Higher education institutions are evolving and technology often plays a central role in their transformations. Educational changes benefit from a supportive environment. The study examines the relationship between organisational culture and teachers' perceptions of and responses to technology-enhanced innovation among Chinese universities. A…
Full Text Available Learning technologies are regularly associated with innovative teaching but will they contribute to profound innovations in education itself? This paper addresses the question by building upon Merlin.Donald's co-evolutionary theory of mind, cognition and culture. He claimed that the invention of technologies for storing and sharing external symbol systems, such as writing, gave rise to a 'theoretic culture' with rich symbolic representations and a resultant need for formal education. More recently, Shaffer and Kaput have claimed that the development of external and shared symbol-processing technologies is giving rise to an emerging 'virtual culture'. They argue that mathematics curricula are grounded in theoretic culture and should change to meet the novel demands of 'virtual culture' for symbol-processing and representational fluency. The generic character of their cultural claim is noted in this paper and it is suggested that equivalent pedagogic arguments are applicable across the educational spectrum. Hence, four general characteristics of virtual culture are proposed, against which applications of learning technologies can be evaluated for their innovative potential. Two illustrative uses of learning technologies are evaluated in terms of their 'virtual culture potential' and some anticipated questions about this approach are discussed towards the end of the paper.
The vast majority of experts participating in the study positively assessed the cultural conditions of technological innovativeness in Polish enterprises. Experts also provided negative cultural characteristics of Poles.
Wall, James; Wynne, Elizabeth; Krummel, Thomas
Innovation is the process through which new scientific discoveries are developed and promoted from bench to bedside. In an effort to encourage young entrepreneurs in this area, Stanford Biodesign developed a medical device innovation training program focused on need-based innovation. The program focuses on teaching systematic evaluation of healthcare needs, invention, and concept development. This process can be applied to any field of medicine, including Pediatric Surgery. Similar training programs have gained traction throughout the United States and beyond. Equally important to process in the success of these programs is an institutional culture that supports transformative thinking. Key components of this culture include risk tolerance, patience, encouragement of creativity, management of conflict, and networking effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.
Brown, T.E.; Ulijn, J.M.
Any technological advance, innovation or economic growth created by an organization is dependent on how that organization’s culture and environment fosters or inhibits these developments. This process is further complicated by the global nature of economic activity and differences in national
Steel Corporation. Japan. Miyazaki, Iamu 19L6 Japa’s Econmic Dynamism: Vahes in Tradition. In Cultural Tradition in Japan Today, by Nippon Steel...1988 Technological Innovation and Productivity COne in Japan and the United States: Productivity and Econmic Growth in Japan and the United States
Pardo Martinez, C.I.; Alfonso, W.H
In last decades, scientific culture has become a key element of Governance of Science, Technology and Innovation in the countries where it is important to determine measurement to analysis trends on scientific culture. Research questions that guide this paper are the following: i. What are information needs on scientific culture in Colombia?; ii. How can be measured scientific culture?; iii. What is the adequate structure for indicators of scientific culture?. In order to answer these questions, a mix of methodologies is used. First, we review the literature on scientific culture and indicators related to this topic. Second, we made a series of interviews with staff members of Colciencias to determine requirements of measurement on scientific culture. Third, with this information, we built an information matrix to prioritise information and determine indicators with respective metrics, and sources according to relevance and cost-effectiveness of estimation. Fourth, from indicators formulated and an indicator system is proposed determining for every dimension of scientific culture indicators related to inputs, process, and outputs designed indicator sheets that includes definition, objective, sources aggregation levels, time series, and calculation methods for indicators proposed. This study achieves formulate an indicator system from the definition of scientific culture a and its dimension proposing around 60 indicators through a multidimensional model that integrates different elements of scientific culture such as the individual and society establishing indicators to measure inputs, process and outputs in general form and specific initiatives for Colciencias. (Author)
Ulijn, J.M.; Campbell, Ch.; Malkinson, T.
The technology that makes the world into the global village envisioned by Marshall McLuhan more than 30 years ago now seems to be in place. thanks to the Internet and the World Wide Web. Technical innovations in communication technology have been quickly exploited by businesses to expand their reach
Pantano, E.; Corvello, V.
Advanced technologies are able to influence tourists' decisions. They can be exploited for attracting touristic flows towards cultural destinations. In particular, virtual tours are new tools based on advanced 3D graphics that can be useful for promoting arts and culture. In this paper, we test
Pellis, Neal R.
The challenge of human space exploration places demands on technology that push concepts and development to the leading edge. In biotechnology and biomedical equipment development, NASA science has been the seed for numerous innovations, many of which are in the commercial arena. The biotechnology effort has led to rational drug design, analytical equipment, and cell culture and tissue engineering strategies. Biomedical research and development has resulted in medical devices that enable diagnosis and treatment advances. NASA Biomedical developments are exemplified in the new laser light scattering analysis for cataracts, the axial flow left ventricular-assist device, non contact electrocardiography, and the guidance system for LASIK surgery. Many more developments are in progress. NASA will continue to advance technologies, incorporating new approaches from basic and applied research, nanotechnology, computational modeling, and database analyses.
While many digitization projects are currently underway, to help preserve Indigenous traditions, few explore the full potential of the development of digital media and networked technology through Indigenous cultures. This paper outlines the three phases necessary for a robust digital preservation, promotion and growth project: 1) Straightforward…
In most discussions about the knowledge-based economy, innovation is associated or even equated with technology, while culture's influence is ignored. Innovation is however embedded in cultural and social contexts, and neglecting these crucial contexts may impede an innovation's diffusion-and eventual success. This book places culture at the center of discussions on innovation, beginning with a comprehensive introduction to innovation's various forms, including the history, sociology, and economics of innovation. Insights from marketing and psychology are integrated into a complexity theory framework, which are then utilized to evaluate case studies of organizations experiencing repeated innovation successes. The sometimes fraught relationship of firms to creativity is discussed, and a new model for to calculating the creativity of an economy is presented.
Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren
have received less attention. This study considers the interdependencies between strategic, internally and externally, directed tactical launch activities and investigates both direct and indirect performance effects. The analysis is based upon data from 113 technological innovations launched...
Full Text Available To survive and prosper, the organizations need to embed the processes and mechanisms to discover major technology and consumer trends and respond to them through new growth areas. Based on profound literature review providing insight into organizational factors that affect firms’ ability to manage innovation this paper asks which innovation processes and entrepreneurial culture support radical innovations. The aim of the paper is to specify the company behaviour that leads to innovative outputs with high level of novelty in country specific context of Slovakia. We conducted two-stage empirical research in 2009 and 2014 mapping companies’ approach to innovation management during the last 10 years. After surveying 102 firms in the first stage and 287 firms in the second stage we derive success factors for radical innovations. The findings demonstrate growing importance of corporate strategic orientation, highly developed innovation processes and parallel mechanisms for radical innovation, ability to manage internally and externally open innovation and support entrepreneurial culture. This study makes unique contribution to the understanding of innovation processes, organizational factors, and their significance and dynamics. It should attract managerial attention to recognize the importance of innovation management factors for building firm’s innovation competency.
In most discussions about the knowledge-based economy, innovation is associated or even equated with technology, while culture’s influence is ignored. Innovation is however embedded in cultural and social contexts, and neglecting these crucial contexts may impede an innovation’s diffusion—and
Rossini, Frederick; Bozeman, Barry
Considers the implications of the technological innovation literature for possible national strategies for innovation. Sketches highly generalized innovation strategies for nations at various levels of technological development. (Author/IRT)
Full Text Available A central element in contemporary societies is the scientific and technological development that has as one of its aims to contribute to the welfare and satisfaction of their needs. Considering that this is also one of the objectives pursued when talking of Culture of Peace, in this essay attempts to outline a possible relationship between the two fields of action, emphasizing the importance of participation of people in the process knowledge and relevance to assume a communication paradigm for building peace. Some of these relationships are present in the Waves-Colciencias Program through which Colombia will seek to educate children and young people in this technical-scientific spirit through active and critical participation in the Program.
Andersson, Ulf; Dasi, Angels; Mudambi, Ram
The relevance of ideas is at the core of the IB field and has been captured in concepts like technology, innovation and knowledge. While these concepts have evolved over the last decades, the point that the ideas and the international connectivity are central for IB remains genuine. This paper...... is an attempt to take stock of the evolution of the concepts technology, innovation and knowledge in IB literature along the past five decades with a particular focus on the role of the Columbia Journal of World Business (CJWB) and the Journal of World Business (JWB) in this evolution. Likewise, our objective...
Campus Technology, 2006
This article features the winners of this year's "Campus Technology Innovator" competition. The winners are: (1) Drexel University, Pennsylvania (outsourcing); (2) Darton College, Georgia (3D); (3) Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (ePortfolios); (4) University of Michigan (the Web); (5) University of Tennessee College of…
Dora Konsola; Zoe Fotiadi; Aliki Marinou
The introduction and pilot application of innovative methods in the field of cultural heritage can have a significant effect on local development by boosting tourism and the related economic activities, increasing familiarity with new technologies and creating a sense of local pride. The five Centres for Heritage Interpretation that were developed in the Region of Sterea Ellada within the framework of the RI-SE Innovative Actions Programme offer a good example of this process, illustrating th...
do Nascimento Gambi, Lillian; Boer, Harry
Firms strive for improving their performance, and organizational culture has been recognized as an important driver of better performance. In parallel, strategy is viewed as an important contextual variable that influences organizational culture as well as performance. This study has two main goals......: (1) investigating the relationship between strategic practices and innovation performance, and (2) determining if strategy has a direct and/or an indirect, culture-mediated effect on innovation performance, and if this effect varies across strategic practices and culture profiles. The research model...... cultural profile achieve the strongest performance effects....
Kim, Yeon Min
This book introduces strategy of technology and innovation which includes design and development of strategy of technology, performance of strategy of technology and building and practice of strategy of development. The contents of this book are form of industrial innovation, act in strategy, advantage of technical innovation, new perspective of studying and innovation, alliance with competitor, cost of transmission and innovation, learning cycle of new product and power of consistency of product.
Richerson, Peter J; Boyd, Robert; Bettinger, Robert L
Demography plays a large role in cultural evolution through its effects on the effective rate of innovation. If we assume that useful inventions are rare, then small isolated societies will have low rates of invention. In small populations, complex technology will tend to be lost as a result of random loss or incomplete transmission (the Tasmanian effect). Large populations have more inventors and are more resistant to loss by chance. If human populations can grow freely, then a population-technology-population positive feedback should occur such that human societies reach a stable growth path on which the rate of growth of technology is limited by the rate of invention. This scenario fits the Holocene to a first approximation, but the late Pleistocene is a great puzzle. Large-brained hominins existed in Africa and west Eurasia for perhaps 150,000 years with, at best, slow rates of technical innovation. The most sophisticated societies of the last glacial period appear after 50,000 years ago and were apparently restricted to west and north-central Eurasia and North Africa. These patterns have no simple, commonly accepted explanation. We argue that increased high-frequency climate change around 70,000-50,000 years ago may have tipped the balance between humans and their competitor-predators, such as lions and wolves, in favor of humans. At the same time, technically sophisticated hunters would tend to overharvest their prey. Perhaps the ephemeral appearance of complex tools and symbolic artifacts in Africa after 100,000 years ago resulted from hunting inventions that allowed human populations to expand temporarily before prey overexploitation led to human population and technology collapse. Sustained human populations of moderate size using distinctively advanced Upper Paleolithic artifacts may have existed in west Eurasia because cold, continental northeastern Eurasia-Beringia acted as a protected reserve for prey populations.
Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.
The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB
Recently, ad hoc and wireless communication technologies have made available the device, service and information rich environment for users. Smart Space and ubiquitous computing extend the ""Living Lab"" vision of everyday objects and provide context-awareness services to users in smart living environments. This ebook investigates smart space technology and its innovations around the Living Labs. The final goal is to build context-awareness smart space and location-based service applications that integrate information from independent systems which autonomously and securely support human activ
Full Text Available Using the CNKI database as the sample source, we investigated the makeup of current research results on Chinese technological innovation, and found that the study of Chinese technological innovation consists of nine directions - underlying principles of innovation behavior, concepts of innovation cognition, methods of innovation, behavior of innovation subjects, structure of innovation mediators, innovation capacity, public service system of innovation, policy support system of innovation, and cultural environment of innovation, as well as several issues of innovation, including its behavior mechanism, operational mechanism, work mechanism, modes of implementation, modes of mathematical representation, modes of physical representation, modes of behavioral representation, modes of performance representation, modes of function realization, modes of structure realization, modes of workflow realization, modes of carrier realization, etc. Such a scattered makeup requires us to formulate the system of Chinese technological innovation achievements from the perspective of philosophy of science. This will be an important mission in the study of Chinese technological innovation.
Frenken, K.; Izquierdo, L.; Zeppini, P.
We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce
Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.
Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ
Aluisio Broering Mambrini
Full Text Available In the last two decades, innovation has been a key driver of economic growth. Innovation is closely related to creating value and generating wealth through successful service to consumer needs. Thus, it is not necessarily restricted to the use of new knowledge generated from research, but on the development of new products or services that are obtained with creative use of knowledge, new or already known. This study aimed to identify management practices that promote a culture of innovation in small and medium enterprises and analyze how they contribute to the innovative capacity of these companies. The research method was the multiple case study with six small and medium businesses that have at least one case of significant innovation in its history. The main results showed that amongst the practices are: a performance in highly specialized niches and deep focus on customer needs; b strong investment and incorporation of new knowledge outside the company (open innovation; c speed and agility in the absorption and deployment of new knowledge and technologies; d retention of employees; e acting as an integrator combining diverse knowledge and technologies; f the information management of the knowledge acquired by the company; g little concern to patent the technology; h flexibility and informal, fluid and open communication between employees of the company that promotes agility in management and i the management of partnerships across the value chain, including the functional areas.
Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.
Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ
J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland
Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.
Tripp, J.; Soelberg, N.; Wigeland, R.
Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.
Full Text Available Introduction. Scientific and technological progress plays an important role in improving the efficiency of the production of grain products. At the same time, it also has a negative impact on the ecology of soils. World experience shows the possibility of suspending and overcoming destructive land processes by introducing innovative soil cultivation technologies in the cultivation of agricultural crops. Purpose. This article aims to substantiate expediency of introduction of innovative resource-saving technologies of soil cultivation at cultivation of grain crops in Cherkasy region. Results. In the article it is proved that the efficiency of grain production in agricultural enterprises of Cherkasy region, which are using minimal (Mini-till and zero (No-till tillage technologies, in comparison with enterprises that use traditional grain growing technology, have indicators, as the price of sale of 1 centner of grain, the profit per 1 centner of grain and the level of profitability, that are much higher. Thus, the price of 1 centner of grain produced by the “LNZ-Agro” (Mini-till in 2013-2015 was higher 573.86 UAH, at the “Shpola-Agro-Industry” (No-till at 390,94 UAH, profit per 1 centner grain is higher than 477.23 and 249.14 UAH; the level of profitability of grain – higher than 201.5 and 71.8 percentage points. A similar situation is observed in the production of the main grain crops (wheat and maize for grain. With the application of the newest soil cultivation technologies, there is a decrease in the calculation of fuel consumption and depreciation deductions per hectare. The expediency of using resource-saving technologies for soil tillage during the cultivation of grain products in agricultural enterprises of the Cherkasy region also indicates by such indicator as the amount of profit per 1 hectare of crops. So, LNZ-Agro (Mini-till for one hectare of crops received a profit of 43947 UAH, “Shpola-Agro-Industry” (No-till –16491
Frenken, K.; Izquierdo, L.R.; Zeppini, P.
We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce
The RemediAidTm Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Starter Kit (RemediAidTm kit) developed by CHEMetries, Inc. (CHEMetrics), and AZUR Environmental Ltd was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Hueneme, California. The purpose of the demonstration was to collect reliable performance and cost data for the RemediAid Tm kit and six other field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil. In addition to assessing ease of device operation, the key objectives of the demonstration included determining the (1) method detection limit, (2) accuracy and precision, (3) effects of interferents and soil moisture content on TPH measurement, (4) sample throughput, and (5) TPH measurement costs for each device. The demonstration involved analysis of both performance evaluation samples and environmental samples collected in five areas contaminated with gasoline, diesel, lubricating oil, or other petroleum products. The performance and cost results for a given field measurement device were compared to those for an off-site laboratory reference method,
Innovation has been a driving force for the success of nuclear energy and remains essential for its future. For the continued safe and economically effective operation and maintenance of existing nuclear systems, and to meet the goals set out by projects aiming at designing and implementing advanced systems for the future, efficient innovation systems are needed. Consequently, analysing innovation systems is essential to understand their characteristics and enhance their performance in the nuclear sector. Lessons learnt from innovation programmes that have already been completed can help enhance the effectiveness of future programmes. The analysis of past experience provides a means for identifying causes of failure as well as best practices. Although national and local conditions are important factors, the main drivers for the success of innovative endeavors are common to all countries. Cooperation and coordination among the various actors are major elements promoting success. All interested stakeholders, including research organisations, industrial actors, regulators and civil society, have a role to play in supporting the success of innovation, but governments are an essential trigger, especially for projects with long durations and very ambitious objectives. Governments have a major role to play in promoting innovation because they are responsible for the overall national energy policy which sets the stage for the eventual deployment of innovative products and processes. Moreover, only governments can create the stable legal and regulatory framework favourable to the undertaking and successful completion of innovation programmes. International organisations such as the NEA may help enhance the effectiveness of national policies and innovation programmes by providing a forum for exchanging information, facilitating multilateral collaboration and joint endeavors, and offering technical support for the management of innovative programmes
Technology Development and Innovation Technology Development and Innovation Technology Development Technology Center (NWTC) supports efforts to reduce bird and bat fatalities at wind energy projects and photo of wind turbines at the National Wind Technology Center. Wildlife technology research and
Lately, in Denmark and internationally, there has been an increased focus on welfare technology and innovation. The Danish healthcare system is being fundamentally restructured and re-formed, the health professions are dealing with increased speed on the introductions of new political strategies...... on innovation education and educational activities fostering technological literacy. While focus on technological literacy has often (historically) taken a functionalist direction, and mainly been related to ICT and development of non- vocational curricula, more recent developments of approaches...... to technological literacy emphasizes profession oriented relational technological literacy. Furthermore, new definitions of 21st century competencies and skills emphasize creative learning and innovation skills and competencies as central ingredients in the 21st century labor market, and call for innovation...
Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and Competitiveness in China's ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.
The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation
Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut
The chapter offers a tool to conduct feasibility studies and focuses on how to make feasibility studies in a situation with environmental concerns, in which technological innovation and institutional chnages are among the objectives.......The chapter offers a tool to conduct feasibility studies and focuses on how to make feasibility studies in a situation with environmental concerns, in which technological innovation and institutional chnages are among the objectives....
Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin
This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...
Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU
Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.
Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…
Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.
We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between boundedly rational costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic
Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.
We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic substitutes and
Full Text Available this article describes innovative technologies during the classes in elementary school. The author has noted that the introduction of new technology promotes the development of education and the student's desire to learn and fosters independence, initiative and tolerance.
Анастасия Игоревна Сидоренко
Full Text Available The article analyzes the state and prospects of development of the hotel industry sector in Ukraine, aimed at a business audience that is constantly increasing; the need for the development and implementation of innovative technologies in a business hotel, because in the long term they will provide improving the service levels, the occupancy rate of the hotel rooms and competitiveness. An expediency of introducing innovative wireless LED lighting system in the rooms of business hotels is proved
Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Borrás, Susana
This chapter is about what governments have done and could do to promote the production, diffusion, and use of scientific and technical knowledge in order to realize national objectives. We begin the chapter with "story-telling" based on sketchy historical facts. The aim of the two stories...... is to illustrate that innovation policy covers a wide set of issues that have been on the agenda far back in history while still remaining important today. We move on to sketch the history of innovation policy, splitting it up into the three ideal types: science, technology, and innovation policy. We use OECD...
Ashworth, Graham; Thornton, Anna
The aims of the conference were advice, assistance and action for all those with technology to licence or inventions to patent, and for people seeking financial help and advice. There was a free exchange of ideas and information. Of the forty or so papers collected together, many are concerned with the financial aspects of new ventures, others look at technology transfer from academic institutes and schemes which support technological problems. One paper on fast reactor collaboration in Europe, is indexed separately. (U.K.)
An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...
This paper examines corporate innovation with a view to determine its relationship with organizational culture. A critical review of extant literature suggests clearly that innovation matters and it is important for achieving competitive advantage in a highly competitive market. But in achieving corporate innovation, ...
Luisana Sleny López Alvarado
Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to reflect on technological innovation in Primary Education. In this idea, information processing was used to support the analysis of the theoretical approaches related to the relevance of education that is based on a significant pedagogical practice capable of developing the capacities and interests, so that they can appropriate the global and local content in the vision of access to information, considering social opportunities. The restructuring to which education has been subjected has been influenced by advances in science, technology and the demands of a complex, dynamic and uncertain society in the processes of educational innovation, which involves the introduction of something new in education. the educational system, modifying its teaching-learning structures through the incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the curricular design of primary education in its intention to train for incursion into science and technology from use of a wide range of didactic resources that lead to pedagogical innovation. It was concluded that technological innovation in the educational praxis of primary education, requires in addition to the vocation of service, to study the new didactic paradigms to display their reflective capacity and assume the commitment to acquire digital literacy to assume the requirements of a knowledge society which is increasingly globalized.
Christensen, Poul Rind; Junginger, Sabine
Designing, as an activity, is squeezed in a paradoxical agency between reproduction and innovation of meanings in society as well as in the organization. In this conceptual paper the apparent paradox is addressed in perspective of the organizational culture theory and examine the role of design...... in reproducing and innovating dominant organizational cultures....
Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.
The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation
The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.
Begue, S; Morel, P; Djoudi, R
If technological innovations are not enough alone to improve blood safety, their contributions for several decades in blood transfusion are major. The improvement of blood donation (new apheresis devices, RFID) or blood components (additive solutions, pathogen reduction technology, automated processing of platelets concentrates) or manufacturing process of these products (by automated processing of whole blood), all these steps where technological innovations were implemented, lead us to better traceability, more efficient processes, quality improvement of blood products and therefore increased blood safety for blood donors and patients. If we are on the threshold of a great change with the progress of pathogen reduction technology (for whole blood and red blood cells), we hope to see production of ex vivo red blood cells or platelets who are real and who open new conceptual paths on blood safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 7 (4), Serial ... It provides pattered ways of thinking, feelings and reacting that guide decision .... of innovation and creativity was the Minnesota Innovation Research. Programme led by ...
Gonçalves Silveira Fiates, Gabriela; Azevedo Fiates, José Eduardo; Ribeiro Serra, Fernando A; Portugal Ferreira, Manuel
Innovation has been identified as a strategy to achieve competitive advantage, particularly in contexts of change and especially for technology-based companies – TBCs. Although the adoption of innovation strategies is not easy, small companies have an organizational environment more conducive to innovation. This article examines how managers and employees of small TBCs perceive aspects of the internal environment of innovation in the organization (culture, organizational structure, personnel ...
Baden-Fuller, Charles; Haefliger, Stefan
Business models are fundamentally linked with technological innovation, yet the business model construct is essentially separable from technology. We define the business model as a system that solves the problem of identifying who is (or are) the customer(s), engaging with their needs, delivering satisfaction, and monetizing the value. The framework depicts the business model system as a model containing cause and effect relationships, and it provides a basis for classification. We formulate ...
Jensen, Jens Stissing
Abstract: As an object of public management, Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) is characterised by a high level of uncertainty and complexity. The paper argues that to cope with the phenomenon of STI as a coherent area of policy formulation and regulation, a balancing of rational-, reflexi...
Guerra, Cecilia; Pombo, Lucia; Moreira, Antonio
Technology plays a crucial role in pupils' and primary teachers' lives nowadays and its use can facilitate change towards an innovative school environment. The internet, for example, can act as a platform to foster science teaching and offers a variety of opportunities for effective science learning and engaging and motivating children. But…
Full Text Available Chronic technology and business process disparities between High Income, Low Middle Income and Low Income (HIC, LMIC, LIC research collaborators directly prevent the growth of sustainable Global Health innova‐ tion for infectious and rare diseases. There is a need for an Open Source-Open Science Architecture Framework to bridge this divide. We are proposing such a framework for consideration by the Global Health community, by utiliz‐ ing a hybrid approach of integrating agnostic Open Source technology and healthcare interoperability standards and Total Quality Management principles. We will validate this architecture framework through our programme called Project Orchid. Project Orchid is a conceptual Clinical Intelligence Exchange and Virtual Innovation platform utilizing this approach to support clinical innovation efforts for multi-national collaboration that can be locally sustainable for LIC and LMIC research cohorts. The goal is to enable LIC and LMIC research organizations to acceler‐ ate their clinical trial process maturity in the field of drug discovery, population health innovation initiatives and public domain knowledge networks. When sponsored, this concept will be tested by 12 confirmed clinical research and public health organizations in six countries. The potential impact of this platform is reduced drug discovery and public health innovation lag time and improved clinical trial interventions, due to reliable clinical intelligence and bio-surveillance across all phases of the clinical innovation process.
Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard
Management of innovation is an important issue for firms and being good at this may be the deciding difference between death and survival. This paper ar-gues, based on 12 case studies, that new technology influence the innovative ca-pability of firms and disturbingly the process appears...... not to be managed in the sense that aims, instruments and resources are unclear. It is observed that new technology is adopted with a limited scope and fo-cus – often to solve a particular technical problem e.g. the quality of specifica-tion are too low. For a single reason a new technology is introduced within...... the firm, which over time becomes a source of innovation. However, through adoption of this new technology firms engage in a mu-tual learning and forming process where the firm learn by using the new technol-ogy. When learning, the firm and the new technology is mutually formed as the firm tries to adopt...
Dujardin, Th.; Bertel, E.; Kwang Seok, Lee; Foskolos, K.
Innovation has been a driving force for the success of nuclear energy and remains essential for its sustainable future. Many research and development programmes focus on enhancing the performance of power plants in operation, current fuel design and characteristics, and fuel cycle processes used in existing facilities. Generally performed under the leadership of the industry. Some innovation programmes focus on evolutionary reactors and fuel cycles, derived from systems of the current generation. Such programmes aim at achieving significant improvements, in the field of economics or resource management for example, in the medium term. Often, they are undertaken by the industry with some governmental support as they require basic research together with technological development and adaptation. Finally, large programmes, often undertaken in an international, intergovernmental framework are devoted to design and development of a new generation of systems meeting the goals of sustainable development in the long term. Driving forces for nuclear innovation vary depending on the target technology, the national framework and the international context surrounding the research programme. However, all driving factors can be grouped in three categories: market drivers, political drivers and technology drivers. Globally, innovation in the nuclear energy sector is a success story but is a lengthy process that requires careful planning and adequate funding to produce successful outcomes
Fernando José Pereira da Costa
Full Text Available The development problems can not be addressed without taking account of the environmental and energy issues, as well as the intimate relationship and the intense interaction between the two. In fact, the energy issue can not be analyzed separately from environmental issues, nor the advances in technological innovation, integrating dynamic-systemic way and so positioning address the issue of the development model to set the bulge the transition process experienced by the world since the seventies of the twentieth century. This transition, in turn, implies the passage of Paradigm of Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy also called the Paradigm of renewable sources of energy, not just holding the energy problem, but towards to environmental and technological components. It is within this relatively slow and long process, instigator of high levels of volatility, turbulence inducing and motor of technological innovation, which is (re raises the question of the development model that defines how a new model/style development.
Lilian Alessa; Carlos Andrade; Phil Cash Cash; Christian P. Giardina; Matt Hamabata; Craig Hammer; Kai Henifin; Lee Joachim; Jay T. Johnson; Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Deanna Kingston; Andrew Kliskey; Renee Pualani Louis; Amanda Lynch; Daryn McKenny; Chels Marshall; Mere Roberts; Taupouri Tangaro; Jyl Wheaton-Abraham; Everett. Wingert
This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples' use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial...
Farrell, A.E. [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburg, PA (United States)
Government policies are a major factor in the determination of structural conditions of competition. The innovative activity comprises the following: invention, adoption, and diffusion. Invention involves research and development activities such as patenting, research and development budgets. The adoption phase is concerned with deployment. As for the diffusion phase, it involves commercialization, and scale-economies. The process of introducing new technologies that are adopted by small numbers of customers in a niche market was explained. Once costs are lowered through experience gained in designing, manufacturing and servicing the new technology, mew applications generally lead to larger markets. Environmental technologies have no early adopters, implying that governments have an important role to play. However, commercial processes are not normally as well known to government as it is to the private sector. The electoral cycle also interferes with long term research and development efforts for technological clusters. A look at sulphur dioxide control at United States power plants illustrated the problem. The author then explained the reasons behind low allowance prices. Low-sulphur western coal was rendered economic in large areas of the United States by rail deregulation. Electricity restructuring was also a factor. The author indicated that binding government regulation must come before adoption and diffusion of emission controls. A summary of recent research was provided, in which the author stated that no single policy instrument was likely to properly stimulate innovative activity. In those cases where both supply and demand are stimulated by government, the technological innovation is greatest. Stringent regulations induce innovation, as do greater flexibility and greater regulatory certainty. Knowledge transfer within the industry is vital. 8 refs., 3 figs.
Canevese, E. P.; De Gottardo, T.
The morphometric and photogrammetric knowledge, combined with the historical research, are the indispensable prerequisites for the protection and enhancement of historical, architectural and cultural heritage. Nowadays the use of BIM (Building Information Modeling) as a supporting tool for restoration and conservation purposes is becoming more and more popular. However this tool is not fully adequate in this context because of its simplified representation of three-dimensional models, resulting from solid modelling techniques (mostly used in virtual reality) causing the loss of important morphometric information. One solution to this problem is imagining new advanced tools and methods that enable the building of effective and efficient three-dimensional representations backing the correct geometric analysis of the built model. Twenty-year of interdisciplinary research activities implemented by Virtualgeo focused on developing new methods and tools for 3D modeling that go beyond the simplified digital-virtual reconstruction used in standard solid modeling. Methods and tools allowing the creation of informative and true to life three-dimensional representations, that can be further used by various academics or industry professionals to carry out diverse analysis, research and design activities. Virtualgeo applied research activities, in line with the European Commission 2013's directives of Reflective 7 - Horizon 2020 Project, gave birth to GeomaticsCube Ecosystem, an ecosystem resulting from different technologies based on experiences garnered from various fields, metrology in particular, a discipline used in the automotive and aviation industry, and in general mechanical engineering. The implementation of the metrological functionality is only possible if the 3D model is created with special modeling techniques, based on surface modeling that allow, as opposed to solid modeling, a 3D representation of the manufact that is true to life. The advantages offered by
E. P. Canevese
Full Text Available The morphometric and photogrammetric knowledge, combined with the historical research, are the indispensable prerequisites for the protection and enhancement of historical, architectural and cultural heritage. Nowadays the use of BIM (Building Information Modeling as a supporting tool for restoration and conservation purposes is becoming more and more popular. However this tool is not fully adequate in this context because of its simplified representation of three-dimensional models, resulting from solid modelling techniques (mostly used in virtual reality causing the loss of important morphometric information. One solution to this problem is imagining new advanced tools and methods that enable the building of effective and efficient three-dimensional representations backing the correct geometric analysis of the built model. Twenty-year of interdisciplinary research activities implemented by Virtualgeo focused on developing new methods and tools for 3D modeling that go beyond the simplified digital-virtual reconstruction used in standard solid modeling. Methods and tools allowing the creation of informative and true to life three-dimensional representations, that can be further used by various academics or industry professionals to carry out diverse analysis, research and design activities. Virtualgeo applied research activities, in line with the European Commission 2013’s directives of Reflective 7 – Horizon 2020 Project, gave birth to GeomaticsCube Ecosystem, an ecosystem resulting from different technologies based on experiences garnered from various fields, metrology in particular, a discipline used in the automotive and aviation industry, and in general mechanical engineering. The implementation of the metrological functionality is only possible if the 3D model is created with special modeling techniques, based on surface modeling that allow, as opposed to solid modeling, a 3D representation of the manufact that is true to life. The
Elaine da Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Emphasizes the role of innovation in the Information and Knowledge Society as a favorable element of developing regional, national and global levels. Objective: The aim is reflect about the coming of innovation in the context of production systems and their respective role for the development of society. Methodology: The research sets up a qualitative approach to literature and exploratory nature. Results: As from selected literature review, presents conceptual aspects of innovation in the context of production systems and analyzes its contribution to the national innovation system and the role of organizational culture focused on innovation. Conclusions: Think about innovation from the systemic approach, based on the interaction of the different relevant agents to influence and contribute to the generation of innovation is fundamental in the current conjuncture, characterized by the agility of the transformations in social, economic, political and technological contexts.
in innovation - The reciprocal relationship between intellectual property law and technological innovation. - The role of technological skills and regimes of technological education in innovation. - An introduction to the role of the state in maintaining the innovative capacity of the private sector....... of the reality of taking decisions on innovation. The chapters cover: - The social context for individual acts of creative insight - The development of the technology-market relationship - The management of R&D and technological standards - Technological competition - The role of institutions of finance...
This book reports the composite science and technology innovation index with the purpose, process, conception and, the method of evaluation. It also indicates the result of composite science and technology innovation index in 2010, which itemizes the result according to resource, activity network, environment and outcome. The last part records analysis of science and technology innovation in Korea and development plan with various analysis.
Why do perceptions about the negative and positive aspects of science, technology, and innovation differ among individuals and across countries? What types of technology do we fear and what types do we embrace? Amongst the general population, which group is most comfortable with new technology and which group is most sceptical about its diffusion? Why are scientific careers popular in some countries and not in others? In the end, is there any relationship between appreciation for science and well-being? How is our relationship with technology linked to national competence and national innovation systems? These questions are of particular importance for science, technology, and innovation policy these days, as shown in some increasingly used policy concepts and keywords, such as ‘responsible research and innovation’, ‘societal impact of science’, ‘science and society’, and ‘innovation for societal issues’. As science and innovation activities are globalized, these ‘cultural’ factors have also gained global importance. In light of the importance of science and innovation culture as a foundation of science, technology and innovation policymaking, a future research aggenda to advance our understanding and measurement is proposed. (Author)
Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Frolova, P.; Groen, Arend J.
This paper presents a study on the determinants of entrepreneurial culture in innovative biotech clusters. A literature review led to the identification of nine determinants. For the empirical study four clusters in Western Europe with a high entrepreneurial culture were selected. Cluster
van der Wurff, R.; Leenders, M.; Dal Zotto, C.; van Kranenburg, H.
Innovation is an important dimension of company performance, especially in the media industry where yesterday’s news is old news, audience tastes are shifting unexpectedly, and technology is changing at the proverbial Internet speed. In this paper, we discuss innovative performance in relation to
acquisition. The findings indicate that technology licensing is positively related to the number of inventions produced by the licensee in the years subsequent to the licensing deal. Subsequently, I investigate the moderating effect that organizational slack and myopia have on this main relationship....... The findings also suggest that high levels of Organizational Slack (available financial resources) strengthen the positive effect of licensing on innovation. However, higher levels of Organizational Myopia (the extent to which a firm draws on its own knowledge) can decrease the main effect of licensing....
Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark...... countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation....
Holznagel, Donald C.
Introduces the term "orgware" and reviews the literature on managing technological innovation in instructional settings. Six areas of management concern are described, and advice on managing innovation and change is provided. (11 references) (GLR)
Yow, J.L. Jr.
These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested
Yow, J.L. Jr.
These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing
Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)
Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.
Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia G.; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L.; Clark, William C.
Sustainable development requires harnessing technological innovation to improve human well-being in current and future generations. However, poor, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic or political power to shape innovation processes to meet their needs. Issues arise at all stages of innovation, from invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Three insights should inform efforts to intervene in innovation syste...
Jonas Pedro Fabris
Full Text Available This theoretical paper aimed to explicit, through the rescue of theoretical assumptions, the innovation, the innovation system, and the research and development (R & D activities. The innovation, especially technological innovation, is now seen as essential in differentiation strategies, competitiveness and growth in a greater number of businesses. Innovation is not only the result of financial investments by companies. For it to exist, it is necessary the existence of innovative capacity that should be present at all stages of the innovation process, and a favorable institutional environment and, increasingly, of specific incentive policies. That is, there are internal and external factors to companies and other institutions involved in the process. Innovation systems were discovered to resolve the variations in the degree of competitiveness of different economies and, above all, in relation to the technological performance and the ability to innovate these economies face the growing importance of international markets for high-tech products. Thus, it was found that successful innovators are not successful just because of their personal qualities and actions but as a result of their interaction with research and innovation systems that inhabit the quality of such systems.
Full Text Available Science fiction participates to the creation of a global culture of innovation. It is diffused in most of the developed countries to promote technical innovation and has motivated a lot of actors of capitalism to imitate the utopian technologies represented in these very popular movies and novels. The stake of this article is to define the strategic habitus in a cultural environment constituted of multiple centers of Research and Development (R&D organized in network. The management of science fiction is necessary to optimize innovation at a global level. After the step of the ideological filtering of science fiction, the construction of discursive philters permits to manage productive systems with common and normalized cultural considerations. The approaches of sensemaking, storytelling and “strategy as discourse” are used at the theoretical level.
Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.
Hjalager, Anne Mette
It is only recently that the "innovation systems approach" has become a framework for micro-economic research in new institutional economics in tourism-related businesses and activities. There is still much to be explored. Cultural tourism phenomena constitute noteworthy objects for illustrative...... case studies, embedded as they are in business as well as maintaining relations with public governance structures and voluntary organizations. Since 1971, Roskilde Festival (Denmark) has developed its role as a leading element in an emerging cultural innovation system. Festival organizers maintain long...
scenario designed for technology education in grades 7 - 9 in Danish schools. In the paper, methodological challenges of doing design-based research into technology innovation education are discussed. The preliminary results from the first studies of a game-inspired technology innovation camp are also...
Kryukov, Vladimir; Gorin, Alexey
This paper analyses the use of digital technology-based education innovations in higher education. It demonstrated that extensive implementation of digital technologies in universities is the main factor conditioning the acceleration of innovative changes in educational processes, while digital technologies themselves become one of the key…
Larisa Alexejevna Ismagilova
Full Text Available We consider the topical issue of implementation of innovative technologies in the aircraft engine building industry. In this industry, products with high reliability requirements are developed and mass-produced. These products combine the latest achievements of science and technology. To make a decision on implementation of innovative technologies, a comprehensive assessment is carried out. It affects the efficiency of the innovations realization. In connection with this, the assessment of quality of innovative technologies is a key aspect in the selection of technological processes for their implementation. Problems concerning assessment of the quality of new technologies and processes of production are considered in the suggested method with respect to new positions. The developed method of assessing the quality of innovative technologies stands out for formed system of the qualimetric characteristics ensuring the effectiveness, efficiency, adaptability of innovative technologies and processes. The feature of suggested system of assessment is that it is based on principles of matching and grouping of quality indicators of innovative technologies and the characteristics of technological processes. The indicators are assessed from the standpoint of feasibility, technologies competiveness and commercial demand of products. In this paper, we discuss the example of implementing the approach of assessing the quality of the innovative technology of high-tech products such as turbine aircraft engine.
Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay
The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...... attention to the role of culturally-variable dimensions, including communication preferences, in the design, implementation, and use of ICTs - and thereby helping to bring into the mainstream of related scholarship and research (e.g., HCI, etc.) what was then a novel perspective and series of questions...
Larisa Alexejevna Ismagilova; Nadegda Aleksandrovna Sukhova
We consider the topical issue of implementation of innovative technologies in the aircraft engine building industry. In this industry, products with high reliability requirements are developed and mass-produced. These products combine the latest achievements of science and technology. To make a decision on implementation of innovative technologies, a comprehensive assessment is carried out. It affects the efficiency of the innovations realization. In connection with this, the assessment of qu...
In the spring tide of market economy at present, the enterprise is a must to survive in order to achieve innovation, promote enterprise's core competitiveness. Enterprise innovation culture, the promotion enterprise's core competitiveness plays an important role in promoting, therefore must complete enterprise innovation culture. Therefore, put forward by enterprise innovation culture, promote enterprise's core competitiveness.
McCarthy, Avril D; Sproson, Lise; Wells, Oliver; Tindale, Wendy
This paper describes and discusses the role of unmet needs in the innovation of new medical technologies using the National Institute for Health Research Devices for Dignity (D4D) Healthcare Technology Co-operative as a case study. It defines an unmet need, providing a spectrum of classification and discusses the benefits and the challenges of identifying unmet need and its influence on the innovation process. The process by which D4D has captured and utilized unmet needs to drive technology innovation is discussed and examples given. It concludes by arguing that, despite the challenges, defining and reviewing unmet need is a fundamental factor in the success of medical technology innovation.
Morales, Antonio Adrián Arciénaga; Nielsen, Janni; Bacarini, Hernán Alberto
different ways to obtain a panoply of competencies to identify technology and innovation management issues at individual business and regional level, particularly for small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The model addresses innovation challenges related to new innovative relationships and product...
Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the technological audit performing in the companies of oil and gas sector of Russian economy. To measure the innovations quality level the scale was developed based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving and the theory of technological structures. Figures of the innovations quantity by levels, volume and quality of the innovative portfolio are offered for assessment the innovative portfolio quality. The method was tested on an example of oil and gas transporting enterprises. The results of the comparative analysis of innovative portfolio are shown.
Haen, Dirk; Sneijder, Petra; te Molder, Hedwig Frederica Maria; Swierstra, Tsjalling; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Oosterlaken, Ilse; Romijn, Henny; Swierstra, Tsjalling; van den Hoven, Jeroen
Responsible innovation requires mutual responsiveness between various stakeholders around technological innovation. But in public engagement exercises, concerns about ethical, cultural and political impacts are too easily set aside, so that no one is actually encouraged to discuss responsibilities
The aim of this paper is to discuss the first results and methodological challenges and perspectives of designing game-inspired scenarios for implementation of innovation processes into schools' science education. This paper comprises and report on a case study of a game-inspired innovation...... scenario designed for technology education in grades 7 - 9 in Danish schools. In the paper, methodological challenges of doing design-based research into technology innovation education are discussed. The preliminary results from the first studies of a game-inspired technology innovation camp are also...... presented, along with discussions of the future of development of these educational spaces....
Berglund, Henrik; Hellström, Tomas
The present study aims at investigating the role of risk in the activity of independent technological venturing. Altogether, 12 deep-interviews were conducted with technological entrepreneurs, who had taken part in the inventive, developmental and the commercialisation phases of a technology......-based innovation process. The interviews revealed a number of enactment approaches through which these innovators encountered and affected (dealt with or transformed) risk within the innovation process. Factors thus developed from the empirical material included human capital, pace and priority, the world moves...... for the benefit of innovation management....
Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia G; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L; Clark, William C
This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset.
Anadon, Laura Diaz; Harley, Alicia G.; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L.
This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset. PMID:27519800
.... This innovative technology applies to both new construction or rehabilitation projects. This TDS introduces this low maintenance solar technology for consideration in all future industrial ventilation or HVAC projects...
Yock, Paul G; Brinton, Todd J; Zenios, Stefanos A
Recently, universities in the United States and abroad have developed dedicated educational programs in life science technology innovation. Here, we discuss the two major streams of educational theory and practice that have informed these programs: design thinking and entrepreneurship education. We make the case that the process of innovation for new medical technologies (medtech) is different from that for biopharmaceuticals and outline the challenges and opportunities associated with developing a discipline of medtech innovation.
King, Kathy P.
"Technology and Innovation in Adult Learning" introduces educators and students to the intersection of adult learning and the growing technological revolution. Written by an internationally recognized expert in the field, this book explores the theory, research, and practice driving innovation in both adult learning and learning…
Stukalenko, Nina M.; Zhakhina, Bariya B.; Kukubaeva, Asiya K.; Smagulova, Nurgul K.; Kazhibaeva, Gulden K.
In modern society, innovation technologies expand to almost every field of human activity, including such wide field as education. Due to integrating innovation technologies into the educational process practice, this phenomenon gained special significance within improvement and modernization of the established educational system. Currently, the…
The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...
This paper revisits the 'what causes innovation - market pull or technology push?' debate to argue that the conceptualisation is flawed and that the firm is the only 'agent' capable of innovative action. The paper differentiates between 'use', 'need' and 'intended use' to obtain greater precision...... with respect to the technology-market matching process that is fundamental to innovation. The validity of the approach is demonstrated through empirical examples. These examples also show the value of distinguishing between two types of market concept used by the innovating firm. These are the 'reference...... market' which is a traded product that is a principal source of 'use' ideas for the mental construction of the 'innovation market' concept. It is the latter that can be thought to guide the construction of innovative production technology....
Yinxing Hong; Yao Lu; Jianghuai Zheng
In light of the relationship and the current disconnection between science & technology (S&T) innovation and industrial innovation in China,it is necessary to put forward and emphasize the concept of industrialized innovation.Industrialized innovation is the bridge and intermediation between S&T innovation and industrial innovation,which is not only a concept,but also a mechanism and combination force.There are two ways to achieve industrialized innovation:through industry-university-research coordination and through technology entrepreneurship.The meaning of industry-university-research coordination is not about coordination among industry,university and research sectors in an institutional sense;rather it is about the coordination of the functions of cultivation and development in new industries,new technologies,and new talents of industrialized innovation.The incentive mechanism for industrialized innovation should motivate not only innovation but also coordination.Technology entrepreneurship is the industrialization of new technology through business start-ups,which occurs beyond the stage of incubation and development of new technology.The capital of technology entrepreneurship is the set consisting of knowledge capital manifested through technological innovation,human capital manifested through entrepreneurs,and physical capital in the form of venture capital.While physical capital is indispensable,knowledge capital and human capital play the decisive role in technology entrepreneurship.The industrialization of technological innovation involves two requirements:one is to enable the new technology industry to achieve a large scale rapidly,and the other is to fully realize the potential value of the new technology.Both requirements are reliant on effective innovation in business models.
Gabriela Gonçalves Silveira Fiates
Full Text Available Innovation has been identified as a strategy to achieve competitive advantage, particularly in contexts of change and especially for technology-based companies – TBCs. Although the adoption of innovation strategies is not easy, small companies have an organizational environment more conducive to innovation. This article examines how managers and employees of small TBCs perceive aspects of the internal environment of innovation in the organization (culture, organizational structure, personnel and infrastructure and their suitability for the innovation process. This is a qualitative research from a multicase study on five companies located in an incubator. Data were collected through open interviews, using a semi-structured script, with one of the managers and two employees from each company. Data were analyzed from preliminary content analysis. The results showed some discrepancies between the perceptions of managers and employees about the issues investigated and their suitability for the innovation system, as well as between reality and the theoretical basis used.
Bajde, Domen; Ottlewski, Lydia
Purpose We introduce the concept of social-economic innovation (SEI) and point to cultural challenges involved in instituting SEI. In the second part of the paper, we delve into the alternative exchange system of “Housing for help” (HFH) to explore the challenging negotiation of roles and relations...... of the cultural processes and challenges involved in instituting unconventional social-economic systems. The paucity of existent research and the preliminary nature of our study call for further investigation. Practical implications The study informs individual and institutional efforts to negotiate...
Innovative grouting and retrieval (IGR) technology provides an innovative and cost-effective approach for full-pit and hot-spot retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste sites and in situ disposal of buried waste with improved confinement. Innovative grouting technology: minimizes spreading of contamination by agglomerating the soil particles containing plutonium/americium particulates into nonaerosolizable particles; minimizes worker risks and exposure; is more effective in controlling the spread of contamination than common mining practices such as directed air flow, misting, and fixant sprays; eliminates further treatment because the grouted, rubberized waste is ready for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); reduces capital expenditures, operating costs, and containment structure requirements; and is an estimated five times faster than the baseline technology of removal, packaging, and storage
Full Text Available This magazine issue is about the relationship between digital techniques and the communication of cultural heritage and specifically aims at portraying how the interest and implications of these two things are widespread. Without trying to go too in depth, various points of view have been compared, each taken from different articles presenting a wide range of possible approaches on the subject of creating a wealth of information on cultural heritage and how it can be made available to the public without difficulty. Therefore, this issue wants to create a forum for a many-sided comparison built on a wealth of experience and opinions of different authors. In this way the abundance and versatility of the contributing professions (architects, archaeologists, engineers, mathematicians, graphic designers, artists, video producers, digital experts, 3D graphic designers, critics, directors, etc. has given life to a precious blend of know-how, which is without doubt enhanced by present-day digital technology.
Full Text Available The importance of innovation was long underestimated in service activities. In contrast to the radical innovations vital to growth in manufacturing sectors, innovations in services and tourism were secondary and capital-scarce, and for this reason they were excluded from the scope of government interest and action. It is interesting to note that the discourse changed with the emergence of new information and communication technologies, which have been especially influential in the realm of tourism.
This study aims to represent innovative technologies and strategies to preserve the cultural heritage structures against earthquake effect. In particular, the application of fibre reinforced polymers and structural control systems are explained. Suitability of the strategies to architectural, historical and structural features and reversibility aspects are evaluated. As a case study the application of these strategies to a historical building in Istanbul is discussed.
This paper examines the methodological challenges and perspectives of designing game-like scenarios for the implementation of innovation processes in school science education. This paper presents a design-based research study of a game-like innovation scenario designed for technology education for Danish public school students aged 13-15. Students…
The NHS is perceived to be slower than other healthcare systems in adopting innovative technologies that can deliver patient benefits. This article summarises what is known about the role of nurses in assimilating such innovations into clinical care, and outlines the challenges facing nurse leaders.
This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...
Kuusinen, T.L.; Siegel, M.R.
The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs
Technology and innovation can drive economic growth, help solve social and ... capacities within developing countries to create inclusive growth and poverty ... science, population and public health, and health systems research relevant to the ...
The Water Technology Innovation Blueprint offers an overview of market opportunities that include conserving and recovering energy, recovering nutrients, improving water infrastructure, reducing costs for water monitoring, and improving water quality.
Full Text Available . Figure 1: IBT delivery flowchart Proceedings 11th Built Environment Conference 6 th August – 8 th August 2017 Delivering construction projects using innovative building technologies Durban, South Africa 5. REFERENCES Ampofo-Anti, N...
Consumers, the food industry and the regulatory agencies demand the innovative technologies to provide safe and stable foods. Nonthermal processing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the food industry to market safe, high quality health-promoting foods. Those innovative food processing is often perceived as an alternative to thermal food processing, yet there are many nonthermal preparatory unit operations as well as food processing and preservation opportunitie...
Richard C.M. Yam; William Lo; Esther P.Y. Tang; Antonio; K.W. Lau
Technological innovation capability (TIC) is defined as a comprehensive set of characteristics of a firm that facilities and supports its technological innovation strategies. An audit to evaluate the TICs of a firm may trigger improvement in its future practices. Such an audit can be used by the firm for self assessment or third-party independent assessment to identify problems of its capability status. This paper attempts to develop such an auditing framework that can...
Stverkova, H.; Vaclavik, V.
The need for sustainability increasingly influences the development of new technologies, business processes and working practices. Innovations are an important part of all business processes. The aim of innovation is, in particular, to reduce the burden on the environment. The current trend in the construction industry is diamond rope cutting. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the most advanced technology for cutting and removing concrete structures in terms of efficiency.
Climate change response, including implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. One of the important agreements in several declarations, including the Kyoto protocol, has been to promote and coordinate...... the collaboration between the countries in the necessary technological development. The paper encourage that the Kyoto mechanisms will be used for acceleration of the necessary technical innovation in Denmark....
This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005
... as determined by a Steering Committee of experts drawn from government agencies, universities and research institutions all over the country. It is expected to generate a body of evidence that will aid Chinese policymakers to develop and implement effective policies for enhancing indigenous innovations in the west.
Technological innovation is not only a direct result of the economic resources allocated to research and development activities. It is also the result of the creation and organization of a complex innovation system that aims to involve different actors and stake holders along a process based on different stages ranging from scientific discovery to technological maturity. Risk and funds sharing between public and private sectors is a key element for the transition of a technology towards its commercialization, without which the innovation process is likely to remain trapped in the so-called “Valley of death” of a technology. Overcoming this barrier request a process based on three pillars: research, demonstration and production of a specific technology [it
Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh
In this article we investigate how social media-based crowdsourcing systems can be used to reengineer the innovation culture in an organization. Based on a case study of a large engineering consultancy’s use of a social media crowdsourcing system we investigate the impact on the organizations...... innovation culture using theory on organizational culture and crowdsourcing. The analysis shows that the organizational crowdsourcing event has supported an innovation culture change in the case company towards a more including approach to innovation; creating a new and different awareness of innovation...
Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh
innovation culture using theory on organizational culture and crowdsourcing. The analysis shows that the organizational crowdsourcing event has supported an innovation culture change in the case company towards a more including approach to innovation; creating a new and different awareness of innovation......In this article we investigate how social media-based crowdsourcing systems can be used to reengineer the innovation culture in an organization. Based on a case study of a large engineering consultancy’s use of a social media crowdsourcing system we investigate the impact on the organizations...
Reid, D. S. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Wooley, T. A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, S. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)
The Technology and Innovation Roadmap is a planning tool for WRPS management, DOE ORP, DOE EM, and others to understand the risks and technology gaps associated with the RPP mission. The roadmap identifies and prioritizes technical areas that require technology solutions and underscores where timely and appropriate technology development can have the greatest impact to reduce those risks and uncertainties. The roadmap also serves as a tool for determining allocation of resources.
R. Andergassen; F. Nardini; M. Ricottilli
The paper investigates the mechanics through which novel technological principles are developed and diffused throughout an economy consisting of a technologically heterogeneous ensemble of firms. In the model entrepreneurs invest in the discovery and in the diffusion of a technological principle and their profit flow depends on how many firms adopt the innovation and on how long it takes other entrepreneurs to improve it. We show that technological convergence emerges from the competition amo...
Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Nandi, Dipankar
Technological innovation within health care may be defined as the introduction of a new technology that initiates a change in clinical practice. Neurosurgery is a particularly technology-intensive surgical discipline, and new technologies have preceded many of the major advances in operative neurosurgical techniques. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery using patents and peer-reviewed publications as metrics of technology development and clinical translation, respectively. The authors searched a patent database for articles published between 1960 and 2010 using the Boolean search term "neurosurgeon OR neurosurgical OR neurosurgery." The top 50 performing patent codes were then grouped into technology clusters. Patent and publication growth curves were then generated for these technology clusters. A top-performing technology cluster was then selected as an exemplar for a more detailed analysis of individual patents. In all, 11,672 patents and 208,203 publications related to neurosurgery were identified. The top-performing technology clusters during these 50 years were image-guidance devices, clinical neurophysiology devices, neuromodulation devices, operating microscopes, and endoscopes. In relation to image-guidance and neuromodulation devices, the authors found a highly correlated rapid rise in the numbers of patents and publications, which suggests that these are areas of technology expansion. An in-depth analysis of neuromodulation-device patents revealed that the majority of well-performing patents were related to deep brain stimulation. Patent and publication data may be used to quantitatively evaluate technological innovation in neurosurgery.
C.V. Heij (Kevin)
textabstractInnovation is generally considered to be a cornerstone of organizational survival in many of today’s dynamic and competitive markets. This dissertation goes beyond the dominant focus on technological innovation in innovation studies by examining how and under which conditions several
With emerging innovations, the use of technology tools to make learning process effective is foreseeable. Hence, appropriate incorporation of technology can make a valuable contribution to the learning and undoubtedly reflection is core to learning. With today's twenty-first century learners, it is important that educators advocate integrating…
This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the Mozambique Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) to govern the country's science, technology and innovation (STI) system, and of researchers and policymakers to conduct systematic reviews of STI policy implementation. It will do so by supporting a review of the ...
Full Text Available This article aimed to identify those issues that were present in global technological innovation projects carried out by Brazilian multinational companies and which performance criterions these undertakings met. We investigated 36 global technological innovation projects from Brazilian multinational enterprises through a web-survey. Findings show that these companies went beyond the traditional iron triangle to evaluate their technological efforts and considered additional performance dimensions such as customer satisfaction, business results, and preparation for the future. Results also show high degree of presence for issues emerging from the industry, moderate degree of presence for issues emerging from both the project and R&D activities, and low degree of presence for issues emerging from the headquarters, the subsidiaries, and the external environment. Further research is needed to find out if and how these issues influenced the performance of the global technological innovation projects studied.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i1.72
Climate change response, including the implementation of the Kyoto targets as the first step, calls for technological innovation of future sustainable energy systems. Based on the Danish case, this paper evaluates the type of technological change necessary. During a period of 30 years, Denmark managed to stabilize primary energy supply, and CO 2 emissions decreased by 10%, during a period of 20 years. However, after the introduction of the Kyoto Mechanisms, Denmark has changed its strategy. Instead of continuing the domestic CO 2 emission controls, Denmark plans to buy CO 2 reductions in other countries. Consequently, the innovative technological development has changed. This paper evaluates the character of such change and makes preliminary recommendations for policies to encourage the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms as an acceleration of the necessary technological innovation. (author)
Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor)
Commercializing technology is a daunting task. Of every 11 new product ideas, only one will successfully make it to the marketplace. Fully 46% of new product investment becomes sunk in cost. Yet, a few good companies consistently attain an 80% technology commercialization success rate and have lead the way in establishing best practices. The NASA Incubator program consists of nine incubators, each residing near a NASA research center. The purpose of the incubators is to use the best practices is to use the best practices of technology commercialization to help early stage businesses successfully launch new products that incorporate NASA technology.
Choi, J. I.; Jang, S. K.; Hong, K. P.; Lee, E. S.
The research aims to investigate what key success factors (KSFs) of technological innovation in KAERI are, and to suggest how these findings are utilized for KAERI. In order to achieve these goals we have employed case study based on in-depth interview and literature review. And there are two fields of research in KAERI: one is nuclear energy-related research, the other is non energy-related research. The former is 'nuclear fuel cladding tube' which is an industrial product and being regarded as catch-up (or imitative) mode of technological innovation: the latter is 'HemoHIM', herbal composition of health functional food, which is consumer goods and regarded as creative (or innovative) mode of technological innovation. We found some KSFs in these two research and development cases in KAERI: firstly, to train researcher to be a 'product champion' who can fill in the gap of 'death valley' between pure research and commercialization: secondly, to build researchers' competency in order to catch up advanced countries' technological competencies. Thirdly, to amend institutional rules and regulations for commercializing processes of R and D outcomes, notably 'R and D joint venture by Government Research Institute (GRI) and private sector' fourthly, to enhance the capabilities of external management for researchers' technological innovation competency. And finally, we recommend using successful R and D cases as educational materials when training young researchers for sharing old generations' experiences and tacit knowledge
The vital role of advanced technology in natural gas cost reduction has been described. Among advanced technologies, seismic, drilling and fracturing technologies have been singled out as being the most important. Access to new supply frontiers (aided by the application of advanced technology), and more effective business strategies were considered as the other most influential factors in efficiently exploiting oil and gas resources. In view of predictions of substantially increased demand, advanced technology is poised to be even more important in the future. With this as background, an examination of the level of investment for the development of advanced technology revealed that energy industry R and D expenditures were lowest among industries in the U.S. (only 0.7 per cent of sales). It was concluded that notwithstanding industry's ability to improve output per R and D dollar invested, the achievement of the necessary technological advancements is a strategic imperative for both the industry and the U.S. as a whole. As far as the industry is concerned, its ability to maintain a competitive edge over competing energy forms, will be determined largely on the basis of its willingness to invest in future advanced technology development. 2 refs., 14 figs
The technological innovation systems (TIS) framework provides a theory to understand under what conditions technological innovations are successfully developed and implemented. The objective of this dissertation is to further strengthen this TIS intervention framework, which is the part of the TIS
Jørgensen, Lars Botin
kind. This discussion, of general character, constitutes the initial part of this paper. Then it briefly looks into the final terms of the papertitle and try to relate to the diffuse and discussed technological innovation. Both aspects – art and technology and technological innovation – will be dealt...... with from a historical/hermeneutic and social constructivist point of view, as the paper moves from a general principal level to a more specific, exemplary level, where three different art technologies are presented as possible propulsars in technological innovation.......Art and technology has, as the German philosopher Martin Heidegger points out, the same etymological root. A thorough investigation of the relationship between art and technology will show how this same root has manifested itself in different times and spaces bringing results of the most variegated...
INFOLOGIC Inc. All rights reserved. Innovation Management Model Product: Technology-heavy (e.g: Airplane, iPod) OR Service-heavy (e.g: Starbucks ...System, eBay) Process: Any critical business process to ensure the success of product (e.g: iTune for iPod, Marketing and Supply Chain Management...Integration and Voice of the Customer Voice of the Customer Integration M A T U R I T Y VALUE Radical Innovation Evolutionary Innovation INCREMENTAL
Lankford, J.M.; Jackson, J.P.
Newly developed technologies can and already are saving money. Other technologies under development will provide solutions to problems which are currently impossible or too expensive to address, and still others will offer alternative strategies where baseline approaches are not acceptable to the public. All of these options will be considered as the nation decides what it wishes to accomplish, and fund, to clean up the nuclear weapons complex
Full Text Available China’s logistics industry has started to pay attention to adopt more efficient logistics technologies to provide better services for their customers. This paper employes the questionnaire survey to study the factors influencing the adoption of technological innovations by logistics service providers in China as well as the influences of technological innovation on supply chain performance. Technological innovations are categorized into data acquisition technologies, information technologies, warehousing technologies, and transportation technologies. The results show that the adoption of technological innovations is significantly influenced by technological, organizational and environmental factors, and adopting innovative technologies will increase supply chain performance for the logistics industry in China.
Cone penetrometer technology (CPT) provides cost-effective, real-time data for use in the characterization of the subsurface. Recent innovations in this baseline technology allow for improved access to the subsurface for environmental restoration applications. The technology has been improved by both industry and government agencies and is constantly advancing due to research efforts. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (formerly Technology Development) has contributed significantly to these efforts. This report focuses on the advancements made in conjunction with DOE's support but recognizes Department of Defense (DOD) and industry efforts
Zhu, Chang; Engels, Nadine
This study examines teachers' and students' perceptions of the organizational culture of their universities and their views about and reactions to instructional innovations with regard to student-centred learning, collaborative learning and use of innovative educational technologies. Six Chinese universities were involved and in total 1051…
Cornejo Canamares, M.
Innovation has become one of the most important elements to increase the competitiveness of companies and countries. First, a country and a company have to create the favourable conditions that impulse the innovation and, from there, implement and negotiate their own model of culture of innovation that helps themselves to adapt and to generate new ideas. All of this supposes, in addition to an economic effort, an effort in political, social and organization transformations, for creating a good climate for the innovation. The goal of this paper is, first of all, to expose that companies need to develop a culture of innovation. Secondly, to study how the culture of innovation can influence the methods and tools of traditional enterprise management. Finally, to analyze the present situation of the R+D+i system at the European Union (EU ) and at Spain and how this situation may have influence in a country's culture of innovation. (Author) 56 refs.
Cornejo Canamares, M
Innovation has become one of the most important elements to increase the competitiveness of companies and countries. First, a country and a company have to create the favourable conditions that impulse the innovation and, from there, implement and negotiate their own model of culture of innovation that helps themselves to adapt and to generate new ideas. All of this supposes, in addition to an economic effort, an effort in political, social and organization transformations, for creating a good climate for the innovation. The goal of this paper is, first of all, to expose that companies need to develop a culture of innovation. Secondly, to study how the culture of innovation can influence the methods and tools of traditional enterprise management. Finally, to analyze the present situation of the R+D+i system at the European Union (EU ) and at Spain and how this situation may have influence in a country's culture of innovation. (Author) 56 refs.
Through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a national applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program, whose goal has been to resolve the major technical issues and rapidly advance technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The Innovative Technology Development (ITD) Program was established as a part of the DOE, Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program. The plan is part of the DOE's program to restore sites impacted by weapons production and to upgrade future waste management operations. On July 10, 1990, DOE issued a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) through the Idaho Operations Office to solicit private sector help in developing innovative technologies to support DOE's clean-up goals. This report presents summaries of each of the seven projects, which developed and tested the technologies proposed by the seven private contractors selected through the PRDA process
There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study
Full Text Available The sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs is constantly challenged on today’s dynamic operating environment. Evolving regulatory trends, difficult economic conditions, and diminishing natural resources, pose serious questions for all players across the food system. Technological innovation, as a means of ensuring future sustainability in the same in the face of such challenges, has been the focus of significant government investment in Ireland. This paper, aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the motivations and barriers influencing the decision by food SMEs to invest in technological innovation emanating from research conducted in publicly‐funded research institutes.
Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark
Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discusses the impact that computer-assisted technologies, including applications to software, video recordings, and satellite broadcasts, have had upon the conventions and procedures within engineering education. Calls for the complete utilization of such devices through their appropriate integration into updated education activities effectively…
Planko, Julia; Cramer, Jacqueline; Hekkert, Marko P.; Chappin, Maryse M H
For their technological sustainability innovations to become successful, entrepreneurs can strategically shape the technological field in which they are involved. The technological innovation systems (TISs) literature has generated valuable insights into the processes which need to be stimulated for
Iriti, Jennifer; Bickel, William; Schunn, Christian; Stein, Mary Kay
Education innovations often have a complicated set of assumptions about the contexts in which they are implemented, which may not be explicit. Education technology innovations in particular may have additional technical and cultural assumptions. As a result, education technology research and development efforts as well as scaling efforts can be…
Grubler, A.; Aguayo, F.; Gallagher, K.; Hekkert, M.P.; Jiang, K.; Mytelka, L.; Neij, L.; Nemet, G.; Wilson, C.
Innovation and technological change are integral to the energy system transformations described in the Global Energy Assessment (GEA) pathways. Energy technology innovations range from incremental improvements to radical breakthroughs and from technologies and infrastructure to social institutions
Full Text Available . The present paper attempts to investigate the role of six Industry Support Institutions in fostering innovation culture in manufacturing sector of Punjab in India. Some path breaking technological innovations have been introduced by the Institutions. These highly interactive, self-reliant institutes are the virtual In-house R&D to SMEs. Knowledge accumulations in the institutes also offer a platform for exchange of ideas which further facilitate the process of open innovation. The speedy and efficient dissemination of technical know-how by these institutes have brought creativity and innovativeness among SMEs of the region. Keywords: Industry Support Institutions, Open Innovation, Small and Medium Enterprises.
The technologies of interest are deter- mined by an expert interagency body with industry input. Focus areas include lightweight alloys, digitization...35—Northrop Grumman and BAE—are all making investments that will reduce government cost and achieve a higher return for the industry participants...all the equipment that we acquired to test once the wall came down and the Russians were desper- ate for any source of cash . The other was at the
This section summarizes the demonstration of an Infrared-based Non-Intrusive Liquid Level Detection Technology (NLLDT) at the 221-U Facility located within the Hanford site. This demonstration was conducted by Infrared, Inc. of Reno Nevada in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford Inc. (Environmental Restoration Contractor) and DOE Engineers. The Infrared Imaging System demonstrated by Infrared, Inc. provides an attractive alternative to the baseline technology which employs mechanical methods of opening vessels to detect liquid level. An Infrared Imaging Systems is able to exploit the variations in physical properties of tanks, vessels and piping systems and the enclosed liquid and air to produce clearly defined locations of liquids, if they exist. For decontamination and commissioning (D and D) projects, the use of the NLLDT System to detect liquids in vessels eliminates the need to physically open and inspect these vessels. Risks to workers associated with gaining access to these type objects and the possible exposure to radioactive or contaminated materials can nearly be eliminated. This demonstration was conducted with the goal of characterizing a number of target vessels located on the deck of the 221 U Facility. This technology is suitable for DOE nuclear facilities D and D sites or similar public or commercial sites that must be decontaminated
Kandler, Anne; Laland, Kevin N
In this paper we apply reaction-diffusion models to explore the relationship between the rate of behavioural innovation and the level of cultural diversity. We investigate how both independent invention and the modification and refinement of established innovations impact on cultural dynamics and diversity. Further, we analyse these relationships in the presence of biases in cultural learning and find that the introduction of new variants typically increases cultural diversity substantially in the short term, but may decrease long-term diversity. Independent invention generally supports higher levels of cultural diversity than refinement. Repeated patterns of innovation through refinement generate characteristic oscillating trends in diversity, with increasing trends towards greater average diversity observed for medium but not low innovation rates. Conformity weakens the relationship between innovation and diversity. The level of cultural diversity, and pattern of temporal dynamics, potentially provide clues as to the underlying process, which can be used to interpret empirical data.
Larsen, Casper Schultz; Koch, Christian
by systems already in function. Stories of prior business successes can be an important tool to ensure further innovative investments since lack of enterprise strategies is often an obstacle for innovation, especially user driven. Both small and large software houses develops dedicated software for coupling...... technology systems relying on the concept of affordance. This paper examines how innovation processes mediate between user orientations and technology offers. There is a great potential for mobile handheld ICT-systems to support numerous work processes in the AEC-industry and this can be substantiated...... site practises, and headquarters - inspired by specific user needs for optimizing work processes. The most important mechanisms evoked for creating the mediating found in the paper are ‘hybrids’ where professionals from AEC establishes a software house, developing ICT-products for specific on...
At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer
Full Text Available efficacy when they engage with emerging technologies. The concept of moral cohesion is further expanded and forms the main focus of this article. Keywords: emerging technologies, innovative teachers, moral cohesion, pedagogies, ethics, teacher.... African Renaissance and teacher disposition is identified as the strongest drivers. Teacher training forms the link between the strong drivers and the outcomes manifest as Stewardship and ethical considerations. 3.2 Professional Burden The theme...
Raouf Boucekkine; Natali Hritonenko; Yuri Yatsenko
Work significantly affects human life and health. Overworking may decrease the quality of life and cause direct economic losses. Technological innovations encourage modernization of firms' capital and improve labor productivity in the workplace. The paper investigates the optimal individual choice of work intensity under improving technology embodied in new equipment leading to shorter lifetime of capital goods (obsolescence). The balanced growth trajectories are analyzed in this context to f...
Madsen, Arne Stjernholm; Ulhøi, John Parm
(Internet technology), which transcends the traditional business of the company in question. It illustrates what goes wrong when innovative human resources do not succeed in becoming integrated into the rest of the host organization and therefore may become trapped by their own passion in a position as self...
This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...
Weber, Nicole L.; Barth, Dylan J.
Members of the UWM CETL online and blended faculty development team share innovative technological and pedagogical strategies that they currently utilize to motivate and assist instructors in developing courses for the online or blended environments, and they discuss the lessons learned from incorporating active learning, open content, bring your…
Full Text Available The Val di Noto is an area characterized by historical, cultural, architectural and urban heritage that belonging to the WHL, but also, by other highly qualified resources of the environmental, agricultural, social and political-institutional type.An strategic planning approach may help to create a coordinated and sustainable development for all the territorial components and, therefore, may generate a sustainable socioeconomic development. In particular, in the era of globalization, the territorial marketing has a new field of action, the internet marketspace, and new tools to support the marketing actions by the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs. The study proposes a methodological approach to analyze the efficiency of the web marketing in the Management Plan of the area.
innovations, thus shaping the value of technologies as cultural resources sustaining consumer identities. In its urge to shed light on these aspects, CCT tends to reinforce the gaps and asymmetries between the “socio-cultural” and the “techno-material”, leaving plenty of room for further study. The authors......Consumer culture theory helps us take note of the cultural forces and dynamics in which technology consumption is entangled. It enables people to articulate the cultural processes (ideological, mythic, ritualistic, etc.) through which cultural meanings become granted to or denied to technological...
One of the most puzzling features of the prehistoric record of hominid stone tools is its apparent punctuation: it consists of abrupt bursts of dramatic change that separate long periods of largely unchanging technology. Within each such period, small punctuated cultural modifications take place. Punctuation on multiple timescales and magnitudes is also found in cultural trajectories from historical times. To explain these sharp cultural bursts, researchers invoke such external factors as sudden environmental change, rapid cognitive or morphological change in the hominids that created the tools, or replacement of one species or population by another. Here we propose a dynamic model of cultural evolution that accommodates empirical observations: without invoking external factors, it gives rise to a pattern of rare, dramatic cultural bursts, interspersed by more frequent, smaller, punctuated cultural modifications. Our model includes interdependent innovation processes that occur at different rates. It also incorporates a realistic aspect of cultural evolution: cultural innovations, such as those that increase food availability or that affect cultural transmission, can change the parameters that affect cultural evolution, thereby altering the population’s cultural dynamics and steady state. This steady state can be regarded as a cultural carrying capacity. These parameter-changing cultural innovations occur very rarely, but whenever one occurs, it triggers a dramatic shift towards a new cultural steady state. The smaller and more frequent punctuated cultural changes, on the other hand, are brought about by innovations that spur the invention of further, related, technology, and which occur regardless of whether the population is near its cultural steady state. Our model suggests that common interpretations of cultural shifts as evidence of biological change, for example the appearance of behaviorally modern humans, may be unwarranted. PMID:28036346
Choi, J. I. [Habat Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, S. K. [Sungkonghoe Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, K. P. [Baekseok Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. S. [National Fusion Research Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The research aims to investigate what key success factors (KSFs) of technological innovation in KAERI are, and to suggest how these findings are utilized for KAERI. In order to achieve these goals we have employed case study based on in-depth interview and literature review. And there are two fields of research in KAERI: one is nuclear energy-related research, the other is non energy-related research. The former is 'nuclear fuel cladding tube' which is an industrial product and being regarded as catch-up (or imitative) mode of technological innovation: the latter is 'HemoHIM', herbal composition of health functional food, which is consumer goods and regarded as creative (or innovative) mode of technological innovation. We found some KSFs in these two research and development cases in KAERI: firstly, to train researcher to be a 'product champion' who can fill in the gap of 'death valley' between pure research and commercialization: secondly, to build researchers' competency in order to catch up advanced countries' technological competencies. Thirdly, to amend institutional rules and regulations for commercializing processes of R and D outcomes, notably 'R and D joint venture by Government Research Institute (GRI) and private sector' fourthly, to enhance the capabilities of external management for researchers' technological innovation competency. And finally, we recommend using successful R and D cases as educational materials when training young researchers for sharing old generations' experiences and tacit knowledge.
In the knowledge economy, greater togetherness is the prerequisite for innovating and having more: selflessness extends scope while selfishness increases limitations. But human beings are not automatically attracted to innovation: between the two lies culture, and cultural values vary widely, with the egoistic accent or the altruistic intonation…
Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer
This paper examined the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…
Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Martel, Mary K., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jaffray, David A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Deye, James [Radiation Research Programs, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Jeraj, Robert [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Mankoff, David [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Ollendorf, Daniel [Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others
Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology,” which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.
Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W
Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chetty, Indrin J.; Martel, Mary K.; Jaffray, David A.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A.; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B.; Ollendorf, Daniel
Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology,” which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.
Yang Hua; Zhou Yu
Different from the other technological innovation processes, the technological innovation process of nuclear power engineering project is influenced deeply by the extensive environmental factors, the technological innovation of nuclear power engineering project needs to make an effort to reduce environmental uncertainty. This paper had described the mechanism of connection technological innovation process of nuclear power engineering project with environmental factors, and issued a feasible method based on model of bargaining to incorporate technological innovation process management of nuclear power engineering project with environmental factors. This method has realistic meanings to guide the technological innovation of nuclear power engineering project. (authors)
Tereso, M J A; Abrahão, R F; Gemma, S F B; Montedo, U B; Menegon, N L; Guarneti, J E; Ribeiro, I A V
Organic agriculture is a sustainable cultivation ecologically, economically and socially. Several researches in organic agriculture have been made from technical perspectives, economic traits or related to ecological aspects. There are practically no investigations into the nature of the technology used in organic agriculture, especially from an ergonomic perspective. From the activity analysis, this study aimed to map the technology used in the production of organic vegetables. Properties producing organic vegetables were selected representing the State of São Paulo. It was applied an instrument (questionnaire and semi-structured interview) with their managers and it was made visual records to identify adaptations, innovations and technological demands that simultaneously minimize the workload and the difficulties in performing the tasks and increase work productivity. For some of the technological innovations a digital scanner was used to generate a virtual solid model to facilitate its redesign and virtual prototyping. The main results show that organic farmers have little technology in product form. The main innovations that enable competitive advantage or allow higher labor productivity occur in the form of processes, organization and marketing.
Bhatt, Nikita R; Davis, Niall F; Dalton, David M; McDermott, Ted; Flynn, Robert J; Thomas, Arun Z; Manecksha, Rustom P
To assess major areas of technological innovation in urology in the last 20 years using patent and publication data. Patent and MEDLINE databases were searched between 1980 and 2012 electronically using the terms urology OR urological OR urologist AND "surgeon" OR "surgical" OR "surgery". The patent codes obtained were grouped in technology clusters, further analyzed with individual searches, and growth curves were plotted. Growth rates and patterns were analyzed, and patents were correlated with publications as a measure of scientific support and of clinical adoption. The initial search revealed 417 patents and 20,314 publications. The top 5 technology clusters in descending order were surgical instruments including urinary catheters, minimally invasive surgery (MIS), lasers, robotic surgery, and image guidance. MIS and robotic surgery were the most emergent clusters in the last 5 years. Publication and patent growth rates were closely correlated (Pearson coefficient 0.78, P innovation and adoption into clinical practice. Patent metrics identify emergent technological innovations and such trends are valuable to understand progress in the field of urology. New surgical technologies like robotic surgery and MIS showed exponential growth in the last decade with good scientific vigilance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D'Anza, Brian; Sindwani, Raj; Woodard, Troy D
Since being introduced more than 10 years ago, balloon catheter technology (BCT) has undergone several generations of innovations. From construction to utilization, there has been a myriad of advancements in balloon technology. The ergonomics of the balloon dilation systems have improved with a focus on limiting the extra assembly. "Hybrid" BCT procedures have shown promise in mucosal preservation, including treating isolated complex frontal disease. Multiple randomized clinical trials report improved long-term outcomes in stand-alone BCT, including in-office use. The ever-expanding technological innovations ensure BCT will be a key component in the armamentarium of the modern sinus surgeon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shkol'nik, V.S.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.
At present in the Republic of Kazakhstan in preparation and realization stage there are several innovation projects related with use of advanced nuclear technologies. Projects are as follows: 'Implementation of Kazakhstan thermonuclear reactor tokamak (KTM)'; 'Implementation at the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University the inter-disciplinary research complex on the heavy ions accelerator base'; 'Development of the Technological Park 'Nuclear Technologies Center in Kurchatov city'; 'Development the first in the Central-Asian region Center of Nuclear Medicine and Biophysics'. The initiator and principal operator of these projects is the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan
This presentation is a big picture overview on the changing state of air measurement technology in the world, with a focus on the introduction of low-cost sensors into the market place. The presentation discusses how these new technologies may be a case study in disruptive innovation for the air pollution measurement field. The intended audience is primarily those with experience in air pollution measurement methods, but much of the talk is accessible to the general public. This is a keynote presentation on emerging air monitoring technology, to be provided at the AWMA measurements conference in March, 2016.
Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Slepniov, Dmitrij
This paper advances our understanding of how technology upgrading in the Chinese wind turbine industry is linked to internationalisation of Danish component suppliers. In order to grasp the interlinkages and implications hereof, the paper combines perspectives of global value chains (GVC), national.......e. linking up with global suppliers in the wind turbine global value chain, and the new role of component suppliers as technology transmitters across national innovation systems into emerging markets. Conceptually, the paper contributes to understanding how technological catching up in value chains links...
Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Slepniov, Dmitrij
This paper advances our understanding of how technology upgrading in the Chinese wind turbine industry is linked to internationalisation of Danish component suppliers. In order to grasp the interlinkages and implications hereof, the paper combines perspectives of global value chains (GVC), national.......e. linking up with global suppliers in the wind turbine global value chain, and the new role of component suppliers as technology transmitters across national innovation systems into emerging markets. Conceptually, the paper contributes to understanding how technological catching up in value chains links...
Full Text Available Mobile and ubiquitous technologies can potentially change the role of information and communication technology in human lives. Empirical, human-centered approaches are emerging as an alternative to technology-driven approaches in the innovation of these technologies. Three necessary empirical stages, intertwined with analytical ones and with each informing and grounding the succeeding stages, are analyzed. First, needfinding is utilized to discover societal and individual demands for technology. Second, observational and experimental studies examine the social and cognitive preconditions for interaction. From these two steps, a hypothesis is formulated regarding how technology will change existing practices. Finally, this hypothesis, embodied in the design of a prototype, is tested in a field trial. Four design cases illustrate the value of empirical grounding.
The technological innovation systems (TIS) framework provides a theory to understand under what conditions technological innovations are successfully developed and implemented. The objective of this dissertation is to further strengthen this TIS intervention framework, which is the part of the TIS theoretical framework that facilitates the identification of inhibiting problems and the formulation of interventions. Theoretical adaptations and extensions are proposed and their merits subsequent...
Bulut, Cagri; Eren, Hakan; Halac, Duygu Seckin
The term "innovation" has sometimes been used as a synonym for technological innovation until the concept of "social innovation" attracted academic attention. Since then, these two types of innovation have been investigated individually. It can be claimed that, despite the great importance of social innovation studies,…
Biggs, S D; Clay, E J
This paper focuses attention on environmental and biological characteristics of agriculture which shape the process of technical innovation. The interaction of natural selection and human purposive selection and experimentation is shown to result in a continuous process of innovation placing farmers in the informal R and D systems as well as scientists in formal R and D systems in an innovative treadmill. The importance and limitations of informal R and D are reviewed. A discussion of the characteristics and potential of formal R and D systems leads to the identification of some major problems of policy inherent in, and specific to, the organization and management of agricultural research resources. These include: genetic vulnerability, choices between environmentally specific or widely adapted technologies, the location of research activity, the linkages between agricultural producers and scientists, and methods for maintaining and strengthening informal R and D systems. 58 references, 2 figures.
The Center for Environmental Technology's (CET) mission is to provide a fully integrated system for accelerated evaluation, development, commercialization, and public acceptance of creative environmental solutions which match the foremost demands in today's environmentally sensitive world. In short, CET will create a means to provide quick, effective solutions for environmental needs. To meet this mission objective, CET has created a unique and innovative approach to eliminating the usual barriers in developing and testing environmental technologies. The approach paves the way for these emerging, cutting-edge technologies by coordinating environmental restoration and waste management activities of industry, universities, and the government to: efficiently and effectively transfer technology to these users, provide market-driven, cost-effective technology programs to the public and DOE, and aid in developing innovative ideas by initiating efforts between DOE facilities and private industry. The central part to this mission is selecting and evaluating specific innovative technologies for demonstration and application at United States Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The methodology and criteria used for this selection, which is called the CET Innovative Technology Screening Process, is the subject of this paper. The selection criteria used for the screening process were modeled after other DOE technology transfer programs and were further developed by CET's Technology Screening and Evaluation Board (TSEB). The process benefits both CET and the proposing vendors by providing objective selection procedures based on predefined criteria. The selection process ensures a rapid response to proposing vendors, all technologies will have the opportunity to enter the selection process, and all technologies are evaluated on the same scale and with identical criteria
Innovative sport technology through cross-disciplinary research: Future of sport ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... of the advantages and disadvantages of innovative sport technology brought ...
Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de la Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization (STIPRO) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Tanzanie, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de ...
Full Text Available Inaugural discusses of metatheoretical innovatinal forming of upgrading the cultural health and pedagogical technology of children’s and youth’s health progress and protection systems in the system of generally educational and health-school organizations. Establishment of a dynamical cumulative knowledge exchange and cooperative harmonization of the pedagogues of teaching obligations in the constitution of knowledge management educational space on rising health culture, physicality, and enriching sport and recreative lifestyle. Working out of con ceptual structural-functional scheme of health management measures in school and of evaluation of psychophysical and functional potentials, from the aspect of personalorientation. Establishment of complex system monitoring for physical development and physical capabilities and achieved results in domain of self-organized sport and sport-recreative selected activities.
The aim of this volume is to further develop the relationship between culture and manifold phenomena of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in order to promote further and better understanding how, why, and when these phenomena are manifested themselves across different cultures. Currently, cross-cultural research is one of the most dynamically and rapidly growing areas. At the same time, creativity, inventiveness, innovation, and entrepreneurship are championed in the literature as the critical element that is vital not just for companies, but also for the development of societies. A sizable body of research demonstrates that cultural differences may foster or inhibit creative, inventive, innovative and entrepreneurial activities; and each culture has its own strengths and weaknesses in these regards. Better understanding of cultural diversity in these phenomena can help to build on strengths and overcome weaknesses. Cross-cultural studies in this field represent a comparatively new class of ...
Gattiker, Urs E.
Technological innovation affects the structure and content of jobs. Research indicates that there is a need for a theory of technological innovation and strategic human resource management considering several factors, such as an employee's beliefs about the effect of technological innovations on the quality of work life and work content.…
Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah
Modern nutritional science is providing ever more information on the functions and mechanisms of specific food components in health promotion and/or disease prevention. In response to demands from increasingly health conscious consumers, the global trend is for food industries to translate nutritional information into consumer reality by developing food products that provide not only superior sensory appeal but also nutritional and health benefits. Today's busy life styles are also driving the development of healthy convenience foods. Recent innovations in food technologies have led to the use of many traditional technologies, such as fermentation, extraction, encapsulation, fat replacement, and enzyme technology, to produce new health food ingredients, reduce or remove undesirable food components, add specific nutrient or functional ingredients, modify food compositions, mask undesirable flavors or stabilize ingredients. Modern biotechnology has even revolutionized the way foods are created. Recent discoveries in gene science are making it possible to manipulate the components in natural foods. In combination with biofermentation, desirable natural compounds can now be produced in large amounts at a low cost and with little environmental impact. Nanotechnology is also beginning to find potential applications in the area of food and agriculture. Although the use of new technologies in the production of health foods is often a cause for concern, the possibility that innovative food technology will allow us to produce a wide variety of food with enhanced flavor and texture, while at the same time conferring multiple health benefits on the consumer, is very exciting.
Classes of socio-technical hazards allow a characterization of the risk in technology innovation and clarify the mechanisms underpinning emergent technological risk. Emerging Technological Risk provides an interdisciplinary account of risk in socio-technical systems including hazards which highlight: · How technological risk crosses organizational boundaries, · How technological trajectories and evolution develop from resolving tensions emerging between social aspects of organisations and technologies and · How social behaviour shapes, and is shaped by, technology. Addressing an audience from a range of academic and professional backgrounds, Emerging Technological Risk is a key source for those who wish to benefit from a detail and methodical exposure to multiple perspectives on technological risk. By providing a synthesis of recent work on risk that captures the complex mechanisms that characterize the emergence of risk in technology innovation, Emerging Tec...
Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak
Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U
Legare, Cristine H; Nielsen, Mark
Imitation and innovation work in tandem to support cultural learning in children and facilitate our capacity for cumulative culture. Here we propose an integrated theoretical account of how the unique demands of acquiring instrumental skills and cultural conventions provide insight into when children imitate, when they innovate, and to what degree. For instrumental learning, with an increase in experience, high fidelity imitation decreases and innovation increases. By contrast, for conventional learning, imitative fidelity stays high, regardless of experience, and innovation stays low. We synthesize cutting edge research on the development of imitative flexibility and innovation to provide insight into the social learning mechanisms underpinning the uniquely human mind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deligiannaki, A; Ali, M
The development of science and technology increasing rapidly; in many cases advantageous innovations find obstacles for their establishment and in some others they simply fail. The authors of this paper demonstrate that the reason this may happen, is not depended only form the innovation itself; but the socio cultural aspects plays a fundamental role for the diffusion and the adoption of innovation. A number of studies have dealt with the diffusion and the adoption of innovation but limited r...
Dole, L.R.; Singh, S.P.N.
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) has established the Waste Management Technology Center (WMTC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in meeting the environmental requirements for federal facilities as stated in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The WMTC will bring innovative mixed chemical and radioactive waste treatment and site closure technologies to bear on the many mixed chemical and radioactive waste problems at the DOE-ORO facilities located in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio. The WMTC seeks innovative technologies through a phased procurement cycle that encourages the teaming of emerging technologies with experienced contractors in order to comply with on-site requirements of DOE orders concerning protection of the environment. This three-phase procurement cycle includes: (1) a feasibility study and implementation plan, (2) an on-site pilot demonstration, and (3) full-scale implementation. This paper describes the statements of work for some related demonstrations and remedial actions
Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.
LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given
Gorbanev, Iouri; Agudelo-Londoño, Sandra; Cortes, Ariel; Yepes, Francisco J
Objectives To characterize the perception of Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) as an innovation among physicians, nurses and administrative staff in a hospital in Colombia. Methods A case study of innovative culture in a hospital. Surveys and focus groups were carried out with the medical, nursing and administrative staff. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the perceptions of innovative culture. Comparative analysis was done between professional groups. The results of the focus groups were transcribed and analyzed to deepen the findings of the surveys. Results Significant differences were found in perceptions of the innovative culture. The nursing staff were more enthusiastic than doctors when evaluating the innovative culture and leadership. Physicians felt more autonomy when discussing professional issues. Administrative staff assessed the Hospital's disposition to acquire new medical technologies as higher than that of physicians. The three groups know little about DRG's. Conclusions When implementing a health innovation it is advisable to analyze its effect on the professionals who participate in the implementation. Physicians perceive DRGs as a threat to their professional autonomy, while nurses see it as a pro-innovation force. It is important to involve nursing and administrative staff when implementing this kind of innovation.
Kennedy, Judith; Kennedy, Chris
Individuals belong to different cultural networks, and these networks and connections between them play an important role in success or failure of educational innovation and should be included in any model of the management or evaluation of innovation. Looks at functions of the different networks to which individuals belong at three levels,…
Full Text Available New digital technologies not only “change language” (David Cristal, but also “upgrade” human intelligence making it perform new and uncommon operations. The present paper is an analysis and a survey of most prominent innovations in human intelligence, which are instigated by the latest digital information technologies. These innovations include, according to the point of view of outstanding specialists in contemporary digital technologies, such operations as multitasking, serendipity, connectivity, hypermodality, visuality, and cybersemiotic convergence of objective and virtual reality. The paper is based on the data presented in the publications of such outstanding “digital” specialists as Larry Rosen, Jay David Bolter, Steven Downes, Jay Lemke, Gunther Kress, Soren Brier, etc. In their works they particularly stress the impact of digital technologies and internet communication on all spheres of human activities, their role in the inner psychological and mental states, in professional and educational domain, as well as the importance of their investigation and a gap between the intensive development of digital technologies and their insufficient usage in scientific, didactic, social and cultural life. Special attention in the paper focuses on the tendency towards visualization in the global information flows and its role in information processing and knowledge transfer. The paper particularly stresses the fact that the impact of contemporary digital technologies on all spheres of human activities, including the intellectual one, needs further and profound investigation.
D'Souza, Sarah; Sanchez, Hugo; Lewis, Ryan
This paper details the adaptation of specific 'knowledge production' methods to implement a first of its kind, grassroots event that provokes a cultural change in how the NASA Ames civil servant community engages in the creation and selection of innovative ideas. Historically, selection of innovative proposals at NASA Ames Research Center is done at the highest levels of management, isolating the views and perspectives of the larger civil servant community. Additionally, NASA innovation programs are typically open to technical organizations and do not engage non-technical organizations to bring forward innovative processes/business practices. Finally, collaboration on innovative ideas and associated solutions tend to be isolated to organizational silos. In this environment, not all Ames employees feel empowered to innovate and opportunities for employee collaboration are limited. In order to address these issues, the 'innovation contest' method was adapted to create the NASA Ames Innovation Fair, a unique, grassroots innovation opportunity for the civil servant community. The Innovation Fair consisted of a physical event with a virtual component. The physical event provided innovators the opportunity to collaborate and pitch their innovations to the NASA Ames community. The civil servant community then voted for the projects that they viewed as innovative and would contribute to NASA's core mission, making this event a truly grassroots effort. The Innovation Fair website provided a location for additional knowledge sharing, discussion, and voting. On March 3rd, 2016, the 'First Annual NASA Ames Innovation Fair' was held with 49 innovators and more than 300 participants collaborating and/or voting for the best innovations. Based on the voting results, seven projects were awarded seed funding for projects ranging from innovative cost models to innovations in aerospace technology. Surveys of both innovators and Fair participants show the Innovation Fair was successful
Devgun, J.S.; Sewell, I.O.; DeGregory, J.
Environmental restoration and waste management activities at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are diverse and complex. Contamination at DOE sites and facilities includes radionuclides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, non-aqueous phase liquids, and heavy metals, among others. Soil and groundwater contamination are major areas of concern and DOE has focused very significant efforts in these areas. Relevant technology development activities are being conducted at DOE's own national laboratories, as well as through collaborative efforts with other federal agencies and the private sector. These activities span research and development (R ampersand D) of new concepts and techniques to demonstration and commercialization of mature technologies. Since 1990, DOE has also supported R ampersand D of innovative technologies through interagency agreements with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation, and others
Hagood, M.C.; Rohay, V.J.; Valcich, P.J.; Brouns, T.M.; Cameron, R.J.
A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) expedited response action (ERA) has been initiated at the Hanford Site, Washington, for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from contaminated soils to mitigate further contamination of the groundwater. Soil vapor extraction with aboveground collection and treatment was chosen as the preferred remedial technology for the first phase of the ERA. At the same time, innovative technology demonstrations are being conducted in coordination with the ERA to determine the viability of emerging technologies that can be used to characterize, remediate, and monitor carbon tetrachloride and cocontaminants. The overall goal is to improve the performance and decrease the costs of carbon tetrachloride remediation while maintaining a safe working environment
Joseph, M Lindell
The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of nurse leaders and nurses in a hospital whose patient care mission was stated as innovation. Nurses are critically positioned to provide creative and innovative solutions that make a difference in the lives of patients, organizations, communities, and the profession. This 2-phase qualitative study used a content analysis and thematic analysis approach to describe experiences and to generate a beginning conceptual framework of the experience. Results from phase 1 and phase 2 of this study demonstrate that innovativeness in nursing is a multifaceted phenomenon consisting of workplace antecedents followed by a social process. Nursing innovation requires organizational commitment to allow employees to inquire and question organizational practices and issues on behalf of the mission, patient care, and nursing practice.
Daim, Tugrul U; Basoglu, Nuri; Kök, Orhun M; Hogaboam, Liliya
This book aims to study the factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Health Information Technology (HIT) innovation. It analyzes the adoption processes of various tools and applications, particularly Electronic Health Records (EHR), highlighting the impact on various sectors of the healthcare system, such as physicians, administration, and patient care, while also identifying the various pitfalls and gaps in the literature. With the various challenges currently facing the United States healthcare system, the study, adoption and diffusion of healthcare technology innovation, particularly HIT, is imperative to achieving national goals. This book is organized into three sections. Section one reviews theories and applications for the diffusion of Health Care Technologies. Section two evaluates EHR technology, including the barriers and enables in adoption and alternative technologies. Finally, section three examines the factors impacting the adoption of EHR systems. This book will be a key source for stu...
A discussion on technology innovation in an integrated energy economy was presented. The mission, mandate and strategy of the Alberta Research Institute was first presented, followed by a discussion on oil supply needs based on historic demand. The presentation then addressed what might happen as oil demand and supply peak. A comparison of conventional versus unconventional resources was included along with a chart illustrating Alberta's contribution to total global reserves. Other topics addressed in the presentation in chart format included: natural gas requirements and natural gas use in oil sands; marketable gas production and the number of producing gas wells; Alberta's natural gas situation; and net United States imports of natural gas. Options for reducing natural gas consumption in oil sand production processes were also identified. These included steam assisted gravity drainage; solvent processes, electrical heating, combustion, nuclear, geothermal, and gasification processes. Advantages and disadvantages of replacing natural gas through gasification were presented. Last, the presentation provided an unconventional gas technology roadmap and discussed an innovative energy technology program. It was concluded that there are no clear cut options for replacing the huge amount of natural gas needed in the expanding oil sands sector. tabs., figs
José Osvaldo De Sordi
Full Text Available This research investigated the underuse of technological tools by innovative organizations which are acknowledged for their use of and familiarity with new technologies. The research conducted an analysis of 58 institutional repositories (IRs out of 43 educational and research institutions which are internationally renowned for excellence. The core aspect of the analysis was the use of IRs for publishing and dealing with evidence in order to legitimize and add value to scientific research. The following items were analyzed: (a the logical structuring of scientific communication published in the IRs; (b the metadata which describe scientific communication based on the terms of the DCMI protocol used; (c the availability of software functions which facilitate the queries and publication of evidences. Results show that the introduction of IRs did not add value to the quality of research in terms of associating and publishing evidence that could back them up. A strong tendency to replicate the traditional library model of physical collections was observed. It was concluded that merely possessing good technological tools is not sufficient for fostering innovation and strategic gains in organizations, even if their implementation takes place in highly promising and favorable environments.
Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
A discussion on technology innovation in an integrated energy economy was presented. The mission, mandate and strategy of the Alberta Research Institute was first presented, followed by a discussion on oil supply needs based on historic demand. The presentation then addressed what might happen as oil demand and supply peak. A comparison of conventional versus unconventional resources was included along with a chart illustrating Alberta's contribution to total global reserves. Other topics addressed in the presentation in chart format included: natural gas requirements and natural gas use in oil sands; marketable gas production and the number of producing gas wells; Alberta's natural gas situation; and net United States imports of natural gas. Options for reducing natural gas consumption in oil sand production processes were also identified. These included steam assisted gravity drainage; solvent processes, electrical heating, combustion, nuclear, geothermal, and gasification processes. Advantages and disadvantages of replacing natural gas through gasification were presented. Last, the presentation provided an unconventional gas technology roadmap and discussed an innovative energy technology program. It was concluded that there are no clear cut options for replacing the huge amount of natural gas needed in the expanding oil sands sector. tabs., figs.
OECD Publishing, 2016
OECD's Innovation Strategy calls upon all sectors in the economy and society to innovate in order to foster productivity, growth and well-being. Education systems are critically important for innovation through the development of skills that nurture new ideas and technologies. However, whereas digital technologies are profoundly changing the way…
The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy reg-sign Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly trademark Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE's Office of Science and Technology
Punter, H.T.; Krikhaar, R.L.; Bril, R.J.
This paper deals with the innovation of software engineering technologies. These technologies are methods and tools for conducting software development and maintenance. We consider innovation as a process consisting of two phases, being technology creation and technology transfer. In this paper, we
Punter, T.; Krikhaar, R.L.; Bril, R.J.
This paper deals with the innovation of software engineering technologies. These technologies are methods and tools for conducting software development and maintenance. We consider innovation as a process consisting of two phases, being technology creation and technology transfer. In this paper, we
Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech
The increasing use of social media along with the rapidly developing digitization of the book has led to a range of new circumstances for writing, publishing and reading books, resulting in transformations in reading culture and practices. The social aspect of reading is emphasized when readers...... relations in the network of writers, publishers, readers, and reviewers. Similarly, the increasing use of electronic reading devices plays a key role in the acceleration of a culture in which the audience engages with cultural works in new ways. The print book has an “easy materiality” (Marshall, 2010, p....... 17), but with the electronic book, the materiality of reading becomes more ambiguous and malleable as the book as technology is being radically reconstructed. The purpose of this paper is to explore these changes through an investigation into the technology relations (Ihde, 1990) in fiction reading...
The article is concerned with the question: How do construction firms implement new technology on construction projects? A model of the implementation process is presented based on a review of the construction innovation literature, innovation theory, and organisational learning theories....
Information and Communication Technologies has enlarged its horizon and it is practiced under multidisciplinary contexts that introduce new challenges to theoretical and technical approaches. The most critical benefit of introducing new ICT technologies in our real world living are the new ways of working that the online world makes possible. Complexity, uncertainty and scaling issues of real world problems as well as natural phenomena in ecology, medicine and biology demanding ICT assistance create challenging application domains for artificial intelligence, decision support and intelligence systems, wireless sensor networks, pervasive and ubiquitous computing, multimedia information systems, data management systems, internet and web applications and services, computer networks, security and cryptography, distributed systems, GRID and cloud computing. This book offers a collection of papers presented at the Third International Conference on ICT Innovations held in September 2011, in Skopje, Macedonia. The co...
Aagaard, Annabeth; Lindgren, Peter
The opportunities of persuasive technology in facilitating sustainable innovation and business model innovation have been witnessed continuously during the last decade. The unique ability of persuasive technology in interacting and mediating across users, customers, decisions makers and other...... stakeholders provides access to core knowledge about behavior and opportunities to influence and even change their behavior in a positive and more sustainable manner. Sustainable innovation and business model innovation is gaining more and more competitive leverage due to customer requirements, the growing...
This review report provides the synthetic archives of innovative technologies in 20-year facility developments for the large tokamak experimental device JT-60, first founded as the major magnetic fusion device in the Second Basic Program for Fusion Research and Development of Japan. Manufacture of JT-60 was started in 1978, and the first plasma was achieved on April 8, 1985. In 1989-1991, the vacuum vessel and poloidal field coils were entirely reconfigured to improve the plasma performance. The major original mission of the JT-60 project, a breakeven condition for a D-T equivalent plasma, was finally attained in 1996. After this, JT-60, as a leading device for magnetic fusion research in the world, continues to challenge many experimental issues, which has been achieved by collaboration of innovative facility developments and experimental improvements. In addition, at this time to start the ITER construction phase in 2005, this review is expected to contribute the construction and operation activities for the next generation tokamak by providing the basic ideas in facility developments. We classified a tremendous number of development items into the selected sections for this review. Since the authors have been in charge of each development activity of their own, the contents are full of essential stories, points, and keywords in spite of its compact handbook size. We believe this review could provide highly sophisticated, informative ideas matured in JT-60 technological developments. (author)
Ray R. Gehani
Full Text Available The current models of National Innovation Systems (NIS are based on interactions and learning across three institutions: government, university and industry. This empirical study of the evolution of innovations in rubber and tire technologies such as the collaborative innovative suppliers (of raw materials and human capital and disruptive rival innovators to the traditional tri-helical model of National Innovation System. This was empirically examined for the evolution of rubber and tire technology and the rise and decline of its innovative region: the Rubber Capital of the World in Akron, Ohio.
Rani Jeanne Dang; Letizia Mortara; Ruth Thomson; Tim Minshall
Current times are characterised by a knowledge-based economy and fast technological change. In this difficult environment, companies compete to maintain a relevant position through innovation. In response to these challenges, many companies are currently adopting an open approach to innovation, pursuing innovation by combining internal and external resources. Technology intelligence (TI) activities support the implementation of open innovation with the systematic capture and delivery of infor...
Turchetti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Enza; Geisler, Eliezer Elie
This article describes health technology assessment (HTA) as an evaluation tool that applies systematic methods of inquiry to the generation and use of health technologies and new products. The focus of this article is on the contributions of HTA to the management of the new product development effort in the biomedical organization. Critical success factors (CSFs) are listed, and their role in assessing success is defined and explained. One of the conclusions of this article is that HTA is a powerful tool for managers in the biomedical sector, allowing them to better manage their innovation effort in their continuing struggle for competitiveness and survival.
Fogarty, Laurel; Creanza, Nicole; Feldman, Marcus W
Cultural traits originate through creative or innovative processes, which might be crucial to understanding how culture evolves and accumulates. However, because of its complexity and apparent subjectivity, creativity has remained largely unexplored as the dynamic underpinning of cultural evolution. Here, we explore the approach to innovation commonly taken in theoretical studies of cultural evolution and discuss its limitations. Drawing insights from cognitive science, psychology, archeology, and even animal behavior, it is possible to generate a formal description of creativity and to incorporate a dynamic theory of creativity into models of cultural evolution. We discuss the implications of such models for our understanding of the archaeological record and the history of hominid culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bradbury, F R
The relationship between economics and technology, as well as their interaction in production, productivity, project management, and in technology transfer processes are reviewed. Over the last two decades there has been an increasing interest by economists in the technologist's view of technical change and its mechanisms. The author looks at the zone between technology and economics, the technological economics, and discusses the theory of innovation recently sketched out by Nelson and Winter. The relevance to project management and technology transfer of contemporary writing by economists leads to the view that there are welcome signs of a convergence of the conceptual models now emerging and the practical problems of technology management and movement. Economists now seem more willing to come to terms with technology than technologists with economics. The economic significance of the multitudes of technically unglamorous activities in development work is seriously neglected as a result of over-emphasis on the spectacular technological break. If economic elegance were to be admitted to the criteria of success, one might get a significant improvement in the engineering of technological change. 29 references, 4 figure.
The link between IT, innovation and supply chain structure is central here. This article is divided into three parts. First, a theoretical analysis of the role of IT in innovation processes. Actually, it involves the total innovation of the supply chain, not merely logistic innovation. The
Fetter, Theodore Robert
The innovation and diffusion of new technologies is one of the central concerns of economics. New inventions or technological combinations do not spring fully formed into the world; as firms encounter and learn about new technologies they experiment, refine, and learn about them, improving productivity (and sometimes earning economic rents). Understanding the processes by which firms learn, and how these processes interact with regulations, is fundamental to understanding the emergence of new technologies, their contribution to growth, and the interaction of innovation and regulation. This dissertation addresses how firms learn and respond to regulations in the context of emerging technologies. Within this framework, I address several questions. When production inputs are socially controversial, do firms respond to disclosure laws by voluntarily constraining their inputs? Do these public disclosure laws facilitate knowledge transmission across firms, and if so, what are the implications for public welfare - for instance, do the gains from trade outweigh any effects of reduced incentives for innovation? I study these questions in the context of hydraulic fracturing, though the results offer insight for more general settings. Panning out to a much broader view, I also explore how energy-related technologies - in both generation and consumption - diffuse across national boundaries over time, and whether innovation and diffusion of energy-efficient technologies has led to more or less energy-efficient economic growth. In my first paper, I contribute to improved understanding of the conditions in which information-based regulations, which are increasingly common in multiple policy domains, decrease externalities such as environmental pollution. Specifically, I test whether information disclosure regulations applied to hydraulic fracturing chemicals caused firms to decrease their use of toxic inputs. Prior to these mandatory disclosure laws, some operators voluntarily
Full Text Available Este artigo usa o conceito de sistema setorial de inovações que permite a utilização de uma visão multidimensional integrada e dinâmica da inovação em seus setores. Sistemas setoriais apresentam três dimensões que afetam tanto a geração e adoção de novas tecnologias quanto a organização da inovação e produção nos seguintes níveis setoriais: conhecimento, atores e redes e instituições. O artigo discute o escopo conceitual dos sistemas setoriais, apresenta cinco análises de setores principais e examina suas tendências principais, seus desafios e suas transformações. O artigo também oferece uma análise sobre implicações políticas públicas e sugestões do ponto de vista do sistema setorial de inovações.This paper uses the concept of sectoral system of innovation which aims to provide a multidimensional, integrated and dynamic view of innovation in sectors. Sectoral systems have three dimensions that affect the generation and adoption of new technologies and the organization of innovation and production at the sectoral level: knowledge (and the related boundaries, actors and networks, and institutions. The paper discusses the conceptual framework of sectoral systems, presents five main sectoral systems and examines their major trends, challenges and transformation. The paper then examines which are the main policy implications and indications in a sectoral system perspective.
Patrick J. Höflinger
Full Text Available Firms strategically promote, foster and pursue a reputation for technological innovation. Yet, present research did not examine whether such perception actually coheres with innovative activity itself. Previous studies in this field often relied solely on tangible products/product introductions, hence we apply multiple proxies based on a firm's intangible innovative performance to examine the influences on reputation for technological innovation. Using patent, financial and consumer data our Poisson regression analyzes 65 international firms which have been nominated by 231 consumers. We apply time-series and likewise cross-sectional data for our interdisciplinary analysis. Our findings demonstrate that innovative performance (citation intensity is linked to reputation for technological innovation. Counter-intuitively, our results provide evidence that marketing intensity negatively influences a reputation for technological innovation. From the results, we conclude that innovative performance may be associated with a reputation for technological innovation. Actual technological advancement attracts attention from consumers that cannot be purchased with greater marketing investments. This implies that consumers appreciate the costly and uncertain R&D efforts and value those firms that constantly offer innovation. As a theoretical implication, the consideration of intangible inputs for reputation research is an important contribution for a holistic understanding. The results represent essential strategic information for innovation and marketing functions, where both divisions need to align their activities and investments.
Beswick, Cris; Geraghty, Jo
Being a truly innovative company is more than the dreaming up of new products and services by external consultants and internal taskforces. Staying one step ahead of the competition requires you to embed innovation into your organizational culture. Innovation needs to be embodied in everything that gets done by everyone who works there. By changing your organizational culture to one that supports innovation, you will remove the barriers that stop you responding quickly and agilely to changing market conditions and opportunities for growth. Building a Culture of Innovation presents a practical framework that you can follow to design and embed a culture of innovation in your business.The six-step Innovation Culture Change Framework offers a structured process to make change stick, from assessing your organization's innovation-readiness to leading a managed change process that will foster innovation at each level. It includes case studies from international organizations which have shifted their focus to an inno...
Geoff D. Skinner
Australia, while being a large and eager consumer of innovative and cutting edge Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), continues to struggle to remain a leader in Technological Innovation. This paper has two main contributions to address certain aspects of this complex issue. The first being the current findings of an ongoing research project on Information and Innovation Management in the Australian Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector. The...
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to define and to estimate the forming of expediency of the development strategy of financial and innovative technologies in the context of modern economic space realities.The results of the analysis. The growing importance of the financial sector in the contemporary economic space, as well as rapid changes in it, generates a need for financial innovative technologies. Development strategy of financial and innovative technologies is always asso...
Gerard E. Sleefe
There is significant interest in achieving technology innovation through new product development activities. It is recognized, however, that traditional project management practices focused only on performance, cost, and schedule attributes, can often lead to risk mitigation strategies that limit new technology innovation. In this paper, a new approach is proposed for formally managing and quantifying technology innovation. This approach uses a risk-based framework that s...
The Raman probe is deployed in high-level waste tanks with the cone penetrometer (CPT). These technologies are engineered and optimized to work together. All of the hardware is radiation hardened, designed for and tested in the high-radiation, highly caustic chemical environment of US Department of Energy's (DOE's) waste storage tanks. When deployed in tanks, the system is useful for rapidly assessing the species and concentrations of organic-bearing tank wastes. The CPT was originally developed for geological and groundwater applications, with sensors that measure physical parameters such as soil moisture, temperature, and pH. When deployed, it is hydraulically forced directly into the ground rather than using boring techniques utilized by rotary drilling systems. There is a separate Innovative Technology Summary Report for the CPT, so this report will focus on the changes made specifically to support the Raman probe. The most significant changes involve adapting the Raman probe for in-tank and subsurface field use and developing meaningful real-time data analysis. Testing of the complete LLNL system was conducted in a hot cell in the 222-S Laboratory at the Hanford site in summer 1997. Both instruments were tested in situ on solvent-contaminated soils (TCE and PCE) at the Savannah River Site in February and June 1998. This report describes the technology, its performance, its uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned
Borup, M.; Nygaard Madsen, A. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Gregersen, Birgitte [Aalborg Univ., Department of Business Studies (Denmark)
With the increased market-orientation and privatisation of the energy area, the perspective of innovation is becoming more and more relevant for understanding the dynamics of change and technology development in the area. A better understanding of the systemic and complex processes of innovation is needed. This paper presents an innovation systems analysis of new and emerging energy technologies in Denmark. The study focuses on five technology areas: bio fuels, hydrogen technology, wind energy, solar cells and energy-efficient end-use technologies. The main result of the analysis is that the technology areas are quite diverse in a number of innovation-relevant issues like actor set-up, institutional structure, maturity, and connections between market and non-market aspects. The paper constitutes background for discussing the framework conditions for transition to sustainable energy technologies and strengths and weaknesses of the innovation systems. (au)
Ramamani, Mahesh Kumar
Though information technology adoptions have been always referred to as innovations in firms, much of the business value literature has concentrated on the tangible and immediately measurable impacts of information technology (IT) adoptions. This study aims to explore the impact of information technology investments on the innovativeness of a…
Full Text Available This paper outlines a model of firm innovation management known as the synergic innovation management model. Building on the theory of dynamic capabilities and core competence, the paper suggest three capabilities of firms namely market, technology, management capabilities that drive firms’ innovations. The combination of these three capabilities creates a unique configuration for a firm known as the firm’s core competence that informs the firm's strategic decisions. The synergic innovation management model guides firm in the simultaneous exploration of market, technology, and management innovations required for sustainable business. The paper concludes with limitations of the model and suggestions for further research.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness
In co-operation with the GEBERT RÜF FOUNDATION and the Ernest & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award, venturelab will be presenting the Venture Leaders Prize. The Venture Leaders Prize, which is the new guise of the NETS (New Entrepreneurs in Technology and Science) Prize, will give twenty research entrepreneurs with projects to develop innovative technologies the opportunity to win the chance of participating in a programme to assist them in starting up their companies. The winners will go to spend 10 days in the Boston area (United States) where they will take part in a development programme for their project, which will include an entrepreneurship course, opportunities to meet start-up companies and financing experts, etc. This prize has already spawned many companies such as id Quantique, Selexis or ABMI which have contributed to the economic development of regions, particularly in French-speaking Switzerland. The competition is open to students and scientists from all fields, who would like to s...
Wright, Geoffrey A.; Skaggs, Paul; West, Richard E.
Innovation is central to modern industry. It can and should be taught in schools. Not only does providing students a background in innovation benefit them later in life and industry, but it also promotes and further develops their critical thinking and collaboration skills. Despite the need for innovation, many have struggled with how to teach it.…
Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Dolphen, Rujira; Dhurakit, Prapai; Siswanto, Dian; Thiravetyan, Paitip
into plants can enhance airborne pollutant removal. From this research, an indoor air phytoremediation system was developed in order to reduce CO2 emissions with high VOC removal efficiency. The high cost of technology transfer is a major problem, especially in developing countries, and green technology research and innovation can overcome this problem along with efficient allocation of resources and technologies.
Savory, Clive; Fortune, Joyce
The purpose of this paper is to question whether the emphasis placed within translational research on a linear model of innovation provides the most effective model for managing health technology innovation. Several alternative perspectives are presented that have potential to enhance the existing model of translational research. A case study is presented of innovation of a clinical decision support system. The paper concludes from the case study that an extending the triple helix model of technology transfer, to one based on a quadruple helix, present a basis for improving the performance translational research. A case study approach is used to help understand development of an innovative technology within a teaching hospital. The case is then used to develop and refine a model of the health technology innovation system. The paper concludes from the case study that existing models of translational research could be refined further through the development of a quadruple helix model of heath technology innovation that encompasses greater emphasis on user-led and open innovation perspectives. The paper presents several implications for future research based on the need to enhance the model of health technology innovation used to guide policy and practice. The quadruple helix model of innovation that is proposed can potentially guide alterations to the existing model of translational research in the healthcare sector. Several suggestions are made for how innovation activity can be better supported at both a policy and operational level. This paper presents a synthesis of the innovation literature applied to a theoretically important case of open innovation in the UK National Health Service. It draws in perspectives from other industrial sectors and applies them specifically to the management and organisation of innovation activities around health technology and the services in which they are embedded.
This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies’ (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...
Harris, Larry A.
This publication describes the 62 projects that received 5-year Technology Innovation Challenge Grants beginning in 1995, 1996, and 1997, with reviews of the projects occurring in late 1999 and early 2000. Part 1 of the report describes the Technology Innovation Challenge Grant (TICG) program and its importance. Part 2 contains the project…
Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Martikainen, Olli
This study investigates the relationship between innovations and firm growth, based on the data of Finnish firms operating in the software industry. We find that in terms of turnover and employment, firms with only technological innovations do not grow more rapidly than other firms. However, firm growth is positively associated with the combination of technological and non-technological innovations.
The paper attempts to define the challenges to the indicators on science, technology and innovation development which result from the contemporary dynamics of the global knowledge based economy progress and the pursued challenges of identification of the specific national priority dimensions for public funding research and innovation projects on the case of Bulgaria. It is argued that recent the most widespread methodologies of positioning science, technology and innovation indicators do not ...
The HTTR is the first HTGR which is under construction at JAERI. The objectives of the HTTR are to establish basic technologies for HTGRs, to upgrade technologies for HTGRs and to conduct innovative and basic researches for high temperature technologies. The first two are concerned with HTGR developments. The last one is not necessarily for HTGR developments, but for future innovative researches which are expected to be applied to various technologies. (author)
Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework. The survey consisted of two groups: agricultural researchers of Agriculture-Research and Education Organization and all faculty members of public agricultural faculties of Ministry of Scientific, Research and Technology. Using Cochran sampling formula and multi-stage sampling method, 188 researchers and 205 faculty members were selected in order to fill in the survey questionnaire. Using the SPSS, collected data analyzed based on explanatory factor analysis. Totally, factor analysis of three sets of issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework led to extract 13 factors, including agricultural structure and policy, infrastructure and resources of agricultural development, supportive services for agricultural development (level of agricultural development, investment and capacity building in research and technology, management of research and technology development, research and technology productivity, research culture, networks for research and technology development (level of national innovation system, agricultural research policy, impacts and effectiveness of agricultural research and technology development, integrated management of research and technology, institutional development for agricultural research and technology and systematic synergy of agricultural research and higher education (level of agricultural innovation system. Totally, these three sets of factors explained 64%, 75% and 73% of the total variances. Finally, using conceptual clustering for the extracted factors, a conceptual model of issues and challenges of agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework was presented.
Felkey, Bill G; Fox, Brent I
There are ways to facilitate the successful implementation of technological innovations. These are especially important in a time of rapid development of new tools to support safe and effective medication therapy. This installment addresses some of the key components of a successful technology innovation strategy.
The study deals with the links between energy taxation and innovation and presents also new empirical evidence on the impact of energy taxes on patenting activities related to energy technologies. The study suggests that while taxation is a very effective driver of innovation, it can be usefully complemented with other public policy tools, such as public research grants and other technology policies.
School-based data and management of technological innovations in public secondary schools in Cross River State. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... Result indicated that: there is no significant positive relationship between school-based data and principals management of technological innovation.
C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten); Dijk, M.A. (Mathijs) van
textabstractHuman history is shaped by landmark discoveries in science and technology. However, across both time and space the rate of innovation is erratic: Periods of relative inertia alternate with bursts of creative science and rapid cascades of technological innovations. While the origins of
The document presents the national strategic plan for Science Technology and Innovation, its history, premises, conceptual framework, the starting situation, guiding principles, strategic objectives and priority area such as new energy sources to diversify the national energy matrix, environment environment and preservation of natural resources, governance and private management with increasing levels of dependency with the development of strategic technology knowledge and innovation
Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012
The Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access (TICFIA) Program supports projects focused on developing innovative technologies for accessing, collecting, organizing, preserving, and disseminating information from foreign sources to address the U.S.' teaching and research needs in international education and foreign…
Full Text Available This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple. Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and thereby to provide a valid and useful point of departure for thinking about the practice of culture learning and teaching with new technologies. The referenced literature draws from a broad range of disciplines and definitions of culture. In Part Two, five projects are chosen to represent relevant technologies currently in use for culture learning: e-mail, chat, a discussion forum and a Web-based project. Each project is used to illustrate facets of the culture concept discussed in Part One with a view to identifying key elements within a pedagogical framework that can help us respond effectively to the challenge of culture learning and teaching utilising new technologies. Thus the goal is to align fundamental qualities of the culture concept with specific pedagogical designs, tasks and technologies.
Roffeei, Siti Hajar Mohd; Yusop, Farrah Dina; Kamarulzaman, Yusniza
Globalisation has made many higher educational institutions reassess their educational contents and research activities in order to enhance innovation culture amongst students of higher education. Many universities now focus on research activities and research funding in raising their reputation and ranking which in turn will improve student…
Marco Dalla Rosa
Full Text Available Valorization of traditional foods is nowadays a key element for market developments where national industries are strongly involved in saving product peculiarity against imitative food coming from foreign countries or even different continents. Other than the lack in well defined and garanteed sensorial quality, the production conditions, the quality of raw material and the different cultural background lead to produce foods that, despite to the name indicating some italian origin or recallin in some ways Italy and italian food and traditions, are only imitation without safety and quality proper of the original traditional food. Thus it is necessary to individuate appropriated technologies and strategies to increase le level of garantee offered to the consumer in order to promote the consumption of traditional foods with the promised quality and safety. In this paper the role that the modern food technology and the food science can assume to improve the processing conditions and yields, introducing some innovations into the old processes will be pointed out. Furthermore, the characterization of the complexity of the chemical, chemico-physical and rheological properties that influence the whole sensorial aspect of traditional foods, both from animal and vegetal (and fruit origin, is a growing challenge of the food science since the new analytical methodologies now available. In the paper some example of objective characterization and introduction of innovation steps are reported as well as genuinity marker individuation in order to give sustainability to the production of traditional foods in particular in SME.
Manuel Ramón Tejeiro Koller
Full Text Available Purpose: The present article proposes a tool for the measurement of a corporate culture that makes companies more innovative. In a fast changing environment, such as the current one, the capacity to innovate has become very important. It allows companies to adapt better and faster or even leapfrog competition by creating the change themselves. Organizational Theory has come to understand corporate culture –a group of shared values and philosophies– as a powerful management tool and it is due to this that me intent to measure it. Design/methodology: After extracting the characteristics of an innovation culture from the literature review, a group of indicators relating to these cultural traits was selected. The further revision of prior measurement tools allowed us to compare the findings and summarize our selection in a set of 67 questions. In order to contrast he validity of these, we applied the questionnaire at four innovative firms. During this process we tried to confirm our indicators and add new ones, resulting from the conducted interviews, introducing an inductive perspective to our study. Findings: We conclude with a revised and expanded version of the questionnaire, which includes a revision of the indicators and the contributions of the interviewees. Through this process we believe to have contributed to elaborating a measurement tool for innovation culture, since we were able to apply the majority of questions selected in the first place, eliminating and redefining the others. A revised version of the questionnaire is offered for further research. Practical implications: The measurement tool developed in this article allows those managers interested in benchmarking their company’s corporate culture against one that promotes innovation. We increased the capability of expressing one of the most significant intangibles of the company, thus increasing its visibility and value recognition. Originality/value: The contributes in the
Lotem, Arnon; Halpern, Joseph Y; Edelman, Shimon; Kolodny, Oren
When humans and other animals make cultural innovations, they also change their environment, thereby imposing new selective pressures that can modify their biological traits. For example, there is evidence that dairy farming by humans favored alleles for adult lactose tolerance. Similarly, the invention of cooking possibly affected the evolution of jaw and tooth morphology. However, when it comes to cognitive traits and learning mechanisms, it is much more difficult to determine whether and how their evolution was affected by culture or by their use in cultural transmission. Here we argue that, excluding very recent cultural innovations, the assumption that culture shaped the evolution of cognition is both more parsimonious and more productive than assuming the opposite. In considering how culture shapes cognition, we suggest that a process-level model of cognitive evolution is necessary and offer such a model. The model employs relatively simple coevolving mechanisms of learning and data acquisition that jointly construct a complex network of a type previously shown to be capable of supporting a range of cognitive abilities. The evolution of cognition, and thus the effect of culture on cognitive evolution, is captured through small modifications of these coevolving learning and data-acquisition mechanisms, whose coordinated action is critical for building an effective network. We use the model to show how these mechanisms are likely to evolve in response to cultural phenomena, such as language and tool-making, which are associated with major changes in data patterns and with new computational and statistical challenges.
Rosenfeld, J.H.; Lindemuth, J.E.; North, M.T.; Goulding, R.H.
Alternative advanced technologies are being evaluated for use in cooling the Faraday shields used for protection of ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICR) antennae in Tokamaks. Two approaches currently under evaluation include heat pipe cooling and gas cooling. A Monel/water heat pipe cooled Faraday shield has been successfully demonstrated. Heat pipe cooling offers the advantage of reducing the amount of water discharged into the Tokamak in the event of a tube weld failure. The device was recently tested on an antenna at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The heat pipe design uses inclined water heat pipes with warm water condensers located outside of the plasma chamber. This approach can passively remove absorbed heat fluxes in excess of 200 W/cm 2 ;. Helium-cooled Faraday shields are also being evaluated. This approach offers the advantage of no liquid discharge into the Tokamak in the event of a tube failure. Innovative internal cooling structures based on porous metal cooling are being used to develop a helium-cooled Faraday shield structure. This approach can dissipate the high heat fluxes typical of Faraday shield applications while minimizing the required helium blower power. Preliminary analysis shows that nominal helium flow and pressure drop can sufficiently cool a Faraday shield in typical applications. Plans are in progress to fabricate and test prototype hardware based on this approach
Bouncken, Ricarda; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha
. These data, based on semistructured interviews, provide us with rich information about effects of cultural diversity in teams in the innovation process. Data were analysed through a thematic network analysis and two coders inductively forming categories. Results indicate that cross-cultural teams have a high...... potential of creativity, but are confronted with difficulties arising from different working- and communication styles which have to be proactively managed from the beginning. While progressing, teams learn to cope with this diversity related to some more surface-level cultural dimensions and members even...
Full Text Available Relationships between mathematical competence and mathematics teaching innovation do emerge the need for new practices of mathematics teaching. One of the aspects of this new practice is the interaction patterns in the classroom characterizing the mathematical discourse. From these perspectives, the relation between innovation and new mathematics practices defines different contexts for professional development of mathematics teacher.
Frattini, Federico; Massis, Alfredo De; Chiesa, Vittorio; Cassia, Lucio; Campopiano, Giovanna
Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners' literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish a...
Huang, L.; Wang, K.; Yu, H.; Shang, L.; Mitkova, L.
The importance and value of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) have increased with the expectancy to obtain key technology capabilities and rapid impact on innovation. This article develops an original analytical framework to elucidate the impact of the technology and product relatedness (similarity/complementarity) of the Technology-driven M&A’ partners on post-innovation performance. We present results drawing on a multiple case studies of Chinese High-Tech firms from three industries. (Author)
Andreea Constantinescu; Simona Frone
As in science an accurate picture of present is highlighted from a future outlook, we should recognize the crucial role of new technologies and innovation to improve knowledge in this field. They may give guarantee of sustainable economic development, provided prioritization of research in some fields such as: information technology and communication, resource depletion and climate change. Technological innovation becomes support of all strategies and policies aimed at ensuring sustainable ec...
Liang Jinlong; Zhou Mingsheng; Fang Wei; Sun Yuxiang
Significance of deeply study the innovative developments in Uranium separation and concentration technology abroad was discussed. Development history and innovativeness of eight species of key equipments for separation and concentration were summarized for the first time. Principle and application of seven Uranium separation and concentration technology were analyzed systematically. It is expounded in the paper that high parameter, intelligent and low carbon were three development trends of Uranium separation and concentration technology. (authors)
De Dreu, Carsten K W; van Dijk, Mathijs A
Human history is shaped by landmark discoveries in science and technology. However, across both time and space the rate of innovation is erratic: Periods of relative inertia alternate with bursts of creative science and rapid cascades of technological innovations. While the origins of the rise and fall in rates of discovery and innovation remain poorly understood, they may reflect adaptive responses to exogenously emerging threats and pressures. Here we examined this possibility by fitting annual rates of scientific discovery and technological innovation to climatic variability and its associated economic pressures and resource scarcity. In time-series data from Europe (1500-1900CE), we indeed found that rates of innovation are higher during prolonged periods of cold (versus warm) surface temperature and during the presence (versus absence) of volcanic dust veils. This negative temperature-innovation link was confirmed in annual time-series for France, Germany, and the United Kingdom (1901-1965CE). Combined, across almost 500 years and over 5,000 documented innovations and discoveries, a 0.5°C increase in temperature associates with a sizable 0.30-0.60 standard deviation decrease in innovation. Results were robust to controlling for fluctuations in population size. Furthermore, and consistent with economic theory and micro-level data on group innovation, path analyses revealed that the relation between harsher climatic conditions between 1500-1900CE and more innovation is mediated by climate-induced economic pressures and resource scarcity.
The technology of using refrigeration to freeze soils has been employed in large-scale engineering projects for a number of years. This technology bonds soils to give load-bearing strength during construction; to seal tunnels, mine shafts, and other subsurface structures against flooding from groundwater; and to stabilize soils during excavation. Examples of modern applications include several large subway, highway, and water supply tunnels. Ground freezing to form subsurface frozen soil barriers is an innovative technology designed to contain hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils and groundwater. Frozen soil barriers that provide complete containment (open-quotes Vclose quotesconfiguration) are formed by drilling and installing refrigerant piping (on 8-ft centers) horizontally at approximately 45 degrees angles for sides and vertically for ends and then recirculating an environmentally safe refrigerant solution through the piping to freeze the soil porewater. Freeze plants are used to keep the containment structure at subfreezing temperatures. A full-scale containment structure was demonstrated from May 12 to October 10, 1994, at a nonhazardous site on SEG property on Gallaher Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh
innovation culture using theory on organizational culture and crowdsourcing. The analysis shows that the organizational crowdsourcing event has supported an innovation culture change in the case company towards a more open approach to innovation; creating a new and different awareness of innovation, allowing...... for internal process innovations, empowering the employees, supporting knowledge work and collaboration across the organization to a new extent and overcoming the traditional hierarchy in the organization....
In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges
This year's Energy Day is under the motto "Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Energy Networks". According to the ideas of the European Commission, a sustainable, secure, efficient, affordable and competitive energy supply with particular attention to the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is to be created. In future, energy should flow freely through Europe without technical barriers in an integrated internal market. For the power supply, this means a renewal and consolidation of the 50-year-old and largely isolated national distribution networks. In addition, the decentralized power plants, which are often remote from the consumers and dependent on the whims of the sun or the wind, are also to be integrated into this network. The fact that electricity can only be saved insufficiently is a further hurdle. In this light, the target of a minimum degree of synchronisation in the European grid of 10% to 2020 and 15% to 2030 seems ambitious. According to the European Commission, the construction of new infrastructure is to be given priority, but there are considerable difficulties with implementation. In addition to the technical barriers, the barriers to the expansion of the energy market and the protracted licensing procedures, the lack of confidence on the part of the citizens question the realization of the plans for a European Supergrid. Today's event attempts to illuminate the large-scale technical possibilities for the exchange of fluctuating renewable energies over long distances as well as the regional grids, which are of interest to the private consumer. The question of the sustainability and expediency of the planned European internal electricity market completes the 2016 Energy Day program. (rössner) [de
As the successor of Dual Photon Absorptiometry (DPA), Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) has seen 30years of continuous technological innovations. Implementation of measures for standardization and quality assurance made DXA a reliable and clinically useful approach. Its use in clinical multicenter drug studies in osteoporosis lead to general acceptance as the standard technique of bone densitometry. The limitations of DXA are well established. As a measure of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) it depends on bone size and is biased by overlaying soft tissue and calcified structures. To some extent these errors can be reduced by estimation of bone depth and/or lateral imaging. DXA based aBMD can be supplemented by additional information obtainable from DXA scans: geometric indices such as hip axis length or complex models like 2-D finite element analysis have been developed and tested. Given the drastic improvement in image quality current DXA scans can be used for Vertebral Fracture Analysis (VFA) or grading of Abdominal Aortic Calcifications. A textural measure, Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) provides independent information on fracture risk. DXA devices can also be used for assessments beyond bone density. Periprosthetic aBMD changes can be monitored to study the mechanical fitting of bone implants. Total body composition measurements are increasingly being used in studies on nutrition, obesity, and sarcopenia. 30years after its inception DXA is the undisputed standard imaging technique for the assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk with new applications beyond bone densitometry adding to its value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Le Bas , Christian; Mothe , Caroline; Nguyen-Thi , Thuc Uyen
International audience; Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the major determinants of technological (product and process) innovation persistence and provides evidence of the significant role of organizational innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Data came from two waves of the Luxembourg Community Innovation Survey (CIS): CIS2006 for 2004-2006 and CIS2008 for 2006-2008. The longitudinal data set resulted in a final sample of 287 firms. A multinomial probit model estimates the ...
Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han
The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec
Eyre, G.; Loth, B.
The paper summarizes the results of an extensive study carried out for the UK Government. This assessed the cost and economic impact of technological innovation on subsea and floating developments in the UKCS. The study covered, innovations that could be applied to subsea developments to significantly reduce cost, including multiwell completions, composite pipelines, compartmented pipelines, pipeline specification breaking and autonomous control systems. Cost and economic models were used to assess the economic impact of technological innovation on marginal field developments. The results of these assessments were drawn up as a series of ranking lists designed to assist manufacturers and suppliers in establishing priorities for research and development funding. The study also explored the potential UKCS and World market for innovative subsea technologies and quantified the research and development required to bring key innovations into commercial use
Inman, James A.
Suggests that all stakeholders should share a focus on "innovations," referring here simultaneously to technologies and their social, cultural, political, and historical contexts. Introduces a new perspective through which writing center professionals can approach collaborative relationships with other stakeholders in the move towards…
Ahmad Adriansyah; Adi Zakaria Afiff
The positive impact of absorptive capacity (ACAP) on innovation and the positive impact of innovation on competitive advantage have been proven in different research contexts. However, current knowledge on organizational culture that affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage as a whole, remains unclear. This article proposes a model to examine how organizational culture (developmental culture and rational culture) affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage, directly and indir...
Río, Pablo del; Bleda, Mercedes
The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative assessment of the innovation effects of instruments which support the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies with a functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. The paper provides a link between two major streams of the literature: the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. We show that, when a functional perspective is adopted, feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other policy instruments (quotas with tradable green certificates and tendering), although they still need to be complemented with other instruments, most importantly, direct R and D support. Furthermore, those innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of the instruments chosen. - Highlights: ► A comparison of the innovation effects of instruments for the diffusion of renewable technologies. ► A functions-oriented technological innovation system perspective. ► A link between the functions of innovation systems and the literature on renewable electricity support schemes. ► Feed-in tariffs are likely to be superior to other instruments. ► Innovation effects are affected by the specific design elements of instruments.
Irina Markovna Golova
Full Text Available In this paper, actual problems of innovative-technological image as a key element of the mechanism of the healing sources of socioeconomic development of the Russian regionsare considered. The author gives an assessment of the level of differentiation of subjects of the Russian Federation on the potential for innovative development. Trends in spatial transformations of thescientific and technical and innovation capacities of the country are analyzedand reasons of low innovational activity of Russian enterprises are disclosed. Basic conditions for the success of actions to create an attractive image of innovative-technological territory are formulated. Special attention is paid to the position of regions as participants in the innovational processes, creating preconditions for creativity, harmonization of spatial priorities of innovation, technological and socio-economic development, support for the development of new high-tech industries, improvement of inter-budgetary relations. There are proved priority areas of state policy to reduce barriers to the realization of an innovative paradigm for development of Russian society and effective inclusion of local communities in the implementation of innovative changes.
Higher Education 26% 27% 30% 31% 41% 46% 117% France EU-25 UK Australia Ireland S. Korea Poland 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 3%U.S.15 2010 UN Index rankings jumped...breakthroughs in health IT • Address scientific “grand challenges” Promote Competitive Markets that Spur Productive Entrepreneurship • Promote... entrepreneurship • Improve public sector innovation and support community innovation Source: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nec/reports
Rapid advances in the life sciences means that there is now a far more detailed understanding of biological systems on the cellular, molecular and genetic levels. Sited at the intersection between the life sciences, the engineering sciences and the design sciences, innovations in the biomaterials industry are expected to garner increasing attention and play a key role in future development. This book examines the biomaterials innovations taking place in corporations and in academic research settings today.
Geiger, James D; Hirschl, Ronald B
The pace of medical innovation continues to increase. The deployment of new technologies in surgery creates many ethical challenges including how to determine safety of the technology, what is the timing and process for deployment of a new technology, how are patients informed before undergoing a new technology or technique, how are the outcomes of a new technology evaluated and how are the responsibilities of individual patients and society at large balanced. Ethical considerations relevant to the implementation of ECMO and robotic surgery are explored to further discussion of how we can optimize the delicate balance between innovation and regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kopcha, Theodore J.; Rieber, Lloyd P.; Walker, Brandy B.
The purpose of this research is to understand faculty perceptions about innovation in teaching and technology in a college of education in a research-intensive university. This study was motivated by the creation of a new initiative begun in a large college of education at a Carnegie Research-Intensive university to promote innovation in teaching…
Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Neznanov, A.; Viaene, S.; Kuznetsov, S.O.; Ignatov, D.; Dedene, G.
Concept Relation Discovery and Innovation Enabling Technology (CORDIET), is a toolbox for gaining new knowledge from unstructured text data. At the core of CORDIET is the C-K theory which captures the essential elements of innovation. The tool uses Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), Emergent Self
In order for educational leaders to facilitate effectively the integration of technology, an understanding of the process rural teachers experience with technology integration is critical. The goal of the qualitative study was to discover and understand rural teachers' process for accepting technology innovation in order to improve the…
Castro Galvan, A.; Marco Pelegrin, M.; Salve Galiana, R.; Vallejo Haya, J.; Tagle Gonzalez, J. A.
R and D and, more recently, technological innovation and its relationship with competitivity are more and more part of conferences, books, articles and political speeches and very often are the central part of them. Innovation has become fashionable and many initiatives have come out in connection with it. However, the relationship between technological innovation and competitivity are not always obvious. The current article intends to illustrate some mechanisms that link these two concepts through a specific case, DTN, that is already providing results for the Spanish nuclear industry and whose example can be extrapolated to other industrial sectors. The importance given by the nuclear to the innovation, the research and the technological development it is not new either exclusively belong to any specific organisation but makes evident the coherence between its traditional approach and the current idea of modernizing the country promoting the national technological capacity. (Author)
the Technology Innovation at NREL video. [intro music] The video opens with a blue background and the scientific discoveries that are coming out of the lab and transfer them to industry to get products on the screen. [exit music
Book cover Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile ... With this in mind, and following a conversation between Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.
Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Enevoldsen, Peter
This study explores how Vestas and Siemens Wind Power manage technological innovation in the offshore wind power industry. It utilizes the concept of open and closed “research styles” to investigate how each company designs, constructs, and maintains offshore wind turbines. The article starts by summarizing three of the main innovation challenges facing the offshore wind sector—harsh conditions, capital intensity, and production bottlenecks—before it delves into the specific details about how Vestas and Siemens Wind Power approach turbine development. It divides this discussion into six distinct segments: resources and expenditures, stakeholder involvement and collaboration, testing and maintenance, control and knowledge management, adaptability of designs, and customization and marketing. The study finds that both Vestas and SWP, despite their corporate and cultural differences, utilize the same elements of closed and open styles. It lastly suggests that the notion of style itself may challenge certain assumptions held by scholars about managing the research and innovation process. - Highlights: • This study explores how Vestas and Siemens approach innovation in offshore wind turbine technology. • Open research styles are inclusive, participatory, cooperative, and flexible. • Closed research styles are exclusive, competitive, centralized, and rigid. • Interestingly, Vestas and Siemens use the same style to manage technological innovation. • They are closed when it comes to resources and expenditures and knowledge movement, but open in all other attributes.
This research explored the extent to which cultural concepts stipulated in Botswana Design and Technology curriculum are taught by teachers at junior secondary schools, a topic on which there is little previous research. The pinnacle of good product innovation is when it is grounded on sensitive cultural analysis of the society's culture. However,…
Full Text Available Growing interest worldwide to boost innovation in business sector activities, especially the technology, is intended to maintain or increase national economic competitiveness, inclusively as an effect of awareness concerning the effects resulting from economic activity on consumption of resources and environment, which requires design of new patterns of production and consumption. In this paper we review the most important contributions in the literature in terms of the implications of technological innovation in the economy, at the microand macroeconomic level, viewing the organization's ability to generate new ideas in support of increasing production, employment and environmental protection, starting from the concepts of innovation, innovation process and, respectively, from the innovation typology analysis.
Full Text Available A great deal of ‘innovation failure’ can be attributed to ineffective implementation, rather than failure of the innovation itself. External agencies such as technology diffusion agencies (TDAs have been created to assist organisations to implement innovation successfully, but there has been little empirical research investigating their roles. This paper presents a longitudinal case study of failed innovation implementation, and highlights in particular the role that technology diffusion agencies can play to prevent such failure in future cases. Results indicate the importance of changes in organisational factors such as training, climate, and management support during the implementation process in predicting outcomes, and imply a role for TDAs in assisting with both technical and non-technical aspects of innovation implementation.
Innovations arising from Australian research and development are reported. Two categories of submission are defined: those which are in production or use and those which have reached prototype design or pilot plant stage and appear to be of value. Innovations in the field of nuclear science are: a radon analyser, uranium tails management, technetium-99m generator, enrichment of uranium by gas ultracentrifuge, programmable radiometric assay monitor, a borehole core analyser, intrinsic germanium detector for uranium borehole logging, underground operations at a uranium mine, neutron moisture meter and apparatus for the determination of deuterium in water at natural levels. Names to whom requests for further information should be addressed are included.
Brian Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang
Technology transfer is often an afterthought for many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) researchers. Effective technology transfer should be considered during the planning and execution of research projects. This paper outlines strategies for using technology transfer in NDE research and presents a wide variety of technology transfer methods used by a cooperative...
Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin
Full Text Available Discussions about innovation tend to a more systemic and cooperative approach in which those networks focused on scientific and technological development are considered. This article aims to identify the barriers and facilitators in the collaborative management process of technological innovation projects and a study has been carried out by the cooperation action for innovation with 17 industries in Brazil. The primary evidence refers to the crucial role of project managers when leading the structural demands, and clarity on the relevance of the communication of strategic guidelines among the organizations involved for the achievement of the results in the industries.
Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.
Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Gatzweiler, Franz W; Von Braun, Joachim
This paper adds a contribution in the existing literature in terms of theoretical and conceptual background for the identification of idle potentials of marginal rural areas and people by means of technological and institutional innovations. The approach follows ex-ante assessment for identifying suitable technology and institutional innovations for marginalized smallholders in marginal areas-divided into three main parts (mapping, surveying and evaluating) and several steps. Finally, it contributes to the inclusion of marginalized smallholders by an improved way of understanding the interactions between technology needs, farming systems, ecological resources and poverty characteristics in the different segments of the poor, and to link these insights with productivity enhancing technologies.
An innovative technology like nuclear technology does not make progress by itself once it has to prove its profitability. It was a long way from technical to economic perfection which took courageous managemental descisions. Since nuclear fission was discovered, its exploitation as an energy source has been perfected. Now it is not only technically safe, reliable and ecological; it has also proved to be economically efficient as compared with the competing primary energies. As with other great innovations, the innovative force of nuclear technology is characterized by two directions: its assimilating capacity and its expanding capacity. Further issues are the so-called technological spin-off of nuclear technology and the fresh impetus nuclear technology gives to other fields. Another aspect beyond technological spin-off affecting all of our society: It was the first large technology requiring risk analyses to be carried out. Discussion broke out in public on the question: ''How safe is nuclear technology''. To sum up, the basic innovation of nuclear technology is now an important economic factor. It came just in time. It is capable of providing relief to the world's energy problems. It is up to us to use it in an intelligent way in the future despite any short-breathed complaints. (orig./HSCH) [de
Dell'era, Claudio; Marchesi, Alessio; Verganti, Roberto
Only a few companies have mastered the design-driven approach to innovation. This paper examines what it means to make design a central part of the business process, able to add value to products and create new markets. More specifically, it focuses on the interplay between the functional and sem...
Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.
Based on the analysis of firms' stochastic adoption behaviour, this paper first points out the necessity to build more practical stochastic models. And then, stochastic evolutionary models are built for substitutable innovation diffusion system. Finally, through the computer simulation of the
Miller, Fiona Alice; Sanders, Carrie B; Lehoux, Pascale
Governments have invested heavily in the clinical and economic promise of health innovation and express increasing concern with the efficacy and efficiency of the health innovation system. In considering strategies for 'better' health innovation, policy makers and researchers have taken a particular interest in the work of universities and related public research organizations: How do these organizations identify and transfer promising innovations to market, and do these efforts make best use of public sector investments? We conducted an ethnographic study of technology transfer offices (TTOs) in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada, to consider the place of health and health system imperatives in judgments of value in early-stage health innovation. Our analysis suggests that the valuation process is poorly specified as a set of task-specific judgments. Instead, we argue that technology transfer professionals are active participants in the construction of the innovation and assign value by 'imagining' the end product in its 'context of use'. Oriented as they are to the commercialization of health technology, TTOs understand users primarily as market players. The immediate users of TTOs' efforts are commercial partners (i.e., licensees, investors) who are capable of translating current discoveries into future commodities. The ultimate end users - patients, clinicians, health systems - are the future consumers of the products to be sold. Attention to these proximate and more distal users in the valuation process is a complex and constitutive feature of the work of health technology transfer. At the same time, judgements about individual technologies are made in relation to a broader imperative through which TTOs seek to imagine and construct sustainable innovation systems. Judgments of value are rendered sensible in relation to the logic of valuation for systems of innovation that, in turn, configure users of health innovation in systemic ways.
Koch, Christian; Stissing Jensen, Jens
. The institutional features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support "incubation rooms" or marked...... By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which...... concludes that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterised by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse...
Darcy W.E. Allen
Full Text Available In modern economics, the institutions surrounding the creation and development of new technologies are firms, markets and governments. We propose an alternative theory that locates the institutional origin of new technologies further back in the commons when self-organizing groups of technology enthusiasts develop effective governance rules to pool distributed information resources. The ‘innovation commons’ alleviates uncertainty around a nascent technology by pooling distributed information about uses, costs, problems and opportunities. While innovation commons are mostly temporary, because the resource itself – the information about opportunities – is only temporarily valuable, they are a further addition to the Pantheon of commons, and suggest that the institutions of the commons – and the common pool resource of information about applications of the technology – may be far more important in the study of innovation than previously thought.
This paper aims at explaining the outcomes of information technology education for international students using anthropological theories of cultural schemas. Even though computer science and engineering are usually assumed to be culture-independent, the practice in classrooms seems to indicate that learning patterns depend on culture. The…
Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.
S. V. Myamlin
Full Text Available Purpose. Comprehensive and uninterrupted logistical support of troops is considered one of the main factors of successful conduct of hostilities by any state. The logistics support system, created in peacetime, is intended for use in the course of a military company. It is the link between the front and the economy of the country, and at the same time, it is one of the important factors affecting the combat operation. According to experts, changes in the geopolitical and military-strategic situation in Europe resulted also changes in the armed forces of states, including their logistical support, which is undergoing changes and is developing under the direct influence of the military strategy, the achievement of whose goals it is intended to provide. All this necessitates the search for new, more effective ways of solving logistical problems in modern combat. This is true today, including for the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to consider and implement in practice the logistic support of the state power structures of innovations in the form of a new, improved product - the creation of modular complexes, including various block containers (kitchen-dining room, shower room, laundry, post-office, dispensary and others. They will dramatically change in the future the quality of resolving the issues of everyday life of servicemen during the performance of combat missions in emergency zones and with participation in armed conflicts. Methodology. The methodology is based on the main measures to improve the logistic support system in the near future, including the reorganization of the existing logistic support system and the creation of modular structures of forces and means that are easily adapted and subsequently targeted for specific tasks. Findings. A set of design documentation for the block - container for laundry and shower in the field is offered. Technological modules for combat (block-post, rear (kitchen
Brey, Philip A.E.; Franssen, M.; Vermaas, P.E.; Kroes, P.; Meijers, A.W.M.
This essay argues for a new turn after the empirical turn in the philosophy of technology: the societal turn, which is the turn from reflective philosophy of technology (academic philosophy concerned with analysis and understanding) to constructive philosophy of technology (philosophy that is
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the main benefits of technological innovation in organizations and how it should be managed to ensure economic efficiency. The current level of social and economic evolution was possible only through active involvement of individuals and organizations in the innovative process. Adoption of appropriate policies and strategies at institutional, national and international level has significant impact on both the innovation process and innovation results. At company level, involvement in an innovative process depends on the financial and human resources and on the availability and interest of management and employees. The main motivating factor in adoption of technological innovation is, most often, obtaining financial benefits. This reflects itself either as a direct increase in profits, or by obtaining competitive advantage which leads, in the long run, to profits increase and achieving a favorable position on the market. Should not be neglected other motivating factors of innovation, such as compliance with environmental standards, ensuring a secure position on the market with opportunities for further expansion, reducing the cost of raw materials and / or production process, improving company image, attitude and achievements of partners in the field (competitors, suppliers, customers etc. Managers need to carefully analyze these factors and decide the manner and degree of involvement in an innovative process.
Full Text Available Historically, business institutions base their growth strategies on their research and development (R&D function. This function is fairly established and sets out to acquire new knowledge in a systematic process of research in order to produce or improve products, services or processes. In fact, innovation and research are two of the main thrusts for economic growth. Research is planned, assessed, managed and rewarded, innovation is not. However, without acknowledging and aiding the growing importance of innovation for growth in a rapidly more chaotic environment, this function is set for failure. Where research is valued, innovation is feared as radical and disruptive. Furthermore, there is little evidence in the current body literature to link them and to show how they, jointly, can add more value than separately. They remain independent entities in separate clusters of the economy. The convergence factor in research and innovation is technology (knowledge not machines. The paper explores the convergence of innovation and research from a previous paper, focusing on the development of a conceptual model in terms of the technology (or knowledge system required for the accomplishment of this convergence. In this sense, technology is defined as knowledge, tacit or explicit, in human, document or electronic format. The proposed convergence requires the use of knowledge systems to drive the innovation and research. The contribution of the paper lies in the knowledge developmental aspects of research and innovation convergence. An existing model to achieve for knowledge systems development will be reviewed and a modified version presented after careful consideration of the body literature on knowledge and innovation systems. This model incorporates aspects of knowledge management as well as innovation and research management.
The Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group is calling on CERN Departments to take their technology out of the confines of the laboratory and make it ready for dissemination. For the first time, projects can apply for financial support from the newly established KTT Fund. Scientific inquiry can lead to unexpected developments for society when researchers apply their expertise for public use. CERN actively encourages this transfer of knowledge and technology and, for the first time, has created a dedicated fund to provide financial support to projects aiming at disseminating their technologies to external audiences. CERN’s technology transfer schemes were formalised in the recent Policy on the Management of Intellectual Property in Technology Transfer, approved in March. Revenues generated by commercial exploitation will be distributed between the members of the team that developed the technology, their Department, and the KTT Fund for reinvestment in further KTT projects. &qu...
Cunningham, Colin R.; Evans, Christopher J.; Molster, Frank; Kendrew, Sarah; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Snik, Frans
Advances in astronomy are often enabled by adoption of new technology. In some instances this is where the technology has been invented specifically for astronomy, but more usually it is adopted from another scientific or industrial area of application. The adoption of new technology typically occurs via one of two processes. The more usual is incremental progress by a series of small improvements, but occasionally this process is disruptive, where a new technology completely replaces an older one. One of the activities of the OPTICON Key Technology Network over the past few years has been a technology forecasting exercise. Here we report on a recent event which focused on the more radical, potentially disruptive technologies for ground-based, optical and infrared astronomy.
Tatyana B. Zagorulya
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of empirical research aimed at identifying the personality traits of students as bearers of innovation culture: innovative susceptibility, assertiveness, autonomy in decision-making, initiative and responsibility.Methods. In accordance with the object and purpose of the empirical research, empirical methods are used: instructional design model, observation, notes and forming experiments, testing, questionnaire, interview, qualitative analysis of empirical data; block of complementary techniques: «Research of features of response to conflict» (by K. Thomas, «Assertiveness», «Leader. Qualities of a Leader», «Leading representative system».Scientific novelty and results. Scientific novelty consists in the justification of psycho-pedagogical tools for diagnosing the level of development of the innovation culture of students of high school. It is found that students who successfully realizing the potential strength and ability to organize their own life, educational activities and communication on the basis of aggregate conscious goals, values in assertiveness, are outer-directed to innovation taking place in society and in the world. The use of innovative technologies in the educational process, especially creative projects, the decision of cases, holding debates, simulations and role-playing games creates conditions for the development of assertive behavior required in the process of successful adaptation and integration of students in the educational environment of the university, the acquisition of competitiveness in the society. It is concluded that the presence of the students’ considerable potential for the development of an innovation culture, in particular the leading representative of different systems, allowing to develop communication skills and engage in constructive dialogue.Practical significance. Appropriate methods and appropriate tools for diagnosing the level
Full Text Available This study assesses the relationship between Hofstedes cultural dimensions and the constituents of a National Innovation System NIS. We consider an NIS as a special kind of intangible latent asset and identify its two constituents input and output capital. These are extracted through a modern NIS measurement model based on the Global Innovation Index. Using structural equation models we show that power distance and uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation and indulgence vs. restraint act through the latent constructs PDUA and LTIV respectively. Moreover individualism IDV and NIS constituents are directly and negatively affected by PDUA. IDV and LTIV directly and positively affect the NIS constituents. Further the results show that masculinity vs. femininity significantly and negatively affects the NIS input constituent and significantly affects the NIS output constituent but its impact is negative for high-income countries and positive for non-high income countries.
Full Text Available The positive impact of absorptive capacity (ACAP on innovation and the positive impact of innovation on competitive advantage have been proven in different research contexts. However, current knowledge on organizational culture that affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage as a whole, remains unclear. This article proposes a model to examine how organizational culture (developmental culture and rational culture affects ACAP, innovation and competitive advantage, directly and indirectly as well. Surveyed data (in Indonesian Banking Industry shows that both of organizational culture have a direct impact on ACAP. Only developmental culture has a direct impact on innovation. There is no culture type affects competitive advantage directly. In this research, culture affects competitive advantage through ACAP and innovation.
In this paper, we reflect on the concept of nature that is presupposed in biomimetic approaches to technology and innovation. Because current practices of biomimicry presuppose a technological model of nature, it is questionable whether its claim of being a more ecosystem friendly approach to
Habets, M.J.M.; van der Sijde, Peter; Voordijk, Johannes T.
New procurement methods encourage the adoption of innovative production technologies. This triggers the need for entrepreneurship in the construction industry. The purpose of this study is to provide insights into the adoption processes of a particular set of new production technologies in the Dutch
The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes
This presentation is a big picture overview on the changing state of air measurement technology in the world, with a focus on the introduction of low-cost sensors into the market place. The presentation discusses how these new technologies may be a case study in disruptive innov...
Indeed, some technological advances appear to have exacerbated the gap between them. The question is, how can science and technology (S&T) innovation be brought to bear on the needs of the poor? This project will endeavor to address the development needs of the poor and excluded in six Southeast Asian countries ...
Feng, Zhuolin; Zhao, Wenhua
The world is increasingly merged into a global market economy, and the government's intervention power in economy has rapidly given way to that of science and technology. For the world's major economic powers, indigenous technological innovation has become a national strategy for enhancing competitiveness. Investment in scientific and…
Bossart, S.J.; Moore, J.
Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE's surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019
Jiménez Jiménez, Daniel; Cepeda Carrión, Gabriel; Cegarra Navarro, Juan Gabriel
While the information technologies provide organizational members with explicit concepts, such as writing instruction manuals, the ‘organizational memory’ provides individuals with tacit knowledge, such as systematic sets, routines and shared visions. This means that individuals within an organization learn by using both the organizational memory and the information technologies. They interact to reduce organizational information needs contributing to improve organizational innovativeness....
Fasterholdt, Iben; Krahn, Murray D; Kidholm, Kristian
INTRODUCTION: Hospitals increasingly make decisions regarding the early development of and investment in technologies, but a formal evaluation model for assisting hospitals early on in assessing the potential of innovative medical technologies is lacking. This article provides an overview of models...
Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia, Ed.; Irby, Beverly J., Ed.
Our increasingly globalized world is driven by shared knowledge, and nowhere is that knowledge more important than in education. Now more than ever, there is a demand for technology that will assist in the spread of knowledge through customized, self-paced, and on-demand learning. The Handbook of Research on Innovative Technology Integration in…
&D strategies. On the supply side, the existing literature has been focused on understanding how technology licensing can be used by firms as a mechanism to recover investments in innovative activities and to foster learning opportunities. On the demand side, it has been shown that licensing is an important...... source that firms can tap into to feed their internal needs for innovative knowledge. While several studies have examined technology licensing through the lens of the licensor, research on how firms rely on licensing contracts to acquire knowledge and improve their innovation performance still leaves......Licensing contracts represent one of the most widely used mechanisms to exchange technologies and transfer know-how between firms. Due to the opportunities that licensing creates for firms operating on both sides of the markets for technology, it has increasingly become an integral part of firms’ R...
Barnett, Jeffrey E
Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. Specific ethical challenges and pitfalls are discussed and recommendations are made for the ethical use of these technologies. Additionally, innovative practices from the seven articles in the special section that follows are highlighted and reviewed. These articles present a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy training, research, supervision, and treatment forward toward increased effectiveness. Recommendations for integrating these innovations into ongoing practices are provided and for additional research to build on the important work of the authors in this special section are provided.
Why are new financial instruments created? This paper proposes the view that financial development arises as a response to the contractual needs of emerging technologies. Exogenous technological progress generates a demand for new financial instruments in order to share risk or overcome private information, for example. A model of the dynamics of technology adoption and the evolution of financial instruments that support such adoption is presented. Early adoption may be required for financial...
Azar, Goudarz; Drogendijk, Rian
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the relationship between cultural distance (both perceived and objective), innovation and firm export performance. Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses were tested here by structural equation modeling using data from 186 export ventures into 23 international
Hugger, Ada Scupola; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh
innovation culture using theory on organizational culture and crowdsourcing. The analysis shows that the organizational crowdsourcing event has supported an innovation culture change in the case company towards a more open approach to innovation; creating a new and different awareness of innovation, allowing......In this article we investigate how social media-based crowdsourcing systems can be used to reengineer the innovation culture in an organization. Based on a case study of a large engineering consultancy's use of a social media crowdsourcing system we investigate the impact on the organizations...
This report evaluates a high-voltage electron beam (E-beam) technology's ability to destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other contaminants present in liquid wastes. Specifically, this report discusses performance and economic data from a Superfund Innovative Technology...
Bowen, W Richard
Engineering makes profound contributions to our health. Many of these contributions benefit whole populations, such as clean water and sewage treatment, buildings, dependable sources of energy, efficient harvesting and storage of food, and pharmaceutical manufacture. Thus, ethical assessment of these and other engineering activities has often emphasized benefits to communities. This is in contrast to medical ethics, which has tended to emphasize the individual patient affected by a doctor's actions. However technological innovation is leading to an entanglement of the activities, and hence ethical responsibilities, of healthcare professionals and engineering professionals. The article outlines three categories of innovation: assistive technologies, telehealthcare and quasi-autonomous systems. Approaches to engineering ethics are described and applied to these innovations. Such innovations raise a number of ethical opportunities and challenges, especially as the complexity of the technology increases. In particular the design and operation of the technologies require engineers to seek closer involvement with the persons benefiting from their work. Future innovation will require engineers to have a good knowledge of human biology and psychology. More particularly, healthcare engineers will need to prioritize each person's wellbeing, agency, human relationships and ecological self rather than technology, in the same way that doctors prioritize the treatment of persons rather than their diseases.
Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen
Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time.
Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867
Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin
The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.
Fehse, K.I.A.; Wognum, P.M.
The central aim of our research is to describe and explain how the introduction of a computer-based technology, which supports co-operative work in engineering departments, induces change processes. The employment of computer-based technologies in product development organisations to support
Technology for small- and medium-scale enterprises .... The system encompasses some interactions that are cooperative, others which are competitive. ..... nature of some key, contemporary technologies, and the synergy and even fusion of .... such as the integration of science policies with economic and social policies, and ...
Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile présente les résultats de cette étude. Les lecteurs y trouveront une analyse détaillée des politiques sur les sciences et la technologie du Chili qui part du « système d'innovation national ». On y propose des moyens d'améliorer la coordination du secteur public, des réformes ...
Full Text Available The aim is to discuss the relationship between traditional and scientific technological knowledge as innovative and fundamental to heritage conservation. It is argued that this innovation does not necessarily come from scientific knowledge, but potentially from a wise articulation between these two types of knowledge. This discussion starts from an already long process of reflection on lime heritage conservation, as developed in LNEC from research projects.
A program to help accelerate the adoption and implementation of new and innovative remediation technologies has been initiated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program Office (EM40). Developed as a Public-Private Partnership program in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Technology Innovation Office (TIO) and coordinated by Sandia National Laboratories, the Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program attempts to reduce many of the classic barriers to the use of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. In this program, DOE facilities work cooperatively with EPA, industry, national laboratories, and state and federal regulatory agencies to establish remediation demonstrations using applicable innovative technologies at their sites. Selected innovative technologies are used to remediate small, one to two acre, sites to generate the full-scale and real-world operating, treatment performance, and cost data needed to validate these technologies and gain acceptance by industry and regulatory agencies, thus accelerating their use nationwide. Each ITRD project developed at a DOE site is designed to address a typical soil or groundwater contamination issue facing both DOE and industry. This includes sites with volatile organic compound (VOC), semi-VOC, heavy metal, explosive residue, and complex or multiple constituent contamination. Projects are presently underway at three DOE facilities, while additional projects are under consideration for initiation in FY96 at several additional DOE sites. A brief overview of the ITRD Program, program plans, and the status and progress of existing ITRD projects are reviewed in this paper
Handschuh, Robert F.
An overview of rotary wing evolution and innovations over the last 20 years was presented. This overview is provided from a drive system perspective. Examples of technology innovations that have changed and advanced drive systems of rotary wing vehicles will be provided. These innovations include full 6-axis CNC gear manufacture, face gear development to aerospace standards, health and usage monitoring, and gear geometry and bearing improvements. Also, an overview of current state-of-the-art activities being conducted at NASA Glenn is presented with a short look to fixed and rotary wing aircraft and systems needed for the future.
Blanch, L; Guerra, L; Lanuza, A; Palomar, G
This article is based on the strategic reflection and discussion that took place on occasion of the first conference on innovation and technology transfer in the health sciences organized by the REGIC-ENS-FENIN-SEMICYUC and held in Madrid in the Instituto de Salud Carlos III on May 7th, 2013, with the aim of promoting the transfer of technological innovation in medicine and health care beyond the European program "Horizon 2020". The presentations dealt with key issues such as evaluation of the use of new technologies, the need to impregnate the decisions related to adoption and innovation with the concepts of value and sustainability, and the implication of knowledge networks in the need to strengthen their influence upon the creation of a "culture of innovation" among health professionals. But above all, emphasis was placed on the latent innovation potential of hospitals, and the fact that these, being the large companies that they are, should seriously consider that much of their future sustainability may depend on proper management of their ability to generate innovation, which is not only the generation of ideas but also their transformation into products or processes that create value and economic returns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Sikimic, U.; Chiesa, V.; Frattini, F.; Scalera, V.G.
The open innovation (OI) paradigm emphasizes the importance of integrating inbound and outbound flows of technology to increase a firm's innovation performance. While the synergies between technology inflows and outflows have been discussed in conceptual OI articles, the majority of empirical
金, 双鴿; Shuangge, JIN
An advanced automatic identification technology based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has significant value for inventory systems. RFID tag is a microchip combined with an antenna in a compact package and is called also IC tag. Other benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labor costs, the simplification of business processes, and the reduction of inventory inaccuracies. This paper aims to analyse the effects of RFID technology on the logistics innovation.
Full Text Available This study investigates the links between organizational culture, the use of open innovation sources and the performance of SMEs. The main hypothesis of the study is that a special type of organizational culture (termed innovative culture, which fosters creativity, learning and inter-employee cooperation – will correspond with a greater scope of open innovation sources and higher levels of innovative, operational and financial performance. The study was based on a representative CATI survey of 473 SMEs operating in manufacturing and services industries in Poland. Our statistical analysis relied on building and testing structural equation model with the AMOS software. The findings confirmed a positive association between innovative culture and the scope of open sources of innovation. However, innovative culture had no direct effect on the percentage of sales from new and modified products, which is often used as a metric of innovativeness, but did show a positive influence on an index of operational performance and ROI. Such statistical patterns suggest that fostering innovative culture is beneficial to a company, though probably not through an increased number of product innovations, but rather via process, administrative and marketing innovations, as well as other gains in efficiency attained due to more streamlined employee cooperation and knowledge exchange. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge in management science by providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying innovative culture’s impacts on open innovation practices and metrics of operational and financial performance in the context of small and medium enterprises.
Benton, Morgan C.; Radziwill, Nicole M.
In recent years, hype surrounding the proliferation of blockchain-based technology has been significant. Apart from the creation of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, it has been difficult to determine what practical utility might lie in the adoption of blockchain, mainly because there are so few in existence at present. Even so, interest in the technology has increased tremendously. This paper is a primer for software quality professionals. It briefly describes the history of blockchain tec...
Weiss, Daniel; Eikemo, Terje Andreas
Social inequalities in health have been categorised as a human-rights issue that requires action. Unfortunately, these inequalities are on the rise in many countries, including welfare states. Various theories have been offered to explain the persistence (and rise) of these inequalities over time, including the social determinants of health and fundamental cause theory. Interestingly, the rise of modern social inequalities in health has come at a time of great technological innovation. This article addresses whether these technological innovations are significantly influencing the persistence of modern social inequalities in health. A theoretical argument is offered for this potential connection and is discussed alongside the typical social determinants of health perspective and the increasingly popular fundamental cause perspective. This is followed by a proposed research agenda for further investigation of the potential role that technological innovations may play in influencing social inequalities in health.
Singh, D; Khamba, J S; Nanda, T
Contribution of Micro-Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) is highly remarkable in the overall industrial economy of the country. In recent years, the MSME sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. With its agility and dynamism, the sector has shown admirable innovativeness and adaptability to survive the recent economic downturn and recession. However, MSMEs growth rate is still at low level. Therefore, it becomes essential for organizations to adopt new technologies or upgrade existing setup to meet continuously changing global market and fulfill customer needs. This paper explores the relationships between different collaboration networks and technological innovation of small firms through an extensive review of literature. The study finds that collaboration with larger enterprises, R and D institutions, universities and government agencies play a significant role in enhancing technological innovation in small firms
Full Text Available Science, Technology & Innovation Policy (STIP is an important policy instrument particularly in the developing countries. India also has recognized the role of science, technology and innovation in development as early as 1958 but still trails behind its peer Brazil, China and the Asian tiger Singapore. Considering strong correlation between research and development investment and growth based on existing studies, this paper brings forth the present situation of India in investment and its influence on the performance of the economy vis-à-vis the three countries. This paper studies the STIP 2013 in detail and reports the contribution of the Department of Science and Technology in India. The main conclusion of this paper is the recommendation for incorporation of “entrepreneurship” in STIP based on global best practices, which can be achieved by government’s involvement as a venture capitalist to seed and support innovations, increasing transparency and incorporating entrepreneurial curriculum.
Rembser, J [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn-Bad Godesberg (Germany, F.R.)
Technological know how and innovations will be of considerable future importance for West German industry. Changes in the reliability of sources of supply (energy, raw materials), the burden imposed on the environment by intensive industrial production and numerous private sources, and the stiffening of international competition necessitate cLoser collaboration between industry and government. Public aid in research and development efforts will assume an important role. In West Germany there is a wide variety of such governmental aids. The range extends from direct grants to enterprises for research and development work to the furnishing of advice to promote innovative efforts and technology transfer. Banks provide risk capital with governmental aid to firms trying to indroduce high-risk innovations into the market. In recent years the aim has been to provide small and medium-size firms with better access to technological know how and governmental aids.
Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng
The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.
Malina, Roger F.
In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds
Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Beerlage, S.
Innovative work behavior is a key organizational competence. Informed by a framework for describing the role of cultural competences as an antecedent for international business performance this study seeks to explicate the connection between individual multiculturalism and innovative work behaviors,
Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov
Full Text Available Drastic and inclusive technology progress is changing the economy of Russia and foreign countries. This progress significantly impacts production forces. . This paper analyzes theoretical and applied approaches to the investigation of production forces development. I reveal the role and importance of innovations in science and technology as well as their impact on various segments of the economy. I analyze the conceptual framework used for technological shifts. The paper describes the indicators showing the level of scientific and technological potential development in various countries and regions including the Urals. I define growth areas in technology and assess their contribution to gross domestic product (GDP growth. The administrations and authorities at federal and regional levels impact the development of science, innovations, technologies and breakthrough areas. The development of these spheres leads to the increase in productivity of social activities, production and business activity. The paper reveals the impact of the technological breakthrough in such latest fields as the alternative energy sources, drones, electric car industry, storage and delivery of energy. This fields transform the economy and society. Furthermore, they change theoretical concepts of functional and institutional social structure. The development paradigm is to be modified from fuel and raw model to the innovative and technological one. The economic development and scientific and technological potential are interrelated. I discuss the reason of close attention to the development of science, technologies, innovations in the developed countries. as well as the measures to stimulate their development. The article studies the mechanism and tools of science and education funding in various regions of the world. The results of the research may be used for updating the strategy of scientific and technological development of Russia and its regions in the current
Lane, M A; Aceves, S M; Paulson, C N; Candy, J V; Bennett, C V; Carlisle, K; Chen, D C; White, D A; Bernier, J V; Puso, M A; Weisgraber, T H; Corey, B; Lin, J I; Wheeler, E K; Conway, A M; Kuntz, J D; Spadaccini, C M; Dehlinger, D A; Kotovsky, J; Nikolic, R; Mariella, R P; Foudray, A K; Tang, V; Guidry, B L; Ng, B M; Lemmond, T D; Chen, B Y; Meyers, C A; Houck, T L
This report summarizes key research, development, and technology advancements in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2010. These efforts exemplify Engineering's nearly 60-year history of developing and applying the technology innovations needed for the Laboratory's national security missions, and embody Engineering's mission to ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow.'' Leading off the report is a section featuring compelling engineering innovations. These innovations range from advanced hydrogen storage that enables clean vehicles, to new nuclear material detection technologies, to a landmine detection system using ultra-wideband ground-penetrating radar. Many have been recognized with R&D Magazine's prestigious R&D 100 Award; all are examples of the forward-looking application of innovative engineering to pressing national problems and challenging customer requirements. Engineering's capability development strategy includes both fundamental research and technology development. Engineering research creates the competencies of the future where discovery-class groundwork is required. Our technology development (or reduction to practice) efforts enable many of the research breakthroughs across the Laboratory to translate from the world of basic research to the national security missions of the Laboratory. This portfolio approach produces new and advanced technological capabilities, and is a unique component of the value proposition of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The balance of the report highlights this work in research and technology, organized into thematic technical areas: Computational Engineering; Micro/Nano-Devices and Structures; Measurement Technologies; Engineering Systems for Knowledge Discovery; and Energy Manipulation. Our investments in these areas serve not only known programmatic requirements of today and tomorrow, but
The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a
Full Text Available Information technology has a powerful impact on learning and the central idea of the current e-learning technologies is to provide users the ability to use and reuse of learning objects, which must be compatible with the learning management systems and with any other future technology from that field. The success of new learning technologies is related to student-centered learning approach, on skills which will be acquired as a result of learning. Their establishment is in close accordance with the didactic objectives of teaching the lessons. From informatics point of view the content to be taught in terms of components-based learning, which the existing software components are assembled into an application in such a way that they interact to get a predefined functionality. The components can react depending on the architecture where they are assembled. According to semantic model, the learning components can be assembled by manually, so as to provide a great opportunity for both students and teachers to exercise their creativity and vision. New information technologies, as component-oriented programming or service-oriented architecture, allow the easy handling and composition of learning objects even by non specialists, teachers who prepare their lessons according to their vision, or students who can practice the knowledge acquired solving the variants of problems studied.
Presents a course syllabus and requirements for an anthropology course on the cross-cultural analysis of the relationships between technology, science, and social organization. Provides daily topics, suggested text readings, and reference articles. (MVL)
Bitzer, Jürgen; Schröder, Philipp
the assumption that software producers compete in technology rather than price or quantities. The model includes the presence of technological progress and menu costs of adjusting existing software, i.e. innovation. It is found that: (i) moving from monopoly to duopoly does increase the technology level set......Recently the software industry has experienced fundamental changes in market structure through the entry of open source competitors, e.g. Linux's entry into the operating systems market. In a simple model we examine the effects of such a change in market structure from monopoly to duopoly under...... by firms in the software industry; (ii) a duopoly adjusts more readily to global technological progress than a monopolist. Furthermore, results are presented comparing open source versus for-profit firms in terms of technology levels and innovation....
The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.
Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.
Ulijn, Jan; O'Hair, Dan; Weggeman, Mathieu; Ledlow, Gerald; Hall, H. Thomas
Reviews relevant literature in the areas of communication and innovation and explores how efforts toward innovative practices are directly related to globalism and business strategy. Focuses on issues associated with national culture, corporate culture, and professional culture that are relevant to strategies for researching business communication…
Nagano, Susumu; Kakishima, Masayoshi
After the last war, the output of single Steam Turbine Generator produced by the own technology in Japan returned to a prewar level. Electric power companies imported the large-capacity high efficiency Steam Turbine Generator from the foreign manufacturers in order to support the sudden increase of electric power demand. On the other hand, they decided to produce those in our own country to improve industrial technology. The domestic production of large-capacity 125MW Steam Turbine Generator overcome much difficulty and did much contribution for the later domestic technical progress.
Song, X.M.; Zang, F.; Bij, van der J.D.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.
Despite the obvious linkage between information technologies (IT) and knowledge processes and the apparent strategic importance of both, little research has done to explicitly examine how, if at all, IT and knowledge processes affect firm outcomes. The purpose of this study is to bridge this
Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m 2 or 2116 ft 2 ) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage
Vickers, Richard; Field, James; Melakoski, Cai
In 2013 five universities from across Europe undertook an innovative project "Media Culture 2020", combining skills and forces to develop new practices that would face the challenge of the convergence of digital media, taking full advantage of social media and cloud-based technologies. The aim of the Media Culture 2020 project was to…
... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Comment Request: Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Innovative Technology Experiences for Students... Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) is a National Science Foundation program that...
... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers... opportunities for students and teachers to learn about, experience, and use information technologies within the...
J. Wynen; K. Verhoest; E. Ongaro; S. van Thiel
This article examines the effect of specific new public management (NPM)-related characteristics to explain innovation-oriented culture within public sector organizations. According to NPM doctrines, an enhanced managerial autonomy combined with result control will stimulate a more innovation-oriented culture in such organizations. Using multi-country survey data of over 200 public sector agencies, we test for the influence of organizational autonomy, result control and their interactions, on...
Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Kientzler, Fionn
Management science defines user-generated innovations as open innovation and lead user innovation. The medical technology industry finds user-generated innovations profitable and even indispensable. Innovative medical doctors as lead users need medical technology innovations in order to improve patient care. Their motivation to innovate is mostly intrinsic. But innovations may also involve extrinsic motivators such as gain in reputation or monetary incentives. Medical doctors' innovative activities often take place in hospitals and are thus embedded into the hospital's organisational setting. Hospitals find it difficult to gain short-term profits from in-house generated innovations and sometimes hesitate to support them. Strategic investment in medical doctors' innovative activities may be profitable for hospitals in the long run if innovations provide first-mover competitive advantages. Industry co-operations with innovative medical doctors offer chances but also bear potential risks. Innovative ideas generated by expert users may result in even higher complexity of medical devices; this could cause mistakes when applied by less specialised users and thus affect patient safety. Innovations that yield benefits for patients, medical doctors, hospitals and the medical technology industry can be advanced by offering adequate support for knowledge transfer and co-operation models.
Zieba, M.; Schivinski, Bruno
Purpose - This article examines the relation between knowledge management (KM) driven leadership, culture and innovation success of knowledge-intensive small and medium sized companies. By building on the previously reported research on leadership, culture, innovation , and knowledge management, we synergistically integrate d KM-driven leadership and innovation success while exploring the meditational role of culture in that. Design/methodology/approach - A conceptual model comprising three c...
The major goal of the Lasagna trademark project was to design, construct, install, and operate an in situ remediation system in low-permeability soil. A new technology--the Lasagna process--uses electro-osmosis to move contaminated groundwater through treatment zones. The treatment zones are installed in contaminated soils, thereby forming an integrated in situ remedial process. Electro-osmosis, well known for its effectiveness and extremely low power consumption, uses a direct current to cause Groundwater to travel through low-permeability soil. When a bench-scale version of the technology was 98 percent effective in removing contamination, an actual field test was the next step. The site chosen for this first field effort was the DOE-owned Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. The target contaminant for this project was trichloroethylene (TCE) because it is found at many sites across the country and is present at approximately 60 percent of DOE's sites
Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993
Pratt, T. [Future Vehicle Technologies Inc., Maple Ridge, BC (Canada)
Battery management systems (BMS) were discussed in this presentation, with particular reference to the basic BMS design considerations; safety; undisclosed information about BMS; the essence of BMS; and Future Vehicle Technologies' BMS solution. Basic BMS design considerations that were presented included the balancing methodology; prismatic/cylindrical cells; cell protection; accuracy; PCB design, size and components; communications protocol; cost of manufacture; and expandability. In terms of safety, the presentation addressed lithium fires; high voltage; high voltage ground detection; crash/rollover shutdown; complete pack shutdown capability; and heat shields, casings, and impact protection. BMS bus bar engineering considerations were discussed along with good chip design. It was concluded that FVTs advantage is a unique skillset in automotive technology and the development of speed and cost effectiveness. tabs., figs.
Lihui, Lang; Shaohua, Wang; Chunlei, Yang
Hydroforming has a rapid development recently which has good forming quality and less cost. However, it still cannot meet the requirements of forming complex parts with small features just like convex tables, or bars which are widely employed in automotive and aircraft industries. The impact hydroforming technology means the most features are formed by hydroforming and the small features are rapidly reshaped by high intensity impact energy in a very short time after the traditional hydroforming. The impact pressure rises to the peak in 10ms which belongs to dynamic loading. In this paper, impact hydroforming process is proposed. The generation and transmission of impact hydroforming energy and impact shock wave were studied and simulated. The deformation process of the metal disks under the dynamic impact loading condition presented impact hydroforming is an effective technology to form complex parts with small features.
The aim of this thesis was to create a business plan to understand the potential of the business idea and offer guidance when establishing a new business. The basis was to study the business environment in Finland and what factors need to considered in business planning process. Entrepreneurship is one pos-sibility for the author in the future. Large generations are retiring and the market has place for new entrepreneurs and ideas. The Technology industry is constantly evolving and new i...
Cummings, J.B.; Kingscott, J.W.; Fiedler, L.D.
The selection and use of more cost-effective remedies requires better access to data on the performance and cost of technologies used in the field. To make data more widely available, the US Environmental Protection Agency is working jointly with member agencies of the Federal Remediation Technologies Round table to publish case studies of full-scale remediation and demonstration projects. EPA, DoD, and DOE have published case studies of cleanup projects primarily consisting of bioremediation, soil vapor extraction, and thermal desorption. Within the limits of this initial data set, the paper evaluates technology performance and cost. In the analysis of cost factors, the paper shows the use of a standardized Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Use of the WBS will be important in future reporting of completed projects to facilitate cost comparison. The paper notes the limits to normalization and thus cross-site comparison which can be achieved using the WBS. The paper identifies conclusions from initial efforts to compile cost and performance data, highlights the importance of such efforts to the overall remediation effort, and discusses future cost and performance documentation efforts
At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned
V. A. Panfilov
Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of scientific and engineering work to develop methods for converting agricultural raw materials into food is the most important condition of output processing and food sectors of agriculture in the sixth technological structure. The purpose of this article is to formalize the process of creating a progressive technique of food technologies. The process of self-organizing technological systems, presents a model of dual mechanism of control with regard to the processes of food technology. It is shown that in the process of adaptation development of the technological system as purposefully improving the structure and functioning of the system: increases the efficiency of interaction with the external environment. This smoothed out the contradictions of the technological system and its the main thing, the main technical contradiction: «productivity – quality». The steps to be taken to ensure that the technological system of conditions for intensive development. It is concluded that the potential development of some technological systems is hidden in the perspective of automation, and others – is associated with adaptive development processes, in particular machines, devices and bioreactors. The paper shows that innovative and truly breakthrough developments leading to the creation of fundamentally new equipment and new generations of technological systems, possible only with the establishment of patterns of organization, structure, functioning and development of open systems, which are modern technologies of agriculture. The mechanism of control of technological object acts as a core of adaptive development, which implements the anti-entropic entity management object, formalizing the innovation process of innovative food processing technologies.
Nelson, Adaora N.
Innovation in the aerospace industry has proven to be an effective strategy for competitiveness and sustainability. The organizational culture of the firm must be conducive to innovation. The problem was that although innovation is needed for aerospace companies to be competitive and sustainable, certain organizational culture issues might hinder leaders from successfully innovating (Emery, 2010; Ramanigopal, 2012). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of hierarchical, clan, adhocracy and market organizational types and innovation in aerospace companies within the U.S while controlling for company size and length of time in business. The non-experimental quantitative study included a random sample of 136 aerospace leaders in the U.S. There was a significant relationship between market organizational culture and innovation, F(1,132) = 4.559, p = .035. No significant relationships were found between hierarchical organizational culture and innovation and between clan culture and innovation. The relationship between adhocracy culture and innovation was not significant, possible due to inadequate sample size. Company size was shown to be a justifiable covariate in the study, due to a significant relationship with innovative (F(1, 130) = 4.66, p business had no relationship with innovation. The findings imply that market organizational cultures are more likely to result in innovative outcomes in the aerospace industry. Organizational leaders are encouraged to adopt a market culture and adopt smaller organizational structures. Recommendations for further research include investigating the relationship between adhocracy culture and innovation using an adequate sample size. Research is needed to determine other variables that predict innovation. This study should be repeated at periodic intervals and across other industrial sectors and countries.
Yamashita, T.; Fukuda, T.; Masuda, N.
This paper describes an effort by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) to shorten the construction time in a drastic manner for the Advanced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWR), thereby aiming at reducing construction costs. First an outline of the actual construction records for the five BWR Units and the two ABWR Units at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa site is introduced along with the construction methods employed for these units. There is a continued trend in the reduction of construction time from Unit 1 to 7 owing to a number of improvements made to these units, and in particular it is noteworthy that the drastic reduction was accomplished due to the change in reactor type from BWR to ABWR. Explained next is an on-going effort for the next ABWR and the following next generation of ABWRs to further shorten construction time. In this effort an emphasis is laid on the development of innovative construction methods by the adoption of steel plate/concrete composite structures (SC Structure), and the application of those structures even to containment vessel (so-called SCCV). This work is being conducted as part of TEPCO's research and development for the next generation ABWRs (ABWR II). Presently it is expected that the construction time from bedrock inspection to fuel loading could be shortened in a stepwise fashion to 38 and 31.5 months for the next ABWR and finally to 23 months for the next generation ABWR II, thus enabling a greatly reduced power generating cost and enhanced safety during construction. In addition to the above effort, a preliminary study has been performed concerning the application of base isolation systems to ABWR plants. From this study which is aimed at standardization, lowered cost and mitigation of engineering work, it was found that base isolation system effectively reduces seismic response and is instrumental in achieving the above-mentioned objectives. Therefore it can be said that the use of this system gives more freedom in selecting sites
This paper investigates the question what attributes of countries influence the differential speed at which they adopt new communication technologies. On the basis of empirical data, it concludes that besides GNP per capita, cultural variables predict the speed of technology adoption. In particular,
Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin
This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions.
The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface voters and porous waters by absorbing d...
Tepic, M.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.
Purpose - The aim of this paper is to establish the differences between the food and beverages (F&B) and technology-based industries with regards to the relation between previously identified success factors and innovation project performance. Design/methodology/approach - These differences are
L. van Gastel; L. Snaphaan; MD E.J.M. Wouters; E. van der Lubbe-Verhaegh; I. Bongers
Purpose Currently, most technology (robotics, smart homes, etc) that has been developed for the healthcare sector are difficult in use, expensive and often not affordable for individual persons in their home situation. Affordable innovations that activate people instead of taking tasks over can be a
Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.
The main topics of the summer school meeting were 1. Motivation and programs for waste transmutation: The scientific perspective roadmaps; 2. The physics and scenarios of transmutation: The physics of transmutation and adapted reactor types. Impact on the fuel cycle and possible scenarios; 3. Accelerator driven systems and components: High intensity accelerators. Spallation targets and experiments. The sub critical core safety and simulation physics experiments; 4. Technologies and materials: Specific issues related to transmutation: Dedicated fuels for transmutation. Fuel processing - the role of pyrochemistry. Materials of irradiation. Lead/lead alloys. 5. Nuclear data: The N-TOF facility. Intermediate energy data and experiments. (orig./GL)
This paper describes the new conception of management and service of small science and technology libraries in research and development institutions (R and D institutions), in the light of characteristics of the R and D institution, this paper gives the small science and technology libraries the new and advanced knowledge of management and service. Moreover, this paper gives instructions on knowledge management and service innovation in future practice. (author)
Hamilton, Kip [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poyneer, Lisa A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shusteff, Maxim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spadaccini, Christopher M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hopkins, Jonathan B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernier, Joel V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); King, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Puso, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weisgraber, Todd H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstein, Noah C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sales, Ana Paula De Oliveira [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dehlinger, Dietrich A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kotovsky, Jack [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kuntz, Joshua D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Voss, Lars F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Elizabeth K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chang, John T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lehman, Sean K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vernon, Stephen P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tang, Vincent [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This report summarizes key research, development, and technology advancements in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Engineering Directorate for FY2011. These efforts exemplify Engineering’s nearly 60-year history of developing and applying the technology innovations needed for the Laboratory’s national security missions, and embody Engineering’s mission to “Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory’s vitality tomorrow.
Arkhireiska Natalia V.
The article is aimed at studying the innovation technology of the post-industrial economy - blockchain. It has been found that blockchain is a multifunctional and multi-level information technology designed to reliably account for different assets. It has been proved that the most important today is blockchain for Bitcoin. The article explores the opportunities, prospects and risks associated with investment in cryptocurrency. It has been determined that the main advantages of investment in B...
Jong, A.M. de; Vink, P.; Kroon, J.C.A. de
In this paper the adoption of technological innovations to improve the work of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants is evaluated. Two studies were performed among 323 subjects to determine the adoption of the working methods, the perceived workload, experiences with the working methods, and the
This article focuses on the following issue: How can we build a training and support system that would enhance the motivation and capacity of teachers for high-quality implementation of information technology innovations guided by humanist ideas? That is, a system that would not only increase teachers' motivation to apply Humanist Information…
Silverberg, G.; Verspagen, B.
Innovations are known to arrive more highly clustered than if they were purely random, and their rate of arrival has been increasing nearly exponentially for several centuries. Their distribution of importance is highly skewed and appears to obey a power law or lognormal distribution. Technological
Current developments as a direct result from the (binding) Paris Agreement1, adopted at the COP 21 December 2015, seem promising since the predominant role of science, technology and innovation in achieving the SDGs. Increasing farmers’ resilience toward climate change through new approaches as
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a model proposed for the selection Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and procurement of services supporting the erection of the IBTs that will ensure the construction of a sustainable school...
Kayumova, Lilija A.; Savva, Lubov I.; Soldatchenko, Aleksandr L.; Sirazetdinov, Rustem M.; Akhmetov, Linar G.
The relevance of the study is conditioned by the modernization of engineering education aimed at specialists' training to solve engineering and economic problems effectively. The goal of the paper is to develop the technology of the innovative content's formation for engineering education. The leading method to the study of this problem is a…
Innovation in the developed countries is heavily based on R&D and is closely related to income, skills and infrastructure in those countries. Little is geared towards IT problems of poor countries. This technology does not suit the incomes, skills and so on of poor countries. Fortunately another
Kano, Shigeki; Koyama, Masahiro; Nomura, Shigeo; Morikawa, Satoru; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
This paper describes the base technology development of new materials for FBR performance innovations at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The contents are as follows: (1) development of sodium and radiation resistant new materials, (2) development of high performance shielding material, (3) development of high performance control material, (4) development of new functional materials for reactor instrumentation. (author)
innovations in public secondary schools in Cross River State. One hypothesis ... technology go hand in hand. Advances in ... Osika E. Okon, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, University of Calabar, Calabar, .... Science teachers in 50 middle schools located in five urban districts in the United States of.
Zehra Taşkın; Güleda Doğan
This study is a review of the book entitled “Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy”. In the converging world, the book is an important contribution not only for the field of economy, but also information science which includes information-economy concepts.
Methods of market entry and the financing of new technologies were discussed from the perspective of Clipper Windpower, a wind energy company based in the northeastern United States and Canada. Many new technology companies only consider private equity when seeking financing for new product development. However, financing for projects and products is only the first step to market entry. Wind projects are the financial equivalent of a high yield bond with mechanical risk. Many wind power projects with company equity can also be seen as a long term bond with upside in any given year. It is therefore important for wind developers to seek out strategic buyers for both product development and project development, in addition to finding sources of private equity. Clipper Windpower Inc. has developed a partnership with British Petroleum (BP), who hold an equity interest in the company. Both companies are now partnering on projects with Clipper turbines, and firm orders are in place for 2007 and 2008. As a result of the partnership, Clipper now has increased its financial strength in cash flows, balance sheets, and projected revenue. It was concluded that a successful partnership can increase the scale of wind power development, and bring financial sophistication to smaller companies with limited resources. refs., tabs., figs
Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.
Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) has been developed, demonstrated, and deployed as a new time-saving, cost-effective approach for hazardous waste site investigations. ESC is an alternative approach that effectively shortens the length of the assessment period and may significantly reduce costs at many sites. It is not a specific technology or system but is a methodology for most effectively conducting a site characterization. The principal elements of ESC are: a field investigation conducted by an integrated team of experienced professionals working in the field at the same time, analysis, integration and initial validation of the characterization data as they are obtained in the field, and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations that took place between 1989 and 1996. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned
Over 253 million liters of high-level waste (HLW) generated from plutonium production is stored in mild steel tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Corrosion monitoring of double-shell storage tanks (DSTs) is currently performed at Hanford using a combination of process knowledge and tank waste sampling and analysis. Available technologies for corrosion monitoring have progressed to a point where it is feasible to monitor and control corrosion by on-line monitoring of the corrosion process and direct addition of corrosion inhibitors. The electrochemical noise (EN) technique deploys EN-based corrosion monitoring probes into storage tanks. This system is specifically designed to measure corrosion rates and detect changes in waste chemistry that trigger the onset of pitting and cracking. These on-line probes can determine whether additional corrosion inhibitor is required and, if so, provide information on an effective end point to the corrosion inhibitor addition procedure. This report describes the technology, its performance, its application, costs, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) for many of its nuclear facilities throughout the United States. These facilities must be dismantled and the demolition waste sized into manageable pieces for handling and disposal. The facilities undergoing D and D are typically chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. To facilitate this work, DOE requires a tool capable of removing the surface of radiologically contaminated concrete floors. Operating requirements for the tool include simple and economical operation, the capability of operating in ambient temperatures from 3 C to 40 C (37 F to 104 F), and the ability to be easily decontaminated. The tool also must be safe for workers. The Marcrist Industries Limited concrete shaver is an electrically driven, self-propelled concrete and coating removal system. This technology consists of a 25-cm (10-in.)-wide diamond impregnated shaving drum powered by an electric motor and contains a vacuum port for dust extraction. The concrete shaver is ideal for use on open, flat, floor areas. The shaver may also be used on slightly curved surfaces. This shaver is self-propelled and produces a smooth, even surface with little vibration. The concrete shaver is an attractive alternative to traditional pneumatic scabbling tools, which were considered the baseline in this demonstration. The use of this tool reduces worker fatigue (compared to the baseline) due to lower vibration. The shaver is more than five times faster than the five-piston pneumatic scabbler at removing contamination from concrete. Because of this increased productivity, the shaver is 50% less costly to operate than baseline technologies. The DOE has successfully demonstrated the concrete shaver for decontaminating floors for free-release surveys prior to demolition work
Nieboer, Anna P; Strating, Mathilde M H
Innovative cultures have been reported to enhance the creation and implementation of new ideas and working methods in organizations. Although there is considerable research on the impact of organizational context on the innovativeness of organizations, the same is not the case for research on the organizational characteristics responsible for an innovative culture in (long-term) care settings. The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that explain innovative culture in the (long-term) care sector. A large cross-sectional study in Dutch long-term care-nursing homes and/or elderly homes, care organizations for the handicapped, and long-term mental health care organizations-was conducted. A total of 432 managers and care professionals in 37 organizations participated. The Group Innovation Inventory was used to measure innovative culture in long-term care organizations. Structural characteristics of the organization were centralization and formalization, environmental dynamism and competitiveness, internal and external exchange of information, leadership style, commitment to quality improvement, and the organization's innovative strategy. The determinants of an innovative culture were estimated with a two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model. Multilevel regression models were used to account for the organizational clustering of individuals within the 37 care organizations. Environmental dynamism, job codification, formal external exchange of information, transformational leadership, commitment to quality, and an exploratory and exploitative innovation strategy were all significantly correlated with an innovative culture in the multivariate multilevel analysis; the other characteristics were not. The explained organizational- and individual-level variance was 52.5% and 49.2%, respectively. The results point to substantial differences in innovative cultures between and within care organizations that can, in part, be explained by
So, Anthony D; Ruiz-Esparza, Quentin
Enabling innovation and access to health technologies remains a key strategy in combating infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, a gulf between paying markets and the endemicity of such diseases has contributed to the dearth of R&D in meeting these public health needs. While the pharmaceutical industry views emerging economies as potential new markets, most of the world's poorest bottom billion now reside in middle-income countries--a fact that has complicated tiered access arrangements. However, product development partnerships--particularly those involving academic institutions and small firms--find commercial opportunities in pursuing even neglected diseases; and a growing pharmaceutical sector in BRICS countries offers hope for an indigenous base of innovation. Such innovation will be shaped by 1) access to building blocks of knowledge; 2) strategic use of intellectual property and innovative financing to meet public health goals; 3) collaborative norms of open innovation; and 4) alternative business models, some with a double bottom line. Facing such resource constraints, LMICs are poised to develop a new, more resource-effective model of innovation that holds exciting promise in meeting the needs of global health.
Maria Fatima Ludovico de Almeida
Full Text Available Prospective studies about emerging technologies and their implications for public policy formulation indicate critical choices ranging from global to national level, even to the individual firm or institution. Emerging technologies have been shaping the future of some industries and transforming many others. In many cases, these technologies will determine the restructuring of industries as never before. Specially designed for enabling better planning and future decisions, technology foresight (TF methods are used to foresee diffusion of innovations, mapping out commercially viable roadmaps for technological development. This paper is concerned with a methodological instrument adopted in Brazil as support for building the Agenda for a National Innovation Initiative (NII, which was articulated by government, universities, R&D institutions, and private firms. It presents and discusses an integrated methodological approach for a TF study, specially designed for the purpose of this Brazilian innovation policy instrument, concerning three emerging technologies – nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technologies (ICT.
Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.
The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest
Admiraal, Wilfried; Louws, Monika; Lockhorst, Ditte; Paas, Tineke; Buynsters, Michael; Cviko, Amina; Janssen, Caressa; de Jonge, Mario; Nouwens, Suzan; Post, Lysanne S.; van der Ven, Frauke; Kester, Liesbeth
In many innovations in technology and education in secondary schools, teachers are the crucial agents of these innovations. To select, match and support groups of teachers for particular school projects, school principals could be supported with insights into teachers’ beliefs about teaching,
High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure
The Pipe Explorertrademark system, developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been used to transport various characterizing sensors into piping systems that have been radiologically contaminated. DOE's nuclear facility decommissioning program must characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand-held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Various measuring difficulties, and in some cases, the inability to measure threshold surface contamination values and worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of traditional survey approaches. The Pipe Explorertrademark system provides a viable alternative. The heart of the system is an air-tight membrane, which is initially spooled inside a canister. The end of the membrane protrudes out of the canister and attaches to the pipe being inspected. The other end of the tubular membrane is attached to the tether and characterization tools. When the canister is pressurized, the membrane inverts and deploys inside the pipe. The characterization detector and its cabling is attached to the tethered end of the membrane. As the membrane is deployed into the pipe, the detector and its cabling is towed into the pipe inside the protective membrane; measurements are taken from within the protective membrane. Once the survey measurements are completed, the process is reversed to retrieve the characterization tools
Ohfusa, Takahiro; Hayasaka, Eiji; Ino, Hiroyuki
This is a report of the title by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Tohoku Electric Power and other nine enterprises in Japan. The outline is as follows. Tokyo Electric Power Company stated pipe thinning by the hot water based two-phase flow testing device, development of technologies for corrosion protection of nuclear reactor using titanium oxide, evaluation of fatigue damage by EBSD, and study of duty on the nuclear power plant. Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) stated the mechanism of decrease in exposure dose of the primary coolant system by zinc infusion, outline of Air Operated Valve Intelligent Diagnostic Analysis System (AVIDAS) and the grand packing system, development of SAPLS, the automatic search program of fuel position for design of PWR related core, development of compact containment water reactor (CCR) and FBR cycle system, investigation of the chain destruction of active fault under consideration of dynamic interaction of active faults and decommissioning of Tokai Nuclear Power Plant. Electric Power Development Company reported construction of the Oma Nuclear Power Plant, a future nuclear plant in Oma, Aomori. The reactor will be capable of using 100% MOX fuel core (MOX-ABWR). The operation will start November 2014. (S.Y.)
S. G. Selivanov; S. V. Poezjalova; A. F. Shayhulova
Problem-orientated to the innovative activity, computer-aided systems of production engineering (CASPE) integrates design, manufacture, and organization activities using the interrelated innovation principles thus leaning the innovative activity towards the creation of innovative products and technological innovations of high science and technology level and efficiency. In this situation the innovative activity uses in practice not only the newest experience, but also the science laws and con...
Filis, Avishai; Segal, Victor; Pundak, Nachman; Bar Haim, Zvi; Danziger, Menachem
Ricor cryogenics was founded in 1967 and since then it has focused on innovative technologies in the cryogenic field. The paper reviews the initial research and development efforts invested in various technologies that have yielded products such as Cryostats for Mossbauer Effect measurement, Liquid gas Dewar containers, Liquid helium vacuum transfer tubes, Cryosurgery and other innovative products. The major registered patents that matured to products such as a magnetic vacuum valve operator, pumped out safety valve and other innovations are reviewed here. As a result of continuous R and D investment, over the years a new generation of innovative Stirling cryogenic products has developed. This development began with massive split slip-on coolers and has progressed as far as miniature IDDCA coolers mainly for IR applications. The accumulated experience in Stirling technology is used also as a platform for developing self-contained water vapor pumps known as MicroStar and NanoStar. These products are also used in collaboration with a research institute in the field of High Temperature Superconductors. The continuous growth in the cryogenic products range and the need to meet market demands have motivated the expansion, of Ricor's manufacturing facility enabling it to become a world leader in the cryocooler field. To date Ricor has manufactured more than 120,000 cryocoolers. The actual cryogenic development efforts and challenges are also reviewed, mainly in the field of long life cryocoolers, ruggedized products, miniaturization and products for space applications.
Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.
The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM's needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US
Biomimicry (bio- meaning life in Greek, and -mimesis, meaning to copy) is a growing field that seeks to interpolate natural biological mechanisms and structures into a wide range of applications. The rise of interest in biomimicry in recent years has provided a fertile ground for innovation. This review provides an eco-system based analysis of biomimicry inspired technology and product innovation. A multi-disciplinary framework has been developed to accomplish this analysis and the findings focus on the areas that have been most strikingly affected by the application of biomimicry and also highlight the emerging trends and opportunity areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to identify and demonstrate technologies that will be safer and more cost-effective. At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects as well as others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of need statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. Advances in characterization technologies are continuously being sought to decrease the cost of sampling and increase the speed of obtaining results. Currently it can take as long as 90 days to receive isotopic analysis of radioactive samples from laboratories on soil, liquid, and paint samples. The cost to analyze these types of samples for radionuclides is about $150 per sample. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of using the Surveillance and Measurement System (SAMS) (innovative technology) to make in situ isotopic radiation measurements in paint and soil. Sample collection and on-site laboratory analysis (baseline technology) is currently being used on D and D sampling activities. Benefits expected from using the innovative technology include: Significant decrease in time to receive results on radiological samples; Decrease in cost associated with sample collection, preparation, analysis, and disposal; Equivalent data quality to laboratory analysis; and Fewer
The Flex concrete grinder is a lightweight, hand-held concrete and coating removal system used for decontaminating or stripping concrete surfaces. The US Department of Energy has successfully demonstrated it for decontaminating walls and floors for free release surveys prior to demolition work. The grinder is an electric-powered tool with a vacuum port for dust extraction and a diamond grinding wheel. The grinder is suitable for flat or slightly curved surfaces and results in a smooth surface, which makes release surveys more reliable. The grinder is lightweight and produces very little vibration, thus reducing worker fatigue. The grinder is more efficient than traditional baseline, tools at removing contamination from concrete surfaces (more than four times faster than hand-held pneumatic scabbling and scaling tools). Grinder consumables (i.e., replacement diamond grinding wheel) are more expensive than the replacement carbide parts for the scaler and scabbler. However, operating costs are outweighed by the lower purchase price of the grinder (50% of the price of the baseline scaler and 8% of the price of the baseline scabbler). Overall, the concrete grinder is an attractive alternative to traditional scabbling and scaling pneumatic tools. To this end, in July 1998, the outer rod room exposed walls of the Safe Storage Enclosure (SSE), an area measuring approximately 150 m 2 , may be decontaminated with the hand-held grinder. This concrete grinder technology was demonstrated for the first time at the DOE's Hanford Site. Decontamination of a sample room walls was performed at the C Reactor to free release the walls prior to demolition. The demonstration was conducted by onsite D and D workers, who were instructed by the vendor prior to and during the demonstration
Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Smits, R.E.H.M.
This study provides insight into the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the Netherlands (1980-2007). This is done by applying a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach. This approach takes the perspective that a technology is shaped by a surrounding network of actors,
Ogawa, Yuichi [Tokyo Univ., High Temperature Plasma Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)
In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)
As a part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the In-Situ Electrokinetic Extraction (ISEE) system at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.The SITE demonstration results show ...
Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kuroha, M.; Hida, T.
A study was conducted on future prospects of FBR commercialization. Targets of further improving safety and economy were set to make commercial power plants that would be superior to future LWRs. Promising innovative technologies studied domestically and overseas were extracted by evaluating prospects for commercialization, effect, and plant applicability. Several commercial plants were conceptualized by introducing such technology to large-scale and oxide-fuel reactors. Estimates of construction cost, etc., proved that the targets could be achieved. A concept of long-term technological development was synthesized. (author)
Six Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) was developed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. SPSH is designed to enhance the removal of contaminates from the subsurface during soil vapor extraction. The innovation combines an emerging technology, six-phase electric heating, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation systems for difficult soil and/or contaminate applications. This document describes the technology and reports on field demonstrations conducted at Savannah River and the Hanford Reservation
Full Text Available this article describes the essence of technology Kaizen, which was developed in Japan to improve business processes with the aim of improving the quality of products, to improve production processes and the efficiency of management of the organization. In contrast to Western technology, Cirio, which involves the introduction of a radical innovation, technology Kaizen involves the development and implementation of small improvements on an ongoing basis, which ensures stable growth of the main processes of the company. The article presents the description and requirements of the five basic elements of the Kaizen system, and describes the activities of Kaizen teams.
Crean, Kevin W
Around the world, inventors are creating novel information and communication technology applications and systems that can improve health for people in disparate settings. However, it is very difficult to find investment funding needed to create business models to expand and develop the prototype technologies. A comprehensive, long-term investment strategy for e-health and m-health is needed. The field of social entrepreneurship offers an integrated approach to develop needed investment models, so that innovations can reach more patients, more effectively. Specialized financing techniques and sustained support from investors can spur the expansion of mature technologies to larger markets, accelerating global health impacts.
... of the Technology and Innovation Committee (TIC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). The meeting will... Propellant Storage and Transfer; and a discussion of barriers to innovation and innovation enablers. DATES... Barriers to Innovation and Innovation Enablers The meeting will be open to the public up to the seating...
Andrew D. Kitchenham
Full Text Available This article outlines a recent study on school culture and technology adoption. Adapting Hargreaves’ (2003 model of school cultures, research findings are presented on three schools involved in a study on teacher transformation using educational technology to explain how each school represents a separate school culture and school regime. Each school is profiled to demonstrate, through direct quotes from the participants, how a specific school culture or regime can reflect varying degrees of transformation, and subsequent technology adoption. Résumé : Cet article présente une étude récente portant sur la culture scolaire et l’adoption de la technologie. En utilisant une adaptation du modèle des cultures scolaires de Hargreaves (2003, les résultats de recherche de trois écoles qui ont participé à une étude sur la transformation des enseignants utilisant la technologie éducative sont présentés afin d’expliquer comment chaque école représente une culture d’école et un régime scolaire distincts. Chaque école est profilée dans le but de démontrer, au moyen de citations directes des participants, la façon dont une culture d’école ou un régime scolaire donné peut se traduire par divers niveaux de transformation et, conséquemment, d’adoption des technologies.
Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.
NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.
This book describes new thinking and practice in Advanced Design (ADD) – design that is not merely highly developed but anticipates the future by envisioning novel products and processes. The focus is especially on the front end of innovation and the search for solutions in complex pioneering processes using design-related tools and practices. The book opens by describing these tools, the approaches that characterize ADD, and its historical dimension. Specific fields in which ADD has flourished are then examined, exploring the dynamics between research and design. The coverage ranges from transportation, lighting, and electrical appliances through to business networks, technology parks, and the development of ground-breaking materials. AdvanceDesign is the name of the research group at the Politecnico di Milano (Italy’s largest technical university) of which the authors are members. It was chosen to reflect both the “advanced”, tangible dimension of design in terms of modern product development, mater...
J. Schumpeter is a key figure, even a seminal one, on technological innovation. Most economists who study technological innovation refer to Schumpeter and his pioneering role in introducing innovation into economic studies. However, despite having brought forth the concept of innovation in economic theory, Schumpeter provided few if any analyses…
Full Text Available In Argentina, innovations related to biotechnologies were rapidly adopted while initially there was an absence of a large social debate. To understand this absence, the institutional framework which legitimized technological innovations must be addressed. This framework was undoubtedly one of the conditions of success of the dissemination of the agribusiness model. It´s unfolding also evidences the restructuring of local rural dominant classes that led to the emergency of new social actors. These were the “innovators” gathered in the Argentine Association of No-Tilling Farmers (or AAPRESID. Here, we analyze how innovations were introduced and legitimated in Argentina. In contrast to what AAPRESID has termed as a “paradigmatic revolution”, we will characterize the introduction of biotechnologies in Argentine agriculture as a “conservative revolution”.
Sonia Regina Mangiavacchi Tuccori
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to understand the relationship between strategies and collaborative organizational arrangements and the defining of their position within the corporate power structure. The strategic approach employed herein is that of case studies so as to comprehend the peculiarities and the value proposition of the management model of innovation networks at a Brazilian company that operates in the personal hygiene, perfumery and cosmetics segment. To excel within an environment marked by increased global competition, companies have to develop and learn with an innovative work structure and culture. This derives from the rapid shortening of product life cycles which drives the need to innovate at more frequent intervals and to develop technologies, processes, products and/or services more efficiently. Furthermore, given increased product, technologies and processes complexity, attention is drawn to the expansion of costs and risks to innovate to the extent of enhancing uncertainties and pressure on R&D+i (Research, Development and Innovation budgets. Meanwhile, the need for interdisciplinarity by means of cooperation likewise comes to light.
Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer
This paper examines the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…
Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.
Takhir U. Bazarov
Full Text Available Organizational culture presents an interest for research and practice of social psychology. This article is intended to discuss the problem of managing the organizational structure on two levels that contain most topical problems: general methodological level and technological level. Organizational culture is a system with its distinct features that consists of units and sub-systems with their specific features. An organizational-culture system comprises several levels: leader's personality level (as well as the personality level in general, level of executive team (as well as of a small group in general, level of organization in general (level of a large group.
Complexity, diversity and coordination are features of technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China. This paper studies on the key factors of macro-environment, cooperation among enterprises and enterprise interior, which influence the upgrading of technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China. This paper constructs integrated system of technology innovation to analyse the upgrade path to technology innovation of resource-based SMEs in China, so that enterprises would improve their technology innovation and get a new way to accomplish sustainable innovated development.
Full Text Available Studies of small and medium-sized enterprise (SMEs development around the world show that the most significant factor for increasing their numbers and improving business success is the free enterprise, as exogenous, and innovation as an endogenous variable. At the same time, the dominant view in economic theory is that innovation is a key generator of changes for which the SMEs can be considered as a kind of metaphors for a successful business over the last twenty years in a number of economies. Arguing that cooperation between SMEs is increasingly common generic strategy of their development, the paper first explains the importance of collaboration to increase innovation and competitiveness, and then provides possible models using information technology such as Workflow Management Systems (WfMS, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA and Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture (SOCCA to support the collaboration of these business entities. Solutions provided are aimed at improving the innovativeness of SMEs and fully follow the requirements of the so-called fifth-generation innovation process whose key attributes are integration and flexibility.
Full Text Available This study substantiates the necessity of transition from the natural resource model of socioeconomic development towards an industrially reproducible type of raw material, which is particularly relevant in the context of the global resource crisis. The key role of innovative technologies in the solution to this problem is questioned. Theoretical and methodological principles of the modern economy functioning are examined based on the resource factor. A new concept of “resource recycling”, which reflects industrial resource recovery, is introduced. An innovative model of a resource base for economic reproduction is provided, the necessity of transition from the existing linear economic model towards a closed resource cycle model is shown, and three resource cycle models are examined in terms of their objectives, forms, and content. The major problems in the implementation of the innovative model and ways of solving them are defined, which makes it possible to reduce the risk of a resource provision crisis. The conclusion that resource recycling serves as a new sphere of innovative technologies is substantiated. The historical analogy method and the evolutionary systems approach are used.
China proactively promotes indigenous technology innovation towards developing an innovation-based economy. This contradicts the developmental state literature that puts emphasis on technology imitation. Drawn from the strategic entrepreneurship perspective, this article explores the role of the
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Bureau of Transportation Statistics Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research... Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Attention...
To create sustainability in society’s energy system, power producers and consumers need smart grid technology to balance among producing and consuming units. Smart grid makes up a host of specifications, unproven products and concepts as well as a strong and dedicated innovation process for utility...... companies. Few proven concepts exist, and with the prolongation, smart grid represents an excellent case of technology management. The current study uses a series of loosely related technological studies of smart grid technologies in SME electricity companies to highlight and characterise critical issues....... Major findings are that the companies have limited capabilities in management of technology despite both strong push and pull, and they suffer from vaguely expressed objectives....
Evgheniya A. Panfilova
Full Text Available The article analyzes the need to develop a new type of interaction between providers of the equipment and its end-users in a changing social and cultural reality. This type of interaction is a guarantee of innovative modernization of Russian industrial facilities, as it is based on a revision of the social reality in light of new information and/or knowledge. The choice of innovative technologies that contribute to fruitful and qualitative relationships among the actors of the social process acquires significance since there have been changes in the role, objectives and potential of technology. The author focuses on the changes in perceptions of social time and space, reflection of consumers (the impact of economic, social and psychological factors on their decision to purchase, and suppliers. There is a reflection of the habitus of social actors in the context of social interaction, based on the organization of innovative practices. Today technology is also reflecting, its symbolic characteristics, contained in the codes of signification, become more important, than technical ones. The research is based on in-depth interviews with experts from the pharmaceutical industry aimed at identifying the factors influencing the decision to purchase an innovative high-quality imported equipments and machinery, which would contribute to the modernization of the existing production process. The author concludes that adequate reflection which promotes the creation and dissemination of new social practices based on close and confidential contacts and development of flexible communication tools would provide for successful modernization of Russia.
Flores, E.A.; Donaghue, J.F.
Increasing regulation and scrutiny is driving waste generators towards reducing the use of scarce natural resources and reducing or eliminating was streams. There is increasing emphasis on developing and deploying technologies that meet industry needs for recovering valuable materials in a cost-effective manner. At the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, Battelle operates Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL's mission is to develop technologies to clean up the environment, and to assist industry in being competitive on a global scale. One such technology developed by PNL is the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) process. This technology recovers acids from metal-bearing spent solutions, separating out the metals (which are a valuable byproduct of the acid recycling operation) from the acids. WADR uses selective precipitation and distillation together in an innovative waste recycling technology. Selective precipitation removes the heavy metals, and vacuum distillation recovers clean acid. However, WADR and other innovative waste reduction technologies face numerous barriers to successful development and deployment in the field
Rau, Christiane; Gassmann, Oliver; van den Hende, Ellis
This paper identifies technologically reflective individuals and demonstrates their ability to develop innovations that benefit society. Technological reflectiveness (TR) is the tendency to think about the societal impact of an innovation, and those who display this capability in public are individuals who participate in online idea competitions focused on technical solutions for social problems (such as General Electric's eco‐challenge, the James Dyson Award, and the BOSCH Technology Horizon Award). However, technologically reflective individuals also reflect in private settings (e.g., when reading news updates), thus requiring a scale to identify them. This paper describes the systematic development of an easy‐to‐administer multi‐item scale to measure an individual's level of TR. Applying the TR scale in an empirical study on a health monitoring system confirmed that individuals' degree of TR relates positively to their ability to generate (1) more new product features and uses, (2) features with higher levels of societal impact, and (3) features that are more elaborated. This scale allows firms seeking to implement co‐creation in their new product development (NPD) process and sustainable solutions to identify such individuals. Thus, this paper indicates that companies wishing to introduce new technological products with a positive societal impact may profit from involving technologically reflective individuals in the NPD process. PMID:27134342
Schweitzer, Fiona; Rau, Christiane; Gassmann, Oliver; van den Hende, Ellis
This paper identifies technologically reflective individuals and demonstrates their ability to develop innovations that benefit society. Technological reflectiveness (TR) is the tendency to think about the societal impact of an innovation, and those who display this capability in public are individuals who participate in online idea competitions focused on technical solutions for social problems (such as General Electric's eco-challenge, the James Dyson Award, and the BOSCH Technology Horizon Award). However, technologically reflective individuals also reflect in private settings (e.g., when reading news updates), thus requiring a scale to identify them. This paper describes the systematic development of an easy-to-administer multi-item scale to measure an individual's level of TR. Applying the TR scale in an empirical study on a health monitoring system confirmed that individuals' degree of TR relates positively to their ability to generate (1) more new product features and uses, (2) features with higher levels of societal impact, and (3) features that are more elaborated. This scale allows firms seeking to implement co-creation in their new product development (NPD) process and sustainable solutions to identify such individuals. Thus, this paper indicates that companies wishing to introduce new technological products with a positive societal impact may profit from involving technologically reflective individuals in the NPD process.
Antonio Carlos Rodrigues de Amorim
Full Text Available Based on frameworks that propose the contextualization of science education centered in the science/technology/ society relationships, and on the belief that the teacher has a fundamental role on the curriculum innovation processes, this paper describes and analyses different elements of the pedagogical practice of teachers of the city of Campinas/SP, in the perspective of outlining an overview regarding the already existing biology and technology relationship. It focuses in a detailed way the conceptions of the relationships between biology and technology present in the instructional materials used or produced by teachers, describing and discussing the wide range spectrum of identified possibilities. It also emphasizes the approaches to biology and technology relationships identified by interviewing the teachers, being them similar or not to those found in the instructional materials. Indicators of the existence of a problematic theory and practice association, in which the theoretical elements (science are hierarchically superior to the practical elements (technology, were detected. This kind of association should constitute a focus of attention in the construction of innovative proposals for the biology curriculum, since science classroom discussions regarding technology – in their ethical, aesthetical, epistemological, and marketing aspects – represent an important path to dimension the biological knowledge in the capitalist contemporary society.
Patzke, Greta R; Zhou, Ying; Kontic, Roman; Conrad, Franziska
Oxide nanomaterials are indispensable for nanotechnological innovations, because they combine an infinite variety of structural motifs and properties with manifold morphological features. Given that new oxide materials are almost reported on a daily basis, considerable synthetic and technological work remains to be done to fully exploit this ever increasing family of compounds for innovative nano-applications. This calls for reliable and scalable preparative approaches to oxide nanomaterials and their development remains a challenge for many complex nanostructured oxides. Oxide nanomaterials with special physicochemical features and unusual morphologies are still difficult to access by classic synthetic pathways. The limitless options for creating nano-oxide building blocks open up new technological perspectives with the potential to revolutionize areas ranging from data processing to biocatalysis. Oxide nanotechnology of the 21st century thus needs a strong interplay of preparative creativity, analytical skills, and new ideas for synergistic implementations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
their knowledge-world in such a radical manner, they start facing problems with making efficient decisions as knowledge generated through experience is mainly useful when the future mimics the past, which is not the case for such radical changes. Therefore, a 3 year long research project within this industry has......The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...... early phases of innovation have been explored in a Scandinavian energy-utilities company facing exactly these paradigmatic changes. In the company there are 5500 employees, with the major footprint in Denmark. The company has activities in the full energy value-chain including: production & trade of oil...
Eight states responded to our survey. (Survey results begin on page 5 of this report.) Five of these states had initiated : efforts to facilitate innovation, four track innovative ideas, and all reward champions in some way. Standout : agencies inclu...
The Forager Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. The Developer states that the technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy metals f...
Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra
Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Though concentrating solar power is receiving growing interest, innovation studies so far have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. This study relies on patent data to examine international innovative activity in concentrating solar power technologies. Our uniqu...
From the three volumes containing the proceedings of the October 12-16, 1992 2nd International Congress on Energy, Environment and Technological Innovation held at the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', separate abstracts were prepared for 41 papers. The selection of papers included recent developments and research trends in the following high-tech areas: biomass plantations, wind turbines, photovoltaic power plants, solar architecture, building energy management, global warming, automobile air pollution abatement, district heating with cogeneration, and hydrogen fuels for transportation
Bychkov, Alexander V.
Safe, proliferation resistant and economically efficient nuclear fuel cycles that minimize waste generation and environmental impacts are key to sustainable nuclear energy. Innovative approaches and technologies could significantly reduce the radiotoxicity, or the hazard posed by radioactive substances to humans, as well as the waste generated. Decreasing the waste volume, the heat load and the duration that the waste needs to be isolated from the biosphere will greatly simplify waste disposal concepts
Sára, Zoltán; Csedő, Zoltán; Tóth, Tamás; Fejes, József; Pörzse, Gábor
The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the barriers in doctor-patient communication and knowledge transfer and the role of innovative technologies in overcoming these barriers. We applied qualitative research methods. Our results show that patients extensively use information sources, primarily the Internet before the visits. Patients regularly apply a self-diagnosis regarding their diseases. This implies several risks as many of them are not able to properly inte...
Dadyan Eh. G.
Full Text Available student learning takes place as scheduled in the computer lab and at home on their own computers in thin client mode and cloud technologies. In line with the studied material discipline, students can take advantage of the cloud services. Attracting innovative methods has allowed roughly halved to intensify the process of learning material, boost academic performance (approximately 40–50% and dramatically improve motivation to study discipline.
research project collected new data and developed models of collaborative, international technology innovation that can be used in the analysis of policy options for clean energy technology development. The findings show that this bilateral initiative is facilitating the technology learning to some degree, becoming a major component of the U.S.-China climate change collaboration; however, policy makers and collaborative practitioners must overcome political, administrative, cultural, and other challenges in their own national contexts before achieving more concrete outcomes.
Mohammadisadr, Mohammad; Siadat, Seyed Ali; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Ebrahim, Ebrahimitabas
As innovation has become one of the most important competitive advantages, academic practitioner's interest in the matter has increased. But, still the question "why lots of organizations fail in their path of article to be innovative" is remained unanswered. In this, among many factors influencing innovation capacity of an organization;…
Keulartz, J.; korthals, M.; Schermer, M.; Swierstra, T.
Our technological culture has an extremely dynamic character: old ways of reproducing ourselves, managing nature and keeping animals are continually replaced by new ones; norms and values with respect to our bodies, food production, health care and environmental protection are regularly being put up
Full Text Available In view of the development of various technological alternatives in precision seed drilling, it has become a matter of research whether there are clear criteria for the success or failure of technological innovations. Around the turn to the 20th century, two very different precision seed drill methods were developed almost at the same time. Band seeding made it possible to achieve nearly perfect single grain sowing. For this purpose, individual, equally spaced seeds were embedded into bands of paper or cotton. In the field, these seed tapes were then unreeled from large drums. The pneumatic system proposed in 1897, by contrast, introduced grain singling using a vacuum for the first time. Although band seeding presented a satisfactory technological solution, it was never widely applied. Pneumatic systems, on the other hand, took long to catch on and only started to be successful in the late 1960s. Up to then, these innovative systems had to be considered as failures. Changing the period under review, however, may completely reverse the assessment of whether an innovation is a success or a failure.
Maja Levi Jakšić
Full Text Available Despite of the rising awareness of the urgency in finding more efficient and effective ways to achieve sustainable development, comprehensive and consistent meaning is still elusive both in theory and practice. The aim of this paper is to create a more structured theoretical framework related to macro and micro perspectives of sustainable development, relevant also to enhancing sustainable practices. We here propose a comprehensive framework model for structuring multiple sustainability principles and practices, detected in the literature as different sustainability categories related to both macro and micro perspectives of sustainability in the economy and society. The focus is on relevant sustainability principles of technology and business innovation in relation to basic technology and business innovation models as a contribution to less investigated theoretical aspects of sustainable business development. We developed a set of related matrices indicating the relevant roles and relationships between these principles in achieving sustainable business goals related to sustainable economy dimensions. Finally, the paper shows that the proposed Related Matrices Framework fulfils the main objective set in the initial research stages, i.e. to be of both theoretical and practical relevance. As a contribution to the theory it meets the need of building a structured, integrated, comprehensive model that serves the needs of better understanding different sustainability of macro and micro categories, indicating mutual relations and influences. In a practical sense, it can be used as a tool to support the management of change in companies oriented at achieving sustainable business goals based on sustainable technology and business innovation.
Henshall, Chris; Schuller, Tara
Identifying treatments that offer value and value for money is becoming increasingly important, with interest in how health technology assessment (HTA) and decision makers can take appropriate account of what is of value to patients and to society, and in the relationship between innovation and assessments of value. This study summarizes points from an Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum discussion, drawing on presentations, discussions among attendees, and background papers. Various perspectives on value were considered; most place patient health at the core of value. Wider elements of value comprise other benefits for: patients; caregivers; the health and social care systems; and society. Most decision-making systems seek to take account of similar elements of value, although they are assessed and combined in different ways. Judgment in decisions remains important and cannot be replaced by mathematical approaches. There was discussion of the value of innovation and of the effects of value assessments on innovation. Discussion also included moving toward "progressive health system decision making," an ongoing process whereby evidence-based decisions on use would be made at various stages in the technology lifecycle. Five actions are identified: (i) development of a general framework for the definition and assessment of value; development by HTA/coverage bodies and regulators of (ii) disease-specific guidance and (iii) further joint scientific advice for industry on demonstrating value; (iv) development of a framework for progressive licensing, usage, and reimbursement; and (v) promoting work to better adapt HTA, coverage, and procurement approaches to medical devices.
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program increases opportunities for small businesses to participate in research and development (R&D), increases employment, and improves U.S. competitiveness. Specifically the program stimulates U.S. technological innovation by using small businesses to meet federal R&D needs, increasing private-sector commercialization of innovations derived from federal R&D, and fostering and encouraging the participation of socially disadvantaged businesses. In 2000, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program extended and strengthened the SBIR Program, increasing its emphasis on pursuing commercial applications by awarding contracts to small business concerns for cooperative R&D with a nonprofit research institution. Modeled after the SBIR Program, STTR is nevertheless a separately funded activity. Technologies that have resulted from the Johnson Space Center SBIR STTR Program include: a device for regenerating iodinated resin beds; laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis or LASIK; a miniature physiological monitoring device capable of collecting and analyzing a multitude of real-time signals to transmit medical data from remote locations to medical centers for diagnosis and intervention; a new thermal management system for fibers and fabrics giving rise to new line of garments and thermal-enhancing environments; and a highly electropositive material that attracts and retains electronegative particles in water.
Full Text Available This paper aims to approach the diffusion model developed in 1960 by Frank Bass has been utilized to study the distribution of different types of new products and services. The Bass Model helps by describing the process in which new products are adopted in a market. This model is a useful tool for predicting the first purchase of an innovative product for which there are competing alternatives on the market. It also provides the innovator with information regarding the size of customers and the adoption time for the product. The second part of the paper is dedicated to a monographic study of specific conceptual correlations between the diffusion of technology and marketing management that emphasizes technological uncertainty and market uncertainty as major risks to innovative projects. In the final section, the results of empirical research conducted in Baia-Mare, Romania will be presented in a way that uses diffusion Bass model to estimate the adoption period for new mobile technologies.
Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo
Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659
Mahesha M. Poojary
Full Text Available Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield, selectivity (purity, high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.
Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A; Juliano, Pablo
Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.
Xu Bin Feng
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper divides technology innovation system into research and development input subsystem, technology research and development subsystem and technology application subsystem from the perspective of technology innovation chain, combining with the system theory. Then selects the corresponding ordinal variables, makes an empirical analysis to the synergy degree of Yangtze River delta regional technology innovation system evolution by complex system synergy degree model which based on the data of 2002-2009. The results show that the development of synergy degree of the technology innovation system appears a rising trend and the technology application subsystem is the key factor of direction and degree of synergy development in the evolution process of regional technology innovation system in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Finally, this paper analyzes the characteristics and causes of synergy degree’s evolution, and puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations to different problems.
... Nation's highest honor for technological innovation, awarded annually by the President of the United... utilizing technological innovation and/or be familiar with the education, training, employment and... Management/Computing/IT/Manufacturing Innovation; Technological Manpower/Workforce Training/Education. Under...
Meniere, Yann; Glachant, Matthieu; Pot, Cecile; Le Blanc, Gilles; Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Carrere, Fabrice
We analyse France's position on global warming mitigation technology. The methodology draws on a database describing all patents filed between 1980 and 2008 in 17 climate-related technological classes. France is the fifth largest innovator in the world, with 5.2 % of patented inventions, including 20 % from the public sector. More than half of French inventions are protected abroad, 1.5 times more than the global average. France's position is relatively weak in renewable energy, and strong in sectors marked by the presence of national industrial champions and public research organisations
Full Text Available In recent years, armed conflicts have changed in nature (civil war, ‘terrorism’ and the means used are increasingly technological (robotisation, cyberwar. Faced with these developments, some would claim International Humanitarian Law (IHL is outdated. While these technological innovations present new challenges in the application of IHL, it still constitutes a relevant legal framework for armed conflicts and the conduct of hostilities. Indeed, the flexibility of IHL allows it to adapt to contemporary conflicts. Therefore, this shows that the statements about its obsolescence are primarily political in nature.
Multi-D technology is an integrated innovative project management system for a construction of complex engineering objects based on a construction process simulation using an intellectual 3D model. Multi-D technology includes: • The unified schedule of E+P+C; • The schedule of loading of human resources, machines & mechanisms; • The budget of expenses and the income integrated with the schedule; • 3D model; • Multi-D model; • Weekly-daily tasks (with 4th level schedules); • Control system of interaction of Customer-EPC(m) company - Contractors; • Change and configuration management system
Lopez Mielgo, N.
This paper reviews the evolution of a company that has based its competitive strategy on technological innovation. Gamesa was established in 1976 and it has been continuously transforming its portfolio of businesses until it has become one of the main global operators in the field of wind turbine manufacturing. The firm was able to apply its technological capital in the emerging phase of the domestic wind energy industry. Once leadership in Spain was consolidated, Gamesa has developed an ambitious programme of sales and operational internationalisation, which has converted it in the number two producer of wind turbines worldwide. (Author)
Tyson, Holliday; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline
Midwifery educators and regulators in Canada have begun to address diversity, equity, and inclusion in admission processes and program curricula. Populations served by midwives value internationally educated midwives from their countries of origin. The International Midwifery Pre-Registration Program at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, provides assessment, midwifery workplace orientation, and accelerated education for internationally educated midwives on behalf of the regulatory College of Midwives of Ontario. Between 2003 and 2015, midwives from 41 countries participated in the bridging program, and 214 (80%) successfully completed the program and qualified for licensure. Of these 214 graduates, 100% passed the Canadian Midwifery Registration Examination and 193 (90%) were employed full time as midwives within 4 months of graduation. The program curriculum enables the integration of these midwives into health care workplaces utilizing innovative approaches to assessment and competency enhancement. Critical to the bridging process are simulation-based practices to develop effective psychomotor learning, virtual and real primary care community placements, and coaching in empathetic, client-centered communication. Cultural sensitivity is embedded into the multiple assessment and learning modalities, and addresses relevant barriers faced by immigrant midwives in the workplace. Findings from the 13 years of the program may be applicable to increase diversity in other North American midwifery settings. This article describes the process, content, outcomes, and findings of the program. Midwifery educators and regulators may consider the utility of these approaches for their settings. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a comprehensive research,development, demonstration, testing and evaluation program to provide innovative technology systems to achieve its environmental management responsibilities. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for this research in support of the Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management efforts. In fiscal year (FY) 1992 the OTD established the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID). The BWID mission was to support the development of emerging technologies for their application to the remediation of DOE buried waste site. During FY95, the BWID program was transitioned into a larger program which will focus its attention to DOE Landfills and Contaminated Soils. There search and activities formerly referred to as the BWID will now be associated with the Transuranic-contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Program.(TALS). The TALS Program supports these buried waste remediation efforts by seeking out the best talent to solve the technology challenges as identified in baseline remediation strategies. Experts from throughout the DOE complex, universities, private sector, and the international community are being included in this program to solve these challenges and ensure implementation and commercialization of innovative technologies
Ulijn, J.M.; Nagel, A.P.; Liang, T.W.
Innovation literature advocates the transition from a technological orientation to market orientation on the part of innovator and entrepreneur. However, the transition requires a change in mindset on the part of these innovation agents, who may be affected by their national contexts. This paper
This paper share the author's perspective, based on her experience, on the procedural, regulatory, institutional, and human barriers limiting the progress and effectiveness of decision making in the Federal government's efforts to develop and demonstrate innovative environmental cleanup technologies. The author has drawn upon her experience as a facilitator for the DOIT Committee process, the EPA/Clean Sites Public/Private Partnership, private industry technology development and demonstration consortia, knowledge gained from facilitating workshops on regulatory and institutional barriers to technology development, and ten years experience as a Superfund attorney. Two main topics are covered in this paper, the first focuses on the use of group processes for decision-making and makes recommendations for improving the success of these processes. The second focus of this paper is on barriers to and solutions for successful development, demonstration, and commercialization of new environmental technologies
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One of the stated needs was for a Robotic Wall Scabbler that would reduce costs and shorten schedules in DOE's Decommissioning Project. This demonstration investigated the associated costs and time required to remove paint from the Test Area North (TAN-607) Decontamination Shop walls by comparing the En-vac Robotic Wall Scabbler against the baseline technology. The baseline technologies consist of the Pentek Vac Pac System with the Pentek Rotopeen and Needle Gun hand-held attachments. This system only removes paint from the surface of concrete. Innovative Technology The En-vac Robotic Wall Scabbler is a remote-controlled scabbling unit with individually motor-controlled wheels that moves horizontally and vertically along floors, walls, and ceilings, adhering to the surface with the help of a high-vacuum suction created at its base (see Figures 1 and 2). The complete En-vac Blasting System consists of the En-vac robot, a recycling unit, a filter, and a vacuum unit, and uses an abrasive, steel-grit blasting technology for the scabbling process. By comparison, this
A wide range of issues relevant to the innovative technologies for nuclear power cycle and nuclear power were addressed. The 7 sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) no title; (2) needs, prospects and challenges for innovation; (3) evolution of technical, social, economic and political conditions; (4) panel on challenges for the deployment of innovative technologies; (5) international programmes on innovative nuclear systems; (6) innovative nuclear systems and related R and D programmes; (7) concluding panel.
Brouns, T.M.; Koegler, K.J.; Mamiya, L.S.
This paper describes elements of success for demonstration, evaluation, and transfer for deployment of innovative technologies for environmental restoration. They have been compiled from lessons learned through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development's Volatile Organic Compounds in Arid Soil Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The success of the VOC-Arid ID program was determined by the rapid development demonstration, and transfer for deployment of technologies to operational sites that improve on safety, cost, and/or schedule of performance over baseline technologies. The VOC-Arid ID successfully fielded more than 25 innovative technology field demonstrations; several of the technologies demonstrated have been successfully transferred for deployment Field demonstration is a critical element in the successful transfer of innovative technologies into environmental restoration operations. The measures of success for technology demonstrations include conducting the demonstration in a safe and controlled environment and generating the appropriate information by which to evaluate the technology. However, field demonstrations alone do not guarantee successful transfer for deployment There are many key elements throughout the development and demonstration process that have a significant impact on the success of a technology. This paper presents key elements for a successful technology demonstration and transfer for deployment identified through the experiences of the VOC-Arid ID. Also, several case studies are provided as examples
Berlin, David B; Davidson, Michael J; Schoen, Frederick J
We sought to evaluate the principles of disruptive innovation, defined as technology innovation that fundamentally shifts performance and utility metrics, as applied to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In particular, we considered implantation procedure, device design, cost, and patient population. Generally cheaper and lower performing, classical disruptive innovations are first commercialized in insignificant markets, promise lower margins, and often parasitize existing usage, representing unattractive investments for established market participants. However, despite presently high unit cost, TAVI is less invasive, treats a "new," generally high risk, patient population, and is generally done by a multidisciplinary integrated heart team. Moreover, at least in the short-term TAVI has not been lower-performing than open surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. We conclude that TAVI extends the paradigm of disruptive innovation and represents an attractive commercial opportunity space. Moreover, should the long-term performance and durability of TAVI approach that of conventional prostheses, TAVI will be an increasingly attractive commercial opportunity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arbour, Megan W; Nypaver, Cynthia F; Wika, Judith C
Women's health care in the United States is at a critical juncture. There is increased demand for primary care providers, including women's health specialists such as certified nurse-midwives/certified midwives, women's health nurse practitioners, and obstetrician-gynecologists, yet shortages in numbers of these providers are expected. This deficit in the number of women's health care providers could have adverse consequences for women and their newborns when women have to travel long distances to access maternity health care. Online education using innovative technologies and evidence-based teaching and learning strategies have the potential to increase the number of health care providers in several disciplines, including midwifery. This article reviews 3 innovative uses of online platforms for midwifery education: virtual classrooms, unfolding case studies, and online return demonstrations of clinical skills. These examples of innovative teaching strategies can promote critical and creative thinking and enhance competence in skills. Their use in online education can help enhance the student experience. More students, including those who live in rural and underserved regions and who otherwise might be unable to attend a traditional onsite campus, are provided the opportunity to complete quality midwifery education through online programs, which in turn may help expand the women's health care provider workforce. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe; Artmann, Elizabeth
This article discusses elements of a theory of innovation from the perspective of innovation networks and social construction of technology, based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action and authors from the Sociology of Innovation. Based on the theoretical framework of the communicative production of scientific facts, we focus on innovation management as a basic dimension that must meet some organizational and methodological requirements in order to power its results. We present and discuss instruments such as Situational Planning, Prospective Analysis, Strategic Portfolio Management, and Networks Management that can help deal with the challenge of innovation and exploration of the future. We conclude that network organizational formats centered on reflexivity of interdisciplinary groups and planning approaches that encourage innovation criteria in assessing the attractiveness of activities and that help anticipate forms of innovation through systematic prospective analysis can potentiate the process of generating innovation as a product of networks. Resumo: No artigo são discutidos elementos de uma teoria da inovação numa perspectiva de redes de inovação e de construção social da tecnologia, a partir da Teoria do Agir Comunicativo de Habermas e de autores da Sociologia da Inovação. Com base no marco teórico da produção comunicativa de fatos científicos, focamos a gestão da inovação como uma dimensão fundamental que deve contemplar alguns requisitos, tanto de natureza organizacional quanto metodológica, para potencializar seus resultados. Apresentamos e discutimos instrumentos como o Planejamento Situacional, a Análise Prospectiva, a Gestão Estratégica de Portfólios e a Gestão de Redes que podem contribuir para o desafio da inovação e exploração do futuro. Conclui-se que formas organizativas em rede, centradas na reflexividade de grupos interdisciplinares, e enfoques de planejamento que estimulem o uso de critérios de inovação na
Full Text Available Digital culture is a new and complex concept. Digital advances are increasingly interacting with the world of culture and the arts, leading to a convergence of technologies, media and information and shaping communication modes. The new possibilities offered by the digital technologies -namely, global connectivity and the emergence of new networks- challenge our traditional understanding of culture and make it necessary for us to take on the board the concept of a digital culture. This article views digital culture as a new social system that determines experiences and opportunities for the citizens of today. Digital technologies and the networked environment have introduced new practices, opportunities and threats, and the culture sector needs to find appropriate ways for operating in this new reality.
Kruse, Juergen; Wetzel, Heike; Koeln Univ.
We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies and that the e.ect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997.
Doris Gomezelj Omerzel
Full Text Available Entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture have an impact on the innovative capability of a company. Therefore, our research tries to examine the influence of different individual entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture dimensions on corporate innovativeness and any direct subsequent company growth. This paper proposes the classification and measurement of five dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation; risk taking, proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness, autonomy and customer orientation and 3 dimensions of organisational culture; power distance, uncertainty/avoidance and individualism/collectivism with the objective of explaining service innovation performance. Specifically, we try to show the differences between the importance of different entrepreneurial characteristic and each organisational culture dimension on a product/service innovation. To this end, a survey was performed on a sample of tourism companies in Slovenia. The data was analysed by employing univariate and multivariate data analyses techniques. Data gathered fromthe survey suggests that entrepreneurial orientation and organisational culture dimensions positively influence innovativeness in tourism companies. Empirical evidence supports the view that a company with more developed entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture will be more innovative. This paper is one of the first to find empirical support for the role of entrepreneurial characteristics and organisational culture in tourism companies in Slovenia. Despite a number of limitations, it offers a picture of how these dimensions should be developed in order to enhance innovation. It also presents managerial implications, as managers are responsible for the forming of these dimensions.
Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Serie, P.; Niesen, K.
Technologies for remediation of contamination are urgently needed to clean up US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the country. DOE is managing a national program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new technologies with promise to expedite this cleanup. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is one such effort. Time and resources, however, are too limited to be invested in methods of remediation that will never be deployed because they have not been rigorously evaluated or because they face the withering opposition of stakeholders. Therefore the VOC-Arid ID is assessing technology both in terms of its technical effectiveness and its stakeholder acceptability. Only if a technology performs as required and is acceptable to regulators, users of technology, and the public will the VOC-Arid ID recommend its use. What distinguishes public involvement in the VOC-Arid ID is the direct influence stakeholders have on the design of technology demonstrations by working directly with technology developers. Stakeholders participated in defining the criteria with which innovative environmental cleanup technology is being evaluated. The integrated demonstration is committed to providing stakeholders with the information they've indicated they need to reach reasoned judgments about the use of specific cleanup technologies. A guiding principle of the VOC-Arid ID is that stakeholder participation improves the technologies being developed, enhances the acceptance of the technologies, and will lead to the broad and timely deployment of appropriate and effective methods of environmental remediation. The VOC-Arid ID has involved stakeholders from the host demonstration site, Hanford, Washington, and from other and sites where the ID technologies may be deployed
Full Text Available Recently, the German Federal Government made the consequential decision to change its energy program. This not only as a result of the decision to shut down the existing nuclear power plants within the next few years, but also due to vital challenges like climate change and security of energy supply. The shift in the energy-technology paradigm from fossil fuel technologies to regenerative energies might appear as a merely technical process at first glance. Yet, the road to environmental sustainability is paved with economic and social stumbling blocks. The concept of sustainable development is not a blueprint for technical progress but requires deliberations on questions about innovations and governance: How do we want to live and how do we want to get there? This paper traces the negotiations of sustainable innovation on the example of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in Germany. The institutional set up in this field is analyzed and the new organizational actors are identified. These actors attempt to inform and persuade others of the benefits of hydrogen and fuel cells in order to establish a common view that is to guide the further development. However, while they succeeded in mobilizing enough actors to launch the largest Public Private Partnership in this sector in the EU, they could not attain the leadership in the public discourse on these technologies. It seems that an attractive guiding vision of a sustainable, post-fossil energy future and a broad acceptance in daily use would have been major prerequisites for such leadership.
Washburn, Newell R
A model for incorporating an entrepreneurship module has been developed in an upper-division and graduate-level engineering elective on Polymeric Biomaterials (27-311/42-311/27-711/42-711) at Carnegie Mellon University. A combination of lectures, assignments, and a team-based project were used to provide students with a framework for applying their technical skills in the development of new technologies and a basic understanding of the issues related to translational research and technology commercialization. The specific approach to the project established in the course, which represented 20% of the students' grades, and the grading rubric for each of the milestones are described along with suggestions for generalizing this approach to different applications of biomaterials or other engineering electives. Incorporating this model of entrepreneurship into electives teaches students course content within the framework of technological innovation and many of the concepts and tools need to practice it. For students with situational or individual interest in the project, it would also serve to deepen their understanding of the traditional course components as well as provide a foundation for integrating technological innovation and lifelong learning. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra
Improved understanding of the innovative pathways of renewable energy technologies is vital if we are to make the transition to a low carbon economy. This study presents new evidence on innovation and industry dynamics in concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Though CSP is undergoing a renaissance, existing innovation studies have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and CSP technologies. This study, based on patent data, examines the level and dynamics of innovative activity in CSP between 1978 and 2004. Our unique contribution, based on engineering expertise and detailed datawork, is a classification system mapping CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification (IPC) system. The innovation performance of CSP is found to be surprisingly weak compared to the patent boom in other green technologies. Performance was strong around 1980 before falling dramatically, and has only recently begun to show signs of recovery. Innovation and R and D are concentrated in high-tech countries; the US, Germany and Japan, which do not necessarily have high domestic CSP potential. Large CSP potential is, therefore, not a sufficient condition for innovation. Innovators must possess economic and scientific capabilities. - Research highlights: → We develop a new classification system which allows us to map innovation in CSP technologies to the International Patent Classification System. → Evidence of innovation patterns in concentrating solar power technologies is presented. → Innovation performance in CSP is surprisingly weak compared to patenting in other green technologies, despite its strong potential as a low carbon power generation technology.
Full Text Available Despite no shortage of thoughtful analysis concerning how to more democratically develop and assess new technologies, practical progress toward democratized innovation has been paltry. This state of affairs suggests that the barriers to such democratic ends merit more attention. Building upon calls to more seriously examine citizens’ understandings of technology as autonomous or deterministic, this paper characterizes the assumptions, beliefs, and patterns of thought undergirding technological determinism and permissionless innovation as technocratic governing mentalities. That is, they contribute to the biasing of political discourses, practices, and organizations toward non-decision making and adaptation with regards to technological change. Indeed, permissionless innovation is quickly becoming the motto of those aiming to legitimate a “hands-off” approach to the sociotechnical “disruptions” sought by Silicon Valley entrepreneurs. Moreover, this paper explores how STS, as both an academic and political endeavor, might better respond to the challenges these modes of thinking present. Drawing upon relevant work within social psychology and communications, several fruitful avenues for engaged research regarding undermining technocratic governing mentalities become apparent. Not only is there a pressing need for accessible and parsimonious counternarratives to technological determinism and permissionless innovation but also rhetorical strategies for making the democratization of technological appear continuous with aspects of status quo systems. Finally, given that technocratic governing mentalities are likely to have practical and material roots, inquiry should be directed toward understanding how different sociotechnical arrangements impact citizens’ perception of the desirability and feasibility of democratizing technology.
Facilitate: “Make [an action or process] easy or easier ” Innovation (Task Force-defined): – “Application of ideas to challenges and opportunities...WikiStrat Google Ogilvy & Mather Defense Entrepreneurs Forum Harvard Business School These are the final briefing slides as approved...Airmen Powered by Innovation AF (nuclear) Force Improvement Pgm AF Office of Transformational Innovation CSIS JSID Defense Entrepreneurs Forum
van Harmelen, F.; Kampis, G.; Börner, K.; van den Besselaar, P.; Schultes, E.; Goble, C.; Groth, P.; Mons, B.; Anderson, S.; Decker, S.; Hayes, C.; Buecheler, T.; Helbing, D.
Modern science is a main driver of technological innovation. The efficiency of the scientific system is of key importance to ensure the competitiveness of a nation or region. However, the scientific system that we use today was devised centuries ago and is inadequate for our current ICT-based society: the peer review system encourages conservatism, journal publications are monolithic and slow, data is often not available to other scientists, and the independent validation of results is limited. The resulting scientific process is hence slow and sloppy. Building on the Innovation Accelerator paper by Helbing and Balietti , this paper takes the initial global vision and reviews the theoretical and technological building blocks that can be used for implementing an innovation (in first place: science) accelerator platform driven by re-imagining the science system. The envisioned platform would rest on four pillars: (i) Redesign the incentive scheme to reduce behavior such as conservatism, herding and hyping; (ii) Advance scientific publications by breaking up the monolithic paper unit and introducing other building blocks such as data, tools, experiment workflows, resources; (iii) Use machine readable semantics for publications, debate structures, provenance etc. in order to include the computer as a partner in the scientific process, and (iv) Build an online platform for collaboration, including a network of trust and reputation among the different types of stakeholders in the scientific system: scientists, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, students and industrial innovators among others. Any such improvements to the scientific system must support the entire scientific process (unlike current tools that chop up the scientific process into disconnected pieces), must facilitate and encourage collaboration and interdisciplinarity (again unlike current tools), must facilitate the inclusion of intelligent computing in the scientific process, must facilitate
Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H
Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs...... of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number...... of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective....
Barberis Rami, Matías Ezequiel; Berić, Dejan; Mátai, Anikó; Opriş, Lavinia-Ioana; Ricci, Giulia; Rustja, Dritan
The project aims to promote and preserve both tangible and intangible cultural heritage in a particular region of the Danube river basin, Tisza Region (TR). The TR cultural heritage is less-well-known in the rest of Europe and is at risk of being lost or forgotten if not preserved and supported. In this project is presented an innovative and strategic bottom-up model which allows local people to manage how their heritage is disseminated through transmission and promotion of their ...