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Sample records for culture studies revealed

  1. A Qualitative Study Revealing the Relationship Between Cultural Indicators and Attitudes Toward the Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The companies, in International markets, are required to examine the attitudes and the behaviours to recognize the consumer to be able to make their products preferable under constantly growing competitive conditions. Therefore, it is of great importance to know cultural values of the customers in the country's where global brands compete and to shape ads which is one of the marketing communication tools in this direction. In this respect, knowing the cultural similarities or differences of the countries where the ads are used (such as that country's religion, language, norms and cultural values gains importance. The consumer attitudes towards the ads change in accordance with their cultural similarities or dissimilarities and this attitude change determines the tendency of shopping. According to Geert Hofstede, social anthropologist who analyzes the cultural levels and the relationships among them the basic elements of the culture consists of symbols, heroes, rituals and values underlying them. Thorough symbols, a number of cultural values are conveyed to ads. The problem of this study which was carried out in order to determine attitude change towards the ads including cultural differences is “Is there a difference in the attitudes towards the ads including different cultural symbols? How it is distributed according to gender differences?" In this study, a qualitative research method was applied and interviewed with 20 test subject. 20 students studying in one of the universities in Turkey were selected with formal sampling, they were asked questions, and it was tried to determine the difference between the ad of Doğuş Çay-a tea brand which uses the symbols and local accent of Black sea region in Turkey in its ads- and the ad of Lipton which is an international British tea brand. At the end of the study, it was found out that sample’s the attitude was positive towards ad of Doğuş Çay, not Lipton.

  2. Doing Cultural Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda

    What does the Walkman have to do with the 21st century? The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook takes students on a journey between past and present, giving them the skills do to cultural analysis along the way. Through the notion of the 'circuit of culture', this book teaches st......' for cultural studies. It is an essential classic, reworked for today's students in cultural studies, media studies and sociology....

  3. Four not six: Revealing culturally common facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Sun, Wei; Delis, Ioannis; Garrod, Oliver G B; Schyns, Philippe G

    2016-06-01

    As a highly social species, humans generate complex facial expressions to communicate a diverse range of emotions. Since Darwin's work, identifying among these complex patterns which are common across cultures and which are culture-specific has remained a central question in psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and more recently machine vision and social robotics. Classic approaches to addressing this question typically tested the cross-cultural recognition of theoretically motivated facial expressions representing 6 emotions, and reported universality. Yet, variable recognition accuracy across cultures suggests a narrower cross-cultural communication supported by sets of simpler expressive patterns embedded in more complex facial expressions. We explore this hypothesis by modeling the facial expressions of over 60 emotions across 2 cultures, and segregating out the latent expressive patterns. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we first map the conceptual organization of a broad spectrum of emotion words by building semantic networks in 2 cultures. For each emotion word in each culture, we then model and validate its corresponding dynamic facial expression, producing over 60 culturally valid facial expression models. We then apply to the pooled models a multivariate data reduction technique, revealing 4 latent and culturally common facial expression patterns that each communicates specific combinations of valence, arousal, and dominance. We then reveal the face movements that accentuate each latent expressive pattern to create complex facial expressions. Our data questions the widely held view that 6 facial expression patterns are universal, instead suggesting 4 latent expressive patterns with direct implications for emotion communication, social psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and social robotics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Revisiting diversity: cultural variation reveals the constructed nature of emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The extent of cultural variation in emotion perception has long been assumed to be bounded by underlying universality. A growing body of research reveals, however, that evidence of universality in emotion perception is method-bound. Without the assumption of underlying universality, new lines of inquiry become relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that cultures vary in what cues are relevant to perceptions of emotion. Further, cultural groups vary in their spontaneous inferences; mental state inference does not appear to be the only, or even most routine, mode of perception across cultures. Finally, setting universality assumptions aside requires innovation in the theory and measurement of culture. Recent studies reveal the promise of refinements in psychological approaches to culture. Together, the available evidence is consistent with a view of emotion perceptions as actively constructed by perceivers to fit the social and physical constraints of their cultural worlds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Naming patterns reveal cultural values: patronyms, matronyms, and the U.S. culture of honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan P; Carvallo, Mauricio; Imura, Mikiko

    2014-02-01

    Four studies examined the hypothesis that honor norms would be associated with a pronounced use of patronyms, but not matronyms, for naming children. Study 1 shows that men who endorse honor values expressed a stronger desire to use patronyms (but not matronyms) for future children, an association that was mediated by patriarchal attitudes. Study 2 presents an indirect method for assessing state patronym and matronym levels. As expected, patronym scores were significantly higher in honor states and were associated with a wide range of variables linked previously to honor-related dynamics. Study 3a shows that following the terrorist attacks of 9/11, patronyms increased in honor states, but not in non-honor states. Likewise, priming men with a fictitious terrorist attack (Study 3b) increased the association between honor ideology and patronym preferences. Together, these studies reveal a subtle social signal that reflects the masculine values of an honor culture.

  6. Journal of Cultural Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Cultural Studies was established in 1999 as an independent tool for research development in Africa. It is published by the Nigerian Group for the Study of African ... Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: A Case for Linguistic and Sexual Politics? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  7. Studying Popular Culture in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    , ceramics, fashion magazines and folk art as both products and as processes of design, manufacture, distribution, appreciation and use, which must all be taken into account. Precisely because popular cultural forms are both cultural products and commodities, they reveal the complementary nature of the two...... categories of culture and the economy. The paper outlines and analyses the different ways in which social, cultural, symbolic and economic capital are converted by those participating in advertising, ceramic, fashion magazine and folk art worlds, and suggests that popular culture may best be seen as a name...

  8. Parenting Culture Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ellie J.; Faircloth, Charlotte; Macvarish, Jan; Bristow, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    Why do we live at a time when the minutiae of how parents raise their children – how they feed them, talk to them, play with them or discipline them – have become routine sources of public debate and policy making? Why are there now so-called 'parenting experts', and social movements like Attachment Parenting, telling us that 'science says' what parents do is the cause of and solution to social problems? \\ud \\ud Parenting Culture Studies provides in-depth answers to these features of contempo...

  9. Out of Context: Thinking Cultural Studies Diasporically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Farred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay on cultural studies and the African Diaspora argues for a rethinking of cultural studies in two critical ways: firstly, that cultural studies, from its founding institutional and conceptual moment, cannot but be thought diasporically; and, secondly, that cultural studies be thought ‘out of’, or, against, context—that is, cultural studies is most revealing in its political and literary articulation when it is not read, as many of its advocates claim, contextually. This essay offers a broad critique of cultural studies and the (African diaspora but derives its most cogent and creative argument from its ability to read together the work of two diasporic authors, deracinated South African and Australian writers, J. M. Coetzee and David Malouf.

  10. A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Valentine Usha Kalaichelvi; Dr. Auxilia Antony; Dr. A. Nelson Vimalanathan

    2017-01-01

    Organizational Culture is defined as the values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of the organization. Organizational culture includes an organizations expectations, experiences, philosophy and values that hold it together and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world and future expectations. This article is going to study about the organizational culture.

  11. Mixed-culture transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular basis of mixed-culture growth in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Sander; Molenaar, Douwe; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Beerthuyzen, Marke; Stevens, Marc J A; Janssen, Patrick W M; Ingham, Colin J; de Bok, Frank A M; de Vos, Willem M; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T

    2010-12-01

    Many food fermentations are performed using mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Interactions between strains are of key importance for the performance of these fermentations. Yogurt fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (basonym, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) is one of the best-described mixed-culture fermentations. These species are believed to stimulate each other's growth by the exchange of metabolites such as folic acid and carbon dioxide. Recently, postgenomic studies revealed that an upregulation of biosynthesis pathways for nucleotides and sulfur-containing amino acids is part of the global physiological response to mixed-culture growth in S. thermophilus, but an in-depth molecular analysis of mixed-culture growth of both strains remains to be established. We report here the application of mixed-culture transcriptome profiling and a systematic analysis of the effect of interaction-related compounds on growth, which allowed us to unravel the molecular responses associated with batch mixed-culture growth in milk of S. thermophilus CNRZ1066 and L. bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365. The results indicate that interactions between these bacteria are primarily related to purine, amino acid, and long-chain fatty acid metabolism. The results support a model in which formic acid, folic acid, and fatty acids are provided by S. thermophilus. Proteolysis by L. bulgaricus supplies both strains with amino acids but is insufficient to meet the biosynthetic demands for sulfur and branched-chain amino acids, as becomes clear from the upregulation of genes associated with these amino acids in mixed culture. Moreover, genes involved in iron uptake in S. thermophilus are affected by mixed-culture growth, and genes coding for exopolysaccharide production were upregulated in both organisms in mixed culture compared to monocultures. The confirmation of previously identified responses in S. thermophilus using a different strain combination

  12. Music lessons: revealing medicine's learning culture through a comparison with that of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher; Driessen, Erik; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Vanstone, Meredith; Lingard, Lorelei

    2013-08-01

    Research on medical learning has tended to focus on the individual learner, but a sufficient understanding of the learning process requires that attention also be paid to the essential influence of the cultural context within which learning takes place. In this study, we undertook a comparative examination of two learning cultures - those of music and medicine - in order to unearth assumptions about learning that are taken for granted within the medical culture. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach to explore experiences of learning within the two cultures. We conducted nine focus groups (two with medical students, three with residents, four with music students) and four individual interviews (with one clinician-educator, one music educator and two doctor-musicians), for a total of 37 participants. Analysis occurred alongside and informed data collection. Themes were identified iteratively using constant comparisons. Cultural perspectives diverged in terms of where learning should occur, what learning outcomes are desired, and how learning is best facilitated. Whereas medicine valued learning by doing, music valued learning by lesson. Whereas medical learners aimed for competence, music students aimed instead for ever-better performance. Whereas medical learners valued their teachers for their clinical skills more than for their teaching abilities, the opposite was true in music, in which teachers' instructional skills were paramount. Self-assessment challenged learners in both cultures, but medical learners viewed self-assessment as a skill they could develop, whereas music students recognised that external feedback would always be required. This comparative analysis reveals that medicine and music make culturally distinct assumptions about teaching and learning. The contrasts between the two cultures illuminate potential vulnerabilities in the medical learning culture, including the risks inherent in its competence-focused approach and the

  13. Center for Ukrainian Cultural Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laarse, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Amsterdam-based Center for Ukrainian Cultural Studies (UCS) unites Dutch scholars in Ukrainian art, cinema, media, memory, language, and literature. Launched by the Amsterdam School for Heritage, Memory and Material Culture (AHM) and the University of Amsterdam’s Department of Slavic Languages

  14. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R

    2015-01-01

    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study of Role Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; And Others

    Survey responses from 1,620 subjects in the United States, Greece, India, Peru, and Taiwan provide information on cross-cultural role perceptions. Study data reveal (1) the principal factors accounting for the variance in role perception in each culture, (2) those factors that are the same in all cultures, (3) the equivalent factor scores that…

  16. Metabolomics reveals the heterogeneous secretome of two entomopathogenic fungi to ex vivo cultured insect tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charissa de Bekker

    Full Text Available Fungal entomopathogens rely on cellular heterogeneity during the different stages of insect host infection. Their pathogenicity is exhibited through the secretion of secondary metabolites, which implies that the infection life history of this group of environmentally important fungi can be revealed using metabolomics. Here metabolomic analysis in combination with ex vivo insect tissue culturing shows that two generalist isolates of the genus Metarhizium and Beauveria, commonly used as biological pesticides, employ significantly different arrays of secondary metabolites during infectious and saprophytic growth. It also reveals that both fungi exhibit tissue specific strategies by a distinguishable metabolite secretion on the insect tissues tested in this study. In addition to showing the important heterogeneous nature of these two entomopathogens, this study also resulted in the discovery of several novel destruxins and beauverolides that have not been described before, most likely because previous surveys did not use insect tissues as a culturing system. While Beauveria secreted these cyclic depsipeptides when encountering live insect tissues, Metarhizium employed them primarily on dead tissue. This implies that, while these fungi employ comparable strategies when it comes to entomopathogenesis, there are most certainly significant differences at the molecular level that deserve to be studied.

  17. Culture independent genomic comparisons reveal environmental adaptations for Altiarchaeales

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    Jordan T Bird

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recently proposed candidatus order Altiarchaeales remains an uncultured archaeal lineage composed of genetically diverse, globally widespread organisms frequently observed in anoxic subsurface environments. In spite of 15 years of studies on the psychrophilic biofilm-producing Candidatus (Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum and its close relatives, very little is known about the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the widespread free-living marine members of this taxon. From methanogenic sediments in the White Oak River Estuary, NC, we sequenced a single cell amplified genome (SAG, WOR_SCG_SM1, and used it to identify and refine two high-quality genomes from metagenomes, WOR_79 and WOR_86-2, from the same site in a different year. These three genomic reconstructions form a monophyletic group which also includes three previously published genomes from metagenomes from terrestrial springs and a SAG from Sakinaw Lake in a group previously designated as pMC2A384. A synapomorphic mutation in the Altiarchaeales tRNA synthetase β subunit, pheT, causes the protein to be encoded as two subunits at distant loci. Consistent with the terrestrial spring clades, our estuarine genomes contain a near-complete autotrophic metabolism, H2 or CO as potential electron donors, a reductive acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation, and methylotroph-like NADP(H-dependent dehydrogenase. Phylogenies based on 16S rRNA genes and concatenated conserved proteins identify two distinct sub-clades of Altiarchaeales, Alti-1 populated by organisms from actively flowing springs, and Alti-2 which is more widespread, diverse, and not associated with visible mats. The core Alti-1 genome supports Alti-1 as adapted for the stream environment, with lipopolysaccharide production capacity, extracellular hami structures. The core Alti-2 genome members of this clade are free-living, with distinct mechanisms for energy maintenance, motility, osmoregulation, and sulfur redox reactions. These

  18. Anthropological Studies of Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the questions raised at the symposium "Our World, Other Worlds. Anthropology, Science Fiction and Cultural Identity", held in Belgrade in December 2009, is how anthropology is to study contemporary art forms: how research issues are to be defined and approached; how research is to be organized in a specific semantic area, which cannot always and with absolute certainty be said not to be an anthropological construction; whether the subject of research can be said to have the shared nature of cultural communication; whether the anthropologist is to interpret the author/artist’s intention, or that which is produced as a result of that intention, etc. The aim of this paper is to suggest some answers to these questions, from the point of view of a researcher focused on cultural communication.

  19. (Emerging Discourses: Architecture and Cultural Studies

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    Sarah McGaughey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works, Rosalind Galt’s Pretty, Anne Cheng’s Second Skin, and Daniel Purdy’s On the Ruins of Babel incorporate architectural history and architectural discourse into their analyses in ways that are new to their respective fields ranging from studies of film, gender, and race to intellectual history. Placing these three works in one essay allows for a detailed review of the ways in which each author employs architecture, at the same time as it reveals the benefits and challenges of incorporating architecture into cultural studies. The essay discusses the contributions of each work to their fields and also takes advantage of the different approaches to culture and architecture to explore the ways in which this relationship might continue to inform and generate productive studies.

  20. Gene expression analysis of skin grafts and cultured keratinocytes using synthetic RNA normalization reveals insights into differentiation and growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Siitonen, H Annika; Nuutila, Kristo; Tervaniemi, Mari H; Vuola, Jyrki; Johnsson, Anna; Lönnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten; Elomaa, Outi; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha

    2015-06-25

    Keratinocytes (KCs) are the most frequent cells in the epidermis, and they are often isolated and cultured in vitro to study the molecular biology of the skin. Cultured primary cells and various immortalized cells have been frequently used as skin models but their comparability to intact skin has been questioned. Moreover, when analyzing KC transcriptomes, fluctuation of polyA+ RNA content during the KCs' lifecycle has been omitted. We performed STRT RNA sequencing on 10 ng samples of total RNA from three different sample types: i) epidermal tissue (split-thickness skin grafts), ii) cultured primary KCs, and iii) HaCaT cell line. We observed significant variation in cellular polyA+ RNA content between tissue and cell culture samples of KCs. The use of synthetic RNAs and SAMstrt in normalization enabled comparison of gene expression levels in the highly heterogenous samples and facilitated discovery of differences between the tissue samples and cultured cells. The transcriptome analysis sensitively revealed genes involved in KC differentiation in skin grafts and cell cycle regulation related genes in cultured KCs and emphasized the fluctuation of transcription factors and non-coding RNAs associated to sample types. The epidermal keratinocytes derived from tissue and cell culture samples showed highly different polyA+ RNA contents. The use of SAMstrt and synthetic RNA based normalization allowed the comparison between tissue and cell culture samples and thus proved to be valuable tools for RNA-seq analysis with translational approach. Transciptomics revealed clear difference both between tissue and cell culture samples and between primary KCs and immortalized HaCaT cells.

  1. Internal representations reveal cultural diversity in expectations of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Caldara, Roberto; Schyns, Philippe G

    2012-02-01

    Facial expressions have long been considered the "universal language of emotion." Yet consistent cultural differences in the recognition of facial expressions contradict such notions (e.g., R. E. Jack, C. Blais, C. Scheepers, P. G. Schyns, & R. Caldara, 2009). Rather, culture--as an intricate system of social concepts and beliefs--could generate different expectations (i.e., internal representations) of facial expression signals. To investigate, they used a powerful psychophysical technique (reverse correlation) to estimate the observer-specific internal representations of the 6 basic facial expressions of emotion (i.e., happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad) in two culturally distinct groups (i.e., Western Caucasian [WC] and East Asian [EA]). Using complementary statistical image analyses, cultural specificity was directly revealed in these representations. Specifically, whereas WC internal representations predominantly featured the eyebrows and mouth, EA internal representations showed a preference for expressive information in the eye region. Closer inspection of the EA observer preference revealed a surprising feature: changes of gaze direction, shown primarily among the EA group. For the first time, it is revealed directly that culture can finely shape the internal representations of common facial expressions of emotion, challenging notions of a biologically hardwired "universal language of emotion."

  2. A cultural turn in New Testament studies?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    and ... interpreter (e.g. feminist, African-American) serves as a .... It was in film studies in particular that the focus shifted from the classic realist or .... and cultural criticism) in contemporary biblical studies as cultural studies or.

  3. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  4. We Need to Talk about Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin O'Connor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of Graeme Turner, What’s Become of Cultural Studies (Sage, London, 2012 and Lawrence Grossberg, Cultural Studies in the Future Tense (Duke University Press, Durham, 2010.

  5. In-depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

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    Siliņa-Jasjukeviča Gunta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.

  6. Cultural studies of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joanna; McDonald, Geraldine

    2008-07-01

    In response to Stetsenko's [2008, Cultural Studies of Science Education, 3] call for a more unified approach in sociocultural perspectives, this paper traces the origins of the use of sociocultural ideas in New Zealand from the 1970s to the present. Of those New Zealanders working from a sociocultural perspective who responded to our query most had encountered these ideas while overseas. More recently activity theory has been of interest and used in reports of work in early childhood, workplace change in the apple industry, and in-service teacher education. In all these projects the use of activity theory has been useful for understanding how the elements of a system can transform the activity. We end by agreeing with Stetsenko that there needs to be a more concerted approach by those working from a sociocultural perspective to recognise the contribution of others in the field.

  7. Incidence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose as revealed by bone marrow culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    1. Techniques are described for the cultural isolation of trypanosomes from avian bone marrow obtained from living birds or at autopsy. A new medium SNB-9 (saline-neopeptone-blood) is described. In addition to being a good medium for growing avian trypanosomes, it is excellent for growing trypanosomes of amphibians and mammals. 2. Evidence is presented demonstrating the superiority of (a) cultures over stained smears for detecting the presence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose, and (b) bone marrow over heart blood of this species as a source of trypanosomes for culture. 3. In April 1952, from cultures of bone marrow collected at autopsy it was demonstrated that trypanosome infection occurred in 33 (40.2%) of 82 Canada geese from the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. On February 17, 1953, cultures of bone marrow obtained from living birds revealed presence of trypanosomes in 12 (20.7%) of 58 geese from the same refuge. On February 26, 1953, by employing the latter method, 9 (20.4%) of 44 geese from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge were shown to harbor the parasites. In another survey ninety-two geese from seven national wildlife refuges subjected to the biopsy technique showed evidence of infection in 13 (14.1 %) birds and indicated that trypanosome infection is widely distributed in this host.

  8. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  9. Changes in chromatin structure during the aging of cell cultures as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagor, M.; Cole, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclei from cultured human cells were examined by differential scanning calorimetry. Their melting profiles revealed four structural transitions at 60, 76, 88, and 105 degrees C (transitions I-IV, respectively). In immortalized (i.e., tumor) cell cultures and in normal cell cultures of low passage number, melting profiles were dominated by the 105 degrees C transition (transition IV), but in vitro aging of normal and Werner syndrome cells was associated with a marked decrease in transition IV followed by an increase in transition III at the expense of transition IV. At intermediate times in the aging process, much DNA melted at a temperature range (95-102 degrees C) intermediate between transitions III and IV, and this is consistent with the notion that aging of cell cultures is accompanied by an increase in single-strand character of the DNA. Calorimetric changes were observed in the melting profile of nuclei from UV-irradiated tumor cells that resembled the age-induced intermediate melting of chromatin. It is suggested that aging is accompanied by an increase in single-stranded character of the DNA in chromatin, which lowers its melting temperature, followed by strand breaks in the DNA that destroy its supercoiling potential

  10. Going Begging:Casino Culture and its Contrasts as Revealed in the New Macao Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kelen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the key themes of contemporary Macao poetry, chance and luck loom large, along with their figuration in Macao life through sites such as casinos and temples, through personae such as those of the gambler, the beggar, the prostitute. Macao as dot-on-the-map is likewise conceived as a site for all kinds of portal semiotics, as paradigm for cultural crossing and cultural shift. Macao may be re-garded as a work enduring (in Brechtian terms because it is unfinished. While this is a formula that could be notionally applied to any city, this view seems par-ticularly apt given both the extraordinary pace of change in post-handover Macao (i.e. since 1999, and the present bubble-bursting effect of the 2008 "financial tsunami". Relating Augé's conception of "non-places" to Eco's notion of open (as op-posed to closed text, this paper observes that consciousness of place in contem-porary Macao poetry appears to be dominated by two kinds of space, glossed here as "Macao space" and "anywhere space". Macao space is uniquely of an historical moment and place, something culturally positioned; in anywhere space (e.g. in-side of a casino or an airport subjects are hailed by consumption-oriented reifica-tions of putative universal value. The contemporary Macao poetry typically values Macao space and sees it as under threat from the "non-negotiable" space of cul-ture that could be anywhere. Interested in the paradoxes, ironies and hypocrisies inherent in the present-day culture, politics and international position of Macao, the new Macao poetry re-veals a place-based poetics deeply concerned with Macao identity, its evolution and potentials.

  11. Cultural Studies of Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hani, Charbel Niño; Muñoz, Yupanqui J.

    2012-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 909-943 Video games, as technological and cultural artifacts of considerable influence in the contemporary society, play an important role in the construction of identities, just as other artifacts (e.g., books, newspapers, television) played for a long time. In this paper, we discuss this role by considering video games under two concepts, othering and technopoly, and focus on how these concepts demand that we deepen our understanding of the ethics of v...

  12. Revealing patterns of cultural transmission from frequency data: equilibrium and non-equilibrium assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Enrico R.; Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    A long tradition of cultural evolutionary studies has developed a rich repertoire of mathematical models of social learning. Early studies have laid the foundation of more recent endeavours to infer patterns of cultural transmission from observed frequencies of a variety of cultural data, from decorative motifs on potsherds to baby names and musical preferences. While this wide range of applications provides an opportunity for the development of generalisable analytical workflows, archaeological data present new questions and challenges that require further methodological and theoretical discussion. Here we examine the decorative motifs of Neolithic pottery from an archaeological assemblage in Western Germany, and argue that the widely used (and relatively undiscussed) assumption that observed frequencies are the result of a system in equilibrium conditions is unwarranted, and can lead to incorrect conclusions. We analyse our data with a simulation-based inferential framework that can overcome some of the intrinsic limitations in archaeological data, as well as handle both equilibrium conditions and instances where the mode of cultural transmission is time-variant. Results suggest that none of the models examined can produce the observed pattern under equilibrium conditions, and suggest. instead temporal shifts in the patterns of cultural transmission.

  13. Co-Cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Roseobacter denitrificans Reveal Shifts in Gene Expression Levels Compared to Solo Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Conway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent biosynthesis of desired secondary metabolites (SMs from pure microbial cultures is often unreliable. In a proof-of-principle study to induce SM gene expression and production, we describe mixed “co-culturing” conditions and monitoring of messages via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Gene expression of model bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Roseobacter denitrificans Och114 was analyzed in pure solo and mixed cocultures to infer the effects of interspecies interactions on gene expression in vitro, Two P. aeruginosa genes (PhzH coding for portions of the phenazine antibiotic pathway leading to pyocyanin (PCN and the RhdA gene for thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase (Rhodanese and two R. denitrificans genes (BetaLact for metallo-beta-lactamase and the DMSP gene for dimethylpropiothetin dethiomethylase were assessed for differential expression. Results showed that R. denitrificans DMSP and BetaLact gene expression became elevated in a mixed culture. In contrast, P. aeruginosa co-cultures with R. denitrificans or a third species did not increase target gene expression above control levels. This paper provides insight for better control of target SM gene expression in vitro and bypass complex genetic engineering manipulations.

  14. Music lessons: revealing medicine's learning culture through a comparison with that of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.N.; Driessen, E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Vanstone, M.; Lingard, L.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Research on medical learning has tended to focus on the individual learner, but a sufficient understanding of the learning process requires that attention also be paid to the essential influence of the cultural context within which learning takes place. In this study, we undertook a

  15. Creatine-induced activation of antioxidative defence in myotube cultures revealed by explorative NMR-based metabonomics and proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette Feveile; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Malmendal, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Creatine is a key intermediate in energy metabolism and supplementation of creatine has been used for increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to trigger the skeletal muscle expression of insulin like growth factor I, to increase the fat......-free mass and improve cognition in elderly, and more explorative approaches like transcriptomics has revealed additional information. The aim of the present study was to reveal additional insight into the biochemical effects of creatine supplementation at the protein and metabolite level by integrating...... the explorative techniques, proteomics and NMR metabonomics, in a systems biology approach. METHODS: Differentiated mouse myotube cultures (C2C12) were exposed to 5 mM creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 24 hours. For proteomics studies, lysed myotubes were analyzed in single 2-DGE gels where the first dimension...

  16. Traditional Music in Igbo Culture: A Case Study of Idu Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    research work reveals that despite the alarming influences of the western technology on Igbo culture, dance music performance has remained the climax of every cultural .... grade, title groups, palm wine tappers, hunters, carvers, women, men, ...

  17. Review of Studies on Just Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung; Jung, Su Jin

    2014-01-01

    Safety culture represents patterns of behavior and ways of thinking on safety for both individuals and organizations. Besides nuclear industry, many fields such as transport and health care have focused on the value and effectiveness of safety culture. In this paper, the definition and characteristics of just culture, which is one component of safety culture, and related studies reported by other researchers are described. We hope this review will serve to understand the current condition and underlying problems of the just culture of nuclear industry in Korea. This paper describes the definition and basic principle of just culture in nuclear industry based on the review of researches on safety and just culture in various fields. To establish just culture solidly in organization, each individual needs to understand the nature of the just culture first. And it is necessary to create an atmosphere encouraging to report and suggest safety-related issues. Most of all, to draw clear lines of blame and punishment for human error is essential

  18. Review of Studies on Just Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung; Jung, Su Jin [Safety Policy Department, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Safety culture represents patterns of behavior and ways of thinking on safety for both individuals and organizations. Besides nuclear industry, many fields such as transport and health care have focused on the value and effectiveness of safety culture. In this paper, the definition and characteristics of just culture, which is one component of safety culture, and related studies reported by other researchers are described. We hope this review will serve to understand the current condition and underlying problems of the just culture of nuclear industry in Korea. This paper describes the definition and basic principle of just culture in nuclear industry based on the review of researches on safety and just culture in various fields. To establish just culture solidly in organization, each individual needs to understand the nature of the just culture first. And it is necessary to create an atmosphere encouraging to report and suggest safety-related issues. Most of all, to draw clear lines of blame and punishment for human error is essential.

  19. Study on tissue culture for Gelidium seedling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lu-Qing; Luo, Qi-Jun; Fei, Zhi-Qing; Ma, Bin

    1996-06-01

    As seedling culture is a crucial factor for successful cultivation of Gelidium, the authors researched tissue culture technology for producing seedlings. The morphogeny and experimental ecology were observed and studied fully in 2 5 mm isolated tissue fragments. Regeneration, appearance of branching creepers and attaching structure and new erect seedlings production and development were studied. Fragments were sown on bamboo slice and vinylon rope. The seedlings were cultured 20 30 days indoor, then cultured in the sea, where the density of erect seedlings was 3 19 seedlings/cm2, growth rate was 3.84% day. The frond arising from seedlings directly was up to 10 cm per year. The ecological conditions for regenerated seedlings are similar to the natural ones. The regenerated seedlings are suitable for raft culture in various sea areas.

  20. Organ culture studies for pancreatic islet transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reemtsma, K.; Weber, C.J.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Lerner, R.; Zimmerman, E.; Hardy, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Data support the usefulness of tissue culture in isolation and preservation of islets prior to transplantation. Rodent islet viability in culture was demonstrated histologically and by functional analyses of hormone production. For reasons that remain to be defined, acinar cells disappeared rapidly in tissue culture, yielding an implant preparation relatively rich in islets and devoid of pancreatic exocrine elements. Isografts of cultured and noncultured islets were well tolerated intraperitoneally and intramuscularly; and prompt and lasting reversal of short- and long-standing experimental diabetes was observed regularly. In vitro studies of rodent islet viability after immunosuppressive treatment of donors or islet cultures showed insulin production comparable to that of control experiments, suggesting that immunologic modification of donors or islets might be feasible in eventual human islet allotransplantation

  1. An Exchange on Theory and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The following exchange grew out of a series of posts to the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia discussion list. As a talking point leading into a regular meeting for early career cultural studies researchers in Brisbane, Melissa Gregg, Jean Burgess and Joshua Green quoted a passage from Simon During’s recent Cultural Studies: A Critical Introduction (Routledge, 2005 in the hope of provoking a wider debate about the current state of Australian cultural studies. Various members of the list were duly provoked, and the ensuing discussion was later picked up in a paper by John Frow and continued in private correspondence and then in invited responses to the developing exchange.

  2. Macro-evolutionary studies of cultural diversity: a review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M

    2011-02-12

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.

  3. Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gouba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp. species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta. Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda are used as medicinal plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health.

  4. Quantitative PCR Profiling of Escherichia coli in Livestock Feces Reveals Increased Population Resilience Relative to Culturable Counts under Temperature Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Bird, Clare; Burd, Emmy; Wyman, Michael

    2016-09-06

    The relationship between culturable counts (CFU) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) cell equivalent counts of Escherichia coli in dairy feces exposed to different environmental conditions and temperature extremes was investigated. Fecal samples were collected in summer and winter from dairy cowpats held under two treatments: field-exposed versus polytunnel-protected. A significant correlation in quantified E. coli was recorded between the qPCR and culture-based methods (r = 0.82). Evaluation of the persistence profiles of E. coli over time revealed no significant difference in the E. coli numbers determined as either CFU or gene copies during the summer for the field-exposed cowpats, whereas significantly higher counts were observed by qPCR for the polytunnel-protected cowpats, which were exposed to higher ambient temperatures. In winter, the qPCR returned significantly higher counts of E. coli for the field-exposed cowpats, thus representing a reversal of the findings from the summer sampling campaign. Results from this study suggest that with increasing time post-defecation and with the onset of challenging environmental conditions, such as extremes in temperature, culture-based counts begin to underestimate the true resilience of viable E. coli populations in livestock feces. This is important not only in the long term as the Earth changes in response to climate-change drivers but also in the short term during spells of extremely cold or hot weather.

  5. Micropatterned substrates for studying astrocytes in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the physiological roles of astrocytes have ignited renewed interest in the functional significance of these glial cells in the central nervous system. Many of the newly discovered astrocytic functions were initially demonstrated and characterized in cell culture systems. We discuss the use of microculture techniques and micropatterning of cell-adhesive substrates in studies of astrocytic Ca2+ excitability and bidirectional neuron-astrocyte signaling. This culturing approach aims to reduce the level of complexity of the system by limiting the interacting partners and by controlling the localization of cells. It provides tight control over experimental conditions allowing detailed characterization of cellular functions and intercellular communication. Although such a reductionist approach yields some difference in observations between astrocytic properties in culture and in situ, general phenomena discovered in cell culture systems, however, have also been found in vivo.

  6. The culture of an emergency department: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, John; Spiva, Leeanna; Hart, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    In an environment of change and social interaction, hospital emergency departments create a unique sub-culture within healthcare. Patient-centered care, stressful situations, social gaps within the department, pressure to perform, teamwork, and maintaining a work-life balance were examined as influences that have developed this culture into its current state. The study aim was to examine the culture in an emergency department. The sample consisted of 34 employees working in an emergency department, level II trauma center, located in the Southeastern United States. An ethnographic approach was used to gather data from the perspective of the cultural insider. Data revealed identification of four categories that included cognitive, environmental, linguistic, and social attributes that described the culture. Promoting a culture that values the staff is essential in building an environment that fosters the satisfaction and retention of staff. Findings suggest that efforts be directed at improving workflow and processes. Development and training opportunities are needed to improve relationships to promote safer, more efficient patient care. Removing barriers and improving processes will impact patient safety, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Findings show that culture is influenced and created by multiple elements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Travel Abroad as Culture Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Richard K.; Weaver, V. Phillips

    1992-01-01

    Encourages traveling by teachers to enrich the multicultural curriculum in their classes. Includes suggestions and resources for planning overseas trips and using them to broaden teachers' perspectives and to provide background material for curriculum development. Outlines "case studies" of trips to Hungary and Greece. (CFR)

  8. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mixed-culture transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular basis of mixed-culture growth in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieuwerts, S.; Molenaar, D.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Beerthuyzen, M.; Stevens, M.J.A.; Janssen, P.W.; Ingham, C.J.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Many food fermentations are performed using mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Interactions between strains are of key importance for the performance of these fermentations. Yogurt fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (basonym, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  10. Types of cross-cultural studies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Lonner, W.J.; Dinnel, D.L.; Hayes, S.A.; Sattler, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies

  11. Cultural Studies and Sociology of Culture in Germany: Relations and Interrelations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Göttlich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, attitudes towards cultural studies in Germany have developed within contexts of contact and conflict with a variety of disciplines, e.g. ethnology, anthropology, sociology, as well as the sociology of culture, liter-ary studies and Kulturwissenschaft(en. On the one hand there is a strong academ-ic interest in how cultural studies perceives and analyzes media culture, popular culture and everyday life. On the other hand boundaries with humanities and so-cial science remain, which leads to criticism and conflicts with cultural studies and its achievements.I will discuss some of the problems concerning the perception and reception of cultural studies among representatives of Kulturwissenschaft(en and sociology of culture. Furthermore I will draw on the role of cultural studies in thematizing cul-tural change and conflicts, and its ability to do so in a way that shows the im-portance of culture and politics.

  12. Private development-based forest conservation in Patagonia: comparing mental models and revealing cultural truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Serenari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private protected area (PPA conservation agents (CA engaging in development-based conservation in southern Chile have generated conflict with locals. Poor fit of dominant development-based conservation ideology in rural areas is commonly to blame. We developed and administered a cultural consensus survey near the Valdivian Coastal Reserve (RCV and Huilo Huilo Reserve (HH to examine fit of CA cultural truths with local residents. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA of 23 propositions reflecting CA cultural truths confirmed: (1 a single CA culture exists, and (2 RCV communities were more aligned with this culture than HH communities. Inadequate communication, inequitable decision making, divergent opinions about livelihood impacts and trajectories, and PPA purpose may explain differences between CAs and communities. Meanwhile, variability in response between and within communities may reflect differing environmental histories. Private protected area administrations might use CCA to confront cultural differences and thereby improve their community interactions.

  13. Controlled studies of chimpanzee cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-01-01

    Following the first long-term field studies of chimpanzees in the 1960s, researchers began to suspect that chimpanzees from different African populations varied in their behavior, and that some of these variations were transmitted through social learning, thus suggesting culture. Additional reports of chimpanzee culture have since accumulated, which involve an increasing amount of behavioral variation that has no obvious ecological or genetic explanation. To date, close to 50 cultural variants have been reported, including subsistence behavior, tool-use, communication signals, and grooming patterns. Nevertheless, field studies lack the experimental controls and manipulations necessary to conclusively demonstrate that the observed variation results from differential invention and social transmission of behavior. This would require that behavioral variants have been learned from others, a question best addressed in a controlled experimental setting. The following chapter details a series of experimental studies at Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University. In each case, the behavior of two captive groups (each N=12 individuals) was compared before and after the introduction of a novel foraging behavior by a trained conspecific "inventor." The studies were designed to investigate (i) the conditions under which chimpanzees learn from one another, (ii) how behaviors are transmitted, (iii) how cultures are maintained over generations. The results emphasize the importance of integrating both fieldwork and experimental approaches. Previous studies have reported deficits in chimpanzees' cultural capacities, but did so after testing them with human models, which are largely irrelevant to the problem at hand. A representative understanding of culture can only be gained when efforts are made to create a naturalistic learning environment in which chimpanzees have opportunities to learn spontaneously from conspecifics in a familiar social setting.

  14. Equifinality in empirical studies of cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan J

    2018-01-31

    Cultural systems exhibit equifinal behavior - a single final state may be arrived at via different mechanisms and/or from different initial states. Potential for equifinality exists in all empirical studies of cultural transmission including controlled experiments, observational field research, and computational simulations. Acknowledging and anticipating the existence of equifinality is important in empirical studies of social learning and cultural evolution; it helps us understand the limitations of analytical approaches and can improve our ability to predict the dynamics of cultural transmission. Here, I illustrate and discuss examples of equifinality in studies of social learning, and how certain experimental designs might be prone to it. I then review examples of equifinality discussed in the social learning literature, namely the use of s-shaped diffusion curves to discern individual from social learning and operational definitions and analytical approaches used in studies of conformist transmission. While equifinality exists to some extent in all studies of social learning, I make suggestions for how to address instances of it, with an emphasis on using data simulation and methodological verification alongside modern statistical approaches that emphasize prediction and model comparison. In cases where evaluated learning mechanisms are equifinal due to non-methodological factors, I suggest that this is not always a problem if it helps us predict cultural change. In some cases, equifinal learning mechanisms might offer insight into how both individual learning, social learning strategies and other endogenous social factors might by important in structuring cultural dynamics and within- and between-group heterogeneity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V.; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. PMID:26483527

  17. Diverse Requirements for Microglial Survival, Specification, and Function Revealed by Defined-Medium Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Christopher J; Bennett, F Chris; Tucker, Andrew F; Collins, Hannah Y; Mulinyawe, Sara B; Barres, Ben A

    2017-05-17

    Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol. Using microglial cultures that have never been exposed to serum, we demonstrate a dramatic and lasting change in phagocytic capacity after serum exposure. Finally, we find that mature microglia rapidly lose signature gene expression after isolation, and that this loss can be reversed by engrafting cells back into an intact CNS environment. These data indicate that the specialized gene expression profile of mature microglia requires continuous instructive signaling from the intact CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. After the Disciplines: The Emergence of Cultural Studies. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of essays contains responses to a request to examine the emergence and formation of "cultural studies" within the university and the implications of cultural studies for an economics of "disciplinarity." The majority of the contributors are from the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Following an introduction…

  19. Organisational culture and learning: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elaine

    2013-11-01

    To explore the impact organisational cultures have on the learning experience of student nurses and identify the influencing factors. A case study approach was used. The single case being a Defence School of Health Care Studies (DSHCS) and the multiple units of analysis: student nurses, the lecturers and Student Standing Orders. An in depth three dimensional picture was achieved using multiple data collection methods: interview, survey, observation and document analysis. The findings suggest that the DSHCS is perceived to be a sub-culture within a dominant civilian learning culture. Generally, the students and staff believed that the DSHCS is an excellent learning environment and that the defence students overall are high achievers. The common themes that appeared from the data were image, ethos, environment, discipline, support, welfare and a civilian versus military way of thinking. The learning experience of defence student nurses is very positive and enhanced by the positive learning culture of the civilian Higher Educational Institution. The factors influencing a positive learning experience that can be impacted by the overarching culture are discipline, image, ethos of adult learning, support and welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Joseph A.; Koo, Hyunmin; Dennis, Lacey N.; Kumar, Ranjit; Ptacek, Travis; Morrow, Casey D.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Powell, Mickie L.; Bej, Asim K.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition of the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria as dominant, with order Campylobacterales at the highest relative abundance (>95%). However, the pharynx tissue was dominated by class Alphaproteobacteria. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets had a high abundance of class Gammaproteobacteria, from which Vibrio was found to be the primary genus, and Epsilonproteobacteria, with genus Arcobacter occurring at a moderate level. At the class level, the tank water was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the feed by Alphaproteobacteria. Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis showed that the microbial community of the gut tissue clustered together, as did the pharynx tissue to the feed. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets showed a similarity relationship to the tank water. Further analysis of Campylobacterales at a lower taxonomic level using the oligotyping method revealed 37 unique types across the 10 samples, where Oligotype 1 was primarily represented in the gut tissue. BLAST analysis identified Oligotype 1 to be Arcobacter sp., Sulfuricurvum sp., and Arcobacter bivalviorum at an identity level >90%. This study showed that although distinct microbial communities are evident across multiple components of the sea urchin gut ecosystem, there is a noticeable correlation between the overall microbial communities of the gut with the sea urchin L. variegatus culture environment. PMID:26528245

  1. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Antoine Hakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition in the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria as dominant, with order Campylobacterales at the highest relative abundance (>95%. However, the pharynx tissue was dominated by class Alphaproteobacteria. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets had a high abundance of class Gammaproteobacteria, from which Vibrio was found to be the primary genus, and Epsilonproteobacteria, with genus Arcobacter occurring at a moderate level. At the class level, the tank water was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the feed by Alphaproteobacteria. Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis showed that the microbial community of the gut tissue clustered together, as did the pharynx tissue to the feed. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets showed a similar relationship to the tank water. Further analysis of Campylobacterales at a lower taxonomic level using the oligotyping method revealed 37 unique types across the ten samples, where Oligotype 1 was primarily represented in the gut tissue. BLAST analysis identified Oligotype 1 to be Arcobacter sp., Sulfuricurvum sp., and Arcobacter bivalviorum at an identity level >90%. This study showed that although distinct microbial communities were evident across multiple components of the sea urchin gut ecosystem, there is a noticeable correlation between the overall microbial communities of the gut with the sea urchin L. variegatus culture environment.

  2. Study of Perceptions on Cultural Events’ Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Letiţia Negruşa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural events and festivals can have a significant and important influence on the development of local communities. Their utilization of the endogenous resources of an area means that these events, most often, have a positive impact on the local economy. Quite consequentially, they may also extend the socio-cultural opportunities of local citizens. However, their utilization of time and space does raise concerns regarding environmental impact. Therefore, it is imperative that stakeholders study their net impact on a region. This present paper examines the economic, socio-cultural, and environmental impact of the Transilvania International Film Festival (TIFF. With a history of 15 editions, the festival gathers, year by year, an increasing number of people in Cluj-Napoca. The growth of the event has had unmistakable and important effects on the city. The purpose of the paper is to analyze resident participants’ perceptions on economic, socio-cultural, and environmental effects. To reach this goal, an exploratory and descriptive research was conducted. Both primary and secondary data were used in the analysis, the questionnaire being the main tool used for collecting data about participants’ perceptions. The results emphasize the positive effects at the socio-cultural level. The festival provides multiple possibilities to spend free time in a pleasant way, it sustains the development of cultural life, and it improves the educational and the cultural level of community. Moreover, the festival does not influence, in a negative manner, the moral principles of the society and it does not generate an increase in crime rate. From the economic point of view, the festival has the capacity to attract investments and additional revenues for the local government, it sustains the development of the city infrastructure, and it creates opportunities for residents to develop new economic activities. Lastly, from the environmental point of view, the

  3. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Noguchi

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian rhythms of various organs and tissues are synchronized by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues. Many hormones show circadian rhythms in their plasma concentrations; however, whether organs outside the SCN can serve as master synchronizers to entrain circadian rhythms in target tissues is not well understood. To further delineate the function of the adrenal glands and the interactions of circadian rhythms in putative master synchronizing organs and their target tissues, here we report a simple co-culture system using a dual-color luciferase assay to monitor circadian rhythms separately in various explanted tissues and fibroblasts. In this system, circadian rhythms of organs and target cells were simultaneously tracked by the green-emitting beetle luciferase from Pyrearinus termitilluminans (ELuc and the red-emitting beetle luciferase from Phrixothrix hirtus (SLR, respectively. We obtained tissues from the adrenal glands, thyroid glands, and lungs of transgenic mice that expressed ELuc under control of the promoter from a canonical clock gene, mBmal1. The tissues were co-cultured with Rat-1 fibroblasts as representative target cells expressing SLR under control of the mBmal1 promoter. Amplitudes of the circadian rhythms of Rat-1 fibroblasts were potentiated when the fibroblasts were co-cultured with adrenal gland tissue, but not when co-cultured with thyroid gland or lung tissue. The phases of Rat-1 fibroblasts were reset by application of adrenal gland tissue, whereas the phases of adrenal gland tissue were not influenced by Rat-1 fibroblasts. Furthermore, the effect of the adrenal gland tissue on the fibroblasts was blocked by application of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids are strong circadian synchronizers for fibroblasts and that

  4. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Ziegler, Maren; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  5. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2017-05-02

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  6. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Sherri, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures contains the following articles: "Functions of Locatives in Northern Subanen Expository and Hortatory Discourse" (Josephine Sanicas-Daguman); "Functions of Demonstratives in Sama Bangingi' Expository Discourse" (John Blakely); "A Brief Look at Sinama Basic Verbs…

  7. For Cultural Interpretation: A Study of the Culture of Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, John

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to demonstrate the value of conjunctural interpretive analysis (which is multilevel, multimodal, and explicitly theoretical and political) through an interpretation of the culture of homelessness in the United States. Addresses differences between positivist epistemologies. (SR)

  8. Cultural Transduction and Adaptation Studies: The Concept of Cultural Proximity

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    Patrick Cattrysse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina el concepto de proximidad cultural, tal como lo sugiere Joseph Straubhaar en su artículo de 1991 “Beyond Media Imperialism: Assymmetrical sic Interdependence and Cultural Proximity”. Se argumenta que, basándose en un estudio de polisistema de adaptaciones de film noir desde principios de los años noventa, tanto la proximidad cultural como la distancia pueden mejorar o inhibir el flujo cruzado de género o el flujo cultural cruzado de contenido de medios dependiendo de algunos acondicionadores específicos, como la estabilidad o la inestabilidad (por ejemplo, el éxito o la falta del mismo del género o contexto objetivo y la función conservadora o innovadora de las adaptaciones en su contexto objetivo.

  9. Culture, perception, and artistic visualization: a comparative study of children's drawings in three Siberian cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Kirill V; Panáková, Jaroslava; Heady, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In a study of three indigenous and non-indigenous cultural groups in northwestern and northeastern Siberia, framed line tests and a landscape drawing task were used to examine the hypotheses that test-based assessments of context sensitivity and independence are correlated with the amount of contextual information contained in drawings, and with the order in which the focal and background objects are drawn. The results supported these hypotheses, and inspection of the regression relationships suggested that the intergroup variations in test performance were likely to result from differences in the attention accorded to contextual information, as revealed by the drawings. Social and environmental explanations for the group differences in context sensitivity are also discussed. The conclusions support the argument that cultural differences in artistic styles and perceptual tests reflect the same underlying perceptual tendencies, and they are consistent with the argument that these tendencies reflect corresponding differences in patterns of social and environmental interaction. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Unpacking "Culture" in Cultural Studies of Science Education: Cultural Difference versus Cultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi; Johnson, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we explore three anthropological approaches to science education research: funds of knowledge, third space/hybridity and practice theory. Definitions, historical origins, uses and constraints of each approach are included along with reviews of exemplary studies in each tradition. We show that funds of knowledge research draws on…

  11. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  12. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  13. 3-Dimensional culture systems for anti-cancer compound profiling and high-throughput screening reveal increases in EGFR inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity compared to monolayer culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Amy L; Richardson, Robyn D; Finlay, Darren; Vuori, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    3-dimensional (3D) culture models have the potential to bridge the gap between monolayer cell culture and in vivo studies. To benefit anti-cancer drug discovery from 3D models, new techniques are needed that enable their use in high-throughput (HT) screening amenable formats. We have established miniaturized 3D culture methods robust enough for automated HT screens. We have applied these methods to evaluate the sensitivity of normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cell lines against a panel of oncology drugs when cultured as monolayers (2D) and spheroids (3D). We have identified two classes of compounds that exhibit preferential cytotoxicity against cancer cells over normal cells when cultured as 3D spheroids: microtubule-targeting agents and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Further improving upon our 3D model, superior differentiation of EC50 values in the proof-of-concept screens was obtained by co-culturing the breast cancer cells with normal human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Further, the selective sensitivity of the cancer cells towards chemotherapeutics was observed in 3D co-culture conditions, rather than as 2D co-culture monolayers, highlighting the importance of 3D cultures. Finally, we examined the putative mechanisms that drive the differing potency displayed by EGFR inhibitors. In summary, our studies establish robust 3D culture models of human cells for HT assessment of tumor cell-selective agents. This methodology is anticipated to provide a useful tool for the study of biological differences within 2D and 3D culture conditions in HT format, and an important platform for novel anti-cancer drug discovery.

  14. THE PRELIMINARY STUDY ON LANDSCAPE CULTURE ORIENTATION AND EXPLOITATION OF THE SOUTH DONGTING LAKE WETLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dongting Lake is internationally an important wetland. We studied and summarized the conception, function, classification and current situation of the wetland-landscape culture in this region. The results showed that the culture of Dongting Lake wetland was rich in diversity, which are the Rice Cultivation Culture, high-balustrade dwelling,Nuo Culture, Ship Culture, Dragon Boat Culture, Chu Culture, Ancient Architecture Landscape, Wetland Foodstuff andCuisine Culture, Civil Art, Historic Heritage and Cultural Relics, Revolutionary Sites and Ruins, and Production andLiving Culture, etc. We also evaluated the eeo-tourism value of wetland landscape culture, and analyzed its features andorientation. The results revealed that the south Dongting Lake wetland plays a key role on the Changjiang(Yangtze) Riverreaches civilization and Chinese civilization, even has great influence on the global civilization. We summarized that thesoul of the south Dongting Lake Culture was Wetland Culture, Water Culture, Rice Cultivation and Chu Culture. Thethoughts, principles and approaches of sustainable exploitation and utilization of the wetland landscape culture were formulated and suggested.

  15. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  16. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media, with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission, or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly. Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of

  17. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal ‘natural experiment’ for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  18. Effects of Business Model Development Projects on Organizational Culture: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Ulla Santti; Tuomo Eskelinen; Mervi Rajahonka; Kaija Villman; Ari Happonen

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that links between organizational culture and innovativeness/performance may act as a “social glue” that helps a company develop organizational culture as a competitive advantage. In this study of three case companies, the organizational culture change due business model development projects is studied using the Competing Values Framework (CVF) tool and interviews with respondents about discovered changes. To reveal intervention and implied effects between business...

  19. Integration of DPC and clinical microbiological data in Japan reveals importance of confirming a negative follow-up blood culture in patients with MRSA bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naoki; Yahara, Koji; Horita, Rie; Yano, Tomomi; Tashiro, Naotaka; Morii, Daiichi; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Yaita, Kenichiro; Shibayama, Keigo; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is one of the commonest and most life-threatening of all infectious diseases. The morbidity and mortality rates associated with MRSA bacteremia are higher than those associated with bacteremia caused by other pathogens. A common guideline in MRSA bacteremia treatment is to confirm bacteremia clearance through additional blood cultures 2-4 days after initial positive cultures and as needed thereafter. However, no study has presented statistical evidence of how and to what extent confirming a negative follow-up blood culture impacts clinical outcome. We present this evidence for the first time, by combining clinical microbiological data of blood cultures and the DPC administrative claims database; both had been systematically accumulated through routine medical care in hospitals. We used electronic medical records to investigate the clinical background and infection source in detail. By analyzing data from a university hospital, we revealed how survival curves change when a negative follow-up blood culture is confirmed. We also demonstrated confirmation of a negative culture is significantly associated with clinical outcomes: there was a more than three-fold increase in mortality risk (after adjusting for clinical background) if a negative blood culture was not confirmed within 14 days of the initial positive blood culture. Although we used data from only one university hospital, our novel approach and results will be a basis for future studies in several hospitals in Japan to provide statistical evidence of the clinical importance of confirming a negative follow-up blood culture in bacteremia patients, including those with MRSA infections. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Yeast-yeast interactions revealed by aromatic profile analysis of Sauvignon Blanc wine fermented by single or co-culture of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, Mohand; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Steyer, Damien; Gallardo-Chacón, Joan-Josep; Ballester, Jordi; Vichi, Stefania; Guérin-Schneider, Rémi; Caixach, Josep; Alexandre, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main reason is that the multistarter fermentation process is thought to simulate indigenous fermentation, thus increasing wine aroma complexity while avoiding the risks linked to natural fermentation. However, multistarter fermentation is characterised by complex and largely unknown interactions between yeasts. Consequently the resulting wine quality is rather unpredictable. In order to better understand the interactions that take place between non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts during alcoholic fermentation, we analysed the volatile profiles of several mono-culture and co-cultures. Candida zemplinina, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were used to conduct fermentations either in mono-culture or in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. Up to 48 volatile compounds belonging to different chemical families were quantified. For the first time, we show that C. zemplinina is a strong producer of terpenes and lactones. We demonstrate by means of multivariate analysis that different interactions exist between the co-cultures studied. We observed a synergistic effect on aromatic compound production when M. pulcherrima was in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. However a negative interaction was observed between C. zemplinina and S. cerevisiae, which resulted in a decrease in terpene and lactone content. These interactions are independent of biomass production. The aromatic profiles of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae in mono-culture and in co-culture are very close, and are biomass-dependent, reflecting a neutral interaction. This study reveals that a whole family of compounds could be altered by such interactions. These results suggest that the entire metabolic pathway is affected by these interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concepts of Culture in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Hecker; Igor Johannsen

    2017-01-01

    Introducing the seventh issue of META, this editorial discusses prevalent concepts of culture in Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies. Different conceptualizations of culture that explicitly or implicitly contain qualitative differentiations between cultures are revisited and discussed. Bearing considerable weight in the respective disciplines, the Islam-andthe-West paradigm, the delineation of diverging cultures along ethnic lines, the equation of culture with art or religion, and the culture-...

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  3. Geomorphology's role in the study of weathering of cultural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Gregory A.; Meierding, Thomas C.; Paradise, Thomas R.

    2002-10-01

    Great monumental places—Petra, Giza, Angkor, Stonehenge, Tikal, Macchu Picchu, Rapa Nui, to name a few—are links to our cultural past. They evoke a sense of wonderment for their aesthetic fascination if not for their seeming permanence over both cultural and physical landscapes. However, as with natural landforms, human constructs are subject to weathering and erosion. Indeed, many of our cultural resources suffer from serious deterioration, some natural, some enhanced by human impact. Groups from the United Nations to local civic and tourism assemblies are deeply interested in maintaining and preserving such cultural resources, from simple rock art to great temples. Geomorphologists trained in interacting systems, process and response to thresholds, rates of change over time, and spatial variation of weathering processes and effects are able to offer insight into how deterioration occurs and what can be done to ameliorate the impact. Review of recent literature and case studies presented here demonstrate methodological and theoretical advances that have resulted from the study of cultural stone weathering. Because the stone was carved at a known date to a "baseline" or zero-datum level, some of the simplest methods (e.g., assessing surface weathering features or measuring surface recession in the field) provide useful data on weathering rates and processes. Such data are difficult or impossible to obtain in "natural" settings. Cultural stone weathering studies demonstrate the importance of biotic and saline weathering agents and the significance of weathering factors such as exposure (microclimate) and human impact. More sophisticated methods confirm these observations, but also reveal discrepancies between field and laboratory studies. This brings up two important caveats for conservators and geomorphologists. For the conservator, are laboratory and natural setting studies really analogous and useful for assessing stone damage? For the geomorphologist, does

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of the gut bacterium Bifidobacterium longum reveals loci susceptible to deletion during pure culture growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhova VV

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bifidobacteria are frequently proposed to be associated with good intestinal health primarily because of their overriding dominance in the feces of breast fed infants. However, clinical feeding studies with exogenous bifidobacteria show they don't remain in the intestine, suggesting they may lose competitive fitness when grown outside the gut. Results To further the understanding of genetic attenuation that may be occurring in bifidobacteria cultures, we obtained the complete genome sequence of an intestinal isolate, Bifidobacterium longum DJO10A that was minimally cultured in the laboratory, and compared it to that of a culture collection strain, B. longum NCC2705. This comparison revealed colinear genomes that exhibited high sequence identity, except for the presence of 17 unique DNA regions in strain DJO10A and six in strain NCC2705. While the majority of these unique regions encoded proteins of diverse function, eight from the DJO10A genome and one from NCC2705, encoded gene clusters predicted to be involved in diverse traits pertinent to the human intestinal environment, specifically oligosaccharide and polyol utilization, arsenic resistance and lantibiotic production. Seven of these unique regions were suggested by a base deviation index analysis to have been precisely deleted from strain NCC2705 and this is substantiated by a DNA remnant from within one of the regions still remaining in the genome of NCC2705 at the same locus. This targeted loss of genomic regions was experimentally validated when growth of the intestinal B. longum in the laboratory for 1,000 generations resulted in two large deletions, one in a lantibiotic encoding region, analogous to a predicted deletion event for NCC2705. A simulated fecal growth study showed a significant reduced competitive ability of this deletion strain against Clostridium difficile and E. coli. The deleted region was between two IS30 elements which were experimentally

  5. Cultural study in design : In search of a meaningful approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boeijen, A.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Does the Circuit of Culture help design students to do a cultural study that is meaningful for their design project? Indeed, it provides a good view on the phenomenon culture, its complexity and how contemporary cultures can be studied, providing an overview and structure of the processes that

  6. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study I *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matete Madiba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article is a presentation of a brief cultural glossary of Northern Sotho cooking terms. The glossary is mainly composed of names for utensils and ingredients, and action words for the processes involved in the preparation of cultural dishes. It also contains names of dishes tied to some idiomatic expressions in a way eliciting cultural experiences that can lead to an under-standing of indigenous knowledge systems. The article seeks to explore ways of capturing cultural glossaries to feed into the national dictionary corpora by using a case-study approach to investigate the processes that led to the generation of this specific school-based project. A number of issues that surfaced in this project, can possibly serve as models for the collection of authentic glossaries that can support dictionary making in African languages.

    Keywords: CULTURAL GLOSSARY, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, CULTURAL TERMINOLOGY, CORPUS, AUTHENTIC GLOSSARY, CONTEXTUALISATION, MARGIN-ALIZED LANGUAGES, OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION, PERFORMANCE INDICATOR, ASSESSMENT CRITERIA, RANGE STATEMENT, TRADITIONAL DISHES, LANGUAGE VAL-ORISATION, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK, COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH, STRUCTURAL APPROACH, METONYMY

    Opsomming: Die totstandbrenging van kulturele woordversamelings: Ge-vallestudie I. Hierdie artikel is 'n aanbieding van 'n kort kulturele woordversameling van Noord-Sothokookterme. Die woordversameling bestaan hoofsaaklik uit die name van gereedskap en bestanddele, en handelingswoorde vir die prosesse betrokke by die voorbereiding van kulturele geregte. Dit bevat ook name van geregte wat verbind is met sekere idiomatiese uitdrukkings wat op 'n manier kulturele ervarings oproep wat kan lei tot die verstaan van inheemse kennisstelsels. Die artikel probeer om maniere te ondersoek waarop kulturele woordversamelings in die nasionale woordeboekkorpusse ingevoer kan word deur 'n gevallestudiebenadering te volg om die prosesse te ondersoek wat tot die

  7. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Influencing Expectations of Menarche: A Study on Chinese Premenarcheal Teenage Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Tang, Catherine So-kum; Lee, Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial and cultural factors influenced expectations of menarche among 476 Chinese premenarcheal teenage girls. Results showed that participants' expectations of menarche were largely negative and heavily influenced by cultural beliefs about menstruation. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that…

  8. Creatine-induced activation of antioxidative defence in myotube cultures revealed by explorative NMR-based metabonomics and proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Niels

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine is a key intermediate in energy metabolism and supplementation of creatine has been used for increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to trigger the skeletal muscle expression of insulin like growth factor I, to increase the fat-free mass and improve cognition in elderly, and more explorative approaches like transcriptomics has revealed additional information. The aim of the present study was to reveal additional insight into the biochemical effects of creatine supplementation at the protein and metabolite level by integrating the explorative techniques, proteomics and NMR metabonomics, in a systems biology approach. Methods Differentiated mouse myotube cultures (C2C12 were exposed to 5 mM creatine monohydrate (CMH for 24 hours. For proteomics studies, lysed myotubes were analyzed in single 2-DGE gels where the first dimension of protein separation was pI 5-8 and second dimension was a 12.5% Criterion gel. Differentially expressed protein spots of significance were excised from the gel, desalted and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF MS. For NMR metabonomic studies, chloroform/methanol extractions of the myotubes were subjected to one-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy and the intracellular oxidative status of myotubes was assessed by intracellular DCFH2 oxidation after 24 h pre-incubation with CMH. Results The identified differentially expressed proteins included vimentin, malate dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin dependent peroxide reductase, and 75 kDa and 78 kDa glucose regulated protein precursors. After CMH exposure, up-regulated proteomic spots correlated positively with the NMR signals from creatine, while down-regulated proteomic spots were negatively correlated with these NMR signals. The identified differentially regulated proteins were related to energy metabolism, glucose regulated stress, cellular structure and the

  9. Critical Pedagogy, Internationalisation, and a Third Space: Cultural Tensions Revealed in Students' Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Margaret Jane; Brooks, Catherine F.

    2017-01-01

    Set within the context of a global pursuit towards the internationalisation of higher education, this paper critically examines student discourse in a globally connected classroom between learners in the USA and Singapore. It makes salient some of the cultural assumptions and tensions that undergird students' discourse in collaborative…

  10. Indifference to dissonance in native Amazonians reveals cultural variation in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H; Schultz, Alan F; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-07-28

    by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant,or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane'--a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture--and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane' rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance,albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music.

  11. The Virginian's Cultural Clashes: A Study of Cultural Representation in Owen Wister's novel The Virginian

    OpenAIRE

    Aksnes, Karoline

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a cultural study of Owen Wister's novel The Virginian. Its main focus is on the ways in which cultural differences between East and West are staged and acted out in the novel's depiction of a culturally diverse frontier environment in nineteenth century Wyoming, USA. Central in this study are the story's three main characters as they represent different cultural backgrounds, and, by their personal experiences with the Western environment as well as wi...

  12. Penerapan Cultural Studies dan Aliran Filsafat dalam Desain Komunikasi Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christina Luzar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultural studies is a diversity knowledge from different variety of perspectives, through the production of theory trying to intervene in political culture. Cultural studies explores culture as a practice purport in the context of social force. In this case, cultural studies is not only based on one point only, but also cultural studies tries to compose a variety of theoretical studies of other disciplines developed wider, so that covers a wide range of academic theories that already existed, including Marxism, Structuralism, Post-structuralism, and feminism. By eclectic method, cultural studies puts the positioning to all knowledges, including on its knowledge which integrates with culture, practice of signification, representation, discourse, authority, articulation, text, read, and consumption. Cultural studies could be described as a language game or formation of discourse associated with relation to power in signification practice of human life. In addition to cultural studies, there is also feminism theory participated in the concept of feminist cultural studies that reconstructs and transforms view of misperception between feminism and cultural studies. Feminism affects cultural studies, but not all feminism can be viewed as cultural studies, and not all cultural studies talks about gender. Both of cultural studies and feminism have substantive importance in relation to power, representation, pop-culture, subjectivity, identity and consumption. The theory of social construction is also has connectivity with cultural studies. Construction of reality is inseparable from mark, symbol, and language. Media are full of reality constructed for people to affect people as ethics persuasion in media do. 

  13. On the Importance of Cultural Factors in Oral English Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Juan

    2016-01-01

    Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.

  14. Landmark Study Reveals Antarctic Glacier's Long History of Retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Kuska, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty Showcase Archive Article Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A major study, released in late November in the journal “Nature,” reveals the history of retreat of the massive Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in western Antarctica, widely considered one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise.

  15. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader; Lee, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed

  16. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed.

  17. Intravital Microscopy Reveals Differences in the Kinetics of Endocytic Pathways between Cell Cultures and Live Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Weigert

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravital microscopy has enabled imaging of the dynamics of subcellular structures in live animals, thus opening the door to investigating membrane trafficking under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine whether the architecture and the environment of a fully developed tissue influences the dynamics of endocytic processes. To this aim, we imaged endocytosis in the stromal cells of rat salivary glands both in situ and after they were isolated and cultured on a solid surface. We found that the internalization of transferrin and dextran, two molecules that traffic via distinct mechanisms, is substantially altered in cultured cells, supporting the idea that the three dimensional organization of the tissue and the cues generated by the surrounding environment strongly affect membrane trafficking events.

  18. Cultural Education and the Voluntary Provision of Cultural Goods: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Finocchiaro Castro

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect that the possibility of investing in cultural education has on the voluntary contributions to a cultural good. This is done in a two-stage public-good experiment. We also provide treatments with different context in order to control for a possible framing effect. Our results show the absence of an effect of cultural education on the contributions to the cultural good and a slight increase in the allocations of subjectsÂendowments to the cultural good when the cultural cont...

  19. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-01-01

    The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on w...

  20. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Koenning, Stephen R; Davis, Eric L; Opperman, Charles H; Lommel, Steven A; Mitchum, Melissa G; Sit, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines) from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC) and Missouri (MO). The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO). Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst) and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst), but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  1. Three-dimensional organoid culture reveals involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Sopko, Nikolai A; Kates, Max; Liu, Xiaopu; Joice, Gregory; McConkey, David J; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2018-02-16

    There has been increasing awareness of the importance of three-dimensional culture of cancer cells. Tumor cells growing as multicellular spheroids in three-dimensional culture, alternatively called organoids, are widely believed to more closely mimic solid tumors in situ . Previous studies concluded that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for regeneration of the normal urothelium after injury and that β-catenin is upregulated in human bladder cancers, but no clear evidence has been advanced to support the idea that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is directly involved in deregulated proliferation and the other malignant characteristics of bladder cancer cells. Here we report that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator, CHIR99021, promoted proliferation of established human bladder cancer cell lines when they were grown in organoid culture but not when they were grown in conventional adherent cultures. CHIR99021 activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway in bladder cancer cell lines in organoid culture. CHIR99021 also stimulated proliferation and the Wnt/b-catenin pathway in primary human bladder cancer organoids. RNAi-mediated knockdown of β-catenin blocked growth of organoids. The effects of CHIR99021 were associated with decreased expression of the urothelial terminal differentiation marker, cytokeratin 20. Our data suggest that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for the proliferation of bladder cancer cells in three-dimensional organoid culture and provide a concrete example of why organoid culture is important for cancer research.

  2. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty Revealed: Images of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs...). The mailing address is U.S. Department of State, SA-5, L/PD, Fifth Floor (Suite 5H03), Washington, DC... Determinations: ``Beauty Revealed: Images of Women in Qing Dynasty Chinese Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  3. 77 FR 34121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Revealing the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... exhibition ``Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD, from on or about October 14, 2012, until on or about January 21, 2013; at the Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ, from on or about February...

  4. Assessment of Military Cultural Competence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric G; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Hamaoka, Derrick; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-08-01

    Cultural competence is widely considered a cornerstone of patient care. Efforts to improve military cultural competency have recently gained national attention. Assessment of cultural competence is a critical component to this effort, but no assessment of military cultural competence currently exists. An assessment of military cultural competence (AMCC) was created through broad input and consensus. Careful review of previous cultural competency assessment designs and analysis techniques was considered. The AMCC was organized into three sections: skills, attitudes, and knowledge. In addition to gathering data to determine absolute responses from groups with different exposure levels to the military (direct, indirect, and none), paired questions were utilized to assess relative competencies between military culture and culture in general. Piloting of the AMCC revealed significant differences between military exposure groups. Specifically, those with personal military exposure were more likely to be in absolute agreement that the military is a culture, were more likely to screen for military culture, and had increased knowledge of military culture compared to those with no military exposure. Relative differences were more informative. For example, all groups were less likely to agree that their personal culture could be at odds with military culture as compared to other cultures. Such perceptions could hinder asking difficult questions and thus undermine care. The AMCC is a model for the measurement of the skills, attitudes, and knowledge related to military cultural competence. With further validity testing, the AMCC will be helpful in the critical task of measuring outcomes in ongoing efforts to improve military cultural competence. The novel approach of assessing variance appears to reduce bias and may also be helpful in the design of other cultural competency assessments.

  5. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  6. Cultural Studies Methodologies and Narrative Family Therapy: Therapeutic Conversations About Pop Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsen, Julie; Nylund, David

    2016-06-01

    Therapists recognize that popular media culture is an influential force that shapes identities and relationships in contemporary society. Indeed, people have serious relationships with the commodities and practices that emerge from pop culture. However, they often lack the conceptual and conversational resources to engage meaningfully with clients about pop culture's influence in their lives. Cultural studies is introduced as an interdisciplinary approach that provides frameworks for both theory and practice that position therapists and clients to critically examine the role of pop culture in their lives. Cultural studies and narrative therapy are discussed as praxis allies that share a populist political intention and counter-hegemonic discursive practices. The integration of cultural studies methodologies into narrative therapy practice with a parent and her teenage daughter is illustrated through a case vignette. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL STUDIES: THE QUEST FOR NEW IDEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Kononenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of researching into text from the interdisciplinary linguistic and cultural perspective. Cognitological analysis of linguistic and extralinguistic cultural meanings reveals that there exist of specific linguistic and aesthetic formations best presented through the ‘language – culture – identity’ triad. One of the components of literary discourse is monocultural layer, which secures the continuity of national cultural tradition; researching into it, one should take into account mental and historical, psycholinguistic, sociolinguistic and other factors. Linguistic and aesthetic analysis helps to establish the system of linguistic and cultural means (metaphorization, imagery, verbal symbols, linguistic conceptualization, connotative meanings, which reveals its potential in literary texts. The lingual identity as a general notional category shows its nationally-oriented characteristics through the dichotomies of ‘addresser-addressee’ , ‘author-reader’, ‘narrator-narratee’ and is presented in the author’s idiolect.

  8. A Bibliometric Study on Culture Research in International Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Frias Pinto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available National cultures and cultural differences provide a crucial component of the international business (IB research context. We conducted a bibliometric study of articles published in seven leading IB journals over a period of three decades to analyze how national culture has been impacting IB research. Co-citation mappings permit us to identify the ties binding works dealing with culture and cultural issues in IB. We identify two main clusters of research, each comprising two sub-clusters, with Hofstede’s (1980 work delineating much of the conceptual and empirical approach to culture-related studies. One main cluster entails works on the conceptualization of culture and its dimensions and the other cluster focuses on cultural distance. This conceptual framework captures the extant IB research incorporating culture-related concepts and influences.

  9. Stuart Hall and Cultural Studies, circa 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Curthoys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuart Hall sought to internationalise theoretical debates and to create Cultural Studies as interdisciplinary. We chart his theoretical journey through a detailed examination of a series of lectures delivered in 1983 and now published for the first time. In these lectures, he discusses theorists such as E.P. Thompson, Raymond Williams, Louis Althusser, Levi Strauss and Antonio Gramsci, and explores the relationship between ideas and social structure, the specificities of class and race, and the legacies of slavery. We note his turn towards metaphors of divergence and dispersal and highlight how autobiographical and deeply personal Hall is in these lectures, especially in his ego histoire moment of traumatic memory recovery.

  10. NGS Analysis of Human Embryo Culture Media Reveals miRNAs of Extra Embryonic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ribas, Immaculada; Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Quiñonero, Alicia; Ojeda, María; Larreategui, Zaloa; Ballesteros, Agustín; Domínguez, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Our objective in this work was to isolate, identify, and compare micro-RNAs (miRNAs) found in spent culture media of euploid and aneuploid in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Seventy-two embryos from 62 patients were collected, and their spent media were retained. A total of 108 spent conditioned media samples were analyzed (n = 36 day 3 euploid embryos, n = 36 day 3 aneuploid embryos, and n = 36 matched control media). Fifty hed-control media embryos were analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. We detected 53 known human miRNAs present in the spent conditioned media of euploid and aneuploid IVF embryos. miR-181b-5p and miR-191-5p were found the most represented. We validated our results by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), but no significant results were obtained between the groups. In conclusion, we obtained the list of miRNAs present in the spent conditioned media from euploid and aneuploid IVF embryos, but our data suggest that these miRNAs could have a nonembryonic origin.

  11. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matete Madiba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This case-study attempts to present a brief glossary of Northern Sotho medical terms. It is a follow-up of a similar case-study (Madiba, Mphahlele and Kganyago 2003, which was an attempt to capture and present Northern Sotho cooking terms. Case-study I consists of the names for utensils, ingredients and the processes involved in the preparation of cultural dishes. With both these case-studies, the intention has been to use the opportunities availing themselves for the pres-ervation and valorisation of Northern Sotho, including the extension of its corpora to support national dictionary-making processes. The case-study methodology has been very useful for the purposes of this project and the context within which it was undertaken. It aims to provide a model for the collection and presentation of authentic Northern Sotho terminology which otherwise would hardly have been accessible.

    Keywords: CULTURAL GLOSSARY, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, CORPUS, OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION, ASSESSMENT CRITERIA, TRADITIONAL MEDICAL TERMS, COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH, STRUCTURAL APPROACH, METONYMY, HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES, TASK-BASED LEARNING

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die totstandbrenging van kulturele woordversamelings: Ge-vallestudie II. Hierdie gevallestudie probeer om 'n beperkte woordelys van Noord-Sotho- mediese terme aan te bied. Dit is 'n voortsetting van 'n soortgelyke gevallestudie (Madiba, Mpha-hlele en Kganyago 2003 wat 'n poging was om Noord-Sothokookterme te versamel en aan te bied. Gevallestudie I bestaan uit die name van gereedskap, bestanddele, en die prosesse betrokke by die voorbereiding van kulturele geregte. Met altwee hierdie gevallestudies was die bedoeling om die geleenthede te gebruik wat hulleself aanbied vir die bewaring en bestendiging van Noord-Sotho, insluitende die uitbreiding van sy korpora om die nasionale woordeboeksamestellingsprosesse te ondersteun. Die gevallestudiemetodologie was baie nuttig vir die doeleindes van

  12. Software theory a cultural and philosophical study

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.

  13. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  14. Culture: The Missing Concept in Organization Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1996-01-01

    Inattention to social systems in organizations has led researchers to underestimate the importance of culture--shared norms, values, and assumptions--in how organizations function. The failure of organizational learning can be understood by examining typical responses to change by members of several broad occupational cultures (operators,…

  15. The Cultural Approach to Studying Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key concepts from the theoretical literature on organizational change and school learning cultures. It concludes with eight actions school leaders can take to help school communities develop or enhance learning cultures that are receptive to change. [This report is based on a literature review by Albert J. Boerema.

  16. Convergence, Creative Industries and Civil Society Towards a New Agenda for Cultural Policy and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mercer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I start with a personal experience "cameo" from 1996 in Australia and extrapolate from that some issues that remain relevant in the sometimes trou-bled relationship between cultural studies and cultural policy. These are encapsu-lated in the three "cs" of convergence, creative industries and civil society which provide a new context for both new research and new policy settings. The argu-ment is developed and situated in historical terms by examining the "cultural technologies", especially the newspaper, and subsequently print media in the 19th century, electronic media in the 20th century and digital media in the 21st century which provide the content, the technologies and the rituals for "imagining" our sense of place and belonging. This is then linked to ways of understanding culture and cultural technologies in the context of governmentality and the emergence of culture as a strategic object of policy with the aim of citizen- and population for-mation and management. This argument is then linked to four contemporary "testbeds" - cultural mapping and planning, cultural statistics and indicators, cul-tural citizenship and identity, and research of and for cultural policy - and priori-ties for cultural policy where cultural studies work has been extremely enabling and productive. The article concludes with an argument, derived from the early 20th century work of Patrick Geddes of the necessity of linking, researching, un-derstanding and operationalising the three key elements and disciplines of Folk (anthropology, Work (economics, and Place (geography in order to properly situate cultural policy, mapping and planning and their relationship to cultural studies and other disciplines.

  17. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L Ruark

    Full Text Available Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC and Missouri (MO. The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2, and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO. Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst, but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  18. Concepts of Culture in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hecker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the seventh issue of META, this editorial discusses prevalent concepts of culture in Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies. Different conceptualizations of culture that explicitly or implicitly contain qualitative differentiations between cultures are revisited and discussed. Bearing considerable weight in the respective disciplines, the Islam-andthe-West paradigm, the delineation of diverging cultures along ethnic lines, the equation of culture with art or religion, and the culture-as-civilization paradigm are being scrutinized. Serving as an example for the confusion and lack of clarity regarding the concept of "culture", the book The Culture of Ambiguity by the German scholar of Islamic Studies Thomas Bauer is analyzed regarding its use of the term.

  19. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  20. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, L; Engberg, R M; Leser, T D; Jensen, B B; Finster, K; Pedersen, K

    2006-07-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were <97% related to known cultured species. The chicken ileum was dominated by lactobacilli, whereas the cecum harbored a more diverse microbial community. The cecum was dominated by a large group of bacteria with hitherto no close cultured relatives but most closely related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Approximately 49 and 20% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study of 2 different rearing systems; however, several differences were observed. For instance, Clostridium perfringens was found in significantly higher numbers in the birds from the organic farm compared with the conventional broilers, probably due to the addition of salinomycin to the conventional feed. In the ileum, the abundance of the different Lactobacillus species differed between the 2 broiler types. The culture-based and culture-independent techniques complemented each other well. Strengths and limitations of the different methods are discussed.

  1. Aesthetic appreciation of the cultural landscape through social media : An analysis of revealed preference in the Dutch river landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Van Zanten, Boris T.; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Aesthetic enjoyment and perception are increasingly recognized as important values of cultural landscapes. The study of these values transcends mere physical attributes of the landscape and requires assessment of its social meaning. In recent years the usage of social media has gained momentum to

  2. Towards school mental health programmes in Nigeria: systematic review revealed the need for contextualised and culturally-nuanced research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health programmes, a potential avenue to reach many children and youth, are not yet developed in Nigeria. In view of the importance of cultural nuances in mental health issues, initial groundwork towards the establishment of these programmes in Nigeria must be cognizant of cultural peculiarities at the outset. The objective of the study was to critically examine, through the lens of transcultural psychiatry, all the currently available epidemiological studies and needs assessments relevant to school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria. The study was a systematic review of relevant studies available from MEDLINE, Science Direct, PsychInfo, Google Scholar, and AJOL databases. This review shows that there is an ongoing effort at documenting the burden of mental health problems and risks, resource needs, and the available resource and capacity for school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria. However, generally speaking these epidemiological data and needs assessments are significantly limited in epistemological philosophy and cultural contextualisation. This was evidenced by a preponderance of non-representative data, quantitative assessments, and decontextualised interpretation of results and conclusions. Going forward, recommendations are offered for culturally-nuanced epidemiology and the direction is set for context-appropriate needs assessments for school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria.

  3. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A. L., E-mail: a.vasiliev56@gmail.com; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  4. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient "nanotechnologies"; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  5. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  6. A Typology of Management Studies Involving Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J Adler

    1983-01-01

    As a methodological review, this paper delineates 6 approaches to researching cross-cultural management issues: parochial, ethnocentric, polycentric, comparative, geocentric, and synergistic. For each approach, assumptions are discussed concerning the similarity and difference across cultures and the extent to which management phenomena are or are not universal. The primary types of management questions which can be addressed using each approach are clarified. Main methodological issues which...

  7. Lactococcus lactis Diversity in Undefined Mixed Dairy Starter Cultures as Revealed by Comparative Genome Analyses and Targeted Amplicon Sequencing of epsD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Cyril A; Kleppen, Hans Petter; Holo, Helge

    2018-02-01

    Undefined mesophilic mixed (DL) starter cultures are used in the production of continental cheeses and contain unknown strain mixtures of Lactococcus lactis and leuconostocs. The choice of starter culture affects the taste, aroma, and quality of the final product. To gain insight into the diversity of Lactococcus lactis strains in starter cultures, we whole-genome sequenced 95 isolates from three different starter cultures. Pan-genomic analyses, which included 30 publically available complete genomes, grouped the strains into 21 L. lactis subsp . lactis and 28 L. lactis subsp. cremoris lineages. Only one of the 95 isolates grouped with previously sequenced strains, and the three starter cultures showed no overlap in lineage distributions. The culture diversity was assessed by targeted amplicon sequencing using purR , a core gene, and epsD , present in 93 of the 95 starter culture isolates but absent in most of the reference strains. This enabled an unprecedented discrimination of starter culture Lactococcus lactis and revealed substantial differences between the three starter cultures and compositional shifts during the cultivation of cultures in milk. IMPORTANCE In contemporary cheese production, standardized frozen seed stock starter cultures are used to ensure production stability, reproducibility, and quality control of the product. The dairy industry experiences significant disruptions of cheese production due to phage attacks, and one commonly used countermeasure to phage attack is to employ a starter rotation strategy, in which two or more starters with minimal overlap in phage sensitivity are used alternately. A culture-independent analysis of the lactococcal diversity in complex undefined starter cultures revealed large differences between the three starter cultures and temporal shifts in lactococcal composition during the production of bulk starters. A better understanding of the lactococcal diversity in starter cultures will enable the development of

  8. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on culture as a dynamic process situated in a social context, and has been valued in diverse fields for yielding rich understandings of complex issues and key factors involved. This paper explains how activity theory can be used in (cross-)cultural medical education research. We discuss activity theory's theoretical background and principles, and we show how these can be applied to the cultural research practice by discussing the steps involved in a cross-cultural study that we conducted, from formulating research questions to drawing conclusions. We describe how the activity system, the unit of analysis in activity theory, can serve as an organizing principle to grasp cultural complexity. We end with reflections on the theoretical and practical use of activity theory for cultural research and note that it is not a shortcut to capture cultural complexity: it is a challenge for researchers to determine the boundaries of their study and to analyze and interpret the dynamics of the activity system.

  9. Dilemmas of Cultural Mediation: A Case Study of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajtony Zsuzsanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Travelling implies the encounter and, in certain cases, the clash of cultures. By interpreting translation as a means of transfer between languages and cultures, the present study looks into the different views on translating culture-specific realia. Through a close analysis of texts with the purpose of informing foreign tourists it offers ways of how to carry out this mediation. The study calls for further research into closely related issues, such as the translator’s cultural awareness of and sensitivity to similarity and difference, identity and alterity in culture.

  10. Psycho-Socio-Cultural Determinants of Food Choice: A Qualitative Study on Adults in Social and Cultural Context of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighian Roudsari, Arezoo; Vedadhir, Abouali; Amiri, Parisa; Kalantari, Naser; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Hani Sadati, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Food choice is a process through which people think, feel, and eat food. It does not only influence individuals' health and well-being, families and communities, but also it has an effect on regional, national, and global levels. This qualitative study was conducted to explore perceptions and lived experiences of Tehran adult residents on psychological, social and cultural determinants of food choice. Method: In this qualitative design, we recruited 33 adults aged 30 to 64 years from various districts of Tehran, capital of Iran, and we explored how people make decisions about food choice in practice and shape their perception, attitude, and eating practices. An individual in-depth semi-structured interview guide included major questions with follow-up probes was used to explore participants' current and past eating habits from childhood to adulthood, dietary change at different life courses, and effective psychological state on food selection in different seasons. Results: This study revealed that food choice in the studied adults (30-64 years old) was widely influenced by psychological, social, and cultural determinants, which can be categorized into 5 main themes: cultural context and patterns; social Structure and norms; information resources and media; household and family structure; and nutrition transition. Conclusion: The findings clarified the importance of social and cultural contexts, which influence the food choice of adults in a metropolis like Tehran. Many of these concepts are contextualized from childhood. These findings could serve as guideline to design socio-culturally appropriate strategies and improve dietary behaviors of Iranians.

  11. STUDY OF FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ CULTURAL TRAINING WITHIN THE INFORMATION CULTURE OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vinnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific studies and experimental approbation of pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training taking into account the information culture of society. The nature and structure of the notion «future primary school teachers’ cultural training» are clarified. The indicated phenomenon is considered as the structure of four levels, the core of which is personality’s humanistic orientation, the totality of psychological-pedagogical and cultural knowledge and skills, the complex of professionally significant personal qualities. The author pointed out the criteria and related indicators of cultural proficiency, they are: value-motivational (vocational and humanistic orientation; the presence of values and professional motives; motivation for success; substantial and procedural (knowledge and skills in psycho-pedagogical disciplines; the body of knowledge regarding the content and components of cultural training, cultural skills; assessment and behavioral (the existence of communicative qualities, ability to empathy, tolerance. Levels of future primary school teachers’ cultural readiness: high, average and low are characterized. The experience of ICT using in students’ cultural training is presented. Pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training in University are identified, their effectiveness is proved by experimental testing

  12. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on which approach should be taken and what the role of Karl Marx’s works shall be. The paper argues that Marx’s labour theory of value is especially important for critically analysing the media, culture and communica-tion. Labour is still a blind spot of the study of culture and the media, although this situation is slowly improving. It is maintained that the turn away from Marx in Cultural and Media Studies was a profound mistake that should be reverted. Only an engagement with Marx can make Cultural and Media Studies topical, politically relevant, practical and critical, in the current times of global crisis and resurgent critique.

  13. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: does a cultural difference truly exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2009-02-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for the focal object in each scene was tested, and the relationship between the focal object (studied, new) and the background context (studied, new) was manipulated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that both sensitivity and response bias were changed when objects were tested in new contexts. However, neither the decrease in accuracy nor the response bias shift differed with culture. The eye movement patterns were also similar across cultural groups. Both groups made longer and more fixations on the focal objects than on the contexts. The similarity of eye movement patterns and recognition memory behaviour suggests that both Americans and Chinese use the same strategies in scene perception and memory.

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of Mycena dendrobii promoting transplantation survival and growth of tissue culture seedlings of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X B; Ma, X Y; Lei, H H; Song, H M; Ying, Q C; Xu, M J; Liu, S B; Wang, H Z

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Its seedlings generally show low survival and growth when transferred from in vitro tissue culture to a greenhouse or field environment. In this study, the effect of Mycena dendrobii on the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings and the mechanisms involved was explored. Mycena dendrobii were applied underneath the roots of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. The seedling survival and growth were analysed. The root proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Mycena dendrobii treatment significantly enhanced survival and growth of D. officinale seedlings. Forty-one proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified. Among them, 10 were involved in defence and stress response, two were involved in the formation of root or mycorrhizae, and three were related to the biosynthesis of bioactive constituents. These results suggest that enhancing stress tolerance and promoting new root formation induced by M. dendrobii may improve the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. This study provides a foundation for future use of M. dendrobii in the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobiums. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. A study on relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment in tour management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Karroubi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cultural intelligence (CQ and emotional intelligence (EI on a tour leader’s adjustment in a different cultural environment. Data were collected from 330 outgoing tour leaders in Tehran, Iran. The construct validity was confirmed by using confirmatory factor analysis. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis and path analysis to test the effect of CQ on cross-cultural adjustment, and the moderating effect of EI on the relationship between CQ and cross-cultural adjustment. The results showed that CQ had a positive effect on cross-cultural adjustment. In addition, we found that CQ had a positive effect on EI. The findings of the research showed that emotional intelligence in not significantly the mediator variable. Emotional intelligence has a positive and significant effect on cross-cultural adjustment. The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of CQ and cross-cultural research, and it provides practical implications for individuals seeking to improve their cross-cultural effectiveness, enhancing their cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence, specifically in tourism industry.

  16. Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: a study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, J L; Benet-Martínez, V; Garolera, J

    2001-09-01

    This research argues that the meaning embedded in consumption symbols, such as commercial brands, can serve to represent and institutionalize the values and beliefs of a culture. Relying on a combined emic-etic approach, the authors conducted 4 studies to examine how symbolic and expressive attributes associated with commercial brands are structured and how this structure varies across 3 cultures. Studies 1 and 2 revealed a set of "brand personality" dimensions common to both Japan and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, and Sophistication), as well as culture-specific Japanese (Peacefulness) and American (Ruggedness) dimensions. Studied 3 and 4, which extended this set of findings to Spain, yielded brand personality dimensions common to both Spain and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, and Sophistication), plus nonshared Spanish (Passion) and American (Competence and Ruggedness) dimensions. The meaning of these brand personality dimensions is discussed in the context of cross-cultural research on values and affect, globalization issues, and cultural frame shifting.

  17. Study on Spatial Cultural Heritage Integrated into the Core Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W. H.; Lai, Y. P.

    2015-08-01

    These Many countries have put a lot of efforts, promoting education of cultural heritage, to raise the conservation awareness and increase people's participation. However, the development of Taiwan's higher education about cultural heritage has not shown a significant growth, so it didn't train talents with enough cultural heritage awareness. In the workplace, these professionals will inevitably lack of comprehensions and the appropriate professional assessments for cultural heritage. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to study and combine these concepts into the core curriculum of Department of Construction and Spatial Design at Tungnan University. It takes the local "Shenkeng historic cultural district" as a case study, and will gradually develop an proper interdisciplinary course in order to help local residents implement projects of conserving cultural heritage. This plan not only can increase schools' engagements toward communities, with an ability of social civilization, but also it can encourage the conservation and maintenance of cultural heritages.

  18. Long-term culture of organotypic multicellular glioma spheroids: a good culture model for studying gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Das, P. K.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gliomas, as well as other solid tumours, contain tumour stroma composed of connective tissue, macrophages, capillaries and other non-cellular constituents. Therefore, a homogeneous culture of tumour cells alone, as is often used as a culture model for gliomas, is not ideal to study all aspects of

  19. Genomic analysis reveals a potential role for cell cycle perturbation in HCV-mediated apoptosis of cultured hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie-Anne Walters

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of liver injury associated with chronic HCV infection, as well as the individual roles of both viral and host factors, are not clearly defined. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cytopathic effects, in addition to immune-mediated processes, play an important role in liver injury. Gene expression profiling during multiple time-points of acute HCV infection of cultured Huh-7.5 cells was performed to gain insight into the cellular mechanism of HCV-associated cytopathic effect. Maximal induction of cell-death-related genes and appearance of activated caspase-3 in HCV-infected cells coincided with peak viral replication, suggesting a link between viral load and apoptosis. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many of the cell-death genes function to induce apoptosis in response to cell cycle arrest. Labeling of dividing cells in culture followed by flow cytometry also demonstrated the presence of significantly fewer cells in S-phase in HCV-infected relative to mock cultures, suggesting HCV infection is associated with delayed cell cycle progression. Regulation of numerous genes involved in anti-oxidative stress response and TGF-beta1 signaling suggest these as possible causes of delayed cell cycle progression. Significantly, a subset of cell-death genes regulated during in vitro HCV infection was similarly regulated specifically in liver tissue from a cohort of HCV-infected liver transplant patients with rapidly progressive fibrosis. Collectively, these data suggest that HCV mediates direct cytopathic effects through deregulation of the cell cycle and that this process may contribute to liver disease progression. This in vitro system could be utilized to further define the cellular mechanism of this perturbation.

  20. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Tan, Yanglan; Wang, Shuangxia; Gardiner, Donald M.; De Saeger, Sarah; Liao, Yucai; Wang, Cheng; Fan, Yingying; Wang, Zhouping; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. PMID:28035973

  1. Mapping differentiation under mixed culture conditions reveals a tunable continuum of T cell fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron E Antebi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation is typically directed by external signals that drive opposing regulatory pathways. Studying differentiation under polarizing conditions, with only one input signal provided, is limited in its ability to resolve the logic of interactions between opposing pathways. Dissection of this logic can be facilitated by mapping the system's response to mixtures of input signals, which are expected to occur in vivo, where cells are simultaneously exposed to various signals with potentially opposing effects. Here, we systematically map the response of naïve T cells to mixtures of signals driving differentiation into the Th1 and Th2 lineages. We characterize cell state at the single cell level by measuring levels of the two lineage-specific transcription factors (T-bet and GATA3 and two lineage characteristic cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4 that are driven by these transcription regulators. We find a continuum of mixed phenotypes in which individual cells co-express the two lineage-specific master regulators at levels that gradually depend on levels of the two input signals. Using mathematical modeling we show that such tunable mixed phenotype arises if autoregulatory positive feedback loops in the gene network regulating this process are gradual and dominant over cross-pathway inhibition. We also find that expression of the lineage-specific cytokines follows two independent stochastic processes that are biased by expression levels of the master regulators. Thus, cytokine expression is highly heterogeneous under mixed conditions, with subpopulations of cells expressing only IFN-γ, only IL-4, both cytokines, or neither. The fraction of cells in each of these subpopulations changes gradually with input conditions, reproducing the continuous internal state at the cell population level. These results suggest a differentiation scheme in which cells reflect uncertainty through a continuously tuneable mixed phenotype combined with a biased

  2. Novel and unexpected bacterial diversity in an arsenic-rich ecosystem revealed by culture-dependent approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delavat François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs are extreme environments characterized by very acid conditions and heavy metal contaminations. In these ecosystems, the bacterial diversity is considered to be low. Previous culture-independent approaches performed in the AMD of Carnoulès (France confirmed this low species richness. However, very little is known about the cultured bacteria in this ecosystem. The aims of the study were firstly to apply novel culture methods in order to access to the largest cultured bacterial diversity, and secondly to better define the robustness of the community for 3 important functions: As(III oxidation, cellulose degradation and cobalamine biosynthesis. Results Despite the oligotrophic and acidic conditions found in AMDs, the newly designed media covered a large range of nutrient concentrations and a pH range from 3.5 to 9.8, in order to target also non-acidophilic bacteria. These approaches generated 49 isolates representing 19 genera belonging to 4 different phyla. Importantly, overall diversity gained 16 extra genera never detected in Carnoulès. Among the 19 genera, 3 were previously uncultured, one of them being novel in databases. This strategy increased the overall diversity in the Carnoulès sediment by 70% when compared with previous culture-independent approaches, as specific phylogenetic groups (e.g. the subclass Actinobacteridae or the order Rhizobiales were only detected by culture. Cobalamin auxotrophy, cellulose degradation and As(III-oxidation are 3 crucial functions in this ecosystem, and a previous meta- and proteo-genomic work attributed each function to only one taxon. Here, we demonstrate that other members of this community can also assume these functions, thus increasing the overall community robustness. Conclusions This work highlights that bacterial diversity in AMDs is much higher than previously envisaged, thus pointing out that the AMD system is functionally more robust than expected

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Current Human Coronavirus Strains in Primary Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Reveal Differences in Target Cell Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized and hospitalized children. Studies of the fundamental aspects of these HCoV infections at the primary entry port, such as cell tropism, are seriously hampered by the lack of a universal culture system or suitable animal models. To expand the knowledge on fundamental virus-host interactions for all four HCoVs at the site of primary infection, we used pseudostratified HAE cell cultures to isolate and characterize representative clinical HCoV strains directly from nasopharyngeal material. Ten contemporary isolates were obtained, representing HCoV-229E (n = 1), HCoV-NL63 (n = 1), HCoV-HKU1 (n = 4), and HCoV-OC43 (n = 4). For each strain, we analyzed the replication kinetics and progeny virus release on HAE cell cultures derived from different donors. Surprisingly, by visualizing HCoV infection by confocal microscopy, we observed that HCoV-229E employs a target cell tropism for nonciliated cells, whereas HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63 all infect ciliated cells. Collectively, the data demonstrate that HAE cell cultures, which morphologically and functionally resemble human airways in vivo, represent a robust universal culture system for isolating and comparing all contemporary HCoV strains. PMID:23427150

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of the gut bacterium Bifidobacterium longum reveals loci susceptible to deletion during pure culture growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Hoon; Karamychev, VN; Kozyavkin, SA; Mills, D; Pavlov, AR; Pavlova, NV; Polouchine, NN; Richardson, PM; Shakhova, VV; Slesarev, AI; Weimer, B; O'Sullivan, DJ

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Bifidobacteria are frequently proposed to be associated with good intestinal health primarily because of their overriding dominance in the feces of breast fed infants. However, clinical feeding studies with exogenous bifidobacteria show they don't remain in the intestine, suggesting they may lose competitive fitness when grown outside the gut. Results To further the understanding of genetic attenuation that may be occurring in bifidobacteria cultures, we obtained the compl...

  5. Why Lesson Study Works in Japan: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators who have been impressed by its capacity to foster student learning and sustained professional growth of teachers. This paper reports a study on its cultural orientations that may explain why lesson study works seamlessly in Japan. Hofstede's dimensions of national culture are…

  6. The Role of Culture Theory in Cross-Cultural Training: A Multimethod Study of Culture-Specific, Culture-General, and Culture Theory-Based Assimilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawuk, Dharm P. S.

    1998-01-01

    In a multimethod evaluation of cross-cultural training tools involving 102 exchange students at a midwestern university, a theory-based individualism and collectivism assimilator tool had significant advantages over culture-specific and culture-general assimilators and a control condition. Results support theory-based culture assimilators. (SLD)

  7. EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of The Place of Culture in ELT: A Survey Study at Four Universities in Ankara/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan ÖNALAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate Turkish teachers’ opinions and beliefs on the place of target cultural information in English language teaching, as well as their related practices andapplications in EFL classrooms in Turkish higher education context. Particularly, it tries toexplore three research questions: (a How do Turkish teachers of English define culture? (bWhat are the EFL teachers’ attitudes towards incorporating cultural information into theirteaching? and (c What role do they allocate to the culture of the target language in theirclassrooms? The study shows that teachers mostly define culture in the sociological sense, suchas values and beliefs. Their definition of culture in the framework of ELT slightly shifts towardsmore visible culture, such as food and clothing. The study also reveals teachers’ positive attitudestowards incorporating cultural information in their instruction.

  8. CULTURAL STUDIES: INSTITUTIONAL CRISIS OR THE TIME OF STRATEGIC DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ya. Murzina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to signify of the problems of cultural studies as a science and educational practice in a situation of modernization of education. The publication continues the discussion started at the alignment meeting of Heads of Cultural Studies Departments in Russia – «The science of culture and cultural education: time for strategic decisions». Methods. The author has applied the following methods: analysis of existing points of view; reflection of the essence of the cultural knowledge and perspectives of cultural development of cultural studies science in Russia. Results. The research outcomes show that cultural studies in modern Russia are experiencing institutional crisis: insufficient definiteness and awareness by experts and publicity due to places and roles of culturological disciplines in educational process, but also the methodological bases of activity of culturologists. Aspects of culturological formation are considered and prospects of its development are specified. It was proposed to continue the discussion started at the alignment meeting of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, and it will give an option to discuss the solution ways of current recessionary situation more fundamentally and subjectively on territory-regional level. Scientific novelty. The approaches to understanding the culture as areas of scientific knowledge are methodized; the areas of cultural education in the conditions of modernization are summarized. Practical significance. The research implementations can be used while improving the theoretical-methodological component of cultural education, and extending the horizons for topical current research works in the field of cultural studies

  9. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  10. Culture in Context: An Interdisciplinary Travel Study Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Karen A.; O'Neill, Geraldine P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary travel study course designed to teach cultural appreciation and sensitivity in context. Readings and instruction focus on cultural issues that affect business and marketing practices, using France and the French as the subjects of the study. (Author/VWL)

  11. A Cultural Interpretation of a Social Studies Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, John H.

    Social studies documents were collected from teachers in the Tucson, Arizona area and examined using three theories of culture as a way to explore the interrelationships between social studies curriculum and United States society. Malinowski's functionalist position suggests that culture is composed of traits each of which provide a specific…

  12. Third Culture Kids and College Support: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdren, Sarah Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This single site case study applies the "Transition Cycle" framework (Pollock & Van Reken, 2009) to an institutionally-based, student-run support program for Third Culture Kids. The purpose of this study was to examine how Lewis and Clark College responded to the presence of Third Culture Kid, or Global Nomad, students on campus by…

  13. Notes toward an African Cultural Studies of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Handel Kashope

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to sketch out both an argument for and the outlines of what might be termed an African cultural studies of education. This formation would actually be composed of several fields and discourses that are often taken up as quite distinct, namely critical approaches to education, cultural studies, and African…

  14. Adolescents Family Models : A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and compares the family models of adolescents across ten cultures using a typological and multilevel approach. Thereby, it aims to empirically contribute to Kagitcibasi s (2007) theory of family change. This theory postulates the existence of three ideal-typical family models across cultures: a family model of independence prevailing in Western societies, a family model of (total) interdependence prevailing in non-industrialized agrarian cultures, and as a synthesis of the...

  15. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses reveal no prokaryotic community shifts or recovery of Serratia marcescens in Acropora palmata with white pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Michael P; Jarett, Jessica K

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the etiological agent of white pox (WP) disease, also known as acroporid serratiosis, in the endangered coral Acropora palmata is the enteric bacterium Serratia marcescens with the source being localized sewage release onto coastal coral reef communities. Here, we show that both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches could not recover this bacterium from samples of tissue and mucus from A. palmata colonies affected by WP disease in the Bahamas, or seawater collected adjacent to A. palmata colonies. Additionally, a metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing study shows no significant difference in the bacterial communities of coral tissues with and without WP lesions. As recent studies have shown for other coral diseases, S. marcescens cannot be identified in all cases of WP disease in several geographically separated populations of A. palmata with the same set of signs. As a result, its identification as the etiological agent of WP disease, and cause of a reverse zoonosis, cannot be broadly supported. However, the prevalence of WP disease associated with S. marcescens does appear to be associated with proximity to population centers, and research efforts should be broadened to examine this association, and to identify other causes of this syndrome. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Karin; Technau, Gerhard M

    2009-08-03

    The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS) develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in the embryo. However, presumptive neuroblasts, once

  18. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Technau Gerhard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. Results To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. Conclusion This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in

  19. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  20. Effects of Business Model Development Projects on Organizational Culture: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Santti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that links between organizational culture and innovativeness/performance may act as a “social glue” that helps a company develop organizational culture as a competitive advantage. In this study of three case companies, the organizational culture change due business model development projects is studied using the Competing Values Framework (CVF tool and interviews with respondents about discovered changes. To reveal intervention and implied effects between business model development project and organizational culture changes, we used CIMO logic (context, intervention, mechanism, and outcome to bridge practice and theory by explanatory, backward-looking research. Our case studies of companies in relatively short-duration business model development projects indicate that organizational culture may have some dynamic characteristics, for example, an increase of the adhocracy organizational type in all case companies or an increase in the hierarchical leadership type in one case company. Thus, the development of an organizational culture type can be partly controlled. Our results also indicated business model development projects do have a minor effect on organizational culture, even when development activities have not been put fully into practice. However, the more comprehensively business model development project activities have been put into practice, the larger the effect on organizational culture.

  1. Culture, but more than culture: an exploratory study of the HIV vulnerability of Indian immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel; Majumdar, Basanti; Vattikonda, Natasha

    2016-09-01

    Explanations of immigrant health that ascribe to culture a fundamental causal role neglect the broader structural and contextual factors with which culture intersects. Based on a qualitative study of Indian immigrants' vulnerability to HIV in Canada, this paper presents a contextualised understanding of these individuals' understanding of, perceptions about, and responses to the HIV risk in their post-immigration lives. The study reveals that although culture - both traditional values and the norms of the diaspora community - appears to have constrained Indian immigrants' capacities to respond to the risk, this effect can be properly understood only by situating such constraint in the context of the settlement process that has shaped participants' living conditions, including their relationship with the diasporic community in Canada. We argue that HIV vulnerability should be conceptualised as a health inequality associated with broader systems of power relations (eg socio-economic marginalisation, gender inequality, discrimination, and racism). This more holistic conceptualisation of the intersection of culture, integration, and HIV vulnerability will facilitate exploration of HIV prevention strategies, through which interconnected inequalities of gender, race, and access to knowledge and resources can be challenged.

  2. Lessons learned from measuring safety culture: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suellen; Chiarella, Mary; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-10-01

    adverse events in maternity care are relatively common but often avoidable. International patient safety strategies advocate measuring safety culture as a strategy to improve patient safety. Evidence suggests it is necessary to fully understand the safety culture of an organisation to make improvements to patient safety. this paper reports a case study examining the safety culture in one maternity service in Australia and considers the benefits of using surveys and interviews to understand safety culture as an approach to identify possible strategies to improve patient safety in this setting. the study took place in one maternity service in two public hospitals in NSW, Australia. Concurrently, both hospitals were undergoing an organisational restructure which was part of a major health reform agenda. The priorities of the reform included improving the quality of care and patient safety; and, creating a more efficient health system by reducing administration inefficiencies and duplication. a descriptive case study using three approaches: the safety culture was identified to warrant improvement across all six safety culture domains. There was reduced infrastructure and capacity to support incident management activities required to improve safety, which was influenced by instability from the organisational restructure. There was a perceived lack of leadership at all levels to drive safety and quality and improving the safety culture was neither a key priority nor was it valued by the organisation. the safety culture was complex as was undertaking this study. We were unable to achieve a desired 60% response rate highlighting the limitations of using safety culture surveys in isolation as a strategy to improve safety culture. Qualitative interviews provided greater insight into the factors influencing the safety culture. The findings of this study provide evidence of the benefits of including qualitative methods with quantitative surveys when examining safety culture

  3. Microbial community composition of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens as revealed by molecular and culture-based techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Engberg, R.M.; Leser, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    The microbial communities of the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens from a conventional and an organic farm were investigated using conventional culture techniques as well as cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eighty-five percent of the 557 cloned sequences were ...% of the cecal clones belonged to this cluster in conventional and organic broiler chickens, respectively. We were, however, able to recover a number of these phylotypes by cultivation, and the isolates were shown to be butyric acid producers. The investigation was a descriptive rather than a comparative study...

  4. The transmission and stability of cultural life scripts: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Steve M J; Haque, Shamsul

    2018-01-01

    Cultural life scripts are shared knowledge about the timing of important life events. In the present study, we examined whether cultural life scripts are transmitted through traditions and whether there are additional ways through which they can be attained by asking Australian and Malaysian participants which information sources they had used to generate the life script of their culture. Participants hardly reported that they had used cultural and religious traditions. They more often reported that they had used their own experiences and experiences of relatives and friends. They also reported the use of comments of relatives and friends and the use of newspapers, books, movies and television programmes. Furthermore, we examined the stability of life scripts and similarities and differences across cultures. We found that life scripts are stable cognitive structures and that there are, besides cross-cultural differences in the content, small cross-cultural differences in the valence and distribution of life script events, with the Australian life script containing more positive events and more events expected to occur before the age of 16.

  5. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  6. Cultural Evolution: a case study of Indian music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relations between music, culture and the society which surrounds it, focussing on change as an evolutionary process. The classical music of North India serves as an example, but a similar approach may be applied to other branches of human culture, e.g. science.

  7. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition.…

  8. Culture matters : a study on presence in an interactive movie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Bartneck, C.

    2008-01-01

    A cross cultural study was conducted to test the influences of different cultural backgrounds on the user's presence experience in interacting with a distributed interactive movie. The effects of embodied interaction on presence were also investigated because embodiment is often used to enrich the

  9. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  10. Finnish High Tech in China - A Study of Business Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study the challenges caused by differences in Finnish and Chinese business cultures in the high technology industry. The study explains the main characteristics of the Chinese national and business cultures which every company operating in China will be dealing with, and offers examples of how these affect a high tech company. The study was conducted as a case study of a Finnish high technology company running a project in China. The company encountere...

  11. Co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions reveal the mechanism of chalcopyrite bioleaching coupling with microbial community succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Xingjie; Feng, Xue; Liang, Yili; Xiao, Yunhua; Hao, Xiaodong; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan

    2017-01-01

    The effect of co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated. Communities were rebuilt by six typical strains isolated from the same habitat. The results indicated, by community with more sulfur oxidizers at both 30 and 40°C, the final copper extraction rate was 19.8% and 6.5% higher, respectively, than that with more ferrous oxidizers. The variations of pH, redox potential, ferrous and copper ions in leachate also provided evidences that community with more sulfur oxidizers was more efficient. Community succession of free and attached cells revealed that initial proportions played decisive roles on community dynamics at 30°C, while communities shared similar structures, not relevant to initial proportions at 40°C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed different microbial functions on mineral surface. A mechanism model for chalcopyrite bioleaching was established coupling with community succession. This will provide theoretical basis for reconstructing an efficient community in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A hanging drop culture method to study terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Lindeboom, Fokke; Ferreira, Rita; Drissen, Roy; Grosveld, Frank; Whyatt, David; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2005-10-01

    To design a culture method allowing the quantitative and qualitative analysis of terminal erythroid differentiation. Primary erythroid progenitors derived either from mouse tissues or from human umbilical cord blood were differentiated using hanging drop cultures and compared to methylcellulose cultures. Cultured cells were analyzed by FACS to assess differentiation. We describe a practical culture method by adapting the previously described hanging drop culture system to conditions allowing terminal differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. Using minimal volumes of media and small numbers of cells, we obtained quantitative terminal erythroid differentiation within two days of culture in the case of murine cells and 4 days in the case of human cells. The established methods for ex vivo culture of primary erythroid progenitors, such as methylcellulose-based burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) assays, allow the detection of committed erythroid progenitors but are of limited value to study terminal erythroid differentiation. We show that the application of hanging drop cultures is a practical alternative that, in combination with clonogenic assays, enables a comprehensive assessment of the behavior of primary erythroid cells ex vivo in the context of genetic and drug-induced perturbations.

  13. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS STERILANTS AND CULTURE CONDITIONS ON IN-VITRO SEED GERMINATION IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM)

    OpenAIRE

    K.B.Himabindu; M.Shanthi Priya; D.Mohan Reddy; P.Sudhakar; Y.Srinivasulu; M.Reddisekhar; P.Latha; B.Rupesh Kumar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of various sterilants and culture conditions on in-vitro seed germination in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. PKM-1 revealed that among three sterilants used, surface sterilization of seeds with 5 % NaOCl for 20 minutes was found to be more effective resulting in high germination rate and contamination free cultures. Similarly among the different media and culture conditions considered in the present experiment, MS medium without sucrose with dark incubation f...

  14. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  15. Biodiversity among Lactobacillus helveticus Strains Isolated from Different Natural Whey Starter Cultures as Revealed by Classification Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Trivisano, Carlo; Fabrizi, Enrico; Neviani, Erasmo; Gardini, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a homofermentative thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used extensively for manufacturing Swiss type and aged Italian cheese. In this study, the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of strains isolated from different natural dairy starter cultures used for Grana Padano, Parmigiano Reggiano, and Provolone cheeses was investigated by a classification tree technique. A data set was used that consists of 119 L. helveticus strains, each of which was studied for its physiological characters, as well as surface protein profiles and hybridization with a species-specific DNA probe. The methodology employed in this work allowed the strains to be grouped into terminal nodes without difficult and subjective interpretation. In particular, good discrimination was obtained between L. helveticus strains isolated, respectively, from Grana Padano and from Provolone natural whey starter cultures. The method used in this work allowed identification of the main characteristics that permit discrimination of biotypes. In order to understand what kind of genes could code for phenotypes of technological relevance, evidence that specific DNA sequences are present only in particular biotypes may be of great interest. PMID:14711641

  16. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-06-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Organisational culture in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Venturato, Lorraine; Horner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture is increasingly recognised as important for provision of high-quality long-term care. We undertook this study to measure organisational culture in residential aged care facilities in two Australian states. Cross-sectional observational study in 21 residential aged care facilities in Western Australia (n = 14) and Queensland (n = 7), Australia. Staff and next-of-kin of residents participated. Measurement comprised surveys of facility staff and residents' next-of-kin, and structured observation of indicators of care quality. Staff tended to rate organisational culture positively. Some qualitative feedback from staff emphasised negative perceptions of communication, leadership and teamwork. Staffing levels were perceived as a dominant challenge, threatening care quality. Direct observation revealed variability within and between facilities but suggested that most facilities (n = 12) were in the typical range, or were quality facilities (n = 8). There was scope to strengthen organisational culture in participating aged care facilities.

  18. The necessity of cultural knowledge during the foreign language studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kroteva, Marijana; Mirascieva, Snezana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the significance and introduction of cultural studies in the curricula for foreign language studies. Although the main focus in the paper is pointed to English as the most dominant language in the world today, the paper is primarily intended and refers to all the languages. Section two consists of the aspects and reasons for the necessity of introducing the cultural studies in the foreign language curricula. Section three is written upon the research result...

  19. CULTURAL TOURISM IN MALAYSIA IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF INDIAN TOURISTS: A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. BABU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is one of the economic superpowers in South East Asia, prospering at a fast pace as tourism is becoming one of the most important sectors of its economy. Areas like entertainment; beach and island tourism has become some of the major determinants of Malaysia’s phenomenal progress in tourism in the last few years. Yet one area that seems to get less attention is its cultural resources. Recently, Malaysia has turned out as one of the major destinations for the Indian Outbound Tourism market. This study looks into the situation that prevails in the area of cultural tourism in Malaysia and how are cultural as well as historical attractions of Malaysia viewed from the perspective of international tourists from India. With the help of descriptive analysis the study probes into the significance of Malaysia’s historical tourism and the awareness and perception about it among Indian visitors. Based on the study it is revealed that Malaysia’s cultural tourism resources are not promoted to the extent to which it becomes a significant part of the nation’s destination image. Lack of promotion and information available makes international visitors unaware about the potential of Malaysia as a cultural tourism destination. However, most of the tourists were satisfied with the cultural sites/attractions and think Malaysia is a reasonably good cultural destination.

  20. Studying the Relationship between Individual and Organizational Factors and Nurses' Perception of Patient Safety Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Abdolahzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safety culture is considered as an important factor in improving patient safety. Therefore, identifying individual and organizational factors affecting safety culture is crucial. This study was carried out to determine individual and organizational factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Methods: The present descriptive study included 940 nurses working in four training hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran. Data was collected through the self-report questionnaire of patient safety culture. Descriptive (number, percent, mean, and standard deviation and inferential (t-test and analysis of variance statistics were used to analyze the data in SPSS. Results: Nurses' perception of patient safety culture was significantly correlated with marital status, workplace, and overtime hours. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that some individual and organizational factors can impact on nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Nursing authorities should thus pay more attention to factors which promote patient safety culture and ultimately the safety of provided services.

  1. The study of cultural objects by nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Tulio A.

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of the techniques that are used at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina for the characterization and study of cultural and archaeological specimens. A short history of these activities is also given. (author)

  2. A study on relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khalili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organizational culture and organization commitment. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring organizational commitment originally developed by Meyer and Allen (1991 [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1, 61-89.] and the other one for organizational culture developed by Denison and Spreitzer (1991 [Denison, D. R., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1991. Organizational culture and organizational development: A competing values approach. Research in organizational change and development, 5(1, 1-21.]. The study is accomplished among selected full time employees who work for an Iranian bank named Bank Saderat Iran. Using Pearson correlation test as well as linear regression methods, the study has determined that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between all components of organizational commitment and organizational culture.

  3. CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...

  4. Formation of common cultural competence in country studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in country studies classes (based on Turkish language teaching practice) ... the acquisition of common cultural competence in foreign language education. ... analysis of methodological frameworks offered by Russian and foreign specialists.

  5. Cultural change in telecommunications companies: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, Cristiane Alves; Irion, Crishna; Paladini, Edson Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to propose a model for the conduct of cultural change in the IT department of a company in the telecommunications industry. To achieve the goal proposed exploratory, technical procedures used were the case study and literature review. The techniques of data collection in the case study were: participant observation, unstructured interview and document analysis. The proposed model consists of five steps: analysis of the company's strategic planning, cultural diagnosis of the IT ...

  6. A study on relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Khalili

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organizational culture and organization commitment. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring organizational commitment originally developed by Meyer and Allen (1991) [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61-89.] and the other one for organizational culture developed by Denison and Spreitzer (1991)...

  7. Eye contact perception in the West and East: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether eye contact perception differs in people with different cultural backgrounds. Finnish (European) and Japanese (East Asian) participants were asked to determine whether Finnish and Japanese neutral faces with various gaze directions were looking at them. Further, participants rated the face stimuli for emotion and other affect-related dimensions. The results indicated that Finnish viewers had a smaller bias toward judging slightly averted gazes as directed at them when judging Finnish rather than Japanese faces, while the bias of Japanese viewers did not differ between faces from their own and other cultural backgrounds. This may be explained by Westerners experiencing more eye contact in their daily life leading to larger visual experience of gaze perception generally, and to more accurate perception of eye contact with people from their own cultural background particularly. The results also revealed cultural differences in the perception of emotion from neutral faces that could also contribute to the bias in eye contact perception.

  8. A spectrophotometer-based diffusivity assay reveals that diffusion hindrance of small molecules in extracellular matrix gels used in 3D cultures is dominated by viscous effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgoczy, Roland; Pastor, Isabel; Colom, Adai; Giménez, Alicia; Mas, Francesc; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    The design of 3D culture studies remains challenging due to the limited understanding of extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent hindered diffusion and the lack of simple diffusivity assays. To address these limitations, we set up a cost-effective diffusivity assay based on a Transwell plate and the spectrophotometer of a Microplate Reader, which are readily accessible to cell biology groups. The spectrophotometer-based assay was used to assess the apparent diffusivity D of FITC-dextrans with molecular weight (4-70kDa) spanning the physiological range of signaling factors in a panel of acellular ECM gels including Matrigel, fibrin and type I collagen. Despite their technical differences, D data exhibited ∼15% relative difference with respect to FRAP measurements. Our results revealed that diffusion hindrance of small particles is controlled by the enhanced viscosity of the ECM gel in conformance with the Stokes-Einstein equation rather than by geometrical factors. Moreover, we provided a strong rationale that the enhanced ECM viscosity is largely contributed to by unassembled ECM macromolecules. We also reported that gels with the lowest D exhibited diffusion hindrance closest to the large physiologic hindrance of brain tissue, which has a typical pore size much smaller than ECM gels. Conversely, sparse gels (≤1mg/ml), which are extensively used in 3D cultures, failed to reproduce the hindered diffusion of tissues, thereby supporting that dense (but not sparse) ECM gels are suitable tissue surrogates in terms of macromolecular transport. Finally, the consequences of reduced diffusivity in terms of optimizing the design of 3D culture experiments were addressed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Composition of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Communities as Revealed by Analyses of Signature Lipids, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Aquificales Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Edger, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Hayes, John M.; DesMarais, David J.; Cady, Sherry; Hope, Janet M.; Summons, Roger E.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    CO2 from the source water inorganic carbon pool with lipids further depleted by 6.3% relative to biomass The C-20-21 Aquificales fatty acids of the PSC were somewhat heavier than the iso-branched fatty acids. The carbon isotopic signatures of lipid biomarkers were also explored using a pure culture, T ruber, previously isolated from the PSC. Cells grown on C02 with O2 and both H2 and thiosulfate as electron donors were only slightly depleted (3.3%) relative to the C-source while cells grown on formate with O2 showed a major discrimination (19.7%), possibly the result of a metabolic branch point involving the assimilation of C-formate to biomass and the dissimilation to CO2 associated with energy production. T. ruber lipids were slightly heavier than biomass (+1.3%) whether cells were grown using CO2 or formate. Fatty acids from CO2 grown T. ruber cells were a so slightly heavier (average +2.1%) than biomass. The relatively depleted PSC C-20-21 fatty acids suggest that any associated Thermocrinis biomass would also be similarly depleted and much too light to be explained by growth on CO2. The C-fractionations determined with the pure culture suggest that growth of Thermocrinis in the PSC is more likely to occur on formate, presumably generated by geothermal activity. This study points to the value of the analysis of the structural and isotopic composition of lipid blomarkers both in pure culture studies, and in establishing community structure and physiology, as a complement to genomic profiles of microbial diversity. This is especially so when the members of the microbial community are novel and difficult to cultivate in the laboratory.

  10. The Idea of «Concept» in the Studies of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarskaya Daria Tatarskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analyzing the difference between discourses about "concept". It is an attempt to reveal the features of these approaches to the problem of understanding and studying of "concept". This term is currently at its peak popularity in the human studies, which is connected with its universality and the process of globalization, which generates an interest to studying cultures though these keywords or concepts. Meanwhile, the discourse about "concept" firstly appeared in philosophical literature. Then at the early twentieth century an interest to "concept" arose in Russian linguistics. Afterwards, the term came from the field of pure linguistics to the fields of cognitive linguistics and cultural linguistics, and then in the first decade of XXI century it was rekindled thanks to philosophy. Nowadays in the modern humaninities there are the coexistence of different approaches to understanding, interpretation and investigation of concept. In terms of linguistics the concept constitutes the meaning of sign, and its investigation focused on the search of different means of representation of it in the language and on the basis on them structuring the concept. Linguocognitive science has its aim in building a cognitive model of representation this term in the linguistic consciousness of a native speaker. The feature of cultural linguistics approach is its orientation on the search of cultural component of concept. And the approach of cultural studies focused on the search of the features and the analysis of the essence of this phenomenon in the general context of culture

  11. Memory and Culture—Notes on the Concept of "Memory Cultures" Within Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Leonhard

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This book of collected papers, published by the DFG-Sonderforschungsbereich Erinnerungskulturen ("Memory Cultures" at the Justus Liebig University of Gießen, gives a broad overview of approaches and results of memory research within various disciplines. Despite many interesting insights, the book offers no general framework by which the different aspects analyzed by the authors could be classified and related to one another. Thus, the shortcomings of memory studies, from a cultural perspective and understood as an interdisciplinary, multidimensional research program, become visible. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703259

  12. Study Abroad in Psychology: Increasing Cultural Competencies through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, David R.; Rosenbusch, Katherine; Wallace-Williams, Devin; Keim, Alaina C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prominence of study abroad programs, few are offered in the field of psychology. The current study sought to investigate the impact of study abroad programs in psychology through a comparison of study abroad and domestic student cultural competencies. Participants included 104 undergraduate students enrolled in either a psychology…

  13. On Dimension of Cultural Connotation in Cognitive-Metaphor Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏

    2016-01-01

    Started from Aristotle, metaphor has been studied independently and relatively ranged from rhetoric, philosophy, prag-matic, anthropology, psychology, cognitive science and other disciplines. This article views the close relation between metaphor and culture on the perspective of cognitive metaphor, focusing on the double functions in the perception of world and creation of culture and further dugs the profound theories of different dimensions in the contrast between English and Chinese language.

  14. Organisational culture and strategic leadership for success : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. Many aspects of the success, or lack of success, of a business can be accurately measured. Revenues, profit and loss, return on assets, share price, price equity ratios, market share, customer satisfaction and many more aspects can be measured and often managed. Apart from the measurable something else is needed: a successful organisational culture. The culture of an organisation is often easier to experience than to describe. The objectives of this study are find a workable defini...

  15. Mathematics Teachers' Views of Accountability Testing Revealed through Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarema, Connie H.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of lesson study, a professional development model originating in Japan, aligns well with recommendations from research for teacher professional development. Lesson study is also an inductive research method that uncovers student thinking and, in parallel, grants teacher-educators the opportunity to study teachers' thinking about…

  16. Culture-independent molecular approaches reveal a mostly unknown high diversity of active nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with Pennisetum purpureum—a bioenergy crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videira, Sandy Sampaio; de Cássia Pereira e Silva, Michele; Galisa, Pericles de Souza; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Nissinen, Riitta; Baldani Divan, Vera Lucia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Baldani, Jose Ivo; Salles, Joana Falcao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that elephant grass is colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacterial species; however, these results were based on culture-dependent methods, an approach that introduces bias due to an incomplete assessment of the microbial community. In this study, we used culture-independent

  17. Journal of Cultural Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While it could be of natural relevance for scholars in Literary Studies, Sociology, History, Political Science, Anthropology, Fine Art, Religion and Philosophy, Linguistics, et cetera, to make contributions, it does also acknowledge that various disciplines within the sciences - management, environmental, engineering, medical, ...

  18. Going Places: Praxis and Pedagogy in Australian Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the pedagogical value of praxis in maintaining the relevance of cultural studies in the Australian academic environment. Following its highly politicised beginnings at the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, we consider whether traditional classroom practices are commensurate with the contemporary expectations of students and staff. As a working model of the current Australian university climate, we consider the discipline group of English and Cultural Studies (ECS at the University of Western Australia. After evaluating data gathered from interviews and surveys across the undergraduate, postgraduate and staff population, we suggest potential pedagogical innovations to be implemented in cultural studies at UWA, as a case study within Australia. Our findings show that students are calling for practical activities that would benefit their studies as a complement to theory in the classroom. As a result, we argue that praxis is not only important, but vital, in the teaching of cultural studies as an enabling activity that encourages the use of new teaching methods.

  19. Limnological study with reference to fish culture of Bothali (Mendha) reservoir, district - Gadchiroli (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijare, Rajendra V

    2012-04-01

    Limnological study with reference to fish culture was carried out at Bothali (Mendha) reservoir, district Gadchiroli, India. Water samples from different sampling locations were collected and processed for physico-chemical analysis. The physico-chemical analysis revealed that the reservoir is favourable for fish culture as the phosphate content in water is moderate in amount. This reservoir can produce a good yield of fishes. Though the reservoir is presently exploited and is under pisciculture, a better treatment of the reservoir such as prevention of entry of organic matter, reduction of phosphate ion concentration to certain extent is necessary to obtain a maximum fish yield.

  20. Study Reveals Brain Biology behind Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A new neuroscience twist on a classic psychology study offers some clues to what makes one student able to buckle down for hours of homework before a test while his classmates party. The study published in the September 2011 edition of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," suggests environmental cues may "hijack" the brain's mechanisms…

  1. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  2. Safety Culture Enhancement Project. Final Report. A Field Study on Approaches to Enhancement of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Andrew; Hayward, Brent

    2006-08-01

    This report documents a study with the objective of enhancing safety culture in the Swedish nuclear power industry. A primary objective of this study was to ensure that the latest thinking on human factors principles was being recognised and applied by nuclear power operators as a means of ensuring optimal safety performance. The initial phase of the project was conducted as a pilot study, involving the senior management group at one Swedish nuclear power-producing site. The pilot study enabled the project methodology to be validated after which it was repeated at other Swedish nuclear power industry sites, providing a broad-ranging analysis of opportunities across the industry to enhance safety culture. The introduction to this report contains an overview of safety culture, explains the background to the project and sets out the project rationale and objectives. The methodology used for understanding and analysing the important safety culture issues at each nuclear power site is then described. This section begins with a summary of the processes used in the information gathering and data analysis stage. The six components of the Management Workshops conducted at each site are then described. These workshops used a series of presentations, interactive events and group exercises to: (a) provide feedback to site managers on the safety culture and safety leadership issues identified at their site, and (b) stimulate further safety thinking and provide 'take-away' information and leadership strategies that could be applied to promote safety culture improvements. Section 3, project Findings, contains the main observations and output from the project. These include: - a brief overview of aspects of the local industry operating context that impinge on safety culture; - a summary of strengths or positive attributes observed within the safety culture of the Swedish nuclear industry; - a set of identified opportunities for further improvement; - the aggregated results of the

  3. Safety Culture Enhancement Project. Final Report. A Field Study on Approaches to Enhancement of Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Andrew; Hayward, Brent (Dedale Asia Pacific, Albert Park VIC 3206 (Australia))

    2006-08-15

    This report documents a study with the objective of enhancing safety culture in the Swedish nuclear power industry. A primary objective of this study was to ensure that the latest thinking on human factors principles was being recognised and applied by nuclear power operators as a means of ensuring optimal safety performance. The initial phase of the project was conducted as a pilot study, involving the senior management group at one Swedish nuclear power-producing site. The pilot study enabled the project methodology to be validated after which it was repeated at other Swedish nuclear power industry sites, providing a broad-ranging analysis of opportunities across the industry to enhance safety culture. The introduction to this report contains an overview of safety culture, explains the background to the project and sets out the project rationale and objectives. The methodology used for understanding and analysing the important safety culture issues at each nuclear power site is then described. This section begins with a summary of the processes used in the information gathering and data analysis stage. The six components of the Management Workshops conducted at each site are then described. These workshops used a series of presentations, interactive events and group exercises to: (a) provide feedback to site managers on the safety culture and safety leadership issues identified at their site, and (b) stimulate further safety thinking and provide 'take-away' information and leadership strategies that could be applied to promote safety culture improvements. Section 3, project Findings, contains the main observations and output from the project. These include: - a brief overview of aspects of the local industry operating context that impinge on safety culture; - a summary of strengths or positive attributes observed within the safety culture of the Swedish nuclear industry; - a set of identified opportunities for further improvement; - the aggregated

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  5. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: Does a cultural difference truly exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M.; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for...

  6. "The fish becomes aware of the water in which it swims": revealing the power of culture in shaping teaching identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Yuli; Taylor, Peter Charles

    2017-08-01

    "The fish becomes aware of the water in which it swims" is a metaphor that represents Yuli's revelatory journey about the hidden power of culture in her personal identity and professional teaching practice. While engaging in a critical auto/ethnographic inquiry into her lived experience as a science teacher in Indonesian and Australian schools, she came to understand the powerful role of culture in shaping her teaching identity. Yuli realised that she is a product of cultural hybridity resulting from interactions of very different cultures—Javanese, Bimanese, Indonesian and Australian. Traditionally, Javanese and Indonesian cultures do not permit direct criticism of others. This influenced strongly the way she had learned to interact with students and caused her to be very sensitive to others. During this inquiry she learned the value of engaging students in open discourse and overt caring, and came to realise that teachers bringing their own cultures to the classroom can be both a source of power and a problem. In this journey, Yuli came to understand the hegemonic power of culture in her teaching identity, and envisioned how to empower herself as a good teacher educator of pre-service science teachers.

  7. Academic capitalism and academic culture: A case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mendoza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this department and they consider industrial sponsorship as a highly effective vehicle for enhancing the quality of education of students and pursuing their scientific interests. This study provides valuable insights to federal and institutional policiescreated to foster industry-academia partnerships and commercialization of academic research.

  8. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  9. A trade-off study revealing nested timescales of constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnants, M.L.; Cox, R.F.A; Hasselman, F.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Van Orden, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates human performance in a cyclic Fitts task at three different scales of observation, either in the presence (difficult condition) or in the absence (easy condition) of a speed–accuracy trade-off. At the fastest scale, the harmonicity of the back and forth movements, which

  10. Pushing boundaries-culture-sensitive care in oncology and palliative care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Beate; Rumpold, Tamara; Amering, Michaela; Masel, Eva Katharina; Watzke, Herbert; Schur, Sophie

    2017-06-01

    In increasingly globalized societies, patient-centered cancer care requires culture-sensitive approaches in order to ensure patients well-being. While migrant patients' needs are frequently reported in the literature, staff members' perception of work with migrant patients, associated challenges, or individual work approaches are largely unknown. This study addresses this research gap through qualitative exploration of experiences of multicultural health care professionals in supportive oncology and palliative care, working with patients from different cultural backgrounds. This study aims to understand staff experience of the impact of culture on cancer care. This study was conducted at the Medical University of Vienna, including staff from different settings of oncology and palliative care, in different professional positions, and with a range of individual migration backgrounds. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 staff members working with patients from different cultural backgrounds. Interviews explored views on the impact of culture on care were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed using a rigorous method of thematic analysis, enhanced with grounded theory techniques. Interviews revealed 4 key topics: culture-specific differences, assumed reasons for differences, consequences of multicultural care, and tools for culture-sensitive care. Strategies to better deal with migrant patients and their families were suggested to improve work satisfaction amongst staff. This study identifies relevant staff challenges in work with migrant patients. Concrete suggestions for improvement include measures on an organizational level, team level, and personal tools. The suggested measures are applicable to improve work satisfaction and culture-sensitive care not only in cancer care but also in other areas of medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. SUSTAINING THE CULTURAL VITALITY OF URBAN PUBLIC MARKETS: A Case Study of Pasar Payang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilah Zakariya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a public market in the city planning is pivotal in supporting the growth of the local economy. The market is also a place where the culture of the locals evolves daily. However, the unique qualities of the market are vulnerable to the redevelopment process. This study examines the cultural aspects of Pasar Payang in Terengganu, Malaysia, as one of the well-known markets among the locals and the tourists, which will soon be redeveloped. The aim of this paper is to identify the tangible and intangible qualities of the market, so that it can sustain its cultural qualities in the future. The methods adopted for this study comprise of conducting a survey among 497 visitors, and semi-structured interviews among 19 market vendors. The findings reveal that the cultural vitality of the market can be sustained by strengthening its local identity through its products and culture, providing spaces that can facilitate tourist activities and cultural participation, and enhancing the development of the local businesses.

  12. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and

  13. A Comparative Study between Chinese and Western Food Culture in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦体霞

    2014-01-01

    The differences of food culture play an important role in cross-cultural communication. Learn the cultural rooted causes of food culture between Chinese and Western countries, will promote mutual understanding between people and enjoy different feelings different foods brings, enhance cultural exchange, complement and integration.

  14. In vitro study revealed different size behavior of different nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudien, Dirk; Knebel, Jan; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles is depending not only on the size of the primary particles but on the size of their agglomerates. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the behavior of nanoparticles after they have gotten in contact with cells. The presented study investigated the change of size of different commercially available nanoparticles after applying them to different cell lines such as A549, Calu-3, 16HBE14o and LK004 representative for the different parts of the human lung. The different nanoparticles exhibited differences in behavior of size. TiO 2 P25 showed a tendency to increase, whereas TiO 2 T805 and Printex ® 90 remained more or less at the same size. In contrast, ZnO < 50 nm particles showed a significant decrease of size.

  15. Student nurses' experiences of living and studying in a different culture to their own and the development of cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi

    With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...

  16. An ethnographic study of nursing home culture to define organizational realities of culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschman, Marian T

    2005-01-01

    The current system of delivery of nursing home care is costly both in dollars and in human terms. Culture change may provide solutions to both issues. Culture change has a different meaning for different organizations depending on where they are in the continuum of change. Detailed observation of staff members "in action" in three long-term care facilities over a period of several months was supplemented by formal and informal interviews of organization members to gain an understanding of the culture of the nursing home organization. Four three-hour observations in each of three facilities, representing privately-held and not-for-profit organizations in urban, suburban, and rural locations yielded insights into the routine, recruitment, training, teamwork, activities, leadership, role-modeling, mentoring, staff and resident satisfaction, weekend staffing and activities, bureaucratic structure, and sharing of best practices. Discussion of each of these issues may provide a starting point for all those facilities that are contemplating significant culture change. If the objective is to have facilities truly embrace a new set of values, then the change begins with the owners and administrators of nursing homes who need to focus on building new relationships with all the stakeholders. In-depth interviews of organization members and six chief executive officers in long-term care in the Western New York area culminated the study with the development of a fifty-question survey for decision makers.

  17. CULTURAL CHANGE IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alves Anacleto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to propose a model for the conduct of cultural change in the IT department of a company in the telecommunications industry. To achieve the goal proposed exploratory, technical procedures used were the case study and literature review. The techniques of data collection in the case study were: participant observation, unstructured interview and document analysis. The proposed model consists of five steps: analysis of the company's strategic planning, cultural diagnosis of the IT department, brainstorming with the staff and managers, compared to the case studies surveyed and proposed actions for the conduct of cultural change. We conclude that a receptive environment, employees not only understand why the changes are necessary, but engage with the process and faithfully executes the steps required, favoring the strategic positioning of the company.

  18. Organoid culture systems to study host-pathogen interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Devanjali; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in host-microbe interaction studies in organoid cultures have shown great promise and have laid the foundation for much more refined future studies using these systems. Modeling of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in cerebral organoids have helped us understand its association with

  19. Western gulf culture-density study-early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...

  20. Despite some concerns, impact study reveals support for nuke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of 37 Hartsville, Tennessee community leaders indicates the community supports construction of a nuclear generating plant and does not see any major environmental impacts. The leaders do anticipate growth-related disruptions during the construction phase. The ERDA-sponsored social impact study is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to serve as a guide in planning future energy projects and for comparison with a coal-fired project under development in Georgia. Statistics from the survey are summarized. General observations note that the leaders tend to overestimate opposition to the nuclear plant and that local concerns focus on housing and traffic problems. The Tennessee Valley Authority is supplying funds for a mitigation plan, which is generally well received by the community

  1. Nondestructive analysis for the study of cultural goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, Alba E.

    2009-01-01

    The experience obtained by the laboratories of CNEA in the study of cultural goods, particularly of archaeological, historical and artistic goods, required the development of specific methodologies as they are unique and irreplaceable. When a goods is defined as 'cultural heritage' it has to be studied to verify special features that can not be observed at plain sight, then the application of Non Destructive Assays Method is a useful tool for evaluation, determination of conservation conditions, verification of possible restorations, and to elaborate a general diagnosis of the inspected goods. (author) [es

  2. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Jørgensen, Frank G; Als, Thomas D; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Espeseth, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hultman, Christina M; Kjærgaard, Peter C; Schierup, Mikkel H; Mailund, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ∼800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany, and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen, and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R 2 = 0.639 ± 0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. A mechanistic understanding of ageing revealed by studying the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Erica J

    2012-03-01

    A main focus within biomedical research is to understand how adverse environmental conditions experienced during early development affects lifelong health (Barker 1992). Within this context, extensive research in rodent models and humans has shown that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) caused by nutrient restriction during early development is often followed by post-natal 'catch-up' growth when access to food resources improves. However, this accelerated growth rate seems to come at a cost, as metabolic and endocrine processes that are programmed during this time cause later-life onset of diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease (reviewed in Crespi & Denver 2005). In this issue Molecular Ecology, Geiger et al. (2012) asked what are the costs of catch-up growth in nutrient-restricted king penguin chicks (Fig. 1) by measuring lengths of telomeres, the protective DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes, before and after catch-up growth, as the amount and rate of telomere sequence loss over time has been associated with reduced lifespan in both model and nonmodel organisms (see reviews of Costantini et al. 2010; Haussmann & Marchetto 2010). Geiger et al. (2011) found that chicks entering the post-winter growth season at a smaller size exhibited increased growth rates (i.e. catch-up growth) at the cost of increased oxidative stress and reduced telomere lengths compared with the chicks entering the growth period at a larger size. Furthermore, chicks that did not survive had drastically shorter telomere lengths and reduced antioxidant capacities at the beginning of the growth period than all other chicks, thereby directly associating telomere length to mortality. These results suggest that while catch-up growth allows smaller chicks to head off into the world on equal footing with chicks that hatched at a larger size, it likely comes at the cost of a shortened lifespan. Thus, this study provides a mechanism that supports the

  4. Cultural Studies og kritisk diskursanalyse i 8. klasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarstad, Lone

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an exploration of a Cultural Studies and Critical Cultural Pedagogy approach to intercultural competence in lower secondary English classes in Denmark. The presentation is based on the second intervention in a participatory action research project in connection with my doctoral...... to be multiplicative and dynamic and power is foregrounded. Critical discourse analysis is used as a tool in class to analyse a dispute on Facebook between Miley Cyrus and Sinead O’Connor. Students work with active construction, making connections, social interaction, reflection, responsibility and they do so...... thesis in the school year 2013-2014.The approach is based on Cultural Studies and knowledge of social categories and representation, and how these can be taught and discussed in class through an intersectional lens. An intersectional lens allows for the conceptualization of categories...

  5. Consumer perception of balsamic vinegar: A cross-cultural study between Korea and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Jeon, Seon-Young; Piochi, Maria; Morini, Gabriella; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cross-cultural differences in food perception is a key issue of food research in order to understand consumer behaviour in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore potential cultural differences of balsamic vinegar perception between Korean and Italian consumers using the sorted napping method. Nine balsamic vinegars different in terms of ingredients, aging time, and origin were evaluated by Korean (n=50) and Italian (n=49) consumers using sorted napping. Familiarity and food matching were also examined. Descriptive analysis was performed to verify the attitude of the consumers in product description. The results obtained from two groups of consumers in Korea and Italy revealed a higher description attitude of the Italians (higher number of total elicited attributes, of attributes in common with the trained panel, of attributes shared with the vocabulary reported in literature, of significant specific positive product-attribute associations). Italian subjects generated various descriptors associated with the European gastronomic culture (aromatic herbs, fortified wine, dried figs, Indian fig, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese), whereas Korean consumers used more terms related to the Asian food culture (red ginseng, Chinese medicine, Japanese apricot, teriyaki sauce, persimmon vinegar, balloon flower roots). Moreover, cultural differences of food matching were also observed: the Italians would pair the balsamic vinegars mainly with vegetables, fruits and cheese, while Koreans would combine the balsamic vinegars preferably with bread, vegetables and meat. In conclusion, familiarity resulted the main factors for cross-cultural differentiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  7. Culture-Independent Analyses Reveal Novel Anaerolineaceae as Abundant Primary Fermenters in Anaerobic Digesters Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. McIlroy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is reliant on the tightly coupled synergistic activities of complex microbial consortia. Members of the uncultured A6 phylotype, within the phylum Chloroflexi, are among the most abundant genus-level-taxa of mesophilic anaerobic digester systems treating primary and surplus sludge from wastewater treatment plants, yet are known only by their 16S rRNA gene sequence. This study applied metagenomics to obtain a complete circular genome (2.57 Mbp from a representative of the A6 taxon. Preliminary annotation of the genome indicates these organisms to be anaerobic chemoorganoheterotrophs with a fermentative metabolism. Given their observed abundance, they are likely important primary fermenters in digester systems. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes designed in this study revealed their morphology to be short filaments present within the flocs. The A6 were sometimes co-located with the filamentous Archaea Methanosaeta spp. suggesting potential undetermined synergistic relationships. Based on its genome sequence and morphology we propose the species name Brevefilum fermentans gen. nov. sp. nov.

  8. The implications of culture in business and the Cultural dimensions of Finland and India : A study of cultural Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the implications of culture in business. The thesis makes use of the most popular theoretical frameworks in the field, namely the cultural dimensions where data has been chiefly collected through the efforts of Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars. In theory, the application of cultural knowledge as professed through the cultural dimensions into managerial practices can be applied. The validity of these theories has proven impossible to quantify and ...

  9. A comparative study about learning styles preferences of two cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutay, Huban

    From an anthropologist's (Maddock, 1981) point of view, "science and science education are cultural enterprises which form a part of the wider cultural matrix of society and educational considerations concerning science must be made in the light of this wider perspective" (p.10). In addition, Spindler (1987) states that teaching science is considered cultural transmission while, Wolcott (1991) focuses on learning science as culture acquisition. In these statements, culture is defined as "an ordered system of meaning and symbols, in terms of which social interaction takes place" (Geertz, 1973). Thus, learning and culture are a partnership. Jones and Fennimore (1990) state: "Every culture brings habits of thought, resources, and context, which have built into them vehicles that promote learning and inquiry. Accordingly, children of any culture can and should have curriculum and instructional practices that draw from that culture." (p.16). Unfortunately, even though this statement is probably accurate, most schools still use the same curriculum, instructional methods, and assessment strategies for all students regardless of their differences in learning styles. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and their culture. This is a correlational study. Does culture limit or expand the learning of individuals? For this study Turkish students who graduated from a Turkish high school and undertook undergraduate education in the United States or finished their undergraduate education in Turkey and pursued graduate education in the United States were identified. These Turkish subjects were compared to American college students through learning styles data and anxiety levels as cultural markers. To identify individuals' learning styles we used the Building Excellence (BE) instrument, which is an adult version of The Learning Style Inventory by Dunn, and Rundle (1996.1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000). BE assesses twenty four

  10. Characterizing parameters of Jatropha curcas cell cultures for microgravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Wagner A.; Pinares, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a tropical perennial species identified as a potential biofuel crop. The oil is of excellent quality and it has been successfully tested as biodiesel and in jet fuel mixes. However, studies on breeding and genetic improvement of jatropha are limited. Space offers a unique environment for experiments aiming at the assessment of mutations and differential gene expression of crops and in vitro cultures of plants are convenient for studies of genetic variation as affected by microgravity. However, before microgravity studies can be successfully performed, pre-flight experiments are necessary to characterize plant material and validate flight hardware environmental conditions. Such preliminary studies set the ground for subsequent spaceflight experiments. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro growth of cultures from three explant sources (cotyledon, leaf, and stem sections) of three jatropha accessions (Brazil, India, and Tanzania) outside and inside the petriGAP, a modified group activation pack (GAP) flight hardware to fit petri dishes. In vitro jatropha cell cultures were established in petri dishes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark. Parameters evaluated were surface area of the explant tissue (A), fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) for a period of 12 weeks. Growth was observed for cultures from all accessions at week 12, including subsequent plantlet regeneration. For all accessions differences in A, FW and DW were observed for inside vs. outside the PetriGAPs. Growth parameters were affected by accession (genotype), explant type, and environment. The type of explant influenced the type of cell growth and subsequent plantlet regeneration capacity. However, overall cell growth showed no abnormalities. The present study demonstrated that jatropha in vitro cell cultures are suitable for growth inside PetriGAPs for a period of 12 weeks. The parameters

  11. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, Stimulates Proliferation, Differentiation and Gene Expression of Cultured Osteosarcoma Cells: Genomic Approach to Reveal Specific Gene Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy C. Y. Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat ailments in women, contains Radix Astragali (Huangqi; RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui; RAS. When DBT was applied onto cultured MG-63 cells, an increase of cell proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cell were revealed: both of these effects were significantly higher in DBT than RA or RAS extract. To search for the biological markers that are specifically regulated by DBT, DNA microarray was used to reveal the gene expression profiling of DBT in MG-63 cells as compared to that of RA- or RAS-treated cells. Amongst 883 DBT-regulated genes, 403 of them are specifically regulated by DBT treatment, including CCL-2, CCL-7, CCL-8, and galectin-9. The signaling cascade of this DBT-regulated gene expression was also elucidated in cultured MG-63 cells. The current results reveal the potential usage of this herbal decoction in treating osteoporosis and suggest the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoction that requires a well-defined formulation. The DBT-regulated genes in the culture could serve as biological responsive markers for quality assurance of the herbal preparation.

  12. Culture Studies in the Field of International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Li, Xin; Jakobsen, Michael

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of culture studies within the field of international business research, and to examine how two main paradigms – essentialism and social constructivism – relate to the discourse in this field. We analyze the main points of the two...... in this paper. Practical implications: We encourage practitioners to learn how to switch, both sequentially and spatially, between the two paradigms of culture (fundamentally incommensurable though they are). This involves taking a “both/or” approach to the two paradigms. Originality/Value: We show...

  13. Peptide profiling of bovine kefir reveals 236 unique peptides released from caseins during its production by starter culture or kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Aşçı Arslan, Ayşe; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf; Küçükçetin, Ahmet; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-03-18

    Kefir has a long tradition in human nutrition due to its presupposed health promoting effects. To investigate the potential contribution of bioactive peptides to the physiological effects of kefir, comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile was performed by nano-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS coupled to nano-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, 257 peptides were identified, mainly released from β-casein, followed by αS1-, κ-, and αS2-casein. Most (236) peptides were uniquely detected in kefir, but not in raw milk indicating that the fermentation step does not only increase the proteolytic activity 1.7- to 2.4-fold compared to unfermented milk, but also alters the composition of the peptide fraction. The influence of the microflora was determined by analyzing kefir produced from traditional kefir grains or commercial starter culture. Kefir from starter culture featured 230 peptide sequences and showed a significantly, 1.4-fold higher proteolytic activity than kefir from kefir grains with 127 peptides. A match of 97 peptides in both varieties indicates the presence of a typical kefir peptide profile that is not influenced by the individual composition of the microflora. Sixteen of the newly identified peptides were previously described as bioactive, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, antimicrobial, immunomodulating, opioid, mineral binding, antioxidant, and antithrombotic effects. The present study describes a comprehensive peptide profile of kefir comprising 257 sequences. The peptide list was used to identify 16 bioactive peptides with ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, mineral binding, antimicrobial, immunomodulating and opioid activity in kefir. Furthermore, it was shown that a majority of the kefir peptides were not endogenously present in the raw material milk, but were released from milk caseins by proteases of the microbiota and are therefore specific for the product. Consequently, the proteolytic activity and the

  14. Spheroid Culture of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Reveals an Important Role of EGFR Signalling in Anchorage Independent Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunholz, Diana; Saki, Mohammad; Niehr, Franziska; Öztürk, Merve; Borràs Puértolas, Berta; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix. The HNSCC cell lines FaDu, SCC-9 and UT-SCC-9 (UT-SCC-9P) as well as its cetuximab (CTX)-resistant sub-clone (UT-SCC-9R) were forced to grow in an anchorage-independent manner by coating culture dishes with the anti-adhesive polymer poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA). The extent of apoptosis, clonogenic survival and EGFR signalling under such culture conditions was evaluated. The potential of spheroid formation in suspension culture was found to be positively correlated with the proliferation rate of HNSCC cell lines as well as their basal EGFR expression levels. CTX and gefitinib blocked, whereas the addition of EGFR ligands promoted anchorage-independent cell survival and spheroid formation. Increased spheroid formation and growth were associated with persistent activation of EGFR and its downstream signalling component (MAPK/ERK). Importantly, HNSCC cells derived from spheroid cultures retained their clonogenic potential in the absence of cell-matrix contact. Addition of CTX under these conditions strongly inhibited colony formation in CTX-sensitive cell lines but not their resistant subclones. Altogether, EGFR activation was identified as crucial factor for anchorage-independent survival of HNSCC cells. Targeting EGFR in CTC cluster formation might represent an attractive anti

  15. Hidden Markov model analysis reveals the advantage of analytic eye movement patterns in face recognition across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    It remains controversial whether culture modulates eye movement behavior in face recognition. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding whether cultural differences in eye movement patterns exist, whether these differences affect recognition performance, and whether participants use similar eye movement patterns when viewing faces from different ethnicities. These inconsistencies may be due to substantial individual differences in eye movement patterns within a cultural group. Here we addressed this issue by conducting individual-level eye movement data analysis using hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each individual's eye movements were modeled with an HMM. We clustered the individual HMMs according to their similarities and discovered three common patterns in both Asian and Caucasian participants: holistic (looking mostly at the face center), left-eye-biased analytic (looking mostly at the two individual eyes in addition to the face center with a slight bias to the left eye), and right-eye-based analytic (looking mostly at the right eye in addition to the face center). The frequency of participants adopting the three patterns did not differ significantly between Asians and Caucasians, suggesting little modulation from culture. Significantly more participants (75%) showed similar eye movement patterns when viewing own- and other-race faces than different patterns. Most importantly, participants with left-eye-biased analytic patterns performed significantly better than those using either holistic or right-eye-biased analytic patterns. These results suggest that active retrieval of facial feature information through an analytic eye movement pattern may be optimal for face recognition regardless of culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultural diversity in heart failure management: findings from the DISCOVER study (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patricia M; Macdonald, Peter; Moser, Debra K; Ang, Esther; Paull, Glenn; Choucair, Sam; Daly, John; Gholizadeh, Leila; Dracup, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Self-management is a critical dimension in managing chronic conditions, particularly in heart failure (HF). Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, relating to both illness and wellness, are strongly influenced by culture and ethnicity, impacting upon an individual's capacity to engage in self-care behaviours. Effective management of HF is largely dependent on facilitation of culturally informed, self-care behaviours to increase adherence to both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. The Understanding the cultural experiences of individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF) in South East Health (DISCOVER) study is an exploratory, observational study investigating health patterns, information needs and the adjustment process for overseas-born people with HF living in Australia. An integrative literature review was augmented by qualitative data derived from key informant interviews, focus groups and individual interviews. A key finding of this study is that culture provides an important context to aid interpretations of attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours, not only in illness but in health. While individual differences in attitudes and beliefs were observed among participants, common themes and issues were identified across cultural groups. Data from the DISCOVER study revealed the primacy of family and kinship ties. These relationships were important in making decisions about treatment choices and care plans. Participants also revealed the critical role of the 'family doctor' in assisting people and their families in brokering the health care system. In this study, heart disease was considered to be a significant condition but cancer was the condition that people both feared and dreaded the most, despite the high mortality rates of HF. This sample reported that religious and traditional beliefs became more important as people aged and considered their mortality. As HF is predominately a condition of ageing, the information derived from this study will

  17. A Cross-Cultural Study of Task Specificity in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storme, Martin; Lubart, Todd; Myszkowski, Nils; Cheung, Ping Chung; Tong, Toby; Lau, Sing

    2017-01-01

    This study provides new evidence concerning task specificity in creativity--examining through a cross-cultural perspective the extent to which performance in graphic versus verbal creativity tasks (domain specificity) and in divergent versus convergent creativity tasks (process specificity) are correlated. The relations between different…

  18. The Affirmative Character of U.S. Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Mike; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that cultural studies imported to the United States often lose much of their critical edge. Contends that their misleading affirmation of the power and independence of media audiences is derived from several factors, including (1) overestimating the freedom of audiences in reception; and (2) confusing active reception with political…

  19. The Reflection of Immigration on School Culture: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslangilay, A. Selcen

    2018-01-01

    Each organization has its own system of values, beliefs and attitudes that are valid for the schools and it accompanies the concept of school culture, one of the important factors determining the success of a school. Immigration is a phenomenon that leads to great influences in every society. The purpose of this study is to determine what…

  20. A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparative Study of Igala and Igbo Culture and Communication Systems in Ata Igala ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... I adopted particpant observation as an instrument of ethnographic design of fact finding, ... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  1. Marxism in Vygotskian Approaches to Cultural Studies of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo, Jr.; Ostermann, Fernanda; Rezende, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we initially address the main categories of Marxism, illustrating how Vygotsky has appropriated them as mediational meta-theoretical tools for building concepts for his psychological approach. In order to investigate the influence of Marxism in cultural studies of science education, we make an account of how current research,…

  2. The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies of ... plankton species belong mainly to the nanoplankton and microplankton ... Algal samples were collected from the shore using microalgal net cone shaped of .... species diversity of Porto Novo, Tamil Nadu and De et al. (1994) in the ...

  3. The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to understand the better background information about the importance of culture condition in the optimal growth of microalgal strains, experimental setup were designed using modified Walne's and Guillard f/2 medium. Studies were also carried out to understand the relation between the growth conditions and ...

  4. A case study of culturally appropriate conservation education

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Michele Schermann

    2016-01-01

    Create culturally appropriate conservation education materials for Hmong Americans, including new refugees and elders with little proficiency in English, as well as the broader, multigenerational Hmong community. This case study discusses an organizational response from the USDA Forest Service, in partnership with others, to better serve the Hmong American community....

  5. A Taiwan Study Abroad Program on Aging, Culture, and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a Taiwan Study Abroad program on aging, culture, and healthcare. The program is a short-term academic summer program (6 credits) to bring U.S. students to Taiwan. During 2011 ~ 2015, a total of four groups including over 54 students and faculty members participated. This program partnered with multiple universities,…

  6. Study Abroad: Enhanced Learning Experience in Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoko, Japheth

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…

  7. Transforming Cultures of Care: A Case Study in Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Karyn; Cross, David; Jones, Daren; Buff, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on a small organizational case study highlighting the dimensions of trauma-informed care, the processes of organizational change, and the growth of caregiver expertise. The article is framed by the notion of caregiving cultures, which refers to the beliefs, languages, and practices of caregivers and caregiving organizations.…

  8. Instituting Cultural Change at a Major Organization: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulek, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development and implementation of a strategic cultural change program from a case study perspective. Initially, the article describes how the program was developed, including an explanation as to how a communication component was integrated into the program from inception. This integration helped reduce the anxiety that…

  9. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  10. Education for a Culture of Peace: The Culture of Peace News Network as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David

    2013-01-01

    The Culture of Peace News Network, an internet news service, is analyzed in the framework of a general approach to education for a culture of peace. Its format reflects the eight program areas for a culture of peace as adopted by the UN General Assembly. Among its other operating principles are universality of news with all cultures and regions of…

  11. Three-dimensional Huh7 cell culture system for the study of Hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprichard Susan L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to elucidate how Hepatitis C Virus (HCV interacts with polarized hepatocytes in vivo and how HCV-induced alterations in cellular function contribute to HCV-associated liver disease, a more physiologically relevant hepatocyte culture model is needed. As such, NASA-engineered three-dimensional (3-D rotating wall vessel (RWV bioreactors were used in effort to promote differentiation of HCV-permissive Huh7 hepatoma cells. Results When cultured in the RWV, Huh7 cells became morphologically and transcriptionally distinct from more standard Huh7 two-dimensional (2-D monolayers. Specifically, RWV-cultured Huh7 cells formed complex, multilayered 3-D aggregates in which Phase I and Phase II xenobiotic drug metabolism genes, as well as hepatocyte-specific transcripts (HNF4α, Albumin, TTR and α1AT, were upregulated compared to 2-D cultured Huh7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that these HCV-permissive 3-D cultured Huh7 cells were more polarized than their 2D counterparts with the expression of HCV receptors, cell adhesion and tight junction markers (CD81, scavenger receptor class B member 1, claudin-1, occludin, ZO-1, β-Catenin and E-Cadherin significantly increased and exhibiting apical, lateral and/or basolateral localization. Conclusion These findings show that when cultured in 3-D, Huh7 cells acquire a more differentiated hepatocyte-like phenotype. Importantly, we show that these 3D cultures are highly permissive for HCV infection, thus providing an opportunity to study HCV entry and the effects of HCV infection on host cell function in a more physiologically relevant cell culture system.

  12. Pre-Columbian Population Dynamics and Cultural Development in South Coast Perú as Revealed by Analysis of Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I report on a study whose principal aim is to understand the development and decline of the southern Peruvian Nasca culture in the upper Río Grande de Nasca drainage, and its cultural and biological affinities to the preceding Paracas culture. Ancient DNA analyses were conducted on over 300 pre-Columbian individuals from various cemeteries in southern Perú, from periods ranging from the Formative Period to the Middle Horizon. Our results show that the Nasca populations are close...

  13. Misinterpretation of facial expression: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, T; Someya, T; Helmeste, D; Tang, S W

    1999-02-01

    Accurately recognizing facial emotional expressions is important in psychiatrist-versus-patient interactions. This might be difficult when the physician and patients are from different cultures. More than two decades of research on facial expressions have documented the universality of the emotions of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. In contrast, some research data supported the concept that there are significant cultural differences in the judgment of emotion. In this pilot study, the recognition of emotional facial expressions in 123 Japanese subjects was evaluated using the Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion (JACFEE) photos. The results indicated that Japanese subjects experienced difficulties in recognizing some emotional facial expressions and misunderstood others as depicted by the posers, when compared to previous studies using American subjects. Interestingly, the sex and cultural background of the poser did not appear to influence the accuracy of recognition. The data suggest that in this young Japanese sample, judgment of certain emotional facial expressions was significantly different from the Americans. Further exploration in this area is warranted due to its importance in cross-cultural clinician-patient interactions.

  14. Marketing Management and Cultural Learning Center: The Case Study of Arts and Cultural Office, Suansunandha Rajabhat University

    OpenAIRE

    Pirada Techaratpong

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research has 2 objectives: to study marketing management of the cultural learning center in Suansunandha Rajabhat University and to suggest guidelines to improve its marketing management. This research is based on a case study of the Arts and Culture Office in Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok. This research found the Art and Culture Office has no formal marketing management. However, the marketing management is partly covered in the overall bu...

  15. Community-Based Financial Literacy Education in a Cultural Context: A Study of Teacher Beliefs and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, Edward W.; Forte, Karin Sprow

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings related to teaching beliefs and pedagogical practices of a study that examined how financial literacy educators educate adults from underserved population groups in community-based settings. The study is theoretically framed in the teaching beliefs and culturally responsive education literature. Findings reveal a…

  16. CHANGING CULTURES: AN INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF MIGRANT ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERT HAMILTON; LEO-PAUL DANA; CAMILLA BENFELL

    2008-01-01

    This is a comparative study about the assimilation and integration of migrant entrepreneurs of Chinese and Indian origins. The research is based on surveys of 320 entrepreneurs who migrated to Manchester and 885 entrepreneurs whose ancestors moved to Singapore. With the dramatic change in national cultures associated with such migration, the study sought to identify the emergence of differences over time in the business behaviour and adherence to traditional family values. The main finding of...

  17. World Culture and ICT use – a Study from Bhutan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Choeda, Choeda; Dukpa, Dorji

    2015-01-01

    The HCI community has recognized the importance of culture and to be culturally sensitive when designing interaction. Local culture should not be overlooked when designing. On the other hand, recent advances in theorizing of cultural patterns have reported that in some sectors, World Cultures has...

  18. Study of the Relationship between Cultural differences and Language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆瑜

    2014-01-01

    Language is an important part of culture,each language belong to a certain culture.Language and culture are interdependent from each other.So,language teaching must be concerned with teaching the culture which it belongs to.Language teaching should pay more attention to the cultural differences.

  19. Hydrodynamic study of an internal airlift reactor for microalgae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Ana; Zoughaib, Assaad; Dron, Dominique; Clodic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Internal airlift reactors are closed systems considered today for microalgae cultivation. Several works have studied their hydrodynamics but based on important solid concentrations, not with biomass concentrations usually found in microalgae cultures. In this study, an internal airlift reactor has been built and tested in order to clarify the hydrodynamics of this system, based on microalgae typical concentrations. A model is proposed taking into account the variation of air bubble velocity according to volumetric air flow rate injected into the system. A relationship between riser and downcomer gas holdups is established, which varied slightly with solids concentrations. The repartition of solids along the reactor resulted to be homogenous for the range of concentrations and volumetric air flow rate studied here. Liquid velocities increase with volumetric air flow rate, and they vary slightly when solids are added to the system. Finally, liquid circulation time found in each section of the reactor is in concordance with those employed in microalgae culture.

  20. Are all conservatives alike? A study of the psychological correlates of cultural and economic conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, H Michael

    2009-10-01

    The author addresses the question of whether cultural and economic conservatism differ among American citizens in their relation to measures of epistemic beliefs and motives, dogmatism, death-related anxiety, and the tendency to exhibit dogmatic aggression against those who hold beliefs and values that diverge from one's own. Data from this study suggest that these types of conservative attitudes exhibit different correlational patterns with the aforementioned measures. Research participants who held more culturally conservative attitudes were more likely to score higher on measures of the belief that knowledge is certain, dogmatism, need to evaluate, and fear of death. They also scored lower on need for cognition than did their less conservative counterparts. Moreover, participants who scored higher on cultural conservatism were more likely to exhibit dogmatic aggression. Economic conservatism was largely unrelated to measures of epistemic beliefs and motives, fear of death, dogmatism, and aggressiveness. Ancillary regression analyses revealed that belief that knowledge is certain and dogmatism were the strongest predictors of cultural conservatism. Cultural conservatism, fear of death, and need for structure were significant predictors of dogmatic aggression.

  1. A comparative study of 28 culture media for Trichomonas gallinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, L.S.

    1954-01-01

    1. 1. A study was made of the ability of 28 different culture media to support growth of 5 strains of Trichomonas gallinae with their normally associated bacteria. A standard inoculum of 50 protozoa was used, and the cultures were incubated at 35 ?C. Based upon the number of positive cultures obtained, abundance of growth, and number of strains which grew in a given medium, the most satisfactory were Ringer-Loeffler serum, saline-Loeffler serum, and saline-serum. 2. 2. Pigeon serum used alone in a simple saline solution produced abundant growth and when added to other nutrients greatly enhanced the medium. Autoclaving of the serum appeared to have no effect on its growth promoting qualities. 3. 3. Neither egg yolk nor egg albumin alone appeared capable of supporting appreciable growth of T. gallinae. 4. 4. In general, the heavier the bacterial population supported by a medium the poorer the growth of T. gallinae. 5. 5. Strains of T. gallinae differ in their culturability. One strain grew in 82% of the media tested, another only in 43%.

  2. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schriemer David C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a

  3. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Cram, Dustin; Nowak, Jacek; Facchini, Peter J

    2010-11-18

    Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a system with a well-defined metabolite profile facilitates

  4. Organizational culture in cardiovascular care in Chinese hospitals: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Emily S; Downing, Nicholas S; Li, Xi; Singer, Sara J; Curry, Leslie A; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-12-21

    Organizational learning, the process by which a group changes its behavior in response to newly acquired knowledge, is critical to outstanding organizational performance. In hospitals, strong organizational learning culture is linked with improved health outcomes for patients. This study characterizes the organizational learning culture of hospitals in China from the perspective of a cardiology service. Using a modified Abbreviated Learning Organization Survey (27 questions), we characterized organizational learning culture in a nationally representative sample of 162 Chinese hospitals, selecting 2 individuals involved with cardiovascular care at each hospital. Responses were analyzed at the hospital level by calculating the average of the two responses to each question. Responses were categorized as positive if they were 5+ on a 7-point scale or 4+ on a 5-point scale. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between selected hospital characteristics and perceptions of organizational learning culture. Of the 324 participants invited to take the survey, 316 responded (98 % response rate). Perceptions of organizational learning culture varied among items, among domains, and both among and within hospitals. Overall, the median proportion of positive responses was 82 % (interquartile range = 59 % to 93 %). "Training," "Performance Monitoring," and "Leadership that Reinforces Learning" were characterized as the most favorable domains, while "Time for Reflection" was the least favorable. Multiple regression analyses showed that region was the only factor significantly correlated with overall positive response rate. This nationally representative survey demonstrated variation in hospital organizational learning culture among hospitals in China. The variation was not substantially explained by hospital characteristics. Organizational learning culture domains with lower positive response rates reveal important areas for

  5. Measuring innovation culture: Application at four case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ramón Tejeiro Koller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present article proposes a tool for the measurement of a corporate culture that makes companies more innovative. In a fast changing environment, such as the current one, the capacity to innovate has become very important. It allows companies to adapt better and faster or even leapfrog competition by creating the change themselves. Organizational Theory has come to understand corporate culture –a group of shared values and philosophies– as a powerful management tool and it is due to this that me intent to measure it. Design/methodology: After extracting the characteristics of an innovation culture from the literature review, a group of indicators relating to these cultural traits was selected. The further revision of prior measurement tools allowed us to compare the findings and summarize our selection in a set of 67 questions. In order to contrast he validity of these, we applied the questionnaire at four innovative firms. During this process we tried to confirm our indicators and add new ones, resulting from the conducted interviews, introducing an inductive perspective to our study. Findings: We conclude with a revised and expanded version of the questionnaire, which includes a revision of the indicators and the contributions of the interviewees. Through this process we believe to have contributed to elaborating a measurement tool for innovation culture, since we were able to apply the majority of questions selected in the first place, eliminating and redefining the others. A revised version of the questionnaire is offered for further research. Practical implications: The measurement tool developed in this article allows those managers interested in benchmarking their company’s corporate culture against one that promotes innovation. We increased the capability of expressing one of the most significant intangibles of the company, thus increasing its visibility and value recognition. Originality/value: The contributes in the

  6. A study of chromosomal aberrations in amniotic fluid cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, J; Crocker, M; Jonasson, J

    1988-06-01

    This paper represents the analysis of 1916 routine amniotic fluid specimens harvested by an in situ fixation technique in a prospective study with regard to cultural chromosome anomalies. Excluding constitutional abnormalities, 2.9 per cent of 19,432 cells analysed showed some form of chromosome anomaly, terminal deletions (57 per cent) and chromatid/chromosome breaks and gaps (18 per cent) being the most frequent, followed by interchange aberrations (13 per cent) and trisomy (5 per cent). No case was found of more than one colony from the same culture showing the same anomaly without it being present in other cultures from the same fluid. The wholly abnormal colonies had a surplus of trisomies and from the mathematical considerations presented one may infer that these are likely to reflect the presence of abnormal cells in the amniotic fluid. Partly abnormal colonies appeared at a frequency that would correspond to virtual absence of selection against chromosomally abnormal cells when cultured in vitro. The aberrations found were similar to those seen as single cell anomalies, except for chromatid breaks and exchanges. The data suggest a basic preferential induction of trisomy for chromosomes 2, 18, 21, and the Y-chromosome. Structural aberrations showed a marked clustering of breakpoints around the centromeres. The frequency of mutant cells was low (1.4 X 10(-3)) before culture was initiated. At harvest, the frequency of abnormal cells was much higher (3 X 10(-2)) corresponding to 3 X 10(-3) mutations per cell per generation accumulating over approximately ten generations in vitro.

  7. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M.; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N.; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O.; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS. PMID:27994566

  8. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS.

  9. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Błachnio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of users of social networking sites has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2,628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Measure, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively and low context (positively; of the personality variables, conscientiousness and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of social networking sites (SNS.

  10. The role of cross-cultural factors in long-duration international space missions: lessons from the SFINCSS-99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomi, Leena M; Rossokha, Katherine; Hosein, Janette

    2002-01-01

    The role of cross-cultural factors in long-duration international space missions was examined during an isolation study that simulated many of the conditions aboard the International Space Station. Interactions involving two heterogeneous crews and one homogeneous crew staying in isolation from 110 to 240 days were studied. Data consisted of post-isolation interviews with crewmembers, ground support personnel and management, observational data, and public statements by crewmembers. Data was analyzed using the techniques of linguistic anthropology and ethnography. Sub-cultural (organizational and professional) differences played a larger role than national differences in causing misunderstandings in this study. Conversely, some misunderstandings and conflicts were escalated by participants falsely assuming cultural differences or similarities. Comparison between the two heterogeneous crews showed the importance of training, personality factors, and commander and language skills in preventing and alleviating cultural misunderstandings. The study revealed a number of ways that cultural differences, real as well as assumed, can play a role and interact with other, non-cultural, factors in causing and/or precipitating conflict situations. It is postulated that such difficulties can be avoided by selecting culturally adaptive crewmembers and by cross-cultural and language training. Also the crew composition and role of commander were found to be important in mitigating conflict situations. c2002 Lister Science.

  11. Yeast and bacterial diversity along a transect in an acidic, As-Fe rich environment revealed by cultural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Acid mine drainages (AMDs) are often thought to harbour low biodiversity, yet little is known about the diversity distribution along the drainages. Using culture-dependent approaches, the microbial diversity from the Carnoulès AMD sediment was investigated for the first time along a transect showing progressive environmental stringency decrease. In total, 20 bacterial genera were detected, highlighting a higher bacterial diversity than previously thought. Moreover, this approach led to the discovery of 16 yeast species, demonstrating for the first time the presence of this important phylogenetic group in this AMD. All in all, the location of the microbes along the transect helps to better understand their distribution in a pollution gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A study of culture and how it affects Sri Lankan organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Ethmadalage Dineeli Nadeesha

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of culture by bifurcating it into two parts: National and Organisational Culture. Through research, a profile of the Sri Lankan National Culture and the Organisational Culture of 3 selected companies is arrived at. Consequently, the research findings are analysed to distinguish if the National Culture of Sri Lanka has had an influence on the Organisational Culture of Sri Lankan companies.

  13. Cultural Responsive Teaching Readiness Scale Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım KARATAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a measurement instrument that will determine the cultural responsive teaching readiness level of teacher candidates. The study group consisted of a total of 231 candidate teachers, of which 83 were males and 148 were females, who were attending their final year of class teacher education programs at various Turkish universities during the 2016-2017 education year. In the first phase, a 33-item draft form was presented to experts to be reviewed. Based on the feedback received, revisions were made and the final scale was applied to a group of 231 candidate teachers. In the analysis of the data obtained as the result of the application, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA was performed. The EFA produced 21 items within a two-factor structure as, “Personal Readiness” and “Professional Readiness.” It was observed that the sub-factors were components of the “cultural responsive teaching readiness” dimension, and that the goodness of fit measures obtained as a result of the First and Second Level Confirmatory Factor Analyzes (CFA were high. In addition, reliability coefficients were found to be high as a result of reliability measurements. With the help of these findings, this study concludes that the Cultural Responsive Teaching Readiness scale is both valid and reliable.

  14. CULTURE STUDIES ON THE LIFE-HISTORY OF CHORDARIA-LINEARIS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) FROM TIERRA-DEL-FUEGO, SOUTH-AMERICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERS, AF

    1992-01-01

    Studies of laboratory cultures of Chordaria linearis (Hooker et Harvey) Cotton from southernmost South America revealed that this species has an obligate sexual life history in which a macroscopic sporophyte alternates with a monoecious microscopic gametophyte. Sexual reproduction is isogamous and

  15. Cultivating a culture of research in nursing through a journal club for leaders: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerholt, Mette; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2018-01-01

    To describe whether an action learning-inspired journal club for nurse leaders can develop the leaders' self-perceived competences to support a research culture in clinical nursing practice. Development of clinical research capacity and nurse leaders with the requisite competences are key factors in evidence-based health care practice. This study describes how nurse leaders at a large regional hospital took part in a journal club for nurse leaders, with a view to developing their competences to support a nursing research culture in their departments. A pilot study using a multimethod approach to evaluate the journal club for nurse leaders. Four nurse leaders participated in the journal club for nurse leaders. Content analysis on the data was performed. Data revealed that participation in journal club for nurse leaders gave the leaders a feeling of increased competences to support nursing research culture in their departments. They stated that the action learning approach and the competences of the facilitator were key factors in this outcome. An action learning-inspired journal club for nurse leaders can be useful and meaningful to nurse leaders in developing leadership competences. As an approach in journal club for nurse leaders, action learning can develop nurse leaders' competence to support a research culture, and thus ensure evidence-based nursing is practised. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Knowledge as a Cultural Product: From the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge to the Cultural Studies of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic (feature of the sociology of knowledge and science is its emphasis on the culture and cultural analysis within the scientific and technological research. This study concerns with the study of two research fields in which new sociologists of science and technology have presented their cultural analysis. These two fields include: sociology of scientific knowledge and cultural studies of science.Sociology of scientific knowledge is the first school of thought which makes the content of scientific knowledge inclined to and compliant with the cultural and sociological analysis. In SSK, the main presupposition is that “the scientific knowledge is totally arbitrary.” Accordingly, the design and evaluation of scientific theories and claims are the consequence of social interests and cultural inclinations (trends, in a way that the scientific theories become a tool for the justification, legitimating, encouragement and contentment.At the early 1990s, with the rise of crisis (chaos within the explanations of sociology of scientific knowledge and a flood of criticism against it, the whole subjectivity of the field came to a standstill (reached an impasse and the initiatives in scientific research were replaced by different theoretical orientations like cultural studies. In contrast to the sociology of scientific knowledge, the cultural studies of science concerns with the rejection of “explanation” and, instead, focuses on the “meaning” and “understanding”. In other words, it has come back to an old dispute between explanatory and hermeneutic approaches and those  which pursue the regulative (legalistic comprehensiveness along the more positivistic lines.This emerging field emphasizes the issue that the uncertainty, instability, ambiguity (vagueness and difference must be given a more important role in sciences. Cultural studies of science gave rise to a change from the sociology of scientific knowledge to a new

  17. Displacement of the mitotic apparatuses by centrifugation reveals cortical actin organization during cytokinesis in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Kengo; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Mineyuki, Yoshinobu; Yasuhara, Hiroki; Nakai, Tomonori; Shimmen, Teruo; Yoshihisa, Tohru; Sonobe, Seiji

    2018-06-19

    In plant cytokinesis, actin is thought to be crucial in cell plate guidance to the cortical division zone (CDZ), but its organization and function are not fully understood. To elucidate actin organization during cytokinesis, we employed an experimental system, in which the mitotic apparatus is displaced and separated from the CDZ by centrifugation and observed using a global-local live imaging microscope that enabled us to record behavior of actin filaments in the CDZ and the whole cell division process in parallel. In this system, returning movement of the cytokinetic apparatus in cultured-tobacco BY-2 cells occurs, and there is an advantage to observe actin organization clearly during the cytokinetic phase because more space was available between the CDZ and the distantly formed phragmoplast. Actin cables were clearly observed between the CDZ and the phragmoplast in BY-2 cells expressing GFP-fimbrin after centrifugation. Both the CDZ and the edge of the expanding phragmoplast had actin bulges. Using live-cell imaging including the global-local live imaging microscopy, we found actin filaments started to accumulate at the actin-depleted zone when cell plate expansion started even in the cell whose cell plate failed to reach the CDZ. These results suggest that specific accumulation of actin filaments at the CDZ and the appearance of actin cables between the CDZ and the phragmoplast during cell plate formation play important roles in the guidance of cell plate edges to the CDZ.

  18. A spatially resolved network spike in model neuronal cultures reveals nucleation centers, circular traveling waves and drifting spiral waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevov, A V; Zendrikov, D K

    2017-03-23

    We show that in model neuronal cultures, where the probability of interneuronal connection formation decreases exponentially with increasing distance between the neurons, there exists a small number of spatial nucleation centers of a network spike, from where the synchronous spiking activity starts propagating in the network typically in the form of circular traveling waves. The number of nucleation centers and their spatial locations are unique and unchanged for a given realization of neuronal network but are different for different networks. In contrast, if the probability of interneuronal connection formation is independent of the distance between neurons, then the nucleation centers do not arise and the synchronization of spiking activity during a network spike occurs spatially uniform throughout the network. Therefore one can conclude that spatial proximity of connections between neurons is important for the formation of nucleation centers. It is also shown that fluctuations of the spatial density of neurons at their random homogeneous distribution typical for the experiments in vitro do not determine the locations of the nucleation centers. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  19. Sonorama or Digital Culture Rhizome. A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Mónica María López; Rasco, Félix Angulo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the case study of Sonorona, Maria’s nickname, a young girl aged 22. Sonorona is a ‘makeup guru’ in Spain. She is a youtuber and blogger’s girl. This study aimed to analyze the comprehension and participation of young people in mediatic and technological culture. It intends to continue the works by Sefton-Green (1998), Hutchby and Moran-Ellis (2001)and Facer, Furlong and Furlong (2003), among others, in what is related to the profound changes that lead to the emergence of t...

  20. Training on the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview improves cultural competence in general psychiatry residents: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stacia; Xiao, Anna Q; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Lim, Russell; Lu, Francis G

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether a 1-hour didactic session on the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) improves the cultural competence of general psychiatry residents. The main hypothesis was that teaching adult psychiatry residents a 1-hour session on the CFI would improve cultural competence. The exploratory hypothesis was that trainees with more experience in cultural diversity would have a greater increase in cultural competency scores. Psychiatry residents at a metropolitan, county hospital completed demographics and preintervention questionnaires, were exposed to a 1-hour session on the CFI, and were given a postintervention questionnaire. The questionnaire was an adapted version of the validated Cultural Competence Assessment Tool . Paired samples t tests compared pre- to posttest change. Hierarchical linear regression assessed whether pretraining characteristics predicted posttest scores. The mean change of total pre- and posttest scores was significant ( p = .002), as was the mean change in subscales Nonverbal Communications ( p < .001) and Cultural Knowledge ( p = .002). Demographic characteristics did not predict higher posttest scores (when covarying for pretest scores). Psychiatry residents' cultural competence scores improved irrespective of previous experience in cultural diversity. More research is needed to further explore the implications of the improved scores in clinical practice.

  1. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  2. Preliminary Study on the Development of Quantitative Safety Culture Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal; Kim, Hun Sil; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2005-01-01

    Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. Because it needs to be recognized as the most significant consciousness to achieve the nuclear safety performance, Korean government and nuclear power generation company have tried to develop the practical method to improve the safety culture from the long term point view. In this study, based on the site interviews to define the potential issues on organizational behavior for the safe operation and the survey on the level of safety culture of occupied workers are conducted. Survey results are quantified as a few indicators of nuclear safety by the statistical method and it can be simulated by the dynamic modeling as time goes on. Currently index and dynamic modeling are still being developed, however, results can be used to suggest the long term strategy which safety is clearly integrated into all activities in the nuclear organization

  3. Using means-end chain analysis to reveal consumers' motivation for buying local foods: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Arsil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article utilizes and discusses specific aspects of Means-End Chain (MEC analysis for understanding of the motives of Indonesian consumers who are involved in purchasing local foods. The MEC theory is used as a measure of attributes, consequences, and values of locally produced products involving specific aspects of this theory namely laddering methods of administration, content analysis procedure, constructing and interpreting Hierarchy Value Map (HVM. The results of the study indicate that MEC approach is a powerful method to reveal consumer motivation of local foods when associated with the various cultural groupings identified by the study particular between Javanese and Non-Javanese consumers. This study offers a practical implication and source of knowledge for other future studies and policies in term of (a a new approach for understanding the motives behind purchasing local foods for Indonesia consumers, and (b developing new categories of attributes, consequences and values of local foods.

  4. Metabolite Profiling and Transcript Analysis Reveal Specificities in the Response of a Berry Derived Cell Culture to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk eAyenew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate changes, there is a need to understand the expected effects on viticulture. In nature, stresses exist in a combined manner, hampering the elucidation of the effect of individual cues on grape berry metabolism. Cell suspension culture originated from pea-size Gamy Red grape berry was used to harness metabolic response to high light (2500 µmol m-2s-1, high temperature (40 0C and their combination in comparison to 25 0C and 100 µmol m-2s-1 under controlled condition. When LC-MS and GC-MS based metabolite profiling was implemented and integrated with targeted RT-qPCR transcript analysis specific responses were observed to the different cues. High light enhanced polyphenol metabolism while high temperature and its combination with high light induced amino acid and organic acid metabolism with additional effect on polyphenols. The trend of increment in TCA cycle genes like ATCs, ACo1 and IDH in the combined treatment might support the observed increment in organic acids, GABA shunt, and their derivatives. The apparent phenylalanine reduction with polyphenol increment under high light suggests enhanced fueling of the precursor towards the downstream phenylpropanoid pathway. In the polyphenol metabolism, a differential pattern of expression of flavonoid 3’,5’ hydroxylase and flavonoid 3’ hydroxylase was observed under high light and combined cues which were accompanied by characteristic metabolite profiles. High temperature decreased glycosylated cyanidin and peonidin forms while the combined cues increased acetylated and coumarylated peonidin forms. Transcription factors regulating anthocyanin metabolism and their methylation, MYB, OMT, UFGT and DFR, were expressed differentially among the treatments, overall in agreement with the metabolite profiles. Taken together these data provide insights into the coordination of central and secondary metabolism in relation to multiple abiotic stresses.

  5. Study on the effect of hypoxia on apoptosis of cultured newly born rat cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Weidong; Li Huiqiang; Yao Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible hypoxia-mediated cellular apoptosis after ischemic cardiac injury via a model of cultured newly born rat cardiac myocytes. Methods: Cardiac myocytes cultures from newly born rats (1-3d) were examined for apoptosis with HE stain and flow cytometry after cultured 96h and again examined after exposure to hypoxic environment for 16h. Results: Apoptotic changes were evident in the hypoxic culture cells. The HE stain revealed cellular shrinkage, nuclear chromosomal condensation with cytoplasmic eosinophilia. Also, distinct apoptosis peak was observed in the flow cytometry. Conclusion: This experiment proved that hypoxic model of cardiac myocyte culture showed definite apoptosis of the cells. (authors)

  6. Anaerobic culture by Total Air Barrier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Sarkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor study with obligate anaerobes, inoculated platescontaining suitable reduced media need handling andincubation under strict anaerobic condition. Instead ofensuring a confined oxygen free chamber for placing seededplates, same purpose may be achieved by creating total airbarrier to the surface.MethodUpper moist surface of freshly prepared anaerobic media inPetri plates were intimately covered with very thintransparent bacteriological inert sterile polyester sheets.Stock culture of Bacteroides fragilis, ATCC 23745 andClostridium sporogenes, ATCC 11437 were grown in cookedmeat broth and then sub-cultured on respective plates, afterlifting the cover sheets. Sheets were again covered andincubated at 37oC ordinary incubator. To performantimicrobial susceptibility test, similarly covered seededplates with well inoculums were inverted en-block afterstripping sides with the help of a spatula. Now antibiotic diskswere placed on upper bare surfaces. After short pre-diffusion,plates were incubated keeping inoculated surface below.Same study was performed by conventional method usingGaspak.ResultsGood growths were noted in both sets of the study;however discrete colonies appeared more flat in nature intest set. Almost identical zones of inhibition were noted inboth sets of sensitivity study. Seven days old growths incovered blood agar plates were found viable when subculturedin cooked meat broths.ConclusionIsolation, identification and susceptibility study for mostclinically important obligate anaerobes may be performedby simple barrier method after appropriatestandardization.

  7. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy L. García-Arias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII, fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO, and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST, in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF < 4%, to be used as parents in cape gooseberry breeding program. In addition, the accessions were also characterized using Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS. We discovered 27,982 and 36,142 informative SNP markers based on the alignment against the two cape gooseberry references transcriptomes. Besides, 30,344 SNPs were identified based on alignment to the tomato reference genome. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population could be divided into two or three sub-groups, corresponding to landraces-anther culture and wild accessions for K = 2 and wild, landraces, and anther culture plants for K = 3. Association analysis was carried out using a Mixed Linear Model (MLM and 34 SNP markers were significantly associated. These results reveal the basis of the genetic control of important agronomic traits and may facilitate marker-based breeding in P. peruviana.

  8. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  9. Eye contact perception in the West and East: a cross-cultural study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Uono

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether eye contact perception differs in people with different cultural backgrounds. Finnish (European and Japanese (East Asian participants were asked to determine whether Finnish and Japanese neutral faces with various gaze directions were looking at them. Further, participants rated the face stimuli for emotion and other affect-related dimensions. The results indicated that Finnish viewers had a smaller bias toward judging slightly averted gazes as directed at them when judging Finnish rather than Japanese faces, while the bias of Japanese viewers did not differ between faces from their own and other cultural backgrounds. This may be explained by Westerners experiencing more eye contact in their daily life leading to larger visual experience of gaze perception generally, and to more accurate perception of eye contact with people from their own cultural background particularly. The results also revealed cultural differences in the perception of emotion from neutral faces that could also contribute to the bias in eye contact perception.

  10. The impact of cultural characteristics on colorectal cancer screening adherence among Filipinos in the United States: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rizaldy R; Ramirez, Marizen; Beckman, Linda J; Danao, Leda L; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2011-08-01

    Studies on colorectal cancer screening among specific Asian American groups are limited despite the fact that Asians are comprised of culturally distinct subgroups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cultural characteristics on colorectal cancer screening adherence among Filipinos in the United States. One hundred and seventeen Filipino men and women aged 50 years or older participated in the cross-section research design. Lifetime proportion of immigration, language preference and cultural beliefs of personal control regarding health outcomes measured cultural characteristics. Demographic and healthcare variables were also measured to describe the study sample. Participant recruitment employed culturally responsive sampling methods. There was no significant association between language preference and screening. Likewise, perceived personal internal control of health outcome was not related to screening. However, personal external control revealed a marginally significant association. The percent of lifetime residence in the United States was significantly greater among those who were adherent to screening than those who were not adherent. After adjusting for demographic and healthcare variables, the relationship between length of immigration and screening adherence was no longer significant. Finally, age and doctor's recommendation showed significant impact on colorectal cancer screening adherence. This pilot study adds to the knowledge regarding cultural factors associated with colorectal cancer screening behaviors among Filipino Americans. Future research is needed to confirm findings that will be useful in developing culturally appropriate strategies to increase screening adherence. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A study on multi-cultural family wives adapting to Korean cuisine and dietary patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngil; Jeong, Hee Sun; Joo, Nami

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in multi-cultural families, Korea is seeing a rapid increase in immigrated housewives, who are closely related to food culture. However, studies for the diet of multi-cultural families, which is most closely related to our lives have not been sufficiently researched. With this background, this study conducted research for immigrated women nationwide about food cultures to provide the possibility which Korean food culture would be developed harmoniously with various foreign f...

  12. What Facilitates Cultural Entrepreneurship?--A Study of Indian Cultural Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    The importance of a 'cultural industry' to a national economy and the development of a "creative society" has grown increasingly. However, research on cultural entrepreneurship is in its early stages and is yet to catch the attention of mainstream entrepreneurship and creativity scholars. In this article the objective is to enhance our…

  13. Traditional Music in Igbo Culture: A Case Study of Idu Cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igbo people are endowed with numerous dance music performances which portray the culture of the people. Traditional music is so much a part of Igbo culture that majority of the people who live in big cities and other places outside their home town organize traditional music ensembles as a mark of identity, to preserve ...

  14. Culture as Information and Culture as Affective Process: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an application of the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) to measure the effects of two ways to teach about German culture in beginning language courses. Qualitative analysis of results established that the treatment group, taught with constructivist, process-oriented tasks experienced significantly positive results on the CCAI…

  15. Organotypic culture of normal, dysplastic and squamous cell carcinoma-derived oral cell lines reveals loss of spatial regulation of CD44 and p75 NTR in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Andrew J; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Upton, Zee; Farah, Camile S

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) often arise from dysplastic lesions. The role of cancer stem cells in tumour initiation is widely accepted, yet the potential existence of pre-cancerous stem cells in dysplastic tissue has received little attention. Cell lines from oral diseases ranging in severity from dysplasia to malignancy provide opportunity to investigate the involvement of stem cells in malignant progression from dysplasia. Stem cells are functionally defined by their ability to generate hierarchical tissue structures in consortium with spatial regulation. Organotypic cultures readily display tissue hierarchy in vitro; hence, in this study, we compared hierarchical expression of stem cell-associated markers in dermis-based organotypic cultures of oral epithelial cells from normal tissue (OKF6-TERT2), mild dysplasia (DOK), severe dysplasia (POE-9n) and OSCC (PE/CA P J15). Expression of CD44, p75(NTR), CD24 and ALDH was studied in monolayers by flow cytometry and in organotypic cultures by immunohistochemistry. Spatial regulation of CD44 and p75(NTR) was evident for organotypic cultures of normal (OKF6-TERT2) and dysplasia (DOK and POE-9n) but was lacking for OSCC (PE/CA PJ15)-derived cells. Spatial regulation of CD24 was not evident. All monolayer cultures exhibited CD44, p75(NTR), CD24 antigens and ALDH activity (ALDEFLUOR(®) assay), with a trend towards loss of population heterogeneity that mirrored disease severity. In monolayer, increased FOXA1 and decreased FOXA2 expression correlated with disease severity, but OCT3/4, Sox2 and NANOG did not. We conclude that dermis-based organotypic cultures give opportunity to investigate the mechanisms that underlie loss of spatial regulation of stem cell markers seen with OSCC-derived cells. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Three-dimensional culture of sebaceous gland cells revealing the role of prostaglandin E{sub 2}-induced activation of canonical Wnt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Go J., E-mail: medical21go@yahoo.co.jp; Saya, Hideyuki

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Three-dimensional culture generates “semi-vivo” sebaceous glands. •Xenograft model failed to mimic the biology of sebaceous glands in vivo. •Proinflammatory cytokine PGE{sub 2} enhances Wnt signal activity in the organoids. •PGE{sub 2} influences on the mitochondrial and lipid metabolism in the organoids. •Considering 3R agenda, “semi-vivo” sebaceous glands are useful for research. -- Abstract: Background: Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) is a proinflammatory mediator and activates the canonical Wnt–β-catenin signaling pathway in hematopoietic stem cells. The SZ95 cell line was established from human sebaceous gland cells and is studied as a model system for these cells. Given that 2D culture of SZ95 cells does not recapitulate the organization of sebaceous glands in situ, we developed a 3D culture system for these cells and examined the effects of PGE{sub 2} on cell morphology and function. Results: SZ95 cells maintained in 3D culture formed organoids that mimicked the organization of sebaceous glands in situ, including the establishment of a basement membrane. Organoids exposed to PGE{sub 2} were larger and adopted a more complex organization compared with control organoids. PGE{sub 2} activated the canonical Wnt signaling pathway as well as increased cell viability and proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism, and lipid synthesis in the organoids. Conclusions: Culture of SZ95 cells in 3D culture system recapitulates the structure and susceptibility to PGE{sub 2} of sebaceous glands in situ and should prove useful for studies of the response of these glands to inflammation and other environmental stressors. Our results also implicate PGE{sub 2}-induced activation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in regulation of the morphology,proliferation, and function of “semi-vivo” sebaceous glands.

  17. Combined genomic and structural analyses of a cultured magnetotactic bacterium reveals its niche adaptation to a dynamic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Vieira Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB are a unique group of prokaryotes that have a potentially high impact on global geochemical cycling of significant primary elements because of their metabolic plasticity and the ability to biomineralize iron-rich magnetic particles called magnetosomes. Understanding the genetic composition of the few cultivated MTB along with the unique morphological features of this group of bacteria may provide an important framework for discerning their potential biogeochemical roles in natural environments. Results Genomic and ultrastructural analyses were combined to characterize the cultivated magnetotactic coccus Magnetofaba australis strain IT-1. Cells of this species synthesize a single chain of elongated, cuboctahedral magnetite (Fe3O4 magnetosomes that cause them to align along magnetic field lines while they swim being propelled by two bundles of flagella at velocities up to 300 μm s−1. High-speed microscopy imaging showed the cells move in a straight line rather than in the helical trajectory described for other magnetotactic cocci. Specific genes within the genome of Mf. australis strain IT-1 suggest the strain is capable of nitrogen fixation, sulfur reduction and oxidation, synthesis of intracellular polyphosphate granules and transporting iron with low and high affinity. Mf. australis strain IT-1 and Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 are closely related phylogenetically although similarity values between their homologous proteins are not very high. Conclusion Mf. australis strain IT-1 inhabits a constantly changing environment and its complete genome sequence reveals a great metabolic plasticity to deal with these changes. Aside from its chemoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic metabolism, genomic data indicate the cells are capable of nitrogen fixation, possess high and low affinity iron transporters, and might be capable of reducing and oxidizing a number of sulfur compounds. The relatively

  18. How Can We Explain Poverty? Case Study of Dee Reveals the Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Many theories have been offered to explain why people are impoverished. This article by Karen Seccombe uses the case study of "Dee," a newly single mother, to explore four of the most common: individualism, social structuralism, the culture of poverty, and fatalism. She concludes that poverty is a highly complex phenomenon, and it is likely that…

  19. Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Junior, Paulo; Ostermann, Fernanda; Rezende, Flavia

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we initially address the main categories of Marxism, illustrating how Vygotsky has appropriated them as mediational meta-theoretical tools for building concepts for his psychological approach. In order to investigate the influence of Marxism in cultural studies of science education, we make an account of how current research, sustained by Vygotsky's original and successor theories, has been appropriating meta-theoretical categories of dialectical materialism. Once we identified Cultural Studies of Science Education as a journal that would probably concentrate papers that follow these perspectives, we decided to take it as the context of this study. In the process of selecting the corpus to be reviewed from the editions published from 2006 to 2011, we have found that 16 % of the articles that matched keywords denoting frameworks related to the Vygotskian tradition developed and appropriated the categories of dialectical materialism. The quality and originality of contemporary development of CHAT denote that this framework has been playing a very important role in recent expansion of Vygotskian approaches to research in science education. Among the papers that we considered to develop and appropriate Vygotskian frameworks, incompletion in the appropriation of meta-theoretical categories of dialectical materialism and the misusage of dialectics intertwined with dialogism were highlighted. Our findings suggest that overcoming these limitations can enhance political analysis of sociocultural phenomena in the context of science education. It also represents a strengthening of the role of dialectical materialism in expanding sociocultural perspectives toward a better articulation between individual and institutional-centered analyses.

  20. Activities on safety culture study. Study status in public and private sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Takano, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    Around after entering in the 21st century, organizational accidents had occurred in Japan at various industries including nuclear industry, which were caused directly by unsafe action, human error and illegal conduct of personnel but there were problems in safety culture of organization such as slow retreat of safety system stimulated by management, schedule control and procedure management becoming a dead letter, lack of safety education, and workplace climate of schedule priority. This article referred to organizational factors common to many severe accidents and introduced safety culture study in public and private sectors to overcome those factors. Safety Culture Evaluation Support Tool (SCEST) was developed for self-evaluation of safety culture of organization as well as Organizational Reliability model (OR model) for analysis of initiation and propagation process of risk event. Safety diagnosis system and feedback type risk assessment system for promoting safe organizational climate and culture were also developed. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Traditional & Socio-Cultural Barriers to EFL Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jameel

    2015-01-01

    This research tends to ascertain several traditional and socio-cultural barriers to English language learning in Saudi Arabia and to explore more ways than before for making teaching and learning more effective. The findings of four quantitative and qualitative surveys conducted in this regard reveal a unique traditional and socio-cultural milieu,…

  2. Does Corporate Culture Matter? An Empirical Study on Japanese Firms

    OpenAIRE

    HIROTA Shinichi; KUBO Katsuyuki; MIYAJIMA Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    Corporate culture does matter. Using Japanese firms' data from 1987-2000, we have shown that the strength of corporate culture significantly affects corporate policies such as employment policy, management structure, and financial structure. We have also confirmed that the culture and its embedding contribute to better corporate performance. These culture effects are found to be considerable in magnitude and at least as large as those of other factors. We suggest that it is important to recog...

  3. Pyramids and Prejudice: A Study of Cultural Discrimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A South African classic, Lauretta Ngcobo's novel, And they didn't die, explores the nexus of hegemony, culture, and transformation under apartheid rule. Edward Said's thesis on the hierarchy of culture provides the conceptual framework for an analysis of politico-cultural agency in Ngcobo's novel. Three characters in the ...

  4. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  5. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  6. Difference of microbial community stressed in artificial pit muds for Luzhou-flavour liquor brewing revealed by multiphase culture-independent technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhou, R; Niu, M; Zheng, J; Wu, C

    2015-11-01

    Artificial pit muds (APMs) is produced by peats, aged pit muds, yellow and black clays etc. and is one of essential factors for Luzhou-flavour liquor production. The microbial community of APMs significantly influence the quality of Luzhou-flavour liquor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community of APMs, starters and materials. Multiphase culture-independent technology were employed in this study, including nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (nested PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results suggested that the microbial diversity significantly changed under environmental stress and different culture patterns during APMs cultivation. The dominant bacteria in APMs mainly fell into Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales and Rhizobiales, Archaea affiliated with Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, and fungi belonged to Saccharomycetales and Eurotiales. Furthermore, the microbial community structures of APMs cultured by ground pile pattern were more similar with that of aged pit muds, meanwhile, the relative bands intensities of microbes, which are the main contributors for liquor brewing, increased with the culture times. Not only the niche selection and biogeochemical properties of APMs, but also the mutual collaboration and constraint between different microbes may result in enriching different liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. APM cultivation technology was necessary to promote enriching functional liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. These results may facilitate understanding the microbial succession during APMs manufacture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Communicating Culture: An Exploratory Study of the Key Concepts in Maori Culture on Maori Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko J Kovacic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine how accurately the belief system or cultural concepts of Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, is reconstructed in the virtual world of the Internet. Nine Maori web sites were searched using a list of 44 key concepts in Maori culture. We registered how many pages within a particular web site contain each of the key concepts. These numbers were set up in a data matrix for further statistical analysis. The Multidimensional Scaling method was used to construct a spatial representation of Maori web sites in the space generated by the key concepts in Maori culture. Using the correlation coefficients between derived dimensions and the key concepts we interpreted three dimensions as General Cultural, Intra-tribe Dynamics and Educational. The position of each Maori web site in this space has been located and described.

  8. A study on the promotion of nuclear security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kokaji, Lisa; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the promotion of nuclear security culture aiming at strengthening nuclear security is extensively mentioned, however, awareness of nuclear security culture seems to be not much high compared to the permeation of nuclear safety culture. As a world's leading country of peaceful nuclear use, permeation of nuclear security culture into various social classes must be one of important issues in Japan. Learning from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, complementarity between nuclear safety and nuclear security in the aspect of both protection measures has been profoundly recognised. Therefore, it will be natural to promote nuclear security culture modelled on the preceding nuclear safety culture. On this standpoint, the paper examines an approach for the promotion of nuclear security culture which, for example, consists of awareness cultivation, attitude progress, permeation assessment, and resulting in the establishment of PDCA Cycle. (author)

  9. Beyond cultural distance: Switching to a friction lens in the study of cultural differences

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Shenkar

    2012-01-01

    My 2001 article provided a critical review of one of the most popular constructs in international business, and in the management and business literature as a whole, namely cultural distance. It listed various illusions, implicit yet unsubstantiated and refutable assumptions that underpinned a construct set to capture the essence of cultural differences. The paper questioned the validity of the measure; the resultant findings obtained in such international business applications as foreign dir...

  10. A large-scale longitudinal study indicating the importance of perceived effectiveness, organizational and management support for innovative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Bal, Roland; Nieboer, Anna P

    2013-04-01

    Teams participating in QI collaboratives reportedly enhance innovative culture in long-term care, but we currently lack empirical evidence of the ability of such teams to enhance (determinants of) innovative culture over time. The objectives of our study are therefore to explore innovative cultures in QI teams over time and identify its determinants. The study included QI teams participating between 2006 and 2011 in a national Dutch quality program (Care for Better), using an adapted version of the Breakthrough Method. Each QI team member received a questionnaire by mail within one week after the second (2-3 months post-implementation of the collaborative = T0) and final conference (12 months post-implementation = T1). A total of 859 (out of 1161) respondents filled in the questionnaire at T0 and 541 at T1 (47% response). A total of 307 team members filled in the questionnaire at both T0 and T1. We measured innovative culture, respondent characteristics (age, gender, education), perceived team effectiveness, organizational support, and management support. Two-tailed paired t-tests showed that innovative culture was slightly but significantly lower at T1 compared to T0 (12 months and 2-3 months after the start of the collaborative, respectively). Univariate analyses revealed that perceived effectiveness, organizational and management support were significantly related to innovative culture at T1 (all at p ≤ 0.001). Multilevel analyses showed that perceived effectiveness, organizational support, and management support predicted innovative culture. Our QI teams were not able to improve innovative culture over time, but their innovative culture scores were higher than non-participant professionals. QI interventions require organizational and management support to enhance innovative culture in long-term care settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benefits of using culturally unfamiliar stimuli in ambiguous emotion identification: A cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Kohl, Waldemar; Luettgenau, Julia; Triantafillou, Susanna; Ohrmann, Patricia; Satoh, Shinji; Minoshita, Seiko

    2015-07-30

    A novel emotion recognition task that employs photos of a Japanese mask representing a highly ambiguous stimulus was evaluated. As non-Asians perceive and/or label emotions differently from Asians, we aimed to identify patterns of task-performance in non-Asian healthy volunteers with a view to future patient studies. The Noh mask test was presented to 42 adult German participants. Reaction times and emotion attribution patterns were recorded. To control for emotion identification abilities, a standard emotion recognition task was used among others. Questionnaires assessed personality traits. Finally, results were compared to age- and gender-matched Japanese volunteers. Compared to other tasks, German participants displayed slowest reaction times on the Noh mask test, indicating higher demands of ambiguous emotion recognition. They assigned more positive emotions to the mask than Japanese volunteers, demonstrating culture-dependent emotion identification patterns. As alexithymic and anxious traits were associated with slower reaction times, personality dimensions impacted on performance, as well. We showed an advantage of ambiguous over conventional emotion recognition tasks. Moreover, we determined emotion identification patterns in Western individuals impacted by personality dimensions, suggesting performance differences in clinical samples. Due to its properties, the Noh mask test represents a promising tool in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Cultural Genogram: An International Cross-Cultural Case Study on Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasadyahu Zarbabal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiential entrepreneurship has become a significant pedagogy in preparing American students to compete in the dynamic and consolidating global economy. Whereas the model of experiential learning facilitates collaboration between industry experts, entrepreneurs and community stakeholders, it is imperative to look at entrepreneurship from a global perspective. Medgar Evers College has a mission for social justice and socio-economic transformation. Through the Entrepreneurship & Experiential Learning (EEL lab, students are exposed to industry leaders, faculty and other stakeholders to the benefits of global entrepreneurship and experiential learning. This paper is a case study that discusses lessons learned on innovation, culture and entrepreneurship from students and faculty’s exposure to innovation and international entrepreneurs from Kenya, Chile, Costa Rico, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, China, London, Paris, Japan and Thailand. Additionally, the paper addresses the implications on entrepreneurial learning by encouraging diverse perspectives and practice for the student entrepreneurs in the 21st century. The originality of the paper is in its diversity of perspectives – it is a collaboration of faculty and staff on three different continents and three academic institutions.

  13. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengfang, Yu; Qi, Zheng; Yufang, Zheng

    1988-02-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100/sup 0/C in steps of 100/sup 0/C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000/sup 0/C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  14. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Qi; Zheng Yufang; Zhongshan Univ., Guangzhou

    1988-01-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100 0 C in steps of 100 0 C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000 0 C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period. (orig.)

  15. Culture-independent analyses reveal novel Anaerolineaceae as abundant primary fermenters in anaerobic digesters treating waste activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is reliant on the tightly coupled synergistic activities of complex microbial consortia. Members of the uncultured A6 phylotype, within the phylum Chloroflexi, are among the most abundant genus-level-taxa of mesophilic anaerobic digester systems treating...... primary and surplus sludge from wastewater treatment plants, yet are known only by their 16S rRNA gene sequence. This study applied metagenomics to obtain a complete circular genome (2.57 Mbp) from a representative of the A6 taxon. Preliminary annotation of the genome indicates these organisms...

  16. Exploring Chinese cultural standards through the lens of German managers: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Moser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand one’s own culture and to deal with specificities of foreign cultures is one of the core requirements in today’s international business. Management skills are partially culture specific and a management approach that is appropriate in one cultural context may not be appropriate in another. Several business activities of companies nowadays take place abroad, which requires managers to interact with different cultures. This paper aims to analyse cultural characteristics, especially in a Sino-German business context. Based on literature analysis and case study research, relevant cultural standards in China were identified from the German perspective. The result differentiates three superordinate cultural areas and five specific cultural standards and analyses different influence factors on the dimensions of the identified Chinese cultural standards.

  17. Ion beam analysis and spectrometry techniques for Cultural Heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of experimental techniques for the characterisation of Cultural heritage materials has to take into account some requirements. The complexity of these past materials requires the development of new techniques of examination and analysis, or the transfer of technologies developed for the study of advanced materials. In addition, due to precious aspect of artwork it is also necessary to use the non-destructive methods, respecting the integrity of objects. It is for this reason that the methods using radiations and/or particles play a important role in the scientific study of art history and archaeology since their discovery. X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) are analytical tools at the service of Cultural heritage. This report mainly presents experimental developments for IBA: PIXE, RBS/EBS and NRA. These developments were applied to the study of archaeological composite materials: layered materials or mixtures composed of organic and non-organic phases. Three examples are shown: evolution of silvering techniques for the production of counterfeit coinage during the Roman Empire and in the 16. century, the characterization of composites or mixed mineral/organic compounds such as bone and paint. In these last two cases, the combination of techniques gave original results on the proportion of both phases: apatite/collagen in bone, pigment/binder in paintings. Another part of this report is then dedicated to the non-invasive/non-destructive characterization of prehistoric pigments, in situ, for rock art studies in caves and in the laboratory. Finally, the perspectives of this work are presented. (author) [fr

  18. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on multi-dimensional organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing multi-dimensional organizational culture. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different business units and collects 283 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.799. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.821 and 1395.74, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were four factors influencing organizational culture including, diversity in culture, connection based culture, integrated culture and structure of culture. In terms of diversity in culture, sensitivity to quality data and cultural flexibility are the most influential sub-factors while connection based marketing and relational satisfaction are two important sub-factors associated with diversity in culture. The study discusses other issues.

  19. Measuring Safety Culture on Ships Using Safety Climate: A Study among Indian Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Bhattacharya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace safety continues to be an area of concern in the maritime industry due to the international nature of the operations. The effectiveness of extensive legislation to manage shipboard safety remains in doubt. The focus must therefore shift towards the human element - seafarers and their perceptions of safety. The study aims to understand the alignment that exists between safety culture and safety climate on board ships as perceived by seafarers. The underlying factors of safety climate were identified using factor analysis which isolated seven factors - Support on Safety, Organizational Support, Resource Availability, Work Environment, Job Demands, ‘Just’ Culture, and Safety Compliance. The perception of safety level of seafarers was found to be low indicating the existence of misalignments between safety culture values and the actual safety climate. The study also reveals that the safety perceptions of officers employed directly by ship owners and those by managers do not differ significantly, nor do they differ between senior and junior officers. A shift in perspective towards how seafarers themselves feel towards safety might provide more effective solutions – instead of relying on regulations - and indeed aid in reducing incidents on board. This paper details practical suggestions on how to identify the factors that contribute towards a better safety climate on board ships.

  20. A contemporary examination of workplace learning culture: an ethnomethodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; Henderson, Amanda; Jolly, Brian; Greaves, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining a sustainable workforce is currently an international concern. Extensive literature suggest that students and staff need to be 'engaged', that is they need to interact with the health team if they are to maximise learning opportunities. Despite many studies since the 1970s into what creates a 'good' learning environment, ongoing issues continue to challenge healthcare organisations and educators. A 'good' learning environment has been an intangible element for many professions as learning is hindered by the complexity of practice and by limitations on practitioners' time available to assist and guide novices. This study sought to explore the nature of the learning interactions and experiences in clinical nursing practice that enhance a 'good' workplace learning culture for both nursing students and qualified nurses. An ethnomethodology study. A range of clinical settings in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Students and registered nurses (n=95). Fieldwork observations were carried out on student nurses and registered nurses, followed by an individual interview with each participant. An iterative approach to analysis was undertaken; field notes of observations were reviewed, interviews transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo10. Major themes were then extracted. Three central themes: learning by doing, navigating through communication, and 'entrustability', emerged providing insights into common practices potentially enhancing or detracting from learning in the workplace. Students' and registered nurses' learning is constrained by a myriad of interactions and embedded workplace practices, which can either enhance the individual's opportunities for learning or detract from the richness of affordances that healthcare workplace settings have to offer. Until the culture/or routine practices of the healthcare workplace are challenged, the trust and meaningful communication essential to learning in practice, will be achievable only

  1. The Reaffirmation of Cultural Identity in Cross-cultural Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmitzki, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between cultural contact and cultural identity as conceptualized in two research approaches: social identity theory and acculturation. The groups studied were German and Americans who either lived in their nonnative culture or had no direct contact. Comparisons between bicultural and monocultural groups revealed a…

  2. Patterns of receptive and creative cultural activities and their association with perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life among adults: the HUNT study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Koenraad; Krokstad, Steinar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn; Bygren, Lars Olov; Holmen, Jostein

    2012-08-01

    Cultural participation has been used both in governmental health policies and as medical therapy, based on the assumption that cultural activities will improve health. Previous population studies and a human intervention study have shown that religious, social and cultural activities predict increased survival rate. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between cultural activity and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life in both genders. The study is based on the third population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (2006-2008), including 50,797 adult participants from Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Data on cultural activities, both receptive and creative, perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life were collected by comprehensive questionnaires. The logistic regression models, adjusted for relevant cofactors, show that participation in receptive and creative cultural activities was significantly associated with good health, good satisfaction with life, low anxiety and depression scores in both genders. Especially in men, attending receptive, rather than creative, cultural activities was more strongly associated with all health-related outcomes. Statistically significant associations between several single receptive, creative cultural activities and the health-related outcome variables were revealed. This population-based study suggests gender-dependent associations between cultural participation and perceived health, anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life. The results support hypotheses on the effect of cultural activities in health promotion and healthcare, but further longitudinal and experimental studies are warranted to establish a reliable cause-effect relationship.

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  4. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  5. Do consumers care about ethics? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Malheiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussion towards an understanding about ethical and social responsible corporate behaviours has increased over last two decades. Both marketers and academicians emphasize the interest of the topic. Developed research has been focusing the understanding of a few organizational practices, but consumer’s dyad of the problem calls for further investigation. This work presents some of the main theoretical contributions about consumer ethics, emphasizing the way how purchase attitude may be influenced by consumers’ perceptions about firms’ behaviour. The study aims to fill two important gaps in the burgeoning literature on marketing ethics: by looking at the consumer side of the marketing exchange dyad, and comparing consumer perspectives on ethics across cultures. As such, levels of consumer ethical awareness and expectations, and their impact on purchasing behaviours are measured in the contexts of Portugal and Cape Verde, one of its former colonies in Africa. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were developed.

  6. Impact of national context and culture on curriculum change: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies suggested national culture to be a potential barrier to curriculum reform in medical schools. In particular, Hofstede's cultural dimension 'uncertainty avoidance' had a significant negative relationship with the implementation rate of integrated curricula. Aims: However,

  7. Gaining Insight into Cultural Geography through the Study of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Alexander K.

    2010-01-01

    At present, the need for an understanding of both physical and cultural geography is increasingly urgent in America's schools. The present study explores using music as focus for the exploration of geography. Not only is music strongly linked to culture and environment but also its study provides an experiential understanding of a given culture in…

  8. Fried Green Tomatoes and The Color Purple: A case study in lesbian friendship and cultural controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proehl, Kristen

    2018-01-02

    Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship. As filmmakers Steven Spielberg and Jon Avnet adapted these novels for the screen, they made decisions about how to portray the texts' representations of homoerotic friendship and same-sex love. Both films generated significant cultural controversy as a result, particularly as some viewers claimed that the films elided the novels' representations of lesbian sexuality. Building upon recent scholarship in critical race theory, queer theory, and friendship studies, I argue that Walker's and Flagg's representations of queer friendship, a term that I describe in more detail throughout the essay, subvert dominant classifications of romantic, familial, and platonic love. By comparatively analyzing the American public's reception of the two film adaptations in conjunction with close readings of scenes from the novels and films, I reveal how representations of queer friendship not only catalyze cultural controversy, but also serve as a vehicle of social criticism.

  9. EXPLORATORY STUDY OF OBSTACLES IN SAFETY CULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: A GROUNDED THEORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure H.W. Hadikusumo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the obstacles that prevent the development of a safety culture in Thailand’s large construction industry from various managerial points of view. Qualitative research methods were used by performing a series of semi-structured interviews of eight case studies selected from six prominent construction firms to investigate the obstacles they face. Glaser’s keyword coding from Grounded Theory was used to reduce the information load after the interviews. Our findings revealed that the factors influencing the successful development of a safety culture in the construction industry are the workers, the characteristics of construction, the subcontractors, the supervisors, and external factors. Based on the frequency analysis, the main obstacles in developing a safety culture result from problems related to the workers themselves. The three most frequently discussed problems are unskilled workers, unsafe worker habits, and high worker turnover. Our results also suggest that managers should encourage engagement from their workers to optimise the successful implementation of safety programs and their long-term improvement.

  10. Culture care meanings and experiences of postpartum depression among Jordanian Australian women: a transcultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, V; Amasheh, N

    1999-01-01

    This study discovers, describes, and explains the personal experiences, perceptions, and care meanings of Jordanian women who have suffered postpartum depression. Most postpartum cases often are misdiagnosed as exclusively psychological and untreated by health care professionals without consideration to the cultural meanings of this problem. Understanding the experiences of these women is important, as their expressions often are contextually and culturally influenced. Using Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, a purposive sample of 22 Jordanian women diagnosed with postpartum depression, living in Sydney, were interviewed. The ethnonursing research method and data analysis procedures were used. Results revealed that Jordanian mothers experienced severe loss of control over emotions of loneliness, hopelessness, and feelings of being a bad mother. Three major themes focusing on the care meanings and experiences of Jordanian women are discussed: (a) Care means strong family support and kinship during the postpartum period, (b) care is carrying out and fulfilling traditional gender roles as mother and wife, and (c) care is preservation of Jordanian childbearing customs as expressed in the celebration of the birth of the baby.

  11. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  12. A study of cultural diversity training practices in company-owned franchise restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Uk Charles

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cultural diversity training practices and to determine the deterrence factors associated instituting cultural diversity training. It attempted to measure the overall effectiveness of cultural diversity training in franchise restaurants. A total of 300 franchise restaurants were surveyed. Three practicing and fiftyeight non-practicing cultural diversity training companies participated in the study. The findings indicated that high tur...

  13. The Use of Two Culturing Methods in Parallel Reveals a High Prevalence and Diversity of Arcobacter spp. in a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Levican

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arcobacter includes species considered emerging food and waterborne pathogens. Despite Arcobacter has been linked to the presence of faecal pollution, few studies have investigated its prevalence in wastewater, and the only isolated species were Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. at a WWTP using in parallel two culturing methods (direct plating and culturing after enrichment and a direct detection by m-PCR. In addition, the genetic diversity of the isolates was established using the ERIC-PCR genotyping method. Most of the wastewater samples (96.7% were positive for Arcobacter and a high genetic diversity was observed among the 651 investigated isolates that belonged to 424 different ERIC genotypes. However, only few strains persisted at different dates or sampling points. The use of direct plating in parallel with culturing after enrichment allowed recovering the species A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, Arcobacter thereius, Arcobacter defluvii, Arcobacter skirrowii, Arcobacter ellisii, Arcobacter cloacae, and Arcobacter nitrofigilis, most of them isolated for the first time from wastewater. The predominant species was A. butzleri, however, by direct plating predominated A. cryaerophilus. Therefore, the overall predominance of A. butzleri was a bias associated with the use of enrichment.

  14. Personal Narratives: Cultural Differences and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.

  15. The Use of Culturally Relevant Videos To Draw Attention to Cultural Diversity: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Charlene M.; Rivera, Lourdes M.; Collins, Laura J.

    2000-01-01

    Videos celebrating Hispanic Heritage and Black History month were presented at two regionally and ethnically distinct college campuses. Students (N=62) were interviewed regarding what attracted them to the video. Students of color commented positively on the cultural content as well as the musical and dance components of each video. Presents…

  16. Pyramids and Prejudice: A Study of Cultural Discrimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    of hegemony, culture, and transformation under apartheid rule. Edward ... The concept of culture as a system that moves downward first and outwards only second is ...... possibilities attached to his status as a “white African”; to belong to two worlds or to .... Lungu consolidates the problem, but fortunately he also points the.

  17. Critical-Cultural Studies in Research and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Les; McNamara, John; Ryan, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Outlines two paradigms in critical-cultural analysis that seek to identify and explain the meaning of phenomena that make a culture, focusing on their relevance to research and teaching in journalism and mass communication. Identifies key issues and implications for mass communication research and teaching. Suggests ways educators can apply…

  18. Past Experience, Cultural Intelligence, and Satisfaction with International Business Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Daniel L.; Ravlin, Elizabeth C.; Ramsey, Jase R.; Ward, Anna-Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant increases in international business education, and cultural competence in particular, in U.S. classrooms we still know relatively little about the roles of specific cultural intelligence dimensions relative to how students affectively respond to such education. This article examines the relationship between prior international…

  19. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study I * | Madib | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is a presentation of a brief cultural glossary of Northern Sotho cooking terms. The glossary is mainly composed of names for utensils and ingredients, and action words for the processes involved in the preparation of cultural dishes. It also contains names of dishes tied to some idiomatic expressions in a way ...

  20. Language Study: Language and Socio-Cultural Values: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is an important tool in the human society. Apart from the fact that it makes communication and integration possible, it is an important aspect of the socio-cultural life of a people. To this extent, language is closely knit with culture as it embodies the society's value system and patterned way of life. This paper ...

  1. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about...

  2. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double recession in international mainstream research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical recession, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical recession, since cultural capital is now seen as a simple...

  3. An Ethnic Cultural Study on Asian Students' Learning Statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the learning statuses of Asian students, and connects their individual learning status with their cultures, attitudes, histories, family relations, etc. It also focuses on a wide range of aspects as academic performances, learning attitudes, cultures, race relations, schoolings, learning strategies, obstacles, etc., thus…

  4. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years; and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about certain isolated individual resources, disregarding…

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of How Usability Professionals Experience the Usability of Everyday Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y.; Sun, X.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    in the study, their understanding of fun systems differs across cultural backgrounds. Also, easy-to-use and useful systems are perceived as being similar or different depending on the usability professional’s cultural background. Most other cross-cultural differences relate to categories of construct......Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly’s notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...

  6. Cultural marketing in Europe and its impact on literature. Case study: Sylvia Plath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pipoş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to discuss the impact of marketing techniques on culture. Nowadays, not only goods are sold but ideas, images, feelings become available for trading. Still, it is not easy for culture to compete against other fields and sell its goods. As it is, cultural marketing is promoting all that is related to verbal communication, culture and arts. In order to understand the impact of marketing in the 20th century on culture we chose one of the poets that understood the importance of creating a cultural product that sells – Sylvia Plath and studied her beliefs on selling art.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Rewarding Environment Culture Study, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Janis C.; Paradise-Tornow, Carol A.; Gray, Vicki K.; Griffin-Bemis, Sarah P.; Agnew, Pamela R.; Bouchet, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    In its 2001 review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Research Council (NRC, p. 126) cautioned that ?high-quality personnel are essential for developing high-quality science information? and urged the USGS to ?devote substantial efforts to recruiting and retaining excellent staff.? Recognizing the importance of the NRC recommendation, the USGS has committed time and resources to create a rewarding work environment with the goal of achieving the following valued outcomes: ? USGS science vitality ? Customer satisfaction with USGS products and services ? Employee perceptions of the USGS as a rewarding place to work ? Heightened employee morale and commitment ? The ability to recruit and retain employees with critical skills To determine whether this investment of time and resources was proving to be successful, the USGS Human Resources Office conducted a Rewarding Environment Culture Study to answer the following four questions. ? Question 1: Does a rewarding work environment lead to the valued outcomes (identified above) that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 2: Which management, supervisory, and leadership behaviors contribute most to creating a rewarding work environment and to achieving the valued outcomes that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 3: Do USGS employees perceive that the USGS is a rewarding place to work? ? Question 4: What actions can and should be taken to enhance the USGS work environment? To begin the study, a conceptual model of a rewarding USGS environment was developed to test assumptions about a rewarding work environment. The Rewarding Environment model identifies the key components that are thought to contribute to a rewarding work environment and the valued outcomes that are thought to result from having a rewarding work environment. The 2002 Organizational Assessment Survey (OAS) was used as the primary data source for the study because it provided the most readily available data. Additional survey data were included as they

  8. A revealed-preference study of behavioural impacts of real-time traffic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.S.A.; Tseng, Y.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of real-time traffic information on traveller behaviour by using repeated day-to-day revealed-preference (RP) observations from a reward experiment. We estimate a trip scheduling model of morning peak behaviour that allows us to determine the impact of

  9. Cross-cultural upbringing : A comparison of the "Third Culture Kids" framework and "Kaigai/Kikoku-shijo" studies

    OpenAIRE

    KANO PODOLSKY, Momo; 嘉納, もも

    2004-01-01

    This paper will look at two fields of study which, although dealing with a similar subject matter, have up until now grown quite independently from each other. American scholars who look at the phenomenon of "Third Culture Kids" and Japanese scholars in "Kaigai/Kikoku-shijo" studies are both interested in the impact of a cross-cultural overseas upbringing on a child's subsequent life experience. We will examine some of the main findings from the respective fields, and point out their common t...

  10. Experimental studies illuminate the cultural transmission of percussive technologies in Homo and Pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2015-11-19

    The complexity of Stone Age tool-making is assumed to have relied upon cultural transmission, but direct evidence is lacking. This paper reviews evidence bearing on this question provided through five related empirical perspectives. Controlled experimental studies offer special power in identifying and dissecting social learning into its diverse component forms, such as imitation and emulation. The first approach focuses on experimental studies that have discriminated social learning processes in nut-cracking by chimpanzees. Second come experiments that have identified and dissected the processes of cultural transmission involved in a variety of other force-based forms of chimpanzee tool use. A third perspective is provided by field studies that have revealed a range of forms of forceful, targeted tool use by chimpanzees, that set percussion in its broader cognitive context. Fourth are experimental studies of the development of flint knapping to make functional sharp flakes by bonobos, implicating and defining the social learning and innovation involved. Finally, new and substantial experiments compare what different social learning processes, from observational learning to teaching, afford good quality human flake and biface manufacture. Together these complementary approaches begin to delineate the social learning processes necessary to percussive technologies within the Pan-Homo clade. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. A Study of the Organizational Culture at a Higher Education Institution [Case Study: Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyakin, Bogdan S.; Ivleva, Marina I.; Pozharskaya, Yelena L.; Shcherbakova, Olga I.

    2016-01-01

    The article offers an analysis of the organizational culture at a higher education institution as in the case of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, conducted in order to study the students' involvement in this culture and to draw conclusions as to what organizational culture principles are internalized by the students. The study used…

  12. Contexts in tourism and leisure studies : a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platenkamp, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD an attempt has been made to deliver a cross-cultural contribution to the production of knowledge in tourism and leisure studies. The necessity of this attempt originates in: thegrowing cultural complexity in a globalising world. From a cross-cultural

  13. Museum 2.0: A study into the culture of expertise within the museum blogosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Verboom (Jessica); P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhile studies on popular culture have a more vast understanding of the impact of the participatory culture on experts and expertise, there is a dearth of literature on the impact of Web 2.0 on museums, which are established authorities within the cultural field. We aim to answer the

  14. Museum 2.0: A study into the culture of expertise within the museum blogosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Verboom (Jessica); P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhile studies on popular culture have a vast understanding of the impact of the participatory culture on experts and expertise, there is a dearth of literature on the impact of Web 2.0 on museums, which are established authorities within the cultural field. We aim to answer the following

  15. Are National and Organizational Cultures Isomorphic? Evidence from a Four Country Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rune Ellemose Gulev

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study investigates whether organizational practices as observed through differing organizational cultures systematically replicate or reject national values. It is among the first to project delineated, narrow national cultural portrayals of Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Denmark against pattern-specific organizational cultures. Through country cluster analysis and correlation tests, the results achieve significance along all three dimensions. Trust allocations, authority perceptio...

  16. Regional Cultural Enterprises and Cultural Markets in Early Republican China: The Motion Picture as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the motion picture from foreign amusement to local enterprise was primarily the result of transnational commercial activity linking investors, entrepreneurs, and entertainment professionals. Amid the ongoing urbanization of China’s early Republican period, the enterprises emerging from this activity became increasingly profitable and, as a result, film production and exhibition became regularized phenomena, rooted in identifiable genres and standardized approaches to engaging audiences within the immersive space of the theater. By the early 1920s, those closest to the nascent industry were eager to legitimize its power by portraying the medium as a tool for political and social reform. However, commercial strategies and aesthetics remained relatively undisturbed despite this progressive rhetoric. In geographic terms, motion picture–related enterprises and culture remained strongly regional: affected and constrained by the non-Chinese national industries operating in politically divided China, by competing forms of local popular culture, and by existing geographies of exchange and infrastructure. The early Republican “experimental” period in Chinese cinema was, from an enterprise-centered perspective, one of numerous coexisting subnational cultural centers and zones.

  17. [Preliminary Study of Lonicera hypoglauca on Germination Conditions of Sand Culture Seeds and Sterilization Method of Sand Culture Seedling Sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mu-xiu; Zeng, Wen-wen; Wei, Peng-xiao; Mo, Qiao-cheng; Pu, Zu-ning; Cen, Xiu-fen; Shi, Feng-hua

    2015-05-01

    To explore the germination conditions of Lonicera hypoglauca sand culture seeds and the effects of sand culture seedlings sterilization. 0.1% HgCl2 with different sterilization time, different illumination time and temperature culture condition were adopted to study the germination conditions of sand culture seeds. Different sterilization treatments and different hardening-seedling days were used to test the sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings. The sterilization effect of the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min on Lonicera hypoglauca seeds was the optimum,with the average pollution rate of 15.56%, and the average germination rate reached 51.11%. The combination of varied temperature-room temperature under light for 12 h/d was the best, with the average germination rate peaked at 75.49%, and the average germination potential reached 68.36%. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash on the part above the hypocotyl, which was sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, showed the best sterilization effect, with the average pollution rate was zero, and the average survival rate peaked at 100.00%. The sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings, which was disinfected after cleaning by detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash after hardening-seeding for 30 days, was the best, with the average pollution rate of 50.00%, and the average survival rate of 100.00%. The best sterilization effect is the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min; Lighting for 12 h/d of varied temperature-room temperature is regarded as the optimum culture condition. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash treatment on the part above the hypocotyl,which is sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, shows the best sterilization effect. For the sand culture seedlings, before inoculated in subculture medium, should be hardening-seedling for some days and sterilized after detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash.

  18. Hydroponics--Studies in Plant Culture With Historical Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Luz Maria

    1981-01-01

    Presents methods for demonstrating and applying scientific principles by growing plants through water culture (hydroponics), including a review of the history of hydroponics, re-creating some early experiments, and setting up a modern hydroponic system. (CS)

  19. Conceptual apparatus of synergetics and study of cultural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ivanova

    2015-04-01

    The second kind of cultural consciousness of researchers of cosmos and nature is analyzed in the article. This group has such features as involvement into revolution ideology and loyalty to the ideals of Enlightenment, faith in the future, confidence in science and its unlimited possibilities to change human nature. Carriers of second kind of cultural consciousness have negative attitude to any attempts of humanitarians to establish prohibition of intervention to human nature.

  20. Trust and Reciprocity: A Cross-Cultural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenxia, Wu

    2009-01-01

    I compared the results of trust game and survey questions under an individual versus group setting for China and UK using a mixed sample with randomly selected students and non-students. Both Chinese and British people intend to invest into the group without considering cultural effects. But British individual and groups are embedded with more trust and trustworthiness but are more sensitive to cultural differences. Both Chinese and British participants intend to trust other groups from their...

  1. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates. Specific flux modulations were detected throughout primary metabolism, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen assimilation, phospholipid/fatty acid synthesis and the shikimate pathway, all of which

  2. Non-invasive studies of objects from cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Vontobel, Peter; Deschler-Erb, Eckhard; Soares, Marie

    2005-01-01

    In order to preserve the objects from European cultural heritage in its structure and shape for our future generations, there is a need to perform all investigations on important samples non-destructively or with very limited amounts of material. Among the non-destructive testing (NDT) methods available for this purpose there are those that need large installations such as accelerators and reactors to provide different kinds of radiation (X-ray, protons, neutrons, gamma, etc.). Therefore, a link between the specialists working at such facilities with scientists from museums and archaeological institutes is necessary. This paper describes the status of a European network dedicated to the NDT of museum objects (COST-G8) as an overview. In more detail, the activities in Switzerland will be presented where PSI plays a role for the study with neutrons and X-rays. Most of the investigated samples of Swiss collections are from Celtic or Roman origin. The superposition of both applied methods gives the opportunity to decide about the structure of objects and artefacts from restoration work applied later to the virgin excavation status. The presented examples will give an overview about opportunities of the applied methods and their limitations in some cases. This should be motivating to adapt the demonstrated methods to other similar objects of historical relevance

  3. Family needs after brain injury: A cross cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norup, Anne; Perrin, Paul B; Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo; Anke, Audny; Andelic, Nada; Doyle, Sarah T; Cristina Quijano, Maria; Caracuel, Alfonso; Mar, Dulce; Guadalupe Espinosa Jove, Irma; Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore differences by country in the importance of family needs after traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as differences in met/unmet needs. Two hundred and seventy-one family members of an individual with TBI in Mexico, Colombia, Spain, Denmark, and Norway completed the Family Needs Questionnaire. Eight of the ten needs rated as most important globally were from the Health Information subscale. Importance ratings on the Health Information, Professional Support, and Involvement With Care subscales were similar across countries, but Mexican family members rated Instrumental Support needs as less important than Colombian, Spanish, and Danish family members, and also rated their Community Support needs as less important than Danish and Spanish family members. Mexican family member's rated emotional support needs as less important than Colombian, Spanish, and Danish family members. Globally, the needs rated as most often met were from the Health Information subscale, and the most unmet needs were from the Emotional Support subscale. Despite some similarities across countries several differences were identified, and these can help professionals to provide more culturally appropriate rehabilitation services for family members in order to improve informal care for TBI.

  4. Effects of culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation on learning satisfaction of mainland China students studying in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the national impact of low fertility, the enrollment of higher education in Taiwan is facing a dilemma. To cope with such a problem, the government has actively promoted Mainland China students to study in Taiwan. In addition to enhancing the international competitiveness of domestic universities, cross-strait education, and real academic exchange, it is expected to solve the enrollment shortage of colleges. However, the situations and pressures of Culture Shock, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Learning Satisfaction are critical for Mainland China students. Taking Mainland China students who study in Taiwan for more than four months (about a semester as the research participants, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed and 167 valid ones were retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. The research findings show significant correlations between Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Culture Shock, Culture Shock and Learning Satisfaction, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Learning Satisfaction.Debido al impacto de la baja fertilidad en el país, Taiwán afronta un dilema en relación con la inscripción en la enseñanza superior. Para enfrentarse al problema el gobierno ha promovido activamente que estudiantes de la China continental estudien en Taiwán. Además de incrementar la competitividad internacional de las universidades taiwanesas, la formación a ambos lados del estrecho y un verdadero intercambio académico, se espera que ello solucione la escasez de inscripciones en las facultades. Sin embargo, las situaciones y las presiones que generan el choque cultural, la adaptación multicultural y la satisfacción con el aprendizaje resultan críticas para los estudiantes de la China continental. Tomando como muestra de investigación a estudiantes de la China continental que estudian en Taiwán durante más de cuatro meses (aproximadamente un semestre, se distribuyó un total de 250 cuestionarios, de los cuales 167 fueron válidos, con una tasa

  5. Organizational culture in an academic health center: an exploratory study using a competing values framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Buchan, Alastair M

    2012-06-01

    Implementing cultural change and aligning organizational cultures could enhance innovation, quality, safety, and job satisfaction. The authors conducted this mixed-methods study to assess academic physician-scientists' perceptions of the current and preferred future organizational culture at a university medical school and its partner health system. In October 2010, the authors surveyed academic physicians and scientists jointly employed by the University of Oxford and its local, major partner health system. The survey included the U.S. Veterans Affairs Administration's 14-item Competing Values Framework instrument and two extra items prompting respondents to identify their substantive employer and to provide any additional open-ended comments. Of 436 academic physicians and scientists, 170 (39%) responded. Of these, 69 (41%) provided open-ended comments. Dominant hierarchical culture, moderate rational and team cultures, and underdeveloped entrepreneurial culture characterized the health system culture profile. The university profile was more balanced, with strong rational and entrepreneurial cultures, and moderate-to-strong hierarchical and team cultures. The preferred future culture (within five years) would emphasize team and entrepreneurial cultures and-to a lesser degree-rational culture, and would deemphasize hierarchical culture. Whereas the university and the health system currently have distinct organizational cultures, academic physicians and scientists would prefer the same type of culture across the two organizations so that both could more successfully pursue the shared mission of academic medicine. Further research should explore strengthening the validity and reliability of the organizational culture instrument for academic medicine and building an evidence base of effective culture change strategies and interventions.

  6. Socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality and antibiotics use: A cross-cultural study among European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Lajunen, Timo; Gaygısız, Esma

    There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed. Governance quality (r=-.51), mean years of schooling (r=-.61), power distance (r=.59), masculinity (r=.53), and neuroticism (r=.73) correlated with antibiotic use. The highest amount of variance in antibiotic use was accounted by the cultural values (65%) followed by socio-economic factors (63%) and personality factors (55%). Results show that socio-economic factors, cultural values and national personality characteristics explain cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe. In particular, governance quality, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and neuroticism were important factors explaining antibiotics use. The findings underline the importance of socio-economic and cultural context in health care and in planning public health interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A bio-cultural approach to the study of food choice: The contribution of taste genetics, population and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Davide S; Giuliani, Cristina; Antinucci, Marco; Morini, Gabriella; Garagnani, Paolo; Tofanelli, Sergio; Luiselli, Donata

    2017-07-01

    The study of food choice, one of the most complex human traits, requires an integrated approach that takes into account environmental, socio-cultural and biological diversity. We recruited 183 volunteers from four geo-linguistic groups and highly diversified in terms of both genetic background and food habits from whom we collected genotypes and phenotypes tightly linked to taste perception. We confirmed previous genetic associations, in particular with stevioside perception, and noted significant differences in food consumption: in particular, broccoli, mustard and beer consumption scores were significantly higher (Adjusted P = 0.02, Adjusted P diversity and cultural aspects in taste perception and food consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamak, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...

  9. Culture and importance of backgrounds: a cross-cultural study of photograph taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Chen; Smithson, Adam; Spann, Ethan; Ruan, Fang

    2010-10-01

    To compare the focus on targeted people while taking a photograph, samples of American and Chinese college students were randomly selected and asked to take casual pictures of people around them with digital cameras. About 200 photographs were rated for the focus on the intended target in the picture. American students were more likely to focus on the targeted individual, while the Chinese students were more likely to attend to the background and the environment of the targeted individual. The findings imply that for the Chinese college students, the environment can be equally important as the person. Possibly for Americans the environment is less important due to the more individualistic culture.

  10. The Exploration of Culturally Sensitive Nursing Care in Pediatric Setting: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the essential aspects of the provision of care is cultural issues. Cultural sensitivity is the key for cultural care. The aim of this study was to explore culturally sensitive care in pediatric nursing care in Iran.Materials and Methods: This study was a conventional content analysis. Participants were consisted of 25 nurses and 9 parents selected through purposive sampling from three pediatric referral centers in Tabriz and Tehran, Iran. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and field notes and were concurrently analyzed by using Graneheim and Lundman (2004 method. Data was transcribed verbatim, words, sentences, and phrases were considered meaning units, abstracted, labeled and compared for developing categories.Results: Culturally sensitive care of a sick child was consisted of three themes: ‘cultural exposure’, ‘intercultural communication’ and ‘the reconciliation of cultural conflict in families/care’. During the ‘cultural exposure’ nurses were informed of the cultural manifestations, strived to identify and understand patients/families with cultural diversities and respect their cultural beliefs. The nurse used the native language in ‘intercultural communication’ or a combination of verbal and nonverbal communication methods to reach a common understanding. Finally, a nurse in the conflict between the culture of child/family and care took actions for making decisions to develop a compliance between care and the family culture and amended parents’ harmful desires through negotiation and appropriate care.Conclusion: Understanding the concept of culturally sensitive care, can help with resolving the problems of cultural exchanges in Pediatric wards. Providing cultural facilities and interpreters to communicate with patients/family increase their satisfaction.

  11. Measuring Engagement in Robot-Assisted Autism Therapy: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Rudovic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During occupational therapy for children with autism, it is often necessary to elicit and maintain engagement for the children to benefit from the session. Recently, social robots have been used for this; however, existing robots lack the ability to autonomously recognize the children’s level of engagement, which is necessary when choosing an optimal interaction strategy. Progress in automated engagement reading has been impeded in part due to a lack of studies on child-robot engagement in autism therapy. While it is well known that there are large individual differences in autism, little is known about how these vary across cultures. To this end, we analyzed the engagement of children (age 3–13 from two different cultural backgrounds: Asia (Japan, n = 17 and Eastern Europe (Serbia, n = 19. The children participated in a 25 min therapy session during which we studied the relationship between the children’s behavioral engagement (task-driven and different facets of affective engagement (valence and arousal. Although our results indicate that there are statistically significant differences in engagement displays in the two groups, it is difficult to make any causal claims about these differences due to the large variation in age and behavioral severity of the children in the study. However, our exploratory analysis reveals important associations between target engagement and perceived levels of valence and arousal, indicating that these can be used as a proxy for the children’s engagement during the therapy. We provide suggestions on how this can be leveraged to optimize social robots for autism therapy, while taking into account cultural differences.

  12. Studies on binding of radiolabeled thyrotropin to cultured human thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Rapoport, B.

    1978-01-01

    A line of cultured human thyroid adenoma cells was used in a study designed to compare the stimulatory effect of TSH on cellular cAMP generation with the binding of radiolabeled TSH to the cells. At 37 C, specific binding of [ 125 I]TSH to suspensions of thyroid cells was maximal at 20 min and was reversed by the addition of excess TSH. Unlike the generation of cellular cAMP in response to TSH stimulation, which was maximal at pH 7.5, the binding of [ 125 ]TSH to the cells was maximal at pH 5.5 and progressively declined up to pH 8.5. Increasing NaCl concentrations progressively inhibited cellular binding of TSH; at physiological salt concentrations, almost no TSH binding was detectable. Competitive inhibition studies of [ 125 I]TSH binding to cells revealed a binding site with a dissociation constant of 5.5 x 10 -8 M at pH 7.4. GH, PRL, hCG, FSH, insulin, and glucagon did not compete with [ 125 I)TSH binding. ACTH, however, was a potent inhibitor of [ 125 I]TSH binding. Despite this inhibitory effect on TSH binding, ACTH had little or no effect on cellular cAMP generation. High concentrations of ACTH did not inhibit the biological effect of TSH on cAMP generation. Specific binding of [ 125 I]TSH to empty plastic culture dishes was time dependent, reversible, and displayed a hormonal specificity identical to binding to thyroid cells. The effects of pH and NaCl concentrations on TSH binding to dishes were similarbut not identical to those on cellular binding. This study raises serious questions as to the biological significance of [ 125 I]TSH binding to cultured human thyroid cells

  13. Semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: An international cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Valente, Kette; Alessi, Ruda; Tinker, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    We compared the semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) between patients from the USA and Brazil. This international cross-cultural comparative study may expand understanding of PNES across the borders. We retrospectively investigated all patients with PNES admitted to one epilepsy center in the USA and one in Brazil. We classified their seizures into four classes: generalized motor, akinetic, focal motor, and subjective symptoms. All patients were interviewed by an epileptologist in both countries and were administered psychological assessment measures, including questions about PNES risk factors. For the statistical analyses, we compared patients from the two nations. Eighty-nine patients (49 from the USA and 40 from Brazil) were studied. Patients from the two countries were not significantly different with regard to sex and age, but patients from Brazil had earlier age at onset (26years vs. 34years; P=0.004) and a significantly greater delay in diagnosis (9.9years vs. 5.6years; P=0.001). Some characteristics of PNES were different between the two groups; patients from the USA had generally more seizure types and more often reported subjective seizures (55% in the USA vs. 10% in Brazil; P=0.0001). Clinical and historical characteristics of the patients were not significantly different. Delay in diagnosis of PNES may represent a major factor in resource-limited countries. Large multicenter cross-cultural studies may reveal subtle but significant cross-cultural differences with respect to the semiological, clinical, and historical aspects of PNES; however, patients with PNES share more similarities than differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Experimental Study of Gender and Cultural Differences in Hue Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Saud Al-Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of both gender and culture on colour preference. Inspection of previous studies of colour preference reveals that many of these studies have poor control over the colours that are shown – the chromatic co-ordinates of colours are either not noted or the illuminant that colours are shown under is not controlled. This means that conclusions about colour preference are made using subjective terms for hue with little knowledge about the precise colours that were shown. However, recently, a new quantitative approach to investigating colour preference has been proposed, where there is no need to summarise colour preference using subjective terms for hue (Ling et al., 2007; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007. This approach aims to quantitatively summarise hue preference in terms of weights on the two channels or ‘cardinal axes’ underlying colour vision. Here I further extend Hurlbert and Ling’s (2007 approach to investigating colour preference, by replicating their study but with Arabic and English participants, and to answer several questions: First, are there cultural differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants? Second, are there gender differences in the shape of the overall preference curve for English and Arabic participants?. Thirty eight British and 71 Saudi Arabian (Arabic participants were compared. Results revealed that Arabic and English preference curves were found to differ, yet there was greater similarity for Arabic and English males than Arabic and English females. There was also a sex difference that was present for both Arabic and English participants. The male curve is fairly similar for both samples: peak-preference is in the blue-green region, and a preference minimum is in the red-pink/purple region. For Arabic females the preference peak appears to be in the red-pink region, whilst for English females it is shifted towards purple/blue-green.

  15. Practical Issues of Conducting a Q Methodology Study: Lessons Learned From a Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; Maguire, Jane; Kang, Sook Jung; Cha, Chiyoung

    This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology. Q methodology has the versatility to explore complexities of contemporary nursing practice and cross-cultural health research.

  16. Teaching culture in the Japanese language classroom: A NSW case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Mahoney

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines, through a qualitative case study approach, how non-native- speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers in New South Wales (NSW teach culture and why. The study seeks to understand the pedagogy used to teach culture, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs on teaching culture and how these attitudes and beliefs have been influenced by past experiences. This study also explores how the NSW K-10 Japanese syllabus and concepts of Intercultural Language Learning (IcLL are being implemented in teachers’ classrooms. Two non-native-speaking (NNS Japanese language teachers from a selective secondary school in NSW were interviewed and their classes observed over three days. Analysis of interview and observation data shows that these teachers teach culture as determined by language content, integrate language and culture teaching and teach culture as observable and factual. The study shows that both teachers view culture teaching as easier than language teaching, however their views on the influence of the syllabus differ. The study explores the teachers’ past experiences and how these affect how they feel towards, and teach culture. Finally, this study looks at how the teachers’ practices reflect concepts of IcLL such as integrating language and culture, student-centered learning and how their status as NNS teachers affects their culture teaching.

  17. The effects of the gender-culture interaction on self-reports of depressive symptoms: cross-cultural study among Egyptians and Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vivian; Beshai, Shadi; Yu, Mabel

    2016-01-01

    Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016), the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II). We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt ( n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed) and Canada ( n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed). Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998) factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective ( F (1,121) = 9.51, p = .003) and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales ( F (1,121) = 42.80, p cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.

  18. Media, Tourism, Environment, and Cultural Issues in Australia: A Case Study of a Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study abroad program developed by a U.S. journalism school and cosponsored by a college of agriculture and natural resources interweaves the themes of mass media, tourism, environment, and cultural issues in Australia. This article traces the development and evolution of the faculty-led program and discusses its curriculum,…

  19. Quality benchmarking methodology: Case study of finance and culture industries in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zemīte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political, socio-economic and cultural changes that have taken place in the world during the last years have influenced all the spheres. Constant improvements are necessary to sustain in rival and shrinking markets. This sets high quality standards for the service industries. Therefore it is important to conduct comparison of quality criteria to ascertain which practices are achieving superior performance levels. At present companies in Latvia do not carry out mutual benchmarking, and as a result of that do not know how they rank against their peers in terms of quality, as well as they do not see benefits in sharing of information and in benchmarking.The purpose of this paper is to determine the criteria of qualitative benchmarking, and to investigate the use of the benchmarking quality in service industries, particularly: finance and culture sectors in Latvia in order to determine the key driving factors of quality, to explore internal and foreign benchmarks, and to reveal the full potential of inputs’ reduction and efficiency growth for the aforementioned industries.Case study and other tools are used to define the readiness of the company for benchmarking. Certain key factors are examined for their impact on quality criteria. The results are based on the research conducted in professional associations in defined fields (insurance and theatre.Originality/value – this is the first study that adopts the benchmarking models for measuring quality criteria and readiness for mutual comparison in insurance and theatre industries in Latvia.

  20. Cultural competence among nursing students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J P; Alquwez, N; Cruz, C P; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D; Vitorino, L M; Islam, S M S

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version. The respondents showed the highest competence in their ability to demonstrate communication skills with culturally diverse patients and lowest in the familiarity with health- or illness-related cultural knowledge or theory. Gender, academic level, clinical exposure, prior diversity training, the experience of taking care of culturally diverse patients and patients belonging to special population groups were significant factors that could likely to influence cultural competence. The findings suggest that the Saudi nursing students possess the ability to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to patients with a diverse cultural background. Despite the good cultural competence reflected in this study, some aspects in ensuring a culturally competent care rendered by Saudi nursing students need to be improved. With the country's Saudization policy in health care (replacing foreign nurses with Saudi nurses), the findings can be used in designing training and interventions to meet the needs of Saudi nursing students regarding cultural competence development, which is integral in their preparation to assume their future roles as nurses. Policy guidelines, such as including cultural competency training and foreign languages training as mandatory continuing education for nurses, as well as integrating cultural competency and foreign languages in the prelicensure curriculum, should be developed and implemented in

  1. Podem os Websites Revelar a Cultura de um País? Um Estudo Multicultural nas maiores Empresas de Brasil, China e FrançaCan the Websites Reveal the Culture of a Country? A Multicultural Study in major Companies in Brazil, China and France¿Los Websites Revelan la Cultura de un País? Un Estudio Multicultural en la mayores Empresas de Brasil, China y Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN, Rafael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO ambiente de negócios vem sendo mudado significativamente em função do crescimento acelerado de novas tecnologias, como a Internet. Como resultado dessa tecnologia, os mercados tornam-se mais globais, o que resulta na mudança da realidade competitiva das empresas. Este estudo tem o objetivo de verificar se os websites das empresas de Brasil, China e França refletem a cultura local. O método utilizado tem um caráter exploratório-descritivo. A primeira etapa objetivou identificar os principais atributos utilizados pelos websites investigados através de uma desk research e da observação sistemática. A segunda etapa descritiva utilizou métodos quantitativos (correlação de Spearman e análise cluster como forma de atingir o objetivo desta pesquisa. A conclusão indica que os websites corporativos analisados retratam a cultura local. Esse achado revela que ainda não há uma cultura global on-line entre as maiores empresas de Brasil, China e França.ABSTRACTThe business environment is changing significantly in last years. New technologies, as the Internet, are the reason of these changes. As result of this new technology, the markets become more global. This study has the objective to verify if the corporate websites of Brazil, China and France reflect the local culture. The used method has an exploratory-descriptive character. The first stage has the objective to identify the main attributes used in the investigated websites through a desk research and a systematic observation. The second stage (descriptive used the quantitative methods (Spearman correlation and cluster analysis to reach the objective of this research. Conclusions indicate that the analyzed corporative websites portray the local culture. This finding discloses that there is not an on-line global culture between the corporations of Brazil, China and France.RESUMENEl entorno empresarial está cambiando significativamente en los últimos años. Las nuevas tecnolog

  2. Hyaluronan synthesis in cultured tobacco cells (BY-2) expressing a chlorovirus enzyme: cytological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkhumkaew, Numfon; Shibatani, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Extraction of hyaluronan from animals or microbial fermentation has risks including contamination with pathogens and microbial toxins. In this work, tobacco cultured-cells (BY-2) were successfully transformed with a chloroviral hyaluronan synthase (cvHAS) gene to produce hyaluronan. Cytological studies revealed accumulation of HA on the cells, and also in subcellular fractions (protoplasts, miniplasts, vacuoplasts, and vacuoles). Transgenic BY-2 cells harboring a vSPO-cvHAS construct containing the vacuolar targeting signal of sporamin connected to the N-terminus of cvHAS accumulated significant amounts of HA in vacuoles. These results suggested that cvHAS successfully functions on the vacuolar membrane and synthesizes/transports HA into vacuoles. Efficient synthesis of HA using this system provides a new method for practical production of HA. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Bacteria abundance and diversity of different life stages of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), revealed by bacteria culture-dependent and PCR-DGGE methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Pan, Qin-Jian; Tian, Hong-Gang; Douglas, Angela E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Microbial abundance and diversity of different life stages (fourth instar larvae, pupae and adults) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., collected from field and reared in laboratory, were investigated using bacteria culture-dependent method and PCR-DGGE analysis based on the sequence of bacteria 16S rRNA V3 region gene. A large quantity of bacteria was found in all life stages of P. xylostella. Field population had higher quantity of bacteria than laboratory population, and larval gut had higher quantity than pupae and adults. Culturable bacteria differed in different life stages of P. xylostella. Twenty-five different bacterial strains were identified in total, among them 20 strains were presented in larval gut, only 8 strains in pupae and 14 strains in adults were detected. Firmicutes bacteria, Bacillus sp., were the most dominant species in every life stage. 15 distinct bands were obtained from DGGE electrophoresis gel. The sequences blasted in GenBank database showed these bacteria belonged to six different genera. Phylogenetic analysis showed the sequences of the bacteria belonged to the Actinobacteri, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Serratia sp. in Proteobacteria was the most abundant species in larval gut. In pupae, unculturable bacteria were the most dominant species, and unculturable bacteria and Serratia sp. were the most dominant species in adults. Our study suggested that a combination of molecular and traditional culturing methods can be effectively used to analyze and to determine the diversity of gut microflora. These known bacteria may play important roles in development of P. xylostella. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. An empirical investigation to analysis the dimensions of cultural security: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Nouraei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of cultural security and its practical implications in a case study of educational system. There are several definitions of culture, which describe different aspects of cultural security. In fact, cultural security tends to show various behaviors, thinking, beliefs and other people’s perspectives in a society, which represents the overall circumstances. Cultural security and its issues make it possible to have a clear image of a society or community. This paper aims to identify the important dimensions of cultural security in terms of basic components of cultural security identified in a framework. Therefore, after identifying the components, using a questionnaire, required data are gathered from the universities of the city of Ilam, Iran and they are analyzed by SPSS18.0 software and its appropriate statistical tests.

  5. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  6. Game and Digital Culture: A Study on Hay Day Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital games are a commercial product developed and distributed by media companies and often uses characters or scenarios of movies, books, and comics. The digital game play comes from individual media consumption patterns. Playing digital games also offer experience and satisfaction based on interactive communication technologies and immersive gameplay. In this digital age, digital games became more social-based, which means they implement the need to invite friends on social media to come into play and help each other in the game. The problems of this study was to determine what factors make Hay Day popular among the players and to find out how Hay Day changing the social patterns interaction of the players. This study aims to look at the functions of digital games in the context of communication with relations in social media and why certain games can achieve very high popularity, while other games failed miserably. This research focuses on Hay Day. The method used is descriptive qualitative approach with case study method. Data collection is using interviews with players active in the game, as well as observation and literature studies. The results showed that a game may gain popularity if someone has a social media environment prior to play. Interactive concept, simulation, and fantasy game technology are also the reason Hay Day became very popular. The perception that the digital game player who formerly regarded as anti-social experience has shifted in the concept of digital game-based social bookmark. Players who have a lot of friends in games are seen as someone who has a lot of friends and a high social level. This is in line with the functions of a traditional game in Indonesian culture, where the region has a wide variety of games to be played together and motivate positive social interaction. Function of digital games also increased, other than playing the game as entertainment, but also now the game became one of the effective

  7. Emotional and cultural impacts of ICT on learners: A case study of Opuwo, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambira, N.; Lim, C. K.; Tan, K. L.

    2017-10-01

    It is believed that the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) among learners and teachers can tremendously enhance the quality of teaching and learning. Besides, the advancement of the ICT technology is also used to improve the academic performance of the learners in learning and has given space to the teachers to boost their teaching in a more effective manner. However, it is also crucial to identify the impacts on the cultural and emotional among the learners. Nonetheless, it is also difficult to imagine contemporary learning environments that are not supported by ICT since the impacts of these technological developments vary among the various communities. In this paper, the contributions are three folds: (i) to investigate the impacts in the cultural and emotional aspects from the perceptions of the teachers about the learners in disadvantaged and marginalized communities, (ii) to design an assessment instrument to survey and determine the different impacts of ICT use on learners from various communities through a set of questionnaires and (iii) to validate the assessment instrument through Cronbach's Alpha reliability testing. Then, the survey is conducted on learners from disadvantaged and marginalized communities in Opuwo, Namibia that makes it an ideal case study for the context of this research. This study made use of a quantitative approach using survey research design through the application of questionnaires to collect data. The size of the population of these community is approximately 500 teachers (from 16 schools, 2 High schools and 14 Primary) and the sample size that is taken into consideration is 42 (8.4% of approximate population). The research revealed that the use of ICT has emotional benefits as well cultural impacts on learners. Careful planning of ICT curriculum was suggested as it will be beneficial to the disadvantaged and marginalized learners.

  8. Toward Cultural Policy Studies on Mobility: Reflections on a Study of the Hong Kong Working Holiday Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Ho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural policy is predominantly, and practically, considered the sum of a government’s activities with respect to the arts, humanities and heritage. Thus, cultural policy encompasses a much broader range of activities than was traditionally associated with an arts policy. Critical cultural policy studies, then, sees a distinction between ‘explicit’ cultural policies that are manifestly labelled as ‘cultural’, and ‘implicit’ cultural policies that are not labelled as such, but that work to shape cultural experiences. This article considers this explicit/implicit cultural policy distinction through John Urry’s idea of ‘social as mobility’, suggesting that some public policies regarding mobility (such as immigration, international trade and labour policy have led to specific cultural consequences and therefore qualify as implicit cultural policy. Using Hong Kong’s working holiday scheme as a case study, this article explores how an economic policy on temporary immigrant labour involves a deliberate cultural agenda as well as ‘unintentional’ cultural consequences and problematises the fact that cultural policy studies are largely framed by the idea of ‘social as society’.

  9. A first isotopic dietary study of the Greenlandic Thule Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, D.E.; Lynnerup, Niels; Arneborg, J.

    2012-01-01

    The isotopic dietary method has been applied to samples of some 65 Thule Culture individuals from existing archaeological collections of Greenlandic human skeletal material. The aim was to use the Greenlandic Thule Culture as a test of the isotopic method, in that we know they were heavily...... was used as the basis for analysis. As expected, the results indicate that these people were almost entirely dependent on the marine biosphere for their protein. An exception is those from Northeast Greenland, whose isotopic signatures show evidence for consumption of terrestrial protein as well....... Not expected were the observed differences at the regional and local levels....

  10. Incorporating Cultural Perspectives into Diabetes Self-Management Programs for East Asian Immigrants: A Mixed-Study Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chorong; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin

    2016-04-01

    It is important to understand East Asian immigrants (EAIs)' unique perspectives in managing diabetes in order to provide culturally-competent care. However, it is not known whether EAIs' perspectives are addressed in diabetes self-management interventions developed for EAIs. Therefore, a mixed-study review was conducted to identify EAIs' perspective from qualitative research (n = 9 studies) and to evaluate the components of EAI diabetes self-management interventions (n = 7). Themes from the qualitative synthesis demonstrated that EAIs have unique cultural values and traditional health beliefs while struggling with multi-contextual barriers due to immigration. The evaluation of EAI diabetes self-management interventions revealed that there was a lack of consensus on cultural strategies for EAIs' across the interventions. Addressing language barriers was the only factor consistently integrated in the cultural components of intervention by employing bilingual interventionists. EAIs' perspectives and experiences need to be incorporated in the future diabetes self-management interventions to better provide culturally-competent care.

  11. The effects of the gender-culture interaction on self-reports of depressive symptoms: cross-cultural study among Egyptians and Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Research in depression has revealed differences in the way depressed individuals across cultures report their symptoms. This literature also points to possible differences in symptom reporting patterns between men and women. Using data from a larger dataset (Beshai et al. 2016, the current study examined whether non-depressed and depressed Egyptian and Canadian men and women differed in their self-report of the various domains of the Beck Depression Inventory –II (BDI-II. Method We recruited a total of 131 depressed and non-depressed participants from both Egypt (n = 29 depressed; n = 29 non-depressed and Canada (n = 35 depressed; n = 38 non-depressed. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview. All participants were asked to complete the BDI-II along with other self-report measures of depression. BDI-II items were divided into two subscales in accordance with Dozois, Dobson & Ahnberg (1998 factor analysis: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative subscales. Results We found a significant three-way interaction effect on the cognitive-affective (F(1,121 = 9.51, p = .003 and main effect of depression status on somatic-vegetative subscales (F(1,121 = 42.80, p < .001. Post hoc analyses revealed that depressed Egyptian men reported lower scores on the cognitive-affective subscale of the BDI-II compared to their depressed Canadian male counterparts. Conclusions These results suggest that males across cultures may differentially report cognitive symptoms of depression. These results also suggest that clinicians and clinical scientists need to further examine the interaction effect of culture and gender when investigating self-reported symptoms of depression.

  12. New pleiotropic effects of eliminating a rare tRNA from Streptomyces coelicolor, revealed by combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of liquid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotchkiss Graham

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldA encodes the only tRNA for a rare leucine codon, UUA. This tRNA is unnecessary for growth, but is required for some aspects of secondary metabolism and morphological development. We describe a transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the effects of deleting bldA on cellular processes during submerged culture: conditions relevant to the industrial production of antibiotics. Results At the end of rapid growth, a co-ordinated transient up-regulation of about 100 genes, including many for ribosomal proteins, was seen in the parent strain but not the ΔbldA mutant. Increased basal levels of the signal molecule ppGpp in the mutant strain may be responsible for this difference. Transcripts or proteins from a further 147 genes classified as bldA-influenced were mostly expressed late in culture in the wild-type, though others were significantly transcribed during exponential growth. Some were involved in the biosynthesis of seven secondary metabolites; and some have probable roles in reorganising metabolism after rapid growth. Many of the 147 genes were "function unknown", and may represent unknown aspects of Streptomyces biology. Only two of the 147 genes contain a TTA codon, but some effects of bldA could be traced to TTA codons in regulatory genes or polycistronic operons. Several proteins were affected post-translationally by the bldA deletion. There was a statistically significant but weak positive global correlation between transcript and corresponding protein levels. Different technical limitations of the two approaches were a major cause of discrepancies in the results obtained with them. Conclusion Although deletion of bldA has very conspicuous effects on the gross phenotype, the bldA molecular phenotype revealed by the "dualomic" approach has shown that only about 2% of the genome is affected; but this includes many previously unknown effects at a variety of different levels, including post

  13. Genetic characteristics and migration history of a bronze culture population in the West Liao-River valley revealed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Chunxiang; Si, Dayong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2011-12-01

    In order to study the genetic characteristics of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (LXC) population, a main bronze culture branch in northern China dated 4500-3500 years ago, two uniparentally inherited markers, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), were analyzed on 14 human remains excavated from the Dadianzi site. The 14 sequences, which contained 13 haplotypes, were assigned to 9 haplogroups, and Y-SNP typing of 5 male individuals assigned them to haplogroups N (M231) and O3 (M122). The results indicate that the LXC population mainly included people carrying haplogroups from northern Asia who had lived in this region since the Neolithic period, as well as genetic evidence of immigration from the Central Plain. Later in the Bronze Age, part of the population migrated to the south away from a cooler climate, which ultimately influenced the gene pool in the Central Plain. Thus, climate change is an important factor, which drove the population migration during the Bronze Age in northern China. Based on these results, the local genetic continuity did not seem to be affected by outward migration, although more data are needed especially from other ancient populations to determine the influence of return migration on genetic continuity.

  14. Epilogue: The study of care in cross cultural, interdisciplinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No abstract available for this article... Keywords: care in cross culture, interdisciplinary perspective. Research Review Supplement 16 (2004: 95-101). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  15. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  16. School Culture Meets Sport: A Case Study in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Lisette; McCormack, Jaleh

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic work undertaken with 21 students and several members of staff at an elite girls' school in New Zealand to investigate the relation between school culture, pedagogical practices and discourses of physical education and school sport. It explores what and who contours the participation of these young women in sport,…

  17. Differences between tight and loose cultures : A 33-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2011-01-01

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated

  18. Legitimating Clinical Research in the Study of Organizational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that traditional research model used in industrial-organizational psychology is not useful in understanding deeper dynamics of organizations, especially those phenomena labeled as "cultural." Contends that use of data obtained during clinical and consulting work should be legitimated as valid research data. Spells out clinical model and…

  19. AETIOLOGY OF IGBO CULTURAL RITES (A CASE STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    communicate achievement of developmental tasks or changes in the environment as required by the ... share a common cultural heritage under the leadership of the ..... sacrifices. One sacrificed her offspring to save the life of an individual; the .... organization structures become more important than the people who make up ...

  20. From putative genes to temperament and culture: cultural characteristics of the distribution of dominant affective temperaments in national studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Xenia; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2011-06-01

    Affective temperaments may carry distinct evolutionary advantages both on the individual or a group level, so we can expect that in different cultural and national samples the frequency of dominant affective temperaments will show characteristic differences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of distribution of dominant affective temperaments in different national studies of general non-clinical population. In our study we included six studies published in different countries around the world (Argentina, Germany, Hungary, Korea, Portugal, and Lebanon) which investigated a large sample of non-clinical population using TEMPS-A, and reported frequencies for dominant affective temperaments. The frequencies of dominant affective temperaments were compared using chi square tests. We found a significant difference in the frequency of affective temperaments among the different national studies in case of the cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments. We found important parallels between the frequency of affective temperaments and cultural dimensions described by Hofstede (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). The characteristics encompassed by the depressive temperament show considerable similarities with Hofstede's individualism-collectivism dimension, while those of the hyperthymic temperament seem to be similar to uncertainty avoidance, and the irritable temperament shows similarities with Hofstede's power distance. Furthermore, the relative frequency of these dominant temperaments in case of the different national samples paralleled the relative scores of these countries on the corresponding cultural scales. Our results indicate an important relationship between affective temperaments and cultural dimensions, which suggests that these phenomena may be the manifestations of the same genetically determined predispositions in different forms. We included a study by Erfurth et al. (2005), in which affective temperaments were evaluated

  1. Cultural ergonomics in interactional and experiential design: conceptual framework and case study of the Taiwanese twin cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long; Chen, Si-Jing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Rungtai

    2016-01-01

    Cultural ergonomics is an approach that considers interaction- and experience-based variations among cultures. Designers need to develop a better understanding of cultural ergonomics not just to participate in cultural contexts but also to develop interactive experiences for users. Cultural ergonomics extends our understanding of cultural meaning and our ability to utilize such understanding for design and evaluate everyday products. This study aims to combine cultural ergonomics and interactive design to explore human-culture interaction in user experiences. The linnak is a typical Taiwanese aboriginal cultural object. This study examined the cultural meaning and operational interface of the linnak, as well as the scenarios in which it is used in interaction and user experiences. The results produced a cultural ergonomics interface for examining the manner in which designers communicate across cultures as well as the interweaving of design and culture in the design process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Guiding the Process of Culturally Competent Care With Hispanic Patients: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Linda L; Metzler Sawin, Erika

    2016-05-01

    To explore nursing care actions that lead to culturally competent care for Hispanic patients. Nurses report apprehension when delivering nursing care because of language barriers and a lack of Hispanic cultural understanding. Research is needed to inform culturally aware nursing practice actions for Hispanic patients. The study used a qualitative, grounded theory design to address the questions: (a) What cultural knowledge should nurses have when caring for Hispanic patients and families and (b) What nursing actions should nurses take to provide culturally competent care? Hispanic lay health promoters and Hispanic community members were interviewed to make recommendations for care. A model was identified that informs culturally competent nursing care. "Connectedness," the central phenomenon, describes nursing actions and contains subthemes explaining influences on nursing care. "Up to You" and "At the Mercy of the System" are descriptive themes influencing connectedness. Connectedness is central to culturally well-informed nurse-patient interactions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Culture and Learner Beliefs: A Study of Three Malay Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizah A Majid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences how people experience. Although there is literature on how culture can influence adult learners’ orientation to learning, there is little on how culture influences the nature of successful learning amongst adults (Merriam and Mohamad, 2000. The purpose of this paper is to examine how cultural values influence a selected group of successful adult learners’ views on learning in the Malaysian education context. A qualitative research design was adopted to explore this question. Three postgraduates who had completed their studies on time were interviewed. Using the constant comparative method of data analysis (Wellington, 2000, five cultural values as identified by Abdullah (1996 and Hofstede (1991; collectivistic, religious, relationship-oriented, hierarchical, and face conscious were used to serve as the main themes in the analysis. In analysing the data, three cultural values emerged; religious, relationship-oriented and, collectivistic. These findings have implications for understanding how cultural values may influence adult Malay students’ views on learning.

  4. Study on human chondrocyte culture viability for autologous transplantation in clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Lombello

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The limited regenerative capacity of the cartilage tissuemakes the treatment of chondral lesions difficult. The techniquescurrently available to treat cartilage lesions may relieve symptoms,but do not regenerate the injured tissue. Autologous chondrocytetransplantation uses cell biology and cell culture techniques toregenerate the hyaline cartilage. Methods: In this study, we analyzechondrocyte biopsy collection and culture for autologoustransplantation. Ultrastructural analyses of hyaline cartilage biopsieswere performed 0, 6, 24 and 48 hours after collection. The tissue evenafter 48 hours. Eleven cell culture assays were performed to evaluateisolation, viability, morphology, proliferation and absence ofcontaminants. Results: The cell culture techniques used allowedchondrocyte proliferation. Rates on cell viability were maintained abovethe acceptable patterns (above 90. Control of cell culture laboratoryconditions showed absence of contaminants, assuring safety of theprocess. The chondrocytes obtained presented the morphology typicalof cultured cell monolayers. Conclusion: The results indicate viabilityof chondrocyte culture technique for clinical application in autologoustransplantation.

  5. Exploring the Effects of Intercultural Learning on Cross-Cultural Adaptation in a Study Abroad Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yau

    2011-01-01

    This study targets Asian students studying abroad and explores the effects of intercultural learning on their cross-cultural adaptation by drawing upon a questionnaire survey. On the one hand, the results of this study find that under the influence of intercultural learning, students respond differently in their cross-cultural adaptation and no…

  6. Quantitative proteomic study of Aspergillus Fumigatus secretome revealed deamidation of secretory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-04-24

    Aspergillus sp. plays an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and is also exploited as cell factories for the production of industrial enzymes. This study profiled the secretome of Aspergillus fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch by high throughput quantitative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Post translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a critical role in protein functions. However, our understanding of the PTMs in secretory proteins is limited. Here, we present the identification of PTMs such as deamidation of secreted proteins of A. fumigatus. This study quantified diverse groups of extracellular secreted enzymes and their functional classification revealed cellulases and glycoside hydrolases (32.9%), amylases (0.9%), hemicellulases (16.2%), lignin degrading enzymes (8.1%), peptidases and proteases (11.7%), chitinases, lipases and phosphatases (7.6%), and proteins with unknown function (22.5%). The comparison of quantitative iTRAQ results revealed that cellulose and xylan stimulates expression of specific cellulases and hemicellulases, and their abundance level as a function of substrate. In-depth data analysis revealed deamidation as a major PTM of key cellulose hydrolyzing enzymes like endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and glucosidases. Hemicellulose degrading endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, monosidases, xylosidases, lignin degrading laccase, isoamyl alcohol oxidase and oxidoreductases were also found to be deamidated. The filamentous fungi play an essential role in lignocellulosic biomass recycling and fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus were also exploited as cell factories for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals, and industrially important enzymes. In this study, extracellular proteins secreted by thermophilic A. fumigatus when grown with cellulose, xylan and starch were profiled using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) by

  7. The relationship between leadership and organizational culture: a study carried out in an HEI

    OpenAIRE

    Andressa Gonçalves; Nicole Pasini Trevisol; Mauricio Capobianco Lopes; Joseane da Silva Soethe

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to identify leadership styles and the type of organizational culture present in the institution of higher education studied, as well as the relationship between these two artefacts in the educational context studied. To this end, theoretical frameworks were sought as the concept of organizational culture, transformational and transactional leadership and also the relationship between culture and leadership. Data were collected through a “in situ” questionnaire ...

  8. Aging, Culture, and Memory for Socially Meaningful Item-Context Associations: An East-West Cross-Cultural Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J.; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age. PMID:23593288

  9. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Yang

    Full Text Available Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older. All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  10. Aging, culture, and memory for socially meaningful item-context associations: an East-West cross-cultural comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age.

  11. Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Cultures Revisited: A Case Study of South Korea’s Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buja Elena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In about thirty-five years since the first publication of Hofstede’s (1991 study on the dimensions of national cultures, people all over the world have evolved in various directions and to various extents due to the phenomenon known as globalization. The present paper aims to investigate whether within this time span South Korea, a technically and economically developed country, whose way of life is strongly influenced by Confucianism, has complied with or resisted this phenomenon. The data that will be discussed have been collected from a Korean best seller (Shin’s Please Look After Mom, 2012 that approximately covers the period in which Hofstede conducted his investigations on national cultures. Hopefully the findings will indicate that the deeply rooted values have remained almost the same, while the outer layers of culture (such as the symbols or rituals, also known as ‘practices’ have changed due to the influences exerted by the other important economic and cultural powers of the world (such as Japan, the United States or some of the European countries Korea has come in touch with.

  12. Culture Matters in Successful Curriculum Change: An International Study of the Influence of National and Organizational Culture Tested With Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Broers, N.J.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: National culture has been shown to play a role in curriculum change in medical schools, and business literature has described a similar influence of organizational culture on change processes in organizations. This study investigated the impact of both national and organizational culture on

  13. A secretome analysis reveals that PPARα is upregulated by fractionated-dose γ-irradiation in three-dimensional keratinocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee Yong; Kim, Hyun Ji; Yi, Jae Youn

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) environment composed of properly interconnected and differentiated cells that allows communication and cooperation among cells via secreted molecules would be expected to more accurately reflect cellular responses. Here, we investigated γ-irradiation-induced changes in the secretome of 3D-cultured keratinocytes. An analysis of keratinocyte secretome profiles following fractionated-dose γ-irradiation revealed changes in genes involved in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and the immune system. Notably, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPARα) was upregulated in response to fractionated-dose γ-irradiation. This upregulation was associated with an increase in the transcription of known PPARα target genes, including angiopoietin-like protein 4, dermokine and kallikrein-related peptide 12, which were differentially regulated by fractionated-dose γ-irradiation. Collectively, our data imply a mechanism linking γ-irradiation and secretome changes, and suggest that these changes could play a significant role in the coordinated cellular responses to harmful ionizing radiation, such as those associated with radiation therapy. This extension of our understanding of γ-irradiation-induced secretome changes has the potential to improve radiation therapy strategies. Control of inflammatory waves, improved wound healing, and stabilization of the skin barrier are imperative for minimizing such injuries. Therefore, PPARα agonists and antagonists have the potential to become important therapeutic agents for the treatment of γ-irradiation induced skin damage. Specifically, our analysis suggests that the undesirable consequences of long-term exposure to ionizing radiation could be alleviated by PPARα agonists

  14. A secretome analysis reveals that PPARα is upregulated by fractionated-dose γ-irradiation in three-dimensional keratinocyte cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jee Yong; Kim, Hyun Ji; Yi, Jae Youn [Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) environment composed of properly interconnected and differentiated cells that allows communication and cooperation among cells via secreted molecules would be expected to more accurately reflect cellular responses. Here, we investigated γ-irradiation-induced changes in the secretome of 3D-cultured keratinocytes. An analysis of keratinocyte secretome profiles following fractionated-dose γ-irradiation revealed changes in genes involved in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and the immune system. Notably, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPARα) was upregulated in response to fractionated-dose γ-irradiation. This upregulation was associated with an increase in the transcription of known PPARα target genes, including angiopoietin-like protein 4, dermokine and kallikrein-related peptide 12, which were differentially regulated by fractionated-dose γ-irradiation. Collectively, our data imply a mechanism linking γ-irradiation and secretome changes, and suggest that these changes could play a significant role in the coordinated cellular responses to harmful ionizing radiation, such as those associated with radiation therapy. This extension of our understanding of γ-irradiation-induced secretome changes has the potential to improve radiation therapy strategies. Control of inflammatory waves, improved wound healing, and stabilization of the skin barrier are imperative for minimizing such injuries. Therefore, PPARα agonists and antagonists have the potential to become important therapeutic agents for the treatment of γ-irradiation induced skin damage. Specifically, our analysis suggests that the undesirable consequences of long-term exposure to ionizing radiation could be alleviated by PPARα agonists.

  15. A comparative study on the dental health status of five precolumbian Peruvian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzay, R P; Allison, M J; Pezzia, A

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of dental health status of ancient Southern Peru, 101 skeletal remains were studied from five cultures: Paracas, Nazca, Tiahuanaco, Ica, and Inca. The Paracas and Ica cultures exhibited more missing antemortem teeth per mandible than the other cultures. Frequency of missing one or more third molars was less than expected and not as high as reported in peoples of Mongoloid heritage. The Paracas, Ica and Nazca, "coastal" cultures had a higher caries incidence than the "inland" cultures. Whether this relates to some difference in diet or water supply remains unresolved and warrants further investigation. Moderate attrition was noted in all the Precolumbian cultures but pulpal involvement was not observed. Osteitis, noted in all the cultures, was more pronounced in the Nazca, Paracas and Ica cultures. There appeared to be a direct relationship between caries involvement and the number of missing antemortem teeth to osteitis. Calculus was heavier in the Paracas and Ica cultures. In addition, the Paracas culture exhibited a dark brown stain on the teeth which may imply some difference between the cultures in either the food, water or social habits.

  16. Evolutionary Meta-Analysis of Association Studies Reveals Ancient Constraints Affecting Disease Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Joel T.; Chen, Rong; Sanderford, Maxwell; Butte, Atul J.; Kumar, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide disease association studies contrast genetic variation between disease cohorts and healthy populations to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other genetic markers revealing underlying genetic architectures of human diseases. Despite scores of efforts over the past decade, many reproducible genetic variants that explain substantial proportions of the heritable risk of common human diseases remain undiscovered. We have conducted a multispecies genomic analysis of 5,831 putative human risk variants for more than 230 disease phenotypes reported in 2,021 studies. We find that the current approaches show a propensity for discovering disease-associated SNPs (dSNPs) at conserved genomic positions because the effect size (odds ratio) and allelic P value of genetic association of an SNP relates strongly to the evolutionary conservation of their genomic position. We propose a new measure for ranking SNPs that integrates evolutionary conservation scores and the P value (E-rank). Using published data from a large case-control study, we demonstrate that E-rank method prioritizes SNPs with a greater likelihood of bona fide and reproducible genetic disease associations, many of which may explain greater proportions of genetic variance. Therefore, long-term evolutionary histories of genomic positions offer key practical utility in reassessing data from existing disease association studies, and in the design and analysis of future studies aimed at revealing the genetic basis of common human diseases. PMID:22389448

  17. Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Anker, Malene

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme....... Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways...... in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure...

  18. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Anne; Artioli, G.; Bleuet, P.; Cotte, M.; Tafforeau, P.; Susini, J.; Dumas, P.; Somogyl, A.; Cotte, M.; Kockelmann, W.; Kolar, J.; Areon, I.; Meden, A.; Strlie, M.; Pantos, M.; Vendrell, M.; Wess, T.; Gunneweg, J.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures

  19. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Anne [Institut Neel - CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Artioli, G. [Padova Univ. (Italy); Bleuet, P.; Cotte, M.; Tafforeau, P.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Dumas, P.; Somogyl, A. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cotte, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR171, 75 - Paris (France)]|[European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kockelmann, W. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom); Kolar, J. [Ljubljana Univ., Morana RTD, Slovenia, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Areon, I. [Nova Gorica Univ. (Slovenia); Meden, A.; Strlie, M. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Pantos, M. [Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Vendrell, M. [Barcelona Univ., dept. of Crystallography and Mineralogy (Spain); Wess, T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Optometry and Institute of Vision (Ireland); Gunneweg, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures.

  20. Outcomes in culture positive and culture negative ascitic fluid infection in patients with viral cirrhosis: cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ailia W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascitic fluid infection (AFI in cirrhotic patients has a high morbidity and mortality. It has two variants namely, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP and culture negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome in cirrhotic patients with culture positive (SBP and culture negative neutrocytic ascites. Methods We analyzed 675 consecutive hepatitis B and/or C related cirrhosis patients with ascites admitted in our hospital from November 2005 to December 2007. Of these, 187 patients had AFI; clinical and laboratory parameters of these patients including causes of cirrhosis, Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP score were recorded. Results Out of 187 patients with AFI, 44 (23.5% had SBP while 143 (76.4% had CNNA. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was the most common cause of cirrhosis in 139 (74.3% patients. Patients with SBP had high CTP score as compared to CNNA (12.52 ± 1.45 vs. 11.44 ± 1.66; p 9/L as compared to CNNA (132 ± 91 × 109/L, p = 0.005. We found a high creatinine (mg/dl (1.95 ± 1.0 vs. 1.44 ± 0.85, (p = 0.003 and high prothrombin time (PT in seconds (24.8 ± 6.6 vs. 22.4 ± 7.2 (p = 0.04 in SBP as compared to CNNA. More patients with SBP (14/44; 31.8% had blood culture positivity as compare to CNNA (14/143; 9.8%, p = 0.002. Escherichia. Coli was the commonest organism in blood culture in 15/28 (53.5% patients. SBP group had a higher mortality (11/44; 25% as compared to CNNA (12/143; 8.4%, p = 0.003. On multiple logistic regression analysis, creatinine >1.1 mg/dl and positive blood culture were the independent predictors of mortality in patients with SBP. Conclusion Patients with SBP have a higher mortality than CNNA. Independent predictors of mortality in SBP are raised serum creatinine and a positive blood culture.

  1. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  2. An Exploratory Study Linking Turkish Regional Food with Cultural Destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ergul; Colin Johnson; Ali Sukru Cetinkaya; Jale Boga Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Food and tourism may be considered as two interrelated elements that bring people and cultures together on many different occasions. Research indicates that food could be viewed as a peak touristic experience and a major tourist attraction. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the significance of food tourism for Turkey and to create a number of innovative regional food related itineraries that would be replicable. Four main results emerged from the analysis of the inter...

  3. An Extended Case Study Methoology for Investigating Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Factors on Human-Automation Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina Sun; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Johnson, Walter; Cacanindin, Artemio

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Forces newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the cases politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerabilityhigh risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  4. Study of Impact Of Culture On Women Throughout The World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mathur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of an Indian women. Marked gender discrimination in India has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and selfimage, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women’s lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women’s mental health. This paper discusses some recent advances in the area of movements that has gained tremendous impetus in the humanities and social sciences is the rediscovery of the role of women in history and their contributions to human culture. These diverse collections demonstrate the far-ranging impact women have had on all aspects of culture. From innovative women artists and pioneering scientists and technologists to the woman who campaigned for universal suffrage and social equality, their stories provide a window on to women’s multifaceted contributions to our shared heritage.

  5. Transfection in perfused microfluidic cell culture devices: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimes, William; Rubi, Mathieu; Super, Alexandre; Marques, Marco P C; Veraitch, Farlan; Szita, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Automated microfluidic devices are a promising route towards a point-of-care autologous cell therapy. The initial steps of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivation involve transfection and long term cell culture. Integration of these steps would help reduce the cost and footprint of micro-scale devices with applications in cell reprogramming or gene correction. Current examples of transfection integration focus on maximising efficiency rather than viable long-term culture. Here we look for whole process compatibility by integrating automated transfection with a perfused microfluidic device designed for homogeneous culture conditions. The injection process was characterised using fluorescein to establish a LabVIEW-based routine for user-defined automation. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated by chemically transfecting a GFP plasmid into mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Cells transfected in the device showed an improvement in efficiency (34%, n = 3) compared with standard protocols (17.2%, n = 3). This represents a first step towards microfluidic processing systems for cell reprogramming or gene therapy.

  6. The Importance of Cultural Values and Trust for Innovation - A European Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Bing; Habisch, André; Thøgersen, John

    2018-01-01

    covering 27 European countries, we find that innovation at the country level is positively correlated with the level of societal trust and with three cultural value dimensions: “Autonomy vs. Embeddedness”, “Egalitarianism vs. Hierarchy”, and “Harmony vs. Mastery”. A multivariate SEM analysis reveals...... that when “Autonomy vs. Embeddedness” is controlled, the two other cultural value dimensions are no longer significant. Further, a SEM path analysis confirms that the relationship between cultural values and innovation performances is completely mediated through the level of trust in a society. Overall...... settings (i.e., policy makers) are discussed. It is suggested that for successful innovation to blossom, the actors on both levels should aim at strengthening the cultural emphasis on individual autonomy, institutional integrity and mutual trust....

  7. The diachronic temporality as a category in the study of contemporary cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Manoel Dias da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possible interpretations of diachrony, as a category of social analysis, in the study of contemporary cultural differences. The author reviews some studies and surveys that show the temporalities experienced in cultural practices, interested in observing different understandings of the category, in the investigative plan. It concludes that the temporality of events present in cultures have been a privileged locus for questioning about the personal trajectories and biographies of various actors, and the same wording that several areas of social practices are expected when individuals tense or move their strategies of appropriation of cultures in their times and spaces.

  8. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Mark, F.; Søndergaard, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative societal culture research (QSCR) in organization studies crystallizes a configuration of social science perspectives and methods that became prominent in the 1970s. We consider the qualities of and boundaries around cultural groups that this tradition emphasizes, and other...... characteristics of cultural groups that it does not emphasize. Current debates surrounding this tradition reflect both recent social science innovations and rediscoveries of early social science perspectives. Our analysis of quantitative cross-cultural societal research in organization studies considers...... this process of crystallization, innovation and rediscovery. We suggest ways to address current controversies and promote conversations with other research approaches....

  9. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  10. Toward a New Approach to the Study of Personality in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    We review recent developments in the study of culture and personality measurement. Three approaches are described: an etic approach that focuses on establishing measurement equivalence in imported measures of personality, an emic (indigenous) approach that studies personality in specific cultures, and a combined emic-etic approach to personality.…

  11. Culture Studies and Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Meng-Ching

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the potentiality that culture studies has to motivate Tawainese junior-high-school pupils to learn English, and tried to establish the relations between pupil interests in culture studies and their orientations, attitudes, and motivation toward learning English. Grade 1 and 2 students (n=480) from Taipei City and Taipei County…

  12. Towards culture-specific robot customization : a study on greeting interaction with Egyptians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trovato, G.; Zecca, M.; Sessa, S.; Jamone, L.; Ham, J.R.C.; Hashimoto, K.; Takanishi, A.

    2014-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between national cultural background and interaction with robots, and many earlier studies have investigated how people from different cultures perceive the inclusion of robots into society. Conversely, very few studies have investigated how robots, speaking and using

  13. University Organizational Culture through Insider Eyes: A Case Study of a Writing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Haley; Conley, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Using a case study approach, the authors examined university administrator and instructor perspectives about a writing program's organizational culture. In so doing, members of the writing program were invited to participate in interviews over a three-year period. This qualitative case study suggests that examples of culture through a three-lens…

  14. Intergenerational Transmission Effects on Relationship Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keitaro; Busby, Dean M.

    2012-01-01

    Although intergenerational transmission processes have been studied on various aspects of family life, cross-cultural comparisons have rarely been made. In the present study, the authors examine how intergenerational transmission processes on relationship satisfaction differ between individuals with different gender and cultural identities. A…

  15. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…

  16. Cross-Cultural Film Study: Seeing Inside Out (Approaches to Teaching Freedom of Expression).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufderheide, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Explores classroom approaches to multicultural film study which seek to avoid miscommunication between cultures. Suggests that instructors prepare a checklist of factors to help students identify how specific films relay their messages. Argues that film study can broaden students' notions of free expression, and frame it as a cultural challenge.…

  17. Learner Self-Regulation in Distance Education: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Aisha S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cultural variations between two samples of Arab and American distance learners (N = 190). The overarching purpose was to chart the underlying relationships between learner self-regulation and cultural orientation within distance education environments using structural equation modeling. The study found significant…

  18. Leucine supplementation attenuates macrophage foam-cell formation: Studies in humans, mice, and cultured macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Rom, Oren; Hamoud, Shadi; Volkova, Nina; Hayek, Tony; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Aviram, Michael

    2018-02-05

    Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Similarly, leucine supplementation to C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks) resulted in decreased cholesterol content in their harvested peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in relation with reduced cholesterol biosynthesis rate. Studies in J774A.1 murine macrophages revealed that leucine dose-dependently decreased cellular cholesterol and triglyceride mass. Macrophages treated with leucine (0.2 mM) showed attenuated uptake of very low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride biosynthesis rate, with a concurrent down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, a key enzyme catalyzing triglyceride biosynthesis in macrophages. Similar effects were observed when macrophages were treated with α-ketoisocaproate, a key leucine metabolite. Finally, both in vivo and in vitro leucine supplementation significantly improved macrophage mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. The above studies, conducted in human, mice, and cultured macrophages, highlight a protective role for leucine attenuating macrophage foam-cell formation by mechanisms related to the metabolism of cholesterol, triglycerides, and energy production. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. RNA-Seq Reveals Enhanced Sugar Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans Co-cultured with Candida albicans within Mixed-Species Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhi; Kim, Dongyeop; Zhou, Xuedong; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A.; Richards, Vincent P.; Koo, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC), which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C. albicans influences the transcriptome of S. mutans. The presence of C. albicans dramatically altered gene expression in S. mutans in the dual-species biofilm, resulting in 393 genes differentially expressed, compared to mono-species biofilms of S. mutans. By Gene Ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolic/catabolic processes. KEGG pathway impact analysis showed elevated pyruvate and galactose metabolism, suggesting that co-cultivation with C. albicans influences carbohydrate utilization by S. mutans. Analysis of metabolites confirmed the increases in carbohydrate metabolism, with elevated amounts of formate in the culture medium of co-cultured biofilms. Moreover, co-cultivation with C. albicans altered transcription of S. mutans signal transduction (comC and ciaRH) genes associated with fitness and virulence. Interestingly, the expression of genes for mutacins (bacteriocins) and CRISPR were down-regulated. Collectively, the data provide a comprehensive insight into S. mutans transcriptomic changes induced by C. albicans, and offer novel insights into how bacterial–fungal interactions may enhance the severity of dental caries. PMID:28642749

  20. RNA-Seq Reveals Enhanced Sugar Metabolism in Streptococcus mutans Co-cultured with Candida albicans within Mixed-Species Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhi He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries (ECC, which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C. albicans influences the transcriptome of S. mutans. The presence of C. albicans dramatically altered gene expression in S. mutans in the dual-species biofilm, resulting in 393 genes differentially expressed, compared to mono-species biofilms of S. mutans. By Gene Ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolic/catabolic processes. KEGG pathway impact analysis showed elevated pyruvate and galactose metabolism, suggesting that co-cultivation with C. albicans influences carbohydrate utilization by S. mutans. Analysis of metabolites confirmed the increases in carbohydrate metabolism, with elevated amounts of formate in the culture medium of co-cultured biofilms. Moreover, co-cultivation with C. albicans altered transcription of S. mutans signal transduction (comC and ciaRH genes associated with fitness and virulence. Interestingly, the expression of genes for mutacins (bacteriocins and CRISPR were down-regulated. Collectively, the data provide a comprehensive insight into S. mutans transcriptomic changes induced by C. albicans, and offer novel insights into how bacterial–fungal interactions may enhance the severity of dental caries.

  1. PIXE in cultural heritage studies: present role and new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The non-destructive study of artistic and archaeological objects relies on the use of a large panel of modern analytical tools. Among them, PIXE plays a prominent role due to its almost unique combination of excellent analytical features in terms of sensitivity and accuracy combined with a non-destructive and even non-invasive character. the latter advantage stems from extensive instrumental progress - like the external beam - carried out since the advent of PIXE in the 1970s to account for the precious and unique nature of artworks and archaeological artifacts that preclude any sampling or damage. the situation has however evolved in the recent years as several competing techniques providing non-destructively the chemical composition have arisen, which more or less shake the privileged status of PIXE. On one hand, analytical techniques implemented with tabletop or movable XRF instruments have been massively developed, which allow in situ analysis and represent a progress in terms of artworks safety and flexibility of analysis. On the other hand, access to synchrotron radiation facilities is becoming easier and therefore the use of the powerful X-ray absorption techniques (XANES, EXAFS), that add chemical environment information to the elemental analysis, is progressively gaining popularity. Considering these trends, it seems important to reassess the place of PIXE in the field of art and archaeology and to underline its specific assets. the aim of this article is to pinpoint the situation where PIXE is the best analytical tool with regard to the specificity of art and archaeological items and to stress the new challenges it will have to face. Case studies carried out with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF will illustrate the situations where PIXE exhibits specific advantages: Light element measurement. The high ionization cross section of light elements by charged particles favors the accurate measurement of sodium, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, whose

  2. PIXE in cultural heritage studies: present role and new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, Palais du Louvre, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The non-destructive study of artistic and archaeological objects relies on the use of a large panel of modern analytical tools. Among them, PIXE plays a prominent role due to its almost unique combination of excellent analytical features in terms of sensitivity and accuracy combined with a non-destructive and even non-invasive character. the latter advantage stems from extensive instrumental progress - like the external beam - carried out since the advent of PIXE in the 1970s to account for the precious and unique nature of artworks and archaeological artifacts that preclude any sampling or damage. the situation has however evolved in the recent years as several competing techniques providing non-destructively the chemical composition have arisen, which more or less shake the privileged status of PIXE. On one hand, analytical techniques implemented with tabletop or movable XRF instruments have been massively developed, which allow in situ analysis and represent a progress in terms of artworks safety and flexibility of analysis. On the other hand, access to synchrotron radiation facilities is becoming easier and therefore the use of the powerful X-ray absorption techniques (XANES, EXAFS), that add chemical environment information to the elemental analysis, is progressively gaining popularity. Considering these trends, it seems important to reassess the place of PIXE in the field of art and archaeology and to underline its specific assets. the aim of this article is to pinpoint the situation where PIXE is the best analytical tool with regard to the specificity of art and archaeological items and to stress the new challenges it will have to face. Case studies carried out with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF will illustrate the situations where PIXE exhibits specific advantages: Light element measurement. The high ionization cross section of light elements by charged particles favors the accurate measurement of sodium, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, whose

  3. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    OLSEN, SO; SCHOLDERER, J; BRUNSO, K; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherla...

  4. Astronomy, Indigenous Knowledge and Interpretation: Advancing studies of Cultural Astronomy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (ISAAC) Oxford X conference came to Africa for the first time in 2014. Oxford X exposed South African students and researchers to cultural astronomy data collection and analysis methods, as well as to potential mentors to further the goal of advancing the field. Cultural Astronomy studies in South Africa, however, remain in a nascent stage, which in some ways can be said for the entire field, but especially when it comes ...

  5. Advertising in a cross-cultural environment: a study of French and Chinese consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The globalisation of media, incomes and technology was expected as the convergence of homogeneous consumer needs, tastes and lifestyle. However, there is a debate on the fact that culture is universal or not. This paper aim is to research the possibility of initiating a new strategy for advertisement in a cross-cultural environment. By studying the concept of culture and using it to compare the way Chinese and French people consider advertising, this paper wants to outline a new pattern fo...

  6. HISTORY OF in vitro CULTURE STUDIES ON Helianthus annuus L. IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergun DAYAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques offer important approaches about sunflower breeding and germplasm conservation. The available data on the subject in Turkey was reviewed in order to encourage the researchers to study on tissue culture of sunflower. In vitro studies on sunflower in Turkey started in the first half of the 90s. A large number of in vitro culture studies on sunflower using anthers, hypocotyls, cotyledons, petioles of cotyledon, shoot-tips, mature embryos, immature embryos, leaves, petioles, immature cotyledons and microspores as different explants have been published. Microspore culture, anther culture, embryo culture, slow growth storage, micropropagation and gene transfer with Agrobacterium were also used in these culture studies. Although these studies formed an important scientific knowledge about sunflower tissue culture in the country, it is still not sufficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need to make more in vitro studies on sunflower which is an important agricultural plant for Turkey. The transfer of the results of these studies to agricultural applications is also essential from a sectoral standpoint.

  7. Testing a tri-partite contingent model of engineering cultures: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Glen D.

    2010-01-01

    For some time there has been a growing awareness of organizational culture and its impact on the functioning of engineering and maintenance departments. Those wishing to implement contemporary maintenance regimes (e.g. condition based maintenance) are often encouraged to develop 'appropriate cultures' to support a new method's introduction. Unfortunately these same publications often fail to specifically articulate the cultural values required to support those efforts. In the broader literature, only a limited number of case examples document the cultural values held by engineering asset intensive firms and how they contribute to their success (or failure). Consequently a gap exists in our knowledge of what engineering cultures currently might look like, or what might constitute a best practice engineering asset culture. The findings of a pilot study investigating the perceived ideal characteristics of engineering asset cultures are reported. Engineering managers, consultants and academics (n=47), were surveyed as to what they saw were essential attributes of both engineering cultures and engineering asset personnel. Valued cultural elements included those orientated around continuous improvement, safety and quality. Valued individual attributes included openness to change, interpersonal skills and conscientiousness. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the development of a best practice cultural framework for practitioners and engineering managers.

  8. Application of cell co-culture system to study fat and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Hwang, Inho

    2014-09-01

    Animal cell culture is a highly complex process, in which cells are grown under specific conditions. The growth and development of these cells is a highly unnatural process in vitro condition. Cells are removed from animal tissues and artificially cultured in various culture vessels. Vitamins, minerals, and serum growth factors are supplied to maintain cell viability. Obtaining result homogeneity of in vitro and in vivo experiments is rare, because their structure and function are different. Living tissues have highly ordered complex architecture and are three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The interaction between adjacent cell types is quite distinct from the in vitro cell culture, which is usually two-dimensional (2D). Co-culture systems are studied to analyze the interactions between the two different cell types. The muscle and fat co-culture system is useful in addressing several questions related to muscle modeling, muscle degeneration, apoptosis, and muscle regeneration. Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells could be a useful diagnostic tool to understand the muscle and fat formation in animals. Even though, co-culture systems have certain limitations, they provide a more realistic 3D view and information than the individual cell culture system. It is suggested that co-culture systems are useful in evaluating the intercellular communication and composition of two different cell types.

  9. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context.

  10. Study design and protocol for a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress and self-management intervention for localized prostate cancer: The Encuentros de Salud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Antoni, Michael H; Moreno, Patricia I; Traeger, Lara; Perdomo, Dolores; Dahn, Jason; Miller, Gregory E; Cole, Steve; Orjuela, Julian; Pizarro, Edgar; Yanez, Betina

    2018-06-14

    Almost 2.8 million men in the U.S. are living with prostate cancer (PC), accounting for 40% of all male cancer survivors. Men diagnosed with prostate cancer may experience chronic and debilitating treatment side effects, including sexual and urinary dysfunction, pain and fatigue. Side effects can be stressful and can also lead to poor psychosocial functioning. Prior trials reveal that group-based cognitive behavioral stress and self-management (CBSM) is effective in reducing stress and mitigating some of these symptoms, yet little is known about the effects of culturally-translated CBSM among Spanish-speaking men with PC. This manuscript describes the rationale and study design of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial to determine whether participation in a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (C-CBSM) intervention leads to significantly greater reductions in symptom burden and improvements in health-related quality of life relative to participation in a non-culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention. Participants (N = 260) will be Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino men randomized to the standard, non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies, stress management, and health maintenance) or the culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention (e.g., content adapted to be compatible with Hispanic/Latino cultural patterns and belief systems, meanings, values and social context) for 10 weeks. Primary outcomes (i.e., disease-specific symptom burden and health-related quality of life) will be assessed across time. We hypothesize that a culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention will be more efficacious in reducing symptom burden and improving health-related quality of life among Hispanic/Latino men when compared to a non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. CULTURAL HERITAGE IN STUDIES OF GEOGRAPHY AND TERRITORIAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DOLORES PALAZÓN BOTELLA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  The Geography and Territorial Planning Degree replaces, under the provisions of the European Higher Education Area and the recommendations of the “Libro Blanco: Título de Grado en Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio”, the Geography Bachelor’s Degree. This change not only affected its name, including territory and its planning, but it also developed into a regulation of its curricula, introducing new subjects that would train the future geographer in order to make him capable of confronting new challenges in their areas of work, where cultural heritage has become an additional option. 

  12. Ion beam analysis in cultural heritage studies: Milestones and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dran, Jean-Claude; Calligaro, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    For three decades, ion beam analysis (IBA) in external mode was considered as the best choice for the characterisation of cultural heritage materials, as it combines excellent analytical performance and non-invasive character. However, in recent years, other analytical techniques arose as serious competitors, such as those based on synchrotron radiation (X-ray absorption, fluorescence or diffraction) or those using portable instruments (XRF, micro-Raman). It is shown that nevertheless IBA remains unmatched thanks to two unique features, namely the analysis of light elements and the high-resolution 3D chemical imaging

  13. Integrative studies of cultural evolution: crossing disciplinary boundaries to produce new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W; Creanza, Nicole

    2018-04-05

    Culture evolves according to dynamics on multiple temporal scales, from individuals' minute-by-minute behaviour to millennia of cultural accumulation that give rise to population-level differences. These dynamics act on a range of entities-including behavioural sequences, ideas and artefacts as well as individuals, populations and whole species-and involve mechanisms at multiple levels, from neurons in brains to inter-population interactions. Studying such complex phenomena requires an integration of perspectives from a diverse array of fields, as well as bridging gaps between traditionally disparate areas of study. In this article, which also serves as an introduction to the current special issue, we highlight some specific respects in which the study of cultural evolution has benefited and should continue to benefit from an integrative approach. We showcase a number of pioneering studies of cultural evolution that bring together numerous disciplines. These studies illustrate the value of perspectives from different fields for understanding cultural evolution, such as cognitive science and neuroanatomy, behavioural ecology, population dynamics, and evolutionary genetics. They also underscore the importance of understanding cultural processes when interpreting research about human genetics, neuroscience, behaviour and evolution.This article is part of the theme issue 'Bridging cultural gaps: interdisciplinary studies in human cultural evolution'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  15. Acculturation of Personality: A Three-Culture Study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-07-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants' fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers' patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more "American" and less "Japanese" in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence.

  16. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Duanying; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Klunklin, Areewan; Sripusanapan, Acharaporn; Avant, Patricia Kay

    2017-06-01

    This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses. A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: awareness, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, with two subthemes for each, were identified. Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities. A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Serially cultured keratinocytes from human scalp hair follicles: a tool for cytogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Jansen, B A; Vermorken, A J

    1983-01-01

    Keratinocytes originating from adult human hair follicles, the most convenient biopsy tissue, can be serially cultured using a combination of two techniques. Primary cultures are established using plucked scalp hair follicles and the bovine eye lens capsule as a growth substrate. Subsequently, cells from these cultures are serially cultivated in the presence of irradiated 3T3 cells as feeders. By this combination of techniques many keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. These cultures, appropriately treated with colchicine, can provide an adequate number of metaphases suitable for chromosome studies.

  18. Good governance and political culture: A case study of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system it is essential to have a competitive, and a tolerant party system, but Bangladesh has experienced an intolerant and a confrontational party system that has created a deadlock and brought uncertainty to the whole country. Since 1990, except 2014, Bangladesh has witnessed four systematic peaceful free elections, one each--in 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008. On January 5, 2014, however, a controversial election took place in which major opposition political parties did not participate except the ruling alliance parties. The two dominant parties—the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP and the Awami League (AL—each won two previous free and fair elections, with the BNP winning in1991, and a BNP-led 4-party coalition in 2001, and the AL in 1996, and an AL-led 14 party alliance in 2008. However, from 2014 Bangladesh is heading towards an authoritarian system. All these are happening due to the lack of good governance. This article intends to emphasize that the political culture emanating from the party politics is retarding good governance in Bangladesh. This article argues that the cultural traits developed in the last four decades in various dimensions,, particularly in more recent years, have worked as an “earth-worm” in the fabrics of democracy in Bangladesh preventing ‘good governance’.

  19. A Brief Study of the Cultural Conflicts Between China and America in the Film The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨若

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores several main cultural conflicts between China and America in the film The Joy Luck Club, and also discusses their causes as well as some useful methods to deal with them. The film The Joy Luck Club is adapted from its novel,written by Amy Tan, a Chinese American, and it has narrated some impressive life stories of four Chinese mothers who have settled down America with their daughters, which have revealed many typical cultural conflicts between China and America, exactly helping us to find out many significant features of the conflicts. Many papers have talked about this topic based on the Mother-daughter relationship embodied in the film; this paper will prefer studying the topic from the perspective of value, national character, marriage relationship and friendship, so as to make a full understanding of the cultural conflicts and to manage a successful intercultural communication. Where there are the cultural conflicts, there are language misunderstanding, emotional harm and behavioral contradiction that can lead to a failure in the intercultural communication. Since people from all over the world are looking forward to cooperating together and seeking common developments or ways to solve world issues, this study could be meaningful.

  20. The effects of plant extracts on microbial community structure in a rumen-simulating continuous-culture system as revealed by molecular profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferme, D; Banjac, M; Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Kamel, C; Avgustin, G

    2004-01-01

    An in vitro study in dual-flow continuous-culture fermentors was conducted with two different concentrations of monensin, cinnamaldehyde or garlic extract added to 1:1 forage-to-concentrate diet in order to determine their effects on selected rumen bacterial populations. Samples were subjected to total DNA extraction, restriction analysis of PCR amplified parts of 16S rRNA genes (ARDRA) and subsequent analysis of the restriction profiles by lab-on-chip technology with the Agilent's Bioanalyser 2100. Eub338-BacPre primer pair was used to select for the bacteria from the genera Bacteroides, Porphyromonas and Prevotella, especially the latter representing the dominant Gram-negative bacterial population in the rumen. Preliminary results of HaeIII restriction analysis show that the effects of monensin, cinnamaldehyde and garlic extract on the BacPre targeted ruminal bacteria are somewhat different in regard to targeted populations and to the nature of the effect. Garlic extract was found to trigger the most intensive changes in the structure of the BacPre targeted population. Comparison of the in silico restriction analysis of BacPre sequences deposited in different DNA databanks and of the results of performed amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis showed differences between the predicted and obtained HaeIII restriction profiles, and suggested the presence of novel, still unknown Prevotella populations in studied samples.

  1. Linguistic Diversity and Traffic Accidents: Lessons from Statistical Studies of Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]–[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories. PMID:23967132

  2. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Roberts

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  3. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Seán; Winters, James

    2013-01-01

    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1]-[8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial sex, political collectivism and linguistic diversity. This suggests that spurious correlations, due to historical descent, geographic diffusion or increased noise-to-signal ratios in large datasets, are much more likely than some studies admit. We suggest some criteria for the evaluation of nomothetic studies and some practical solutions to the problems. Since some of these studies are receiving media attention without a widespread understanding of the complexities of the issue, there is a risk that poorly controlled studies could affect policy. We hope to contribute towards a general skepticism for correlational studies by demonstrating the ease of finding apparently rigorous correlations between cultural traits. Despite this, we see well-controlled nomothetic studies as useful tools for the development of theories.

  4. Validation of cell-free culture using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R; Elankumaran, Y; Hijjawi, N; Ryan, U

    2015-06-01

    A cell-free culture system for Cryptosporidium parvum was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterise life cycle stages and compare gene expression in cell-free culture and cell culture using HCT-8 cells. Cryptosporidium parvum samples were harvested at 2 h, 8 h, 14 h, 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 122 h and 170 h, chemically fixed and specimens were observed using a Zeiss 1555 scanning electron microscope. The presence of sporozoites, trophozoites and type I merozoites were identified by SEM. Gene expression in cell culture and cell-free culture was studied using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the sporozoite surface antigen protein (cp15), the glycoprotein 900 (gp900), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in both cell free and conventional cell culture. In cell culture, cp15 expression peaked at 74 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and 98 h and COWP expression peaked at 50 h. In cell-free culture, CP15 expression peaked at 98 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and COWP expression peaked at 122 h. The present study is the first to compare gene expression of C. parvum in cell culture and cell-free culture and to characterise life cycle stages of C. parvum in cell-free culture using SEM. Findings from this study showed that gene expression patterns in cell culture and cell-free culture were similar but in cell-free culture, gene expression was delayed for CP15 and COWP in cell free culture compared with the cell culture system and was lower. Although three life cycle stageswere conclusively identified, improvements in SEM methodology should lead to the detection of more life cycle stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural Routes and Networks of Knowledge: the Identity and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The Case Study of Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Beltramo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project called “PER VIAM Pilgrims’ Routes In Action”, funded by the European Commission in 2012, is a significant opportunity of cultural and economic development for the whole Europe and also for the territory of Piedmont Region. The certainty of the need for transnational cooperation, which should create a network amongst the different territories in a perspective of working together and exchange of traveling, economic and cultural experiences – as well as best practices - nowadays calls for implementation tools such as European projects supported and sought for by the local authorities.The Piedmont is nowadays crossed by various cultural itineraries, many of which are certificated by the European Council: Via Francigena, the Route of the Cistercian Abbeys, the Transromanica, the itinerary of the historical thermal cities and the Saint Michael's way. Starting from a survey on the meaning of "cultural itinerary" expressed by the different European institutions (i.e. ICOMOS, UNESCO, Council of Europe and European Commission, this essay is proposing an analysis of the current status of such territory, highlighting the public policies in progress, the role and activities of the local associations and the valorisation of implemented projects as related to those itineraries which have already been recognized by the Council of Europe.This paper presents some significant experiences and best practices in the study of religious tourism, as they have been defined on the regional territory throughout the last few years, which can contribute to the debate and to the overall awareness on management and valorization of sustainable tourism. 

  6. Talaromyces marneffei Genomic, Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Metabolomic Studies Reveal Mechanisms for Environmental Adaptations and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K. P. Lau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Talaromyces marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus. Among the 14 Mp1p homologs, only Mp1p is a virulence factor binding a variety of host proteins, fatty acids and lipids. There are 23 polyketide synthase genes, one for melanin and two for mitorubrinic acid/mitorubrinol biosynthesis, which are virulence factors. Another polyketide synthase is for biogenesis of the diffusible red pigment, which consists of amino acid conjugates of monascorubin and rubropunctatin. Novel microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs and processing proteins are present. The dicer protein, dcl-2, is required for biogenesis of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, which are more highly expressed in hyphal cells. Comparative transcriptomics showed that tandem repeat-containing genes were overexpressed in yeast phase, generating protein polymorphism among cells, evading host’s immunity. Comparative proteomics between yeast and hyphal cells revealed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, up-regulated in hyphal cells, is an adhesion factor for conidial attachment.

  7. Toward a new approach to the study of personality in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Leong, Frederick T L

    2011-10-01

    We review recent developments in the study of culture and personality measurement. Three approaches are described: an etic approach that focuses on establishing measurement equivalence in imported measures of personality, an emic (indigenous) approach that studies personality in specific cultures, and a combined emic-etic approach to personality. We propose the latter approach as a way of combining the methodological rigor of the etic approach and the cultural sensitivity of the emic approach. The combined approach is illustrated by two examples: the first with origins in Chinese culture and the second in South Africa. The article ends with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of the combined emic-etic approach for the study of culture and personality and for psychology as a science.

  8. Moving Towards Eco Cultural Tourism Village (A Case Study of Pondok Cabe Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kurniawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies some eco-cultural tourism attraction potentials that exist in PondokCabeUdik Village Tangerang Selatan Indonesia. In addition, it investigates local people’s opinion on tourism development. The objective is to provide a preliminary overview of eco-tourism development. This study is a descriptive study that uses three types of instrument in data collection method, including questionnaire, interview and field observation. The data is then analyzed using SWOT analysis. The result indicated that natural potential include farming, lake and fish pond, and chicken hatchery. Cultural potentials include cultural diversity that depicted in praying houses and culinary. 194 respondents involved are the locals. The result showed thatthere is positive view from the local community on the availability of tourism potentials and development in the future. It is proposed that environmental awareness, education, ecotourism development, and consensus buildingare needed to implement eco cultural tourism concept. Keywords: Tourism, Eco-Cultural, Village, Planning and Development

  9. How Colours Are Semantically Construed in the Arabic and English Culture: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Amna A.; Al-Sammerai, Nabiha S. Mehdi; Kadir, Fakhrul Adabi Bin Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Most works in cognitive semantics have been focusing on the manner, in which an individual behaves--be it the mind, brain, or even computers, which process various kinds of information. Among humans, in particular, social life is richly cultured. Sociality and culture are made possible by cognitive studies; they provide specific inputs to…

  10. Social work in diverse ethno-cultural contexts: a case study of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Nigeria was conducted to ascertain the impact of social work on the country's ethno-cultural diversity and its impartation of local knowledge to the profession via a triangulation technique, which involved searching for evidence of multicultural social work, culturally rooted social development, indigenous social ...

  11. The Cultural Roots of Teacher Associations: A Case Study from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwad, Amol

    2016-01-01

    Teacher associations (TAs) are communities located in complex cultural spaces that may affect their functioning, vision, priorities, and policies. This case study of the English Language Teachers' Association of India (ELTAI) attempts to examine the relationship between the Association and the cultural space it inhabits, with specific reference to…

  12. Learning cultures and the conservatoire : an ethnographically-informed case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt-Perkins, Rosie

    2013-01-01

    As educational institutions, conservatoires remain largely unresearched and, crucially, relatively unchallenged. In particular, research has paid little attention to in-depth studies of culture, so that not enough is known of the cultural practices that characterise and shape a conservatoire

  13. A Cross-Cultural Study of Preschool Quality in South Korea and Sweden: ECERS Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Giota, Joanna; Han, You-Me; Kwon, Jeong-Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore cross-cultural similarities and differences in preschool quality in South Korean and Swedish preschools as measured by two national adaptations of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). The approach adopted is that cross-cultural comparisons of preschool quality are both achievable and of great…

  14. Teaching Strategies and Practices that Promote a Culturally Sensitive Nursing Education: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teaching strategies that promote a culturally sensitive nursing education and culturally sensitive nursing. The diversity of Americans has increased. Thus, the nursing student population and patient population have both become more diverse. Nursing education programs, therefore, need to know the best…

  15. A Comparative Study of Uncertainty Reduction Theory in High- and Low-Context Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hye; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    To test the cross-cultural validity of uncertainty reduction theory, a study was conducted using students from South Korea and the United States who were chosen to represent high- and low-context cultures respectively. Uncertainty reduction theory is based upon the assumption that the primary concern of strangers upon meeting is one of uncertainty…

  16. The repertory grid technique as method for the study of cultural differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Karapanos, E.; Levy, P.D.; Mizutani, N.; Yamanaka, T.

    2009-01-01

    Culture is typically approached in the field of design through generic, cross-domain constructs. In this paper we provide an alternative methodological approach to exploring cross-cultural differences by studying the idiosyncratic views of individuals with regard to existing products. We

  17. Literature and Lives: A Response-Based, Cultural Studies Approach to Teaching English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    Telling stories from secondary and college English classrooms, this book explores the new possibilities for teaching and learning generated by bringing together reader-response and cultural-studies approaches. The book connects William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, and other canonical figures to multicultural writers, popular culture,…

  18. Building a Culture of Evidence: A Case Study of a California Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jill H.; Sax, Caren L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the practices associated with building a culture of evidence and to identify the factors influencing the success of such an endeavor. By definition, a culture of evidence is based upon practices employing data and research to inform decision making at all levels of the institution, with the…

  19. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  20. Moving beyond the Wall(s): Theorizing Corporate Identity for Global Cultural Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, C. Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the set of research considerations that went into investigating the relationship between the Bertelsmann Music Group (BMG) and Czech music culture as a means of exploring alternative avenues and frameworks for understanding and doing global cultural studies. Outlining the theoretical and methodological trajectories, as well…

  1. A Socio-Cultural Perspective on Children's Early Language: A Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor; Tašner, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of certain socio-cultural factors of the family environment on the language of toddlers and children in early childhood. The sample included 86 families with one- to six-year-old children. The data on the social, economic, and cultural factors of the family environment, parental reading literacy, parental knowledge…

  2. Culturally Responsive Peace Education: A Case Study at One Urban Latino K-8 Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a yearlong research-based peace education program at one urban K-8 private Catholic school situated in a community plagued by structural violence in an enclave of a large Midwestern city. To frame the analysis, the author employs concepts central to culturally responsive pedagogy (including cultural competence,…

  3. Learning Cultures and the Conservatoire: An Ethnographically-Informed Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rosie

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions, conservatoires remain largely unresearched and, crucially, relatively unchallenged. In particular, research has paid little attention to in-depth studies of culture, so that not enough is known of the cultural practices that characterise and shape a conservatoire education. This article addresses this gap through seeking…

  4. Enhancing Social Capital in Children via School-Based Community Cultural Development Projects: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Laurie; Miller, Evonne

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory pilot study investigates the extent to which participating in a community cultural development (CCD) initiative builds social capital among children. An independent youth arts organisation implemented two cultural activities, developing a compact disc of original music and designing mosaic artworks for a library courtyard, in two…

  5. Operationalization of a Frame of Reference for Studying Organizational Culture in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Larry G.

    A frame of reference for studying culture in middle schools was developed. Items for the Middle School Description Survey (MSDS), which was designed to test elements of the ideal middle school culture, were created based on middle school advocacy literature. The items were conceptually categorized according to E. H. Schein's (1985) cultural…

  6. A Study of the Need to Establish a Market-oriented Culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study of the Need to Establish a Market-oriented Culture in Educational Institutions in Zimbabwe. ... The promotional culture of marketing is critical in getting the word out to the target market, i.e. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  7. Assessment Leaders' Perspectives of Institutional Cultures of Assessment: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Matthew; Henderson, Susan; Bustamante, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Institutional cultures of assessment are praised as beneficial to student learning. Yet, extant studies have not explored the theoretical foundations and pragmatic approaches to shaping cultures of assessment. The researchers used the Delphi method to explore 10 higher education assessment leaders' attitudes and theoretical perspectives regarding…

  8. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  9. A novel culture method reveals unique neural stem/progenitors in mature porcine iris tissues that differentiate into neuronal and rod photoreceptor-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Lars N; Lea, Daniel; Matsushita, Tamami; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Taketani, Shigeru; Araki, Masasuke

    2017-11-15

    Iris neural stem/progenitor cells from mature porcine eyes were investigated using a new protocol for tissue culture, which consists of dispase treatment and Matrigel embedding. We used a number of culture conditions and found an intense differentiation of neuronal cells from both the iris pigmented epithelial (IPE) cells and the stroma tissue cells. Rod photoreceptor-like cells were also observed but mostly in a later stage of culture. Neuronal differentiation does not require any additives such as fetal bovine serum or FGF2, although FGF2 and IGF2 appeared to promote neural differentiation in the IPE cultures. Furthermore, the stroma-derived cells were able to be maintained in vitro indefinitely. The evolutionary similarity between humans and domestic pigs highlight the potential for this methodology in the modeling of human diseases and characterizing human ocular stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Different Goals for Different Folks: A Cross-Cultural Study of Achievement Goals across Nine Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nasser, Ramzi

    2017-01-01

    Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural…

  11. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... for the conceptual meaningfulness and applicability of FRL in non-Western food culture environments, when appropriately adapted....

  12. Pulsed Thermography Applied to the Study of Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Mercuri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the recent applications of pulsed infrared thermography is presented. Pulsed infrared thermography, which provides stratigraphic information by analyzing the heat diffusion process within the sample after a thermal perturbation, is applied to the investigation of different kinds of cultural heritage artefacts. In particular, it is used to analyze repairs, decorative elements, and casting faults on bronzes, to detect texts hidden or damaged in ancient books/documents, and to characterize paint decorations. Moreover, the integration of pulsed infrared thermography and three-dimensional shape recording methods is proposed in order to provide a three-dimensional representation of the thermographic results. Finally, it is shown how the obtained thermographic results may be crucial from the historical and artistic points of view for understanding the modus operandi of a specific artist and/or of a workshop and for reconstructing the manufacturing process of the analyzed artefacts.

  13. The pushbike song: Rolling physical cultural studies through the landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Brabazon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how small cities use cycling for both residential transportation and active tourism. While cycling may be child’s play, and indeed a part of childhood socialization, the ‘pushbike’ has a role in regional development. Our work investigates cycling and cycling policy. We then focus on one small city at the southern tip of Western Australia. Albany is attempting to transform itself into a cycling city and an international capital of cycling. This article engages trans-local cultural modelling and evaluates Albany’s goal in terms of health, sustainability and economic development. The synergetic and accidental commitment to cycling in Albany provides a model and opportunities for other small cities to consider, apply and improve.

  14. Case study : Mergers and acquisitions blending EHS cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji-Lee, L.A. [Duke Energy Gas Transmission, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-06-03

    In September 2001, Duke Energy acquired the assets of Westcoast Energy Inc. (WEI). Duke Energy's expertise lies in gas gathering, processing, transportation, storage, distribution and marketing. It also specializes in electric generation, transmission and distribution. Westcoast Energy managed a portfolio of natural gas and electric supply, delivery and trading, with international assets in Mexico, Indonesia and China. Since the acquisition of WEI, Duke Energy has adopted an Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) model that will provide assistance in the transition to dealing with different cultures. The integration is meant to identify steps to evaluate and integrate new assets into a common EHS Management System, and to identify areas of discrepancy and opportunities for synergies. This report describes the EHS Management System, with respect to compliance, assurance and performance standards for air issues, waste management, contaminated sites, emergency response, and performance indicators. tabs., figs.

  15. Cultural Competence among Maternal Healthcare Providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Amanu; Yigzaw, Tegbar; Tetemke, Desalegn; G/Amlak, Wubalem

    2015-09-24

    Cultural competency is now a core requirement for maternal health providers working in multicultural society. However, it has not yet received due attention in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the level of cultural competence and its associated factors among maternal health care providers in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Maternal health care providers from all health facilities were our study participants. Structured Questionnaire with some modification of Campinha Bacote's tool was used to collect quantitative data from health workers and semi structured guide line was used for qualitative data among women. While quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS, qualitative data was analyzed using open code software. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken to determine statistical significance. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal reliability and a factor loading of 0.3 or greater was the criterion used to retain items. Two hundred seventy four health workers and seven women were involved in the study. The overall competency level was 57.3 % thought vary in different subscales or stages. Of the cultural competent health workers near to three fourth (73.0 %) were in awareness stage which is the earliest stage of competence in which individuals were aware only their own culture but not the world view of their clients. The voices of mothers in the qualitative assessment also showed discordance in cultural competence with their healthcare providers. Female health workers almost six times [AOR,5.5; 2.71, 11.30] more competent than male providers and those who got in-service training related to maternal care provided services more culturally competent than their counter parts with [AOR,3.5; 1.4, 8.64]. Reliability Cronbach's α coefficient value of cultural competence subscales showed 0.672,0 .719, 0.658, 0.714, and 0.631 for cultural

  16. Computerized tools in psychology: cross cultural and genetically informative studies of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatullina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we presented the computerized tools for psychological studies of memory. The importance of implementing computerized automated tools for psychological studies is discussed. It has been shown that this tools can be used both for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies. The validity of these tools for cross-cultural and genetically informative studies of memory can be seen as the first step to use automated computerized tools for big data collection in psychology.

  17. A study on the development of national guide for implementing nuclear security culture in ROK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Moonsung; Lee, Youngwook; Yoo, Hosik

    2014-01-01

    Among the extended concepts, a remarkable thing is that nuclear security began to be focused on the human factor as well as technical factors (hardware and software system) because most security lapses at nuclear power facilities result from human failings such as low motivation, miscalculation, or malice. Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) is designed to improve the performance of the human factor and to make its interface with security technology and regulations more effective and smooth. There is a need to develop a variety of more efficient tools for achieving sustainable nuclear security culture. We studied for the implementing guide to establish and enhance the nuclear security culture. We have developed the Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines for licensees in order to enhance nuclear security culture. Licensees have separately established a separate code of conduct on nuclear security culture for their daily business based on such Implementing Guidelines. The Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines were developed with sufficient consideration of both the IAEA Security Series on nuclear security culture and the Korean circumstances. In all, the Korean government and licensees have timely established and applied the Implementing Guidelines and code of conduct and consequently paved the way for further improvements of the Korean nuclear security regime. The nuclear security culture will facilitate and optimize the human aspects in our nuclear security programs

  18. A study on the development of national guide for implementing nuclear security culture in ROK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Moonsung; Lee, Youngwook; Yoo, Hosik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Among the extended concepts, a remarkable thing is that nuclear security began to be focused on the human factor as well as technical factors (hardware and software system) because most security lapses at nuclear power facilities result from human failings such as low motivation, miscalculation, or malice. Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) is designed to improve the performance of the human factor and to make its interface with security technology and regulations more effective and smooth. There is a need to develop a variety of more efficient tools for achieving sustainable nuclear security culture. We studied for the implementing guide to establish and enhance the nuclear security culture. We have developed the Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines for licensees in order to enhance nuclear security culture. Licensees have separately established a separate code of conduct on nuclear security culture for their daily business based on such Implementing Guidelines. The Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines were developed with sufficient consideration of both the IAEA Security Series on nuclear security culture and the Korean circumstances. In all, the Korean government and licensees have timely established and applied the Implementing Guidelines and code of conduct and consequently paved the way for further improvements of the Korean nuclear security regime. The nuclear security culture will facilitate and optimize the human aspects in our nuclear security programs.

  19. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; Le Gac, Séverine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-02-01

    Is post-implantation embryonic development after blastocyst transfer affected by exposure to different assisted reproduction technology (ART) culture media? Fetal development and placental histology of ART embryos cultured in vitro in different ART media was not impaired compared with embryos grown in vivo. The application of different in vitro culture (IVC) media for human ART has an effect on birthweight of newborns. In the mouse model, differences in blastocyst formation were reported after culture in different ART media. Moreover, abnormalities in the liver and heart have been detected as a result of suboptimal IVC conditions. Fertilized oocytes from inbred and outbred breeding schemes were retrieved and either immediately transferred to foster mothers or incubated in control or human ART culture media up to the blastocyst stage prior to transfer. Placental and fetal anatomy and particularly bone development were evaluated. B6C3F1 female mice were used as oocyte donors after ovulation induction. C57Bl/6 and CD1 males were used for mating and CD1 females as foster mothers for embryo transfer. Fertilized oocytes were recovered from mated females and incubated in sequential human ART media (ISM1/ISM2 and HTF/Multiblast), in control media [KSOM(aa) and Whitten's medium] or grown in utero without IVC (zygote control). As in vivo, control B6C3F1 females were superovulated and left untreated. Fetuses and placentae were isolated by Caesarean section and analysed at 18.5 days post-coitum (dpc) for placenta composition and at 15.5 dpc for body weight, crown-rump length (CRL), fetal organ development, morphological development, total bone length and extent of bone ossification. No major differences in the number of implantation sites or in histological appearance of the placentae were detected. CRL of KSOM(aa) fetuses was higher compared with zygote control and Whitten's medium. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed no gross morphological differences compared

  20. Cross-Cultural Competences and International Entrepreneurial Intention: A Study on Entrepreneurship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuijing Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify and foster potential international entrepreneurs are important goals for entrepreneurship education. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB, we argue that International entrepreneurial intention (IEI is a predictor of international entrepreneurship (IE. In addition, cross-cultural competences are hypothesized as antecedents to IEI and moderators of the relationship between TPB elements and IEI. We integrate two elements of cross-cultural competences (global mindset and cultural intelligence in a TPB-framework to identify the drivers of students’ IEI. We analyze a sample of 84 students with OLS regression and moderation analysis. OLS regression results reveal no significant direct effects from cultural intelligence and global mindset on IEI. Moderation analyses suggest a negative, significant moderating effect of cultural intelligence on the relationship between personal attitude and IEI and on subjective norms and IEI. Therefore, simply enhancing global mindset and cultural intelligence does not contribute to students’ IEI. More is required from entrepreneurship education, such as improving the perception of international entrepreneurship as a valuable career choice.