper explores the positive effects of relevance theory in the English translation of the cultural-loaded words by using different ver-sions of the Analects as examples.%关联理论对典籍翻译有着很强的解释力。典籍翻译中,文化负载词的翻译对中西文化的传递以及交流有着至关重要的作用,是对译者的极大挑战。以《论语》为例,运用关联理论中的最佳关联原则,译者可以更好地解释和还原文化负载词所承载的历史文化信息以及民情风俗。

  8. Precision measurements of the pp\\to \\pi^+pn and pp\\to \\pi^+d reactions: importance of long-range and tensor force effects

    CERN Document Server

    Budzanowski, A; Hawranek, P; Jahn, R; Jha, V; Kilian, K; Kirillov, Da; Kirillov, Di; Kliczewski, S; Kolev, D; Kravcikova, M; Lesiak, M; Lieb, J; Machner, H; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Martinská, G; Nedev, S; Niskanen, J A; Piskunov, N; Protic, D; Ritman, 6 J; Von Rossen, P; Roy, B J; Sitnik, I; Siudak, R; Stein, H J; Tsenov, R; Urbán, J; Vankova, 2 G; Wilkin, C

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive measurements of pion production in proton--proton collisions in the forward direction were undertaken at 400 and 600 MeV at COSY using the Big Karl spectrograph. The high resolution in the $\\pi^+$ momentum ensured that there was an unambiguous separation of the $pp\\to {\\pi}^+d/\\pi^+pn$ channels. Using these and earlier data, the ratio of the production cross sections could be followed through the $\\Delta$ region and compared with the predictions of final state interaction theory. Deviations are strongly influenced by long-range terms in the production operator and the tensor force in the final $pn$ system. These have been investigated in a realistic $pp\\to\\pi^+d/\\pi^+pn$ calculation that includes $S \\rightleftharpoons D$ channel coupling between the final nucleons. A semi-quantitative understanding of the observed effects is achieved.

  9. Proteolytic processing of CmPP36, a protein from the cytochrome b(5) reductase family, is required for entry into the phloem translocation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Ruiz-Medrano, R; Lucas, W J

    2000-12-01

    Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) phloem sap contains a 31 kDa protein that cross-reacts with antibodies directed against the red clover necrotic mosaic virus movement protein (RCNMV MP). Microsequence data from phloem-purified 31 kDa protein were used to isolate a complementary DNA: the open reading frame encodes a 36 kDa protein belonging to the cytochrome b(5) reductase (Cb5R) family; the gene was termed CmPP36. Western analyses established that CmPP36, RCNMV MP and CmPP16 (Xoconostle-Cázares et al., 1999, Science 283, 94-98) are immunologically related, probably due to a common epitope, represented by the NADH(+)-binding domain of CmPP36. An N-terminal 5 kDa membrane-targeting domain is cleaved to produce the 31 kDa Delta N-CmPP36 detected in the phloem sap. Microinjection experiments established that Delta N-CmPP36, but not CmPP36, is able to interact with plasmodesmata to mediate its cell-to-cell transport. Thus, intercellular movement of CmPP36 requires proteolytic processing in the companion cell to produce a soluble, movement-competent, protein. In contrast to RCNMV and CmPP16, Delta N-CmPP36 interacts with but does not mediate the trafficking of RNA. Northern and in situ RT-PCR studies established that CmPP36 mRNA is present in all plant organs, being highly abundant within vascular tissues. In roots of hydroponically grown pumpkin plants, CmPP36 mRNA levels respond to changes in available iron in the culture solution. Finally, enzymatic assays established that both CmPP36 and Delta N-CmPP36 could reduce Fe(3+)-citrate and Fe(3+)-EDTA in the presence of NADH(+). These findings are discussed in terms of the possible roles played by CmPP36 in phloem function.

  10. 现代文化地理学对旅游研究的隐喻作用%On the Theory Relationship between Modern Cultural Geography and Tourism Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱苏加; 李晓楠; 杜丽娟; 路紫

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this research is to try to recognize the relationship between the new theories of modern cultural geography and tourism studies.This paper focuses on the cultural interface between tourism study and modern cultural geography.And then the effect of tourism authentic and inauthentic experiences,industrial restructuring and postmodernism,private and public representations,producer and consumer,cultural circuits theory and communication(transmission,reception and response) is introduced and examined.There is an important inter-relationship between theory and methodology.The authors do not negate the necessity of spatial and economic approaches,but suggest that other analytical approaches should be explored further.It is believed that tourism research will be furthered if its theories and approaches are complemented by modern cultural geography analyses.%该文试图认知现代文化地理学新理论、新方法与旅游研究之间的联系.首先对旅游研究的文化地理趋向做了概括性刻画,而后就文化地理学的理论进展及其方法论问题做了旅游研究方面的评估.在整个分析过程中强调现代文化地理学在旅游研究中所发挥的隐喻作用.笔者认为,如果旅游研究在理论上能得到现代文化地理学方面的补充,则其研究也将得到极大的深入.

  11. Nozharov Sht.,”Efficiency of human resources management in the field of cultural heritage protection”, Conference Proceedings-XIII International Scientific conference “Management and Engineering ‘15”, TU-Sofia, Volume I, 2015, pp.404-413;

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The publication analyzes the possibilities of building a model for effective public administration management in the field of cultural heritage protection using 7S - model of McKinsey. Bulgaria is a country with rich cultural-archaeological heritage since Roman and Byzantine times. Significant numbers of cultural monuments are located on the territory of the country and are declared as “world cultural heritage” by UNESCO. In this regard, the failures of Bulgarian cultural heritage protection ...

  12. POST-BIONIAN DEVELOPMENTS IN PSYCHOANALYTIC FIELD THEORY: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTONINO FERRO AND GIUSEPPE CIVITARESE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S Montana

    2017-04-01

    The Bi-Personal Field: Experiences in Child Psychoanalysis. By Antonino Ferro. New York: Routledge, 1992 (1999). 232 pp. The Intimate Room: Theory and Technique of the Analytic Field. By Giuseppe Civitarese. New York: Routledge, 2008 (2010). 240 pp. The Necessary Dream: New Theories and Techniques of Interpretation in Psychoanalysis. By Giuseppe Civitarese; translated by Ian Harvey. London: Karnac, 2013 (2014). 246 pp. The Analytic Field and Its Transformations. By Antonino Ferro and Giuseppe Civitarese. London: Karnac, 2015. 224 pp. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  13. PP2A: The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Maeve [Department of Life Sciences, and Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland); Kiely, Patrick A., E-mail: Patrick.Kiely@ul.ie [Department of Life Sciences, and Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland); Stokes Institute, University of Limerick 78666, Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-04-13

    Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase in cells. It consists of a catalytic subunit (C), a structural subunit (A), and a regulatory/variable B-type subunit. PP2A has a critical role to play in homeostasis where its predominant function is as a phosphatase that regulates the major cell signaling pathways in cells. Changes in the assembly, activity and substrate specificity of the PP2A holoenzyme have a direct role in disease and are a major contributor to the maintenance of the transformed phenotype in cancer. We have learned a lot about how PP2A functions from specific mutations that disrupt the core assembly of PP2A and from viral proteins that target PP2A and inhibit its effect as a phosphatase. This prompted various studies revealing that restoration of PP2A activity benefits some cancer patients. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action of this is limited because of the complex nature of PP2A holoenzyme assembly and because it acts through a wide variety of signaling pathways. Information on PP2A is also conflicting as there are situations whereby inactivation of PP2A induces apoptosis in many cancer cells. In this review we discuss this relationship and we also address many of the pertinent and topical questions that relate to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at altering PP2A activity.

  14. Characteristic and Cultural Study of the Politeness in Chinese and English Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席晓

    2008-01-01

    s This paper shows that people lays special emphasis on difference aspects of politeness principle in the light of their own culture in cross-communication. And it analyses what the differences of PP in the language us-ing in Pragmatic are, and why? It deals with the differences between English and Chinese cultures.

  15. PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND CONCEPT FORMATION: METATHEORY, THEORY AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of Phenomenological Phonology (PP, including its metatheory, theory and application, for comparison with Cognitive Phonology (CP. While PP and CP are in close agreement at the theory level, there are some significant differences at the level of metatheory. PP considers phonological terms (such as phoneme and word to be words like any others, and gives detailed consideration to the concepts behind such terms. It also considers pronunciation to be a form of behaviour, driven by concepts created through general concept formation processes. This has important consequences for practical application in the areas of pronunciation and literacy teaching.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODIFIED PP/COPOLYPROPYLENE/POE BLENDS FOR AUTOMOBILE BUMPERS%PP/共聚PP/POE汽车保险杠专用料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠兴; 苏新

    2003-01-01

    研制了PP/共聚PP/聚烯烃弹性体(POE)汽车保险杠专用料,介绍了POE的结构特点,探讨了POE及共聚PP含量对PP力学等性能的影响.结果表明,POE对PP的增韧优于(乙烯/丙烯/二烯)共聚物(EPDM),共聚PP在PP/共聚PP/POE体系中也起到增韧作用,该共混料可以满足汽车保险杠性能的要求.

  17. pp Interaction in Extended Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Kohara, A Kendi; Kodama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  18. pp interactions in extended air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Kohara A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  19. A Critique of the Capacity of Strauss Grounded Theory for Prediction, Change, and Control in Organisational Strategy via a Grounded Theorisation of Leisure and Cultural Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Ali; Bakir, Vian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we critique grounded theory's ability to fulfil its aim of offering a practical vehicle for prediction, change, and control as stipulated in grounded theory's original formulation by Glaser and Strauss, and later developed by Strauss. We do this through a case study approach, whereby we develop a grounded theory of leisure and…

  20. PP: A Lisp Pretty Printing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function is like PRIN1 except that it does not force ,PRINT-ESCAPE, to be T. The...PRINT-CASE, and ,PRINT- GENSYM , respectively. (’llhe last four of these variables are not supported by release 5 of the I isp Machine System...variables. PP:SET-INTERACTIVE-CONTROL-VARIABLES &key :escape :base :pretty :level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function specifies