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Sample records for culture results implications

  1. Implications in studies of environmental risk assessments: Does culture medium influence the results of toxicity tests of marine bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Alejandra; Borrero-Santiago, Ana R; Riba, Inmaculada

    2018-04-14

    Two marine bacterial populations (Roseobacter sp. and Pseudomonas litoralis) were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (300, 625, 1250, 2000, 2500 and 5000 mg L -1 ) and cadmium (75, 250, 340, 500 and 1000 mg L -1 ) using two culture media (full nutrient Marine Broth 2216 "MB" and 1:10 (vol/vol) dilution with seawater of Marine Broth 2216 "MB SW "), in order to assess population responses depending on the culture medium and also potential adverse effects associated with these two metals. Different responses were found depending on the culture medium (Bacterial abundance (cells·mL -1 ), growth rates (μ, hours -1 ), and production of Extracellular Polysaccharides Substances (EPS) (μg glucose·cells -1 ). Results showed negative effects in both strains after the exposure to Zn treatments. Both strains showed highest metal sensitivity at low concentrations using both culture media. However, different results were found when exposing the bacterial populations to Cd treatments depending on the culture medium. Highest toxicity was observed using MB at low levels of Cd concentrations, whereas MB SW showed toxicity to bacteria at higher concentrations of Cd. Results not only showed adverse effects on Roseobacter sp. and Pseudomonas litoralis associated with the concentration of Zn and Cd, but also confirm that depending on the culture medium results can differ. This work suggests MB SW as an adequate culture medium to study metal toxicity bioassays in order to predict realistic effects on marine bacterial populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS ON DICTIONARIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    'n Aantal struikelblokke op die weg om hierdie doel te bereik, word geïdentifiseer en voor- stelle gemaak oor ... or evidence of the co-existence of legal, social, cultural, religious, economic and other systems ..... The electronic media also tend to use Zulu ... Umlomo ongathethi manga (the King, i.e. one whose mouth utters no.

  3. Is Autism a Member of a Family of Diseases Resulting from Genetic/Cultural Mismatches? Implications for Treatment and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci D. Bilbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable.

  4. Assessing safety culture in NICU: psychometric properties of the Italian version of Safety Attitude Questionnaire and result implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Alessandra; Zanolin, M Elisabetta; Negri, Roberta; Moretti, Francesca; Grassi, Mario; Tardivo, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are a high-risk setting. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) is a widely used tool to measure safety culture. The aims of the study are to verify the psychometric properties of the Italian version of SAQ, to evaluate safety culture in the NICUs and to identify improvement interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 level III NICUs. The SAQ was translated into Italian and adapted to the context, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to validate the questionnaire. 193 questionnaires were collected. The mean response rate was 59.7% (range 44.5%-95.7%). The answers were analysed according to six factors: f1 - teamwork climate, f2 - safety climate, f3 - job satisfaction, f4 - stress recognition, f5 - perception of management, f6 - working conditions. The CFA indexes were adequate (McDonald's omega indexes varied from 0.74 to 0.94, the SRMR index was equal to 0.79 and the RMSEA index was 0.070, 95% CI = 0.063-0.078). The mean composite score was 57.6 (SD 17.9), ranging between 42.3 and 69.7 on a standardized 100-point scale. We highlighted significant differences among units and professions (P < 0.05). The Italian version of the SAQ proved to be an effective tool to evaluate and compare the safety culture in the NICUs. The obtained scores significantly varied both within and among the NICUs. The organizational and structural characteristics of the involved hospitals probably affect the safety culture perception by the staff. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Results of Applying Cultural Domain Analysis Techniques and Implications for the Design of Complementary Feeding Interventions in Northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Stephanie; Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Wittenbrink, Brittney; Milani, Peiman; Diallo, Abdoulaye Moussa; Ndoye, Tidiane; Wone, Issa; Parker, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Designing effective nutrition interventions for infants and young children requires knowledge about the population to which the intervention is directed, including insights into the cognitive systems and values that inform caregiver feeding practices. To apply cultural domain analysis techniques in the context of implementation research for the purpose of understanding caregivers' knowledge frameworks in Northern Senegal with respect to infant and young child (IYC) feeding. This study was intended to inform decisions for interventions to improve infant and young child nutrition. Modules from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were employed in interviews with a sample of 126 key informants and caregivers from rural and peri-urban sites in the Saint-Louis region of northern Senegal. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and qualitative thematic analysis were used to analyze the data. Cluster analysis showed that caregivers identified 6 food clusters: heavy foods, light foods, snack foods, foraged foods, packaged foods, and foods that are good for the body. The study also revealed similarities and differences between the 2 study sites in caregivers' knowledge frameworks. The demonstration of differences between biomedical concepts of nutrition and the knowledge frameworks of northern Senegalese women with regard to IYC feeding highlights the value of knowledge about emic perspectives of local communities to help guide decisions about interventions to improve nutrition.

  6. Personal Narratives: Cultural Differences and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.

  7. Chinese Cultural Implications for ERP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP system in a global environment can be fragmented due to the internal enterprise culture, which is representative of societal culture. In China, this is especially true due to the nationalistic culture of business. The way ERP systems are perceived, treated, and integrated within the business plays a critical role in the success or failure of the implementation. When a Western developed ERP system is implemented in a country where the culture differs greatly from that of the developer, implementation may require localization in order to be successful. In doing so, strategic benefits of ERP systems may be diminished. This research paper looks into the characteristics of Chinese localization by Western vendors and the implications to the Chinese enterprise. Keywords: ERP, Chinese Cultural Implications, Societal Culture, Strategy

  8. CREAM: Results, Implications and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment has accumulated ∼161 days of exposure during six successful flights over Antarctica. Energy measurements are made with a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter. Charge measurements are made with timing scintillators, pixelated Si, and Cherenkov detectors to minimize the effect of backscattered particles. High energy cosmicray data were collected over a wide energy range from ∼ 1010 to ∼ 1015 eV at an average altitude of ∼ 38.5 km, with ∼ 3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. All cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Recent results from the ongoing analysis including the discrepant hardening of elemental spectra at ∼ 200 GeV/n are presented and their implications on cosmic-ray origin, acceleration and propagation are discussed. The project status and plans are also presented.

  9. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  10. LSND results and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.O.

    1996-01-01

    The combined 1993, 1994, and 1995 data from the LSND experiment shows a statistically compelling excess of events of the type expected for ν μ →ν e neutrino oscillations. An electron between 36 and 60 MeV is identified by Cherenkov and scintillation light from ν e p→e + n, and if a γ is tightly constrained to be correlated with it from np→dγ (2.2 MeV), then 22 such events are observed, but only 4.6±0.6 are expected from background. The probability that this is a fluctuation is -7 . If subsequent analysis shows a similar effect from the independent channel ν μ →ν e , then this would imply a neutrino mass difference which would contribute significantly to the dark matter of the universe. Explaining also the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits results in a neutrino mass pattern which gives a cold + hot dark matter which fits the structure of the universe on all scales and requires a critical density universe and an universe age compatible with that of the oldest stars. This mass pattern involves a sterile neutrino, evidence for which may come from the need for it in producing heavy elements by supernovae and for blowing off the supernova mantle. (author) 3 figs., 18 refs

  11. LSND results and their implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, D O [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    The combined 1993, 1994, and 1995 data from the LSND experiment shows a statistically compelling excess of events of the type expected for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields}{nu}{sub e} neutrino oscillations. An electron between 36 and 60 MeV is identified by Cherenkov and scintillation light from {nu}{sub e}p{yields}e{sup +}n, and if a {gamma} is tightly constrained to be correlated with it from np{yields}d{gamma} (2.2 MeV), then 22 such events are observed, but only 4.6{+-}0.6 are expected from background. The probability that this is a fluctuation is <10{sup -7}. If subsequent analysis shows a similar effect from the independent channel {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e}, then this would imply a neutrino mass difference which would contribute significantly to the dark matter of the universe. Explaining also the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits results in a neutrino mass pattern which gives a cold + hot dark matter which fits the structure of the universe on all scales and requires a critical density universe and an universe age compatible with that of the oldest stars. This mass pattern involves a sterile neutrino, evidence for which may come from the need for it in producing heavy elements by supernovae and for blowing off the supernova mantle. (author) 3 figs., 18 refs.

  12. [Culture and cultural gaps in work teams: implications for organisational commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Lanero, Ana; Yurrebaso, Amaia; Tejero, Blanca

    2007-05-01

    Some theoreticians of organisational commitment have proposed that culture is an important determinant of organisational commitment. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the role that work teams culture (subculture) and their cultural gaps play in commitment. This study is an attempt to overcome this lack. Using a sample of 375 work teams from various public and private organisations, it was found that the results confirmed our proposals. Cultural gaps were negatively related to commitment; the teams subculture was positively related to commitment, and more highly to commitment to values than to commitment to continuing. Contrary to the results of other studies, the demographic variables (age, time on the team, time in the company) were not significant, except that educational level was related to the commitment to continue. The implications of these results are analysed.

  13. First Planck results and cosmological implications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The Planck satellite has measured CMB anisotropies over the full sky with unprecedented sensitivity. The collaboration has released its first CMB temperature maps and cosmological analysis on the 21st of March. I will present a summary of these new CMB results, focusing mainly on their implications for our understanding of the Universe.

  14. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C

    1997-09-01

    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  15. Avenues of Influence: Cross-Cultural Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    focused on comparisons between individualistic and collectivistic cultures . Furthermore, given the differential emphasis toward group factors in...either individualistic or collectivistic cultures , social influence tactics involving group social elements may be a good starting point for exploring...in Two Cultures : The Differential Influence of Social Proof and Commitment/Consistency on collectivists and Individualists . Personality and Social

  16. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  17. The socio-cultural implications of African music and dance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sets out to discuss the socio-cultural implications of African music and dance. To this end, the paper looks at African music, African dance and human culture, kinds of dance, dance and the human body, dance and the society, the interrelationship between African music and dance, the importance of dance to the ...

  18. Globalisation And African Cultural Heritage Erosion: Implications For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation And African Cultural Heritage Erosion: Implications For Policy. ... Globalisation has had both negative and positive impact on the cultural heritage development and preservation in Africa. However, this article argues that ... This cooperation can only be meaningful if it begins with what is already there, i.e. in the ...

  19. Understanding ethnopharmacolgy: implications for cultural relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joyce Newman

    2008-07-01

    It is commonly accepted that people differ culturally. In the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model, cultural differences are evident in communication, spatial relationships and needs, social organizations (church, family, kinships, and clubs), time orientation, the ability or desire to control the environment, and biological variations (Giger & Davidhizar, 2008). While many individuals appreciate that there are differences between cultures, what is less well recognized is that people also vary according to biological variations depending on their racial and ethnic group. In the last 15 years, information about biological variations has rapidly expanded and that knowledge is essential in order to understand and provide care to individuals from another culture or another racial and ethnic group. Attention to biological variations related to race and ethnicity, the last component of the Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Nursing Assessment Model, is a critical phenomenon that needs to be assessed in order to develop and implement a culturally sensitive plan of care in an effort to understand ethnopharmacolgy.

  20. Cultural Diversity: Implications For Workplace Management

    OpenAIRE

    Donatus I. Amaram

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance and management of cultural diversity have been promoted and touted as a positive tool in social and organizational engineering aimed at solving and preventing group dynamics problems in both business organizations and society as well. Positive attributes of cultural integration in business organizations have received fair and significant attention in the past two decades. What have not been sufficiently presented are the challenges and pitfalls inherent in the management of cul...

  1. Implications from the Diagnosis of a School Culture at a Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Gün

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Probing into the school culture is the first step for the enhancement of the effectiveness of any school. Conducted in an English-medium private university in Turkey, this study aims at exploring teachers’ perceptions of existing school culture to provide enriched and contemporary understandings of that culture, as well as making implications regarding understanding and improving school culture. Quantitative data was collected using the School Culture Survey (SCS developed by Gruenert and Valentine, and the School Culture Triage, developed by Wagner and Masden-Copas; and qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with a sample group of teachers from the school. The results suggest that three dominant aspects of the culture of the school studied are collegial support and collaboration, collaborative leadership and unity of purpose. The outcomes of this research study facilitate a ‘personal critique’ for the given school, and implications can be extended to institutions operating in similar settings

  2. The implications of culture in business and the Cultural dimensions of Finland and India : A study of cultural Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the implications of culture in business. The thesis makes use of the most popular theoretical frameworks in the field, namely the cultural dimensions where data has been chiefly collected through the efforts of Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars. In theory, the application of cultural knowledge as professed through the cultural dimensions into managerial practices can be applied. The validity of these theories has proven impossible to quantify and ...

  3. Challenging patient safety culture: survey results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, Johan; Schrooten, Ward; Klazinga, Niek; Vleugels, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to measure patient safety culture in five Belgian general hospitals. Safety culture plays an important role in the approach towards greater patient safety in hospitals. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The Patient Safety Culture Hospital questionnaire was

  4. Environment, Biology, and Culture: Implications for Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Introduces this special theme issue examining the roles of socialization, biology, and culture as they affect adaptive and maladaptive developmental outcomes. Problems of adolescence addressed include antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, low achievement, and eating problems. Considers factors implicated in successful…

  5. Using Cultural Diversity in Teaching Economics: Global Business Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Darryl J.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and increasing cross-cultural interactivity have implications for education in general and may also present valuable pedagogical opportunities in the practice of teaching economics for business students. Therefore, the author investigated this proposition and offers some empirical observations from research and teaching experiments.…

  6. Strategic Implications of Culture. Historical Analysis of China's Culture and Implications for United States Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crider, Kimberly

    1999-01-01

    .... These differences in interpretation and response are largely rooted in differences in culture, for it is culture that forms the subconscious set of shared meanings that guide group behaviors and perceptions...

  7. Culture and error in space: implications from analog environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R L

    2000-09-01

    An ongoing study investigating national, organizational, and professional cultures in aviation and medicine is described. Survey data from 26 nations on 5 continents show highly significant national differences regarding appropriate relationships between leaders and followers, in group vs. individual orientation, and in values regarding adherence to rules and procedures. These findings replicate earlier research on dimensions of national culture. Data collected also isolate significant operational issues in multi-national flight crews. While there are no better or worse cultures, these cultural differences have operational implications for the way crews function in an international space environment. The positive professional cultures of pilots and physicians exhibit a high enjoyment of the job and professional pride. However, a negative component was also identified characterized by a sense of personal invulnerability regarding the effects of stress and fatigue on performance. This misperception of personal invulnerability has operational implications such as failures in teamwork and increased probability of error. A second component of the research examines team error in operational environments. From observational data collected during normal flight operations, new models of threat and error and their management were developed that can be generalized to operations in space and other socio-technological domains. Five categories of crew error are defined and their relationship to training programs in team performance, known generically as Crew Resource Management, is described. The relevance of these data for future spaceflight is discussed.

  8. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  9. The (Biological or Cultural) Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Yalcinkaya, Nur; Estrada-Villalta, Sara; Adams, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Most research links (racial) essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action) among people with dominant (White) and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino) racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  10. The (Biological or Cultural Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soylu Yalcinkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research links (racial essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action among people with dominant (White and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  11. Idealized cultural beliefs about gender: implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Ramaswami; Jackson, Benita

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we examined the relationship between culture-specific ideals (chastity, masculinity, caste beliefs) and self-esteem, shame and depression using an idealized cultural model proposed by Mahalingam (2006, In: Mahalingam R (ed) Cultural psychology of immigrants. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 1-14). Participants were from communities with a history of extreme male-biased sex ratios in Tamilnadu, India (N = 785). We hypothesized a dual-process model of self-appraisals suggesting that achieving idealized cultural identities would increase both self-esteem and shame, with the latter leading to depression, even after controlling for key covariates. We tested this using structural equation modeling. The proposed idealized cultural identities model had an excellent fit (CFI = 0.99); the effect of idealized identities on self-esteem, shame and depression differed by gender. Idealized beliefs about gender relate to psychological well-being in gender specific ways in extreme son preference communities. We discuss implications of these findings for future research and community-based interventions.

  12. Safety culture in regulatory expert organization : analysis result of survey for KINS employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, G. S.; Choi, Y. S.

    2003-01-01

    Much has been discussed on safety culture of operating organizations, however, little has been done on that of regulatory organization. Current issues and activities related to nuclear safety culture at IAEA, OECD/NEA, etc. were investigated and relevant literatures were reviewed. Elements essential for safety culture of regulatory organization were proposed and survey questionnaire for employees of regulatory expert organization, KINS, was developed based on the elements proposed. The survey result was presented and its implications were discussed. Based on the result, elements of safety culture in regulatory organization were proposed. The result of this survey can be used in developing safety culture model of regulatory organization, measurement method and also promotion of safety culture in regulatory organization

  13. ORNL-EPR study: results and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlees, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A two-year preliminary design study of a tokamak experimental power reactor has been completed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major engineering features, plasma physics characteristics, and technological requirements of the device are discussed. Plasma confinement is provided in a toroidal chamber of major radius, R/sub o/ = 6.75 m and minor radius, a = 2.25 m. The toroidal magnetic field strength is 4.8 T. A unique poloidal magnetic field system creates the fields required for plasma equilibrium and stability. The power extraction system is centered around the blanket, which absorbs approximately 90 percent of the energy produced in the plasma. The operating characteristics and nuclear performance of the system are given. The results of the study indicate a low benefit-to-cost ratio for this design. Recent developments have suggested that some of the design constraints were too restrictive. The advisability of a large scale test of the ideas linked to these developments has become apparent. To this end, ORNL has started the design of a high-β tokamak. The basis for the high power density device is discussed

  14. Mergers and acquisitions: some implications of cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, S J

    1996-01-01

    A result of recent National Health Service reforms is the need to investigate, and possibly change, the culture of the professional working relationship between members of staff and their employer. This is particularly the case in situations of mergers and acquisitions where staff working from different cultural environments must work together. Mergers are becoming a feature of health service provision, perhaps this becomes most obvious with the recent moves by colleges of nursing and midwifery into the higher education sector and amalgamations of some purchasing authorities. Mergers highlight the practical issues of bringing together different organizational and work cultures to deliver a high quality service. This article discusses some aspects of the nature of organizational culture, the human impact of mergers and acquisitions and offers strategies for managing these events.

  15. Implications of neuroscience Psychoactive drugs and identity: between history and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Feito Grande

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientifical advances open the possibility to modify capacities in human beings, aimed to enhance them. An example is neurodrugs. Altering memory, attention or mood can make a difference in personal identity. This question about identity is analyzed and its implications on modification of human nature. This raises again the nature/culture debate, also from the contemporary neuroscience. The conclusion is that dynamism in human narrative identity is the result of an interaction between nature and culture.

  16. Evaluation of Safety Culture Implementation and Socialization Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of safety culture implementation and socialization results has been perform. Evaluation is carried out with specifying safety culture indicators, namely: Meeting between management and employee, system for incidents analysis, training activities related to improving safety, meeting with regulator, contractors, surveys on behavioural attitudes, and resources allocated to promote safety culture. Evaluation is based on observation and visiting the facilities to show the compliance indicator in term of good practices in the frame of safety culture implementation. For three facilities of research reactors, Kartini Yogyakarta, TRIGA Mark II Bandung and MPR-GAS Serpong, implementation of safety culture is considered good enough and progressive. Furthermore some indicator should be considered more intensive, for example the allocated resources, self assesment based on own questionnaire in the frame of improving the safety culture implementation. (author)

  17. Immunoglobulin production in human mixed lymphocyte cultures: implications for co-cultures of cells from patients and healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruemke, H.C.; Terpstra, F.G.; Huis, B.; Out, T.A.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    When human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are cultured in the presence of irradiated allogeneic lymphocytes, the resulting mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) leads to the secretion into the supernatant of substantial amounts of IgM and IgG, derived from nonirradiated responder B lymphocytes. Our data indicate that stimulation to Ig production by responder B cells may result from different types of of interactions. First, B cells and monocytes among the irradiated stimulator cells activate T responder B cells to produce Ig; second, ''responder'' B cells activate irradiated ''stimulator'' T cells, leading to a ''helper'' signal, back to the responder B cells and leading to Ig production. The latter system is radiosensitive, because allogeneic T cells, irradiated at a dose of 4000 rad or more, failed to induce Ig production by responder B cells. In some combinations of human allogeneic lymphocytes, the co-culture of the cells leads to inhibition of Ig production, both in the presence and in the absence of PWM. Thus, co-culture of allogeneic cells may cause ''positive'' as well as ''negative'' allogeneic effects. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of co-cultures that are aimed at establishing defects in lymphocytes from patients with, for example, immunodeficiencies, who fail to produce Ig in the presence of PWM are discussed

  18. Antibiotic prescribing practices for catheter urine culture results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient's treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient

  19. Cultural transmission results in convergence towards colour term universals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Dowman, Mike; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    As in biological evolution, multiple forces are involved in cultural evolution. One force is analogous to selection, and acts on differences in the fitness of aspects of culture by influencing who people choose to learn from. Another force is analogous to mutation, and influences how culture changes over time owing to errors in learning and the effects of cognitive biases. Which of these forces need to be appealed to in explaining any particular aspect of human cultures is an open question. We present a study that explores this question empirically, examining the role that the cognitive biases that influence cultural transmission might play in universals of colour naming. In a large-scale laboratory experiment, participants were shown labelled examples from novel artificial systems of colour terms and were asked to classify other colours on the basis of those examples. The responses of each participant were used to generate the examples seen by subsequent participants. By simulating cultural transmission in the laboratory, we were able to isolate a single evolutionary force—the effects of cognitive biases, analogous to mutation—and examine its consequences. Our results show that this process produces convergence towards systems of colour terms similar to those seen across human languages, providing support for the conclusion that the effects of cognitive biases, brought out through cultural transmission, can account for universals in colour naming. PMID:23486436

  20. Can we trust intraoperative culture results in nonunions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael P; Altman, Daniel T; Altman, Gregory T; Sewecke, Jeffrey J; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hu, Fen Z; Nistico, Laura; Melton-Kreft, Rachel; Gause, Trent M; Costerton, John W

    2014-07-01

    To identify the presence of bacterial biofilms in nonunions comparing molecular techniques (multiplex polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry, fluorescent in situ hybridization) with routine intraoperative cultures. Thirty-four patients with nonunions were scheduled for surgery and enrolled in this ongoing prospective study. Intraoperative specimens were collected from removed implants, surrounding tissue membrane, and local soft tissue followed by standard culture analysis, Ibis's second generation molecular diagnostics (Ibis Biosystems), and bacterial 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the tissue specimens reacted with the FISH probes, which were chosen based on the Ibis analysis. Thirty-four patient encounters were analyzed. Eight were diagnosed as infected nonunions by positive intraoperative culture results. Ibis confirmed the presence of bacteria in all 8 samples. Ibis identified bacteria in a total of 30 of 34 encounters, and these data were confirmed by FISH. Twenty-two of 30 Ibis-positive samples were culture-negative. Four samples were negative by all methods of analysis. No samples were positive by culture, but negative by molecular techniques. Our preliminary data indicate that molecular diagnostics are more sensitive for identifying bacteria than cultures in cases of bony nonunion. This is likely because of the inability of cultures to detect biofilms and bacteria previously exposed to antibiotic therapy. Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  1. Addressing Cross-Cultural Teamwork Barriers: Implications for Industry Practice and Higher Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores cultural factors affecting international team dynamics and the implications for industry practice and higher education. Despite decades of studying and experience with cultural diversity, international work groups continue to be challenged by ethnocentrism and prejudices. Central to the context is that cultural differences in…

  2. Avenues of Influence Cross-Cultural Implications (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    cultural , Social Influence, Communication modality, Emotional contagion, Individualistic , Collectivistic , Group orientation, Behavioral influences 16...appeals to take additional training – Culture groups: Individualistic and Collectivistic – Six persuasive appeals will be used in the stimuli: rational...between media type and emotional contagion Does culture influence the impact of social proof? H4: Collectivistic cultures will engage in

  3. Ethical Business Cultures: A Literature Review and Implications for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Jondle, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This literature review identifies characteristics of ethical business cultures, describes factors, considered to be important in developing such cultures, describes current practices of developing ethical culture programs, and discusses the role of HRD in developing ethical business cultures. We argue that ethical thinking and behavior can be…

  4. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN EMPLOYEE WORK VALUES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly established that culture affects the application of management theories and practices. Work values, in particular, are an important part of cross-cultural understanding in that they are themselves measures of cultural dimensions, and also have strong implications for many areas of management, from employee motivation to organizational communication. In order to successfully implement management practices originating in a different culture, it is necessary to first ide...

  5. Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested that perceptions of the self, of others, and of the relationship between self and others are very powerful and that this influence is clearly reflected in culture. The independent view of the self, represented in Western culture, is contrasted with the interdependent view in many other cultures. (SLD)

  6. Individualism, Collectivism, and Cultural Compatibility: Implications for Counselors and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Lois A.

    1998-01-01

    Culture influences expectations about classroom goals. The cultural distinction between individualism and collectivism is one factor that affects students' adjustment from home to school. Article suggests teachers and counselors may want to capitalize on students' cultural tendencies, but also plan for ways to expand students' repertories of…

  7. Culture in Language Learning: Background, Issues and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Pourkalhor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at presenting the historical background of the emergence of culture in language learning and how it can be correlated with the language learners. In fact, by providing various definitions of culture and the role it might play in the process of language learning, whether directly or indirectly, this research provides a clear-cut overview of culture and its application among the people as well as their communication in the society. Moreover, the relationship between culture and language learning is also taken into account. To this end, basic definitions of culture in different research studies are investigated moving toward finding a path to make a connection between language and culture. Therefore, a review of studies on the relationship between language learning and culture is provided to account for the possible effectiveness of benefiting from culture in the language learning process in that the learning context (i.e. foreign or second language can be affected by the culture of the teachers as well as the learners. This demands that both teachers and learners should be aware of cultural issues surrounding the language and the fact that it can be beneficial for the process of language learning. If learner are consciously involved in the culture of the language they are learning, they certainly can have better performance and understand the language more tangibly.

  8. Teacher interaction in psychosocial learning environments: cultural differences and their implications in science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Myint Swe; Fisher, Darrell L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine interpersonal behaviour in psychosocial learning environments and to determine the associations between science students' perceptions of their interactions with their teachers, the cultural background of teachers and their attitudinal outcomes. A sample of 1188 students completed the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction instrument. The responses to two subscales of Test of Science-related Attitudes were used as attitudinal measures. Significant associations between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviour and the cultural background of teachers were detected. The results showed that students perceived a more favourable interpersonal relationship with Western teachers in the secondary science classrooms. The students in the classes of Western teachers indicated that they enjoyed science lessons more than those in the classes of Asian teachers. Some implications for science instruction in this context are discussed.

  9. Cultural Keystone Species: Implications for Ecological Conservation and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Garibaldi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists have long recognized that some species, by virtue of the key roles they play in the overall structure and functioning of an ecosystem, are essential to its integrity; these are known as keystone species. Similarly, in human cultures everywhere, there are plants and animals that form the contextual underpinnings of a culture, as reflected in their fundamental roles in diet, as materials, or in medicine. In addition, these species often feature prominently in the language, ceremonies, and narratives of native peoples and can be considered cultural icons. Without these "cultural keystone species," the societies they support would be completely different. An obvious example is western red-cedar (Thuja plicata for Northwest Coast cultures of North America. Often prominent elements of local ecosystems, cultural keystone species may be used and harvested in large quantities and intensively managed for quality and productivity. Given that biological conservation and ecological restoration embody human cultures as crucial components, one approach that may improve success in overall conservation or restoration efforts is to recognize and focus on cultural keystone species. In this paper, we explore the concept of cultural keystone species, describe similarities to and differences from ecological keystone species, present examples from First Nations cultures of British Columbia, and discuss the application of this concept in ecological restoration and conservation initiatives.

  10. Exercising Freedom over Time: Political and Cultural Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alixon David Reyes Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The following paper addresses, in an essay format, the topic of the emergence of a culture that includes the redeeming recreation of important elements such as freedom and responsibility from a practical point of view, as a collective life project, consistent with humanitarian ideals and values. This is an analytical paper based on questions pertaining to categories and assumptions such as leisure time, work, and capitalism, among others. The objective of this analysis is the deconstruction of myths that, in the light of the theory and the political philosophies resulting from the industrial revolution, subsume recreation as an activity. Myths do not only do this but limit recreation to time specificity, thwarting the possibility of happiness and the liberation of consciousness from a dehumanizing and dehumanized ideology.

  11. Religious and cultural issues in gender equity: implication for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the status of women in science and technology education, discusses the religious and cultural impediments on women in science and technological education, pointing out the effect this cultural dogma has on the scientific and technological growth of women in particular and the country at large.

  12. The Accounting Implication of Cultural Dimensions on Financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study extends the literature on the impact of cultural dimensions on financial reporting practice and disclosure patterns of selected manufacturing companies in Nigeria by investigating the extent to which cultural dimensions (i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and masculinity) influences financial ...

  13. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  14. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN GLOBAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterprise operations continue to be globalized through overseas expansions, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions as well as strategic relationships and partnerships transnational organizations need to give attention to issues of culture in human resource management practices as a panacea for prosperity. The global organization is competent if only it is able to bridge the gap between management and culture so that personal relationships with other peoples in the organization and society become in harmony. This is critical because cultural relativity and reality in organizations influence operations. The study was designed to explore possible relationships between cultural dimensions and global human resource management. The survey research design was employed and data generated through primary and secondary sources. The participants comprised of 385 respondents from a cross-section of the population in Nigeria. By Chi-Square test, it was found that culture has a significant positive relationship with global human resource management.

  15. Culture and conversion disorder: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria and related features of conversion disorder are under revision for DSM-5, including the requirement that psychological factors accompany the symptoms or deficits in question (Criterion B) and whether conversion disorder should be re-labeled as a dissociative, rather than a somatoform, condition. We examined the cross-cultural evidence on the prevalence, characteristics, and associated features of pseudoneurological symptoms more generally, and conversion disorder in particular, in order to inform the ongoing re-evaluation of the conversion disorder category. We also examined the relationship between these constructs and dissociative symptoms and disorders across cultural groups. Searches were conducted of the mental health literature, particularly since 1994, regarding culture, race, or ethnicity factors related to conversion disorder. Many proposed DSM-5 revisions were supported, such as the elimination of Criterion B. We also found cross-cultural variability in predominant symptoms, disorder prevalence, and relationship with cultural syndromes. Additional information that may contribute to DSM-5 includes the elevated rates across cultures of traumatic exposure and psychiatric comorbidity in conversion disorder. Cross-culturally, conversion disorder is associated strongly with both dissociative and somatoform presentations, revealing no clear basis on which to locate the disorder in DSM-5. Careful consideration should be given to the possible alternatives.

  16. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  17. GALLEX: First results and implications for neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.X.

    1992-01-01

    The GALLEX experiment, located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, completed its first measurements of the production rate of Ge-71 from Ga-71 due to solar neutrinos. The GALLEX detector is uniquely sensitive to the low energy neutrinos produced by proton-proton fusion in the center of the Sun. From these first measurements, which cover a period of exposure of 295 days, a rate of 83 ± 19 (stat.) ± 8 (syst.) (1 σ) SNU [1 x 10 (-36) captures/target atom - second] is reported. This initial result is two standard deviations below the solar model calculations. The implications of a neutrino deficit in terms of neutrino flavor oscillations is summarized

  18. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  19. Conceptualizing the Research Culture in Postgraduate Medical Education: Implications for Leading Culture Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    By recognizing symbols of research culture in postgraduate medical education, educators and trainees can gain a deeper understanding of the existing culture and mechanisms for its transformation. First, I identify symbolic manifestations of the research culture through a case narrative of a single anesthesia residency program, and I offer a visual conceptualization of the research culture. In the second part, I theorize the application of Senge's (1994) disciplines of a learning organization and discuss leverage for enhancing research culture. This narrative account is offered to inform the work of enhancing the broader research culture in postgraduate medical education.

  20. Evaluating the social and cultural implications of the internet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Since the Internet's breakthrough as a mass medium, it has become a topic of discussion because of its implications for society. At one extreme, one finds those who only see great benefits and consider the Internet a tool for freedom, commerce, connectivity, and other societal benefits. At the other

  1. Spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzik, I.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine how serious implications regarding spillway design of small dams would result from changes in flood frequencies and magnitudes, because of changes in rainfall regime in turn brought on by climate change due to carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere. The region selected for study was the central Alberta foothills and adjacent prairie environment. A study watershed, representative of the region, was chosen to assess the present and possible future flood frequency-magnitude relationships. A Monte Carlo simulation method was used in conjunction with rainfall-runoff modelling of the study watershed to generate data for flood frequency analysis of maximum annual flood series corresponding to the present and future climate scenarios. The impact of resulting differences in design floods for small dams on spillway design was investigated using the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration small dam design method. Changes in the mean and standard deviation of rainfall depth of design storms in a region will result in new probability distributions of the maximum annual flood flows. A 25% increase in the mean and standard deviation of design rainfall depth resulted in greater increases of 1:2 and 1:100 flood flows than a 50% increase in the standard deviation alone did. Under scenario 1, the 1:2 flood flows increased more than did the 1:100 flows. Scenario 2 produced opposite results, whereby the 1:100 flows increased more than did the 1:2 flows. It seems that a climate change of the type of scenario 1 would result in a more severe increase in flood flows than scenario 2 would. Retrofitting existing spillways of small dams would in most cases require increasing flow capacities of both operating and auxilliary spillways. 23 refs

  2. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  3. "Taking Culture Seriously": Implications for Intercultural Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogay, Tania; Edelmann, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Albeit indispensable to understanding human action, the concept of culture has suffered from excessive enthusiasm in the fields of intercultural education as well as in intercultural teacher training, leading too often to culturalist stances. These excesses of intercultural education and training as well as their contradictory message (between…

  4. The socio-cultural implications of climate change in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impact has remained a serious threat to man and more particularly in the water-stressed environment of north Cameroon where in most cases, man struggles for bare survival by eking out a living from a harsh or hostile climatic environment. In this region, the socio-cultural impacts can be devastating as has ...

  5. Some Socio-Cultural Realities: Implications for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Jasmin Espiritu

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three aspects of Philippine culture that affect teaching and learning: (1) social structure; (2) language; and (3) values. Findings from cognitive growth research with Filipino children and adolescents are examined to identify ways of overcoming some sources of difficulties in these areas. (Author/JN)

  6. Appropriate Management in an African Culture: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duze, Chinelo O.

    2012-01-01

    Following continued search for reasons on the inability of African nations to realize appreciable economic development through education, the researcher investigated the influence of cultural environment on management in industry. Because input/output measures of productivity are not easily measured in education, the industry was used, hoping that…

  7. Second Language Acquisition and Its Pscycho-cultural Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Waskita, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Bilingualism or multilingualism may imply socioeconomic advantages. But a further literature study indicates that this may also affect psychological and cultural viewpoints. The acquisition of second language would significantly influence the mentality or perceptual framework of the language users. Consequently, this finding may inspire to the appropriate pedagogical methods in language acquisition.

  8. the accounting implication of cultural dimensions on financial reporting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study extends the literature on the impact of cultural dimensions on financial reporting practice and disclosure ... reporting as it is potentially useful for users of accounting information because this provides them with ... practices and management control systems. For ..... whether the internal consistency of the responses.

  9. Hispanic Families and Their Culture: Implications for FCS Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Barbara N.; Bencomo, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic children constitute the largest population of racial/ethnic minority students in the nation's public schools. By the year 2023, the Hispanic enrollment is expected to increase to 30% of the total school population (pre-K through 12) in the United States. Because cultural background affects student learning, family and consumer sciences…

  10. Meanings and Implications of Culture in Sustainability Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vince; Datta, Ranjan; Dyck, Shannon; Kayira, Jean; McVittie, Janet

    2016-01-01

    As scholars working both individually and collectively, we are interested in exploring what may be achieved through taking up the complex notion of culture in sustainability education research. In this article, we present a bricolage of research, drawing on empirical and theoretical sources that collectively establish the kind of capacity we see…

  11. Third Culture Kids: Implications for Professional School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Dodie; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2011-01-01

    The increase of international business, military placements, and immigration has led to an increase in students attending schools in a country other than where they were born: third culture kids (TCKs). TCKs have unique educational needs, necessitating the support of their school counselors. This article (a) defines and introduces the needs and…

  12. The Implications of Culture for Dictionaries of the African Languages*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nkabinde

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article attempts to show how culture or aspects thereof can be used to comple-ment linguistic and other information in the compilation of dictionaries of African languages. Some obstacles in the way of achieving this goal are identified and proposals made on how to deal with them. Although only some cultural aspects of a single language are examined, the conclusions are valid for cultural aspects of all African languages.

    Keywords: CONTEXT, CULTURE, CORPUS, EUPHEMISM, FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, HLONIPHA, KINSHIP TERMS, LEXICAL BORROWING, MULTILINGUALISM, SPEECH COM-MUNITY, STANDARD ZULU, TABOO

    Opsomming: Die implikasies van kultuur vir woordeboeke van die Afri-katale. Hierdie artikel probeer om aan te toon hoe kultuur of aspekte daarvan gebruik kan word om taalkundige en ander inligting aan te vul by die samestelling van woordeboeke van die Afrika-tale. 'n Aantal struikelblokke op die weg om hierdie doel te bereik, word geïdentifiseer en voor-stelle gemaak oor hoe om hulle te hanteer. Alhoewel slegs sommige kulturele aspekte van 'n enkele taal ondersoek word, is die gevolgtrekkings geldig vir kulturele aspekte van alle Afrikatale.

    Sleutelwoorde: EUFEMISME, FIGUURLIKE TAAL, HLONIPHA, KONTEKS, KORPUS, KULTUUR, LEKSIKALE ONTLENING, TAALGEMEENSKAP, TABOE, STANDAARDZOELOE, VEELTALIGHEID, VERWANTSKAPSTERME

  13. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M.; Diem, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington at Seattle, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to {approx}100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  14. Implications of HIV PrEP Trials Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Peter; Fletcher, Courtney V.; DeGruttola, Victor; McGowan, Ian; Becker, Stephen; Zwerski, Sheryl; Burns, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Six randomized clinical trials have been implemented to examine the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and/or TDF/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection (PrEP). Although largely complementary, the six trials have many similar features. As the earliest results become available, an urgent question may arise regarding whether changes should be made in the conduct of the other trials. To consider this in advance, a Consultation on the Implications of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Trials Results sponsored by the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) was held on January 29, 2010, at the Natcher Conference Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD. Participants included basic scientists, clinical researchers (including investigators performing the current PrEP trials), and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the agencies sponsoring the trials: the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the BMGF, and the U.S. NIH. We report here a summary of the presentations and highlights of salient discussion topics from this workshop. PMID:20969483

  15. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  16. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  17. Implications of student mobility at the University of Granada: culture shock, education shock and “hosting shock”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Soriano García

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The University of Granada heads the latest statistics in absolute figures in students’ mobility in Spain. Taking this assertion as a starting point, this paper shows the implications of culture shock for student mobility as well as the impact of student mobility for the different education levels and for host institutions. Furthermore, this paper presents the results obtained from the Temcu project (Teacher Training for the MulticulturalClassroom at the University, a European project based on the implications of the multicultural classroom at the University of Granada.

  18. The Current Status and Implications of Nuclear Energy Cultural Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won

    2006-01-01

    The Korean nuclear energy community paid a high price in terms of the tremendous social costs incurred in the process of securing a site for mid-to-low radioactive waste disposal facility, indicating that interest in the technical danger of nuclear energy has spread to the realm of people's daily lives. Under the circumstances it is important to raise rational public awareness of nuclear science as a foundation of everyday life through nuclear cultural activities. This study examines the various types of public relations activities of the Korea Nuclear Energy Foundation, an organization in charge of promoting nuclear energy, and explores what activities are required to ensure efficient promotion in accordance with development of nuclear culture

  19. Organizational culture and its implications on infection prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospital acquired infections are becoming common in our hospitals lately. These infections are difficult to treat and maybe life threatening. Hospital acquired infection  can be minimized or eradicated by good Infection Prevention and Control guidelines and good hand hygiene practices. The success of Infection Prevention and Control guidelines program in any hospital is largely impacted by the organizational culture.  In any health care setting the management is challenged by the organizational culture to change of any kind. Where implementation of Infection Prevention and Control guidelines program is easily implemented in some hospitals it is very difficult in others. Moreover, hand hygiene is not only biomedical practice but also has more behavioral factors. 

  20. The Latest IceCube Results and the Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Keiichi

    IceCube was built at the South Pole and aims to detect high energy neutrinos from the universe mainly above 100 GeV. The transparent ice media allows us to build a 1 km3 large detection volume to detect the rarely interacting particles. Neutrinos are thought to be generated at astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Nature of the rare interaction with matters and little deflection by a magnetic field makes it possible to explore such sources located at the deep universe. Since the neutrinos are produced through collisions of hadronic particles, the observation can elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, which is still mystery after the discovery 100 years ago. The detector was completed at the end of 2010 and is running smoothly. Recently, IceCube has found the first evidence of extraterrestrial neutrinos with energies above approximately 60 TeV. IceCube also contributes to elementary particle physics by searching for neutrinos produced in self-annihilation of SUSY particles such as neutralinos and by investigating atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The latest IceCube results and the corresponding implications are presented.

  1. Mapping world cultures: Cluster formation, sources and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Simcha Ronen; Oded Shenkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends and builds on Ronen and Shenkar’s synthesized cultural clustering of countries based on similarity and dissimilarity in work-related attitudes. The new map uses an updated dataset, and expands coverage to world areas that were non-accessible at the time. Cluster boundaries are drawn empirically rather than intuitively, and the plot obtained is triple nested, indicating three levels of similarity across given country pairs. Also delineated are cluster adjacency and cluster c...

  2. Safety culture measurements results in the agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Terjék, László

    2013-01-01

    The author examined the safety culture and in relation to that the safety and health-related human factors. The examination was conducted primarily in the agricultural sector. Safety culture is also a key factor in business life especially in productive sectors. Basically, it determines the general work safety and occupational hazard situations, which may have an impact on business, competitiveness, and efficiency, and also employee satisfaction.The concept of safety culture is new in the app...

  3. Expected job creation across the cultural industries : a sectoral division and its implications for cultural policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, Richard F.J.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    The cultural industries have come to the forefront as the potential job creators of the future. However, building on the concentric circles model and production system view of the cultural industries, we pose that many young and small organizations in the industries lack the motivation, ability, and

  4. Expected job creation across the cultural industries : A sectoral division and its implications for cultural policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, Richard; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    The cultural industries have come to the forefront as the potential job creators of the future. However, building on the concentric circles model and production system view of the cultural industries, we pose that many young and small organizations in the industries lack the motivation, ability, and

  5. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  6. Temples in the Ghassulian Culture: Terminology and social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Gošić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological discussions on prehistoric ritual are largely concerned with their material remains, including architectural debris. The first step in interpretation of such remains is their precise identification and categorization. There are numerous terms for objects and architectural remains that are widely utilized in the archaeological jargon, including, but not limited to, the terms temple, sanctuary and shrine. During almost a century of studying the Chalcolithic Ghassulian culture of the southern Levant, various architectural structures excavated at the sites of Teleilat Ghassul, Gilat and En Gedi have all been interpreted as temples, sanctuaries, or shrines – terms that in case of the Ghassulian culture are used as synonymous of temples. However, the actual architectural remains from these sites differ significantly and explicit definitions on what is meant by the terms used are rare. Apart from demonstrating the importance of properly defining a term in a context in which it is used, the aim of the present paper is to compare these various architectural remains, as well as various interpretations of Ghassulian society and the role the presumed temples played in them. This will be the basis for evaluating how classifying archaeological structures as temples has influenced interpretations of Ghassulian social organization.

  7. Patient's safety culture among Tunisian healthcare workers: results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: our study has allowed us to conclude that all dimensions of patients' safety culture need to be improved among our establishment's professionals. Therefore, more efforts are necessary in order to develop a security culture based on confidence, learning, communication and team work and rejecting sanction, ...

  8. Cross-cultural Comparison of Learning in Human Hunting : Implications for Life History Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Katharine

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a cross-cultural examination of the development of hunting skills and the implications for the debate on the role of learning in the evolution of human life history patterns. While life history theory has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the evolution of the human life course, other schools, such as cultural transmission and social learning theory, also provide theoretical insights. These disparate theories are reviewed, and alternative and exclusive predictions are identified. This study of cross-cultural regularities in how children learn hunting skills, based on the ethnographic literature on traditional hunters, complements existing empirical work and highlights future areas for investigation.

  9. Cultural differences in visual attention: Implications for distraction processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tarek; Ngo, K W Joan; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-05-01

    We investigated differences between participants of East Asian and Western descent in attention to and implicit memory for irrelevant words which participants were instructed to ignore while completing a target task (a Stroop Task in Experiment 1 and a 1-back task on pictures in Experiment 2). Implicit memory was measured using two conceptual priming tasks (category generation in Experiment 1 and general knowledge in Experiment 2). Participants of East Asian descent showed reliable implicit memory for previous distractors relative to those of Western descent with no evidence of differences on target task performance. We also found differences in a Corsi Block spatial memory task in both studies, with superior performance by the East Asian group. Our findings suggest that cultural differences in attention extend to task-irrelevant background information, and demonstrate for the first time that such information can boost performance when it becomes relevant on a subsequent task. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Bring Back Our Girls, Social Mobilization: Implications for Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutokunbo, Adekalu Samuel; Suandi, Turiman; Cephas, Oluwaseyitan Rotimi; Abu-Samah, Irza Hanie

    2015-01-01

    Social mobilization is a proactive measure for community development that salvages the society from destruction and disaster. From sociological perspective, this paper discusses the concept of social mobilization and its implications for cross-cultural research. To do this, the study uses the "Bring Back Our Girls" Global Campaign, as…

  11. Socio-Cultural Theories of Cognitive Development: Implications for Teaching Theory in the Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Rob

    1989-01-01

    Explicates the socio-cultural developmental theories of Vygotsky and Feuerstein which advocate teacher mediated learning in order to stimulate and accelerate development. Implications for art education include the need for the teacher to become involved in the enculturation of the child into the thinking processes and conceptual organization of…

  12. Cultural Competence in Counseling the Muslim Patient: Implications for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implications of a Culturally Evolved Self for Notions of Free Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most schools in psychology have emphasized individual choice despite evidence of genetic and cultural determinism. It is suggested in this paper that the rejection of classical behaviorism by psychology and other humanities flowed from deeply held cultural assumptions about volition and free will. While compatibilists have suggested that notions of free will and determinism are not mutually exclusive, the psychological mechanisms by which such an accommodation could be explained have been inadequately explored. Drawing on research into classical cultures, this paper builds an argument that the notion of free will was adaptive flowing from culturally evolved changes to the self, and that this “evolved self,” containing assumptions of personal volition, continuity, and reason, became benchmarks of what it means to be human. The paper proposes a model of a culturally evolved self that is compatible with understandings of free will and determinism. Implications for therapeutic practice and future research are discussed.

  14. Cultural consultation as a model for training multidisciplinary mental healthcare professionals in cultural competence skills: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Ajaz, A; Ascoli, M; de Jongh, B; Palinski, A; Bhui, K S

    2014-01-01

    Lack of cultural competence in care contributes to poor experiences and outcomes from care for migrants and racial and ethnic minorities. As a result, health and social care organizations currently promote cultural competence of their workforce as a means of addressing persistent poor experiences and outcomes. At present, there are unsystematic and diverse ways of promoting cultural competence, and their impact on clinician skills and patient outcomes is unknown. We developed and implemented an innovative model, cultural consultation service (CCS), to promote cultural competence of clinicians and directly improve on patient experiences and outcomes from care. CCS model is an adaptation of the McGill model, which uses ethnographic methodology and medical anthropological knowledge. The method and approach not only contributes both to a broader conceptual and dynamic understanding of culture, but also to learning of cultural competence skills by healthcare professionals. The CCS model demonstrates that multidisciplinary workforce can acquire cultural competence skills better through the clinical encounter, as this promotes integration of learning into day-to-day practice. Results indicate that clinicians developed a broader and patient-centred understanding of culture, and gained skills in narrative-based assessment method, management of complexity of care, competing assumptions and expectations, and clinical cultural formulation. Cultural competence is defined as a set of skills, attitudes and practices that enable the healthcare professionals to deliver high-quality interventions to patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Improving on the cultural competence skills of the workforce has been promoted as a way of reducing ethnic and racial inequalities in service outcomes. Currently, diverse models for training in cultural competence exist, mostly with no evidence of effect. We established an innovative narrative-based cultural consultation service in an inner

  15. FP7 Project LONGLIFE: Overview of results and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altstadt, Eberhard; Keim, Elisabeth; Hein, Hieronymus; Serrano, Marta; Bergner, Frank; Viehrig, Hans-Werner; Ballesteros, Antonio; Chaouadi, Rachid; Wilford, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation effects in reactor pressure vessel steels under long term operation. • Indications of late blooming effects were found in some cases. • Significant flux effect on the size of defect clusters in high-Cu weld materials. • Guideline for monitoring radiation embrittlement during life extension. - Abstract: LONGLIFE (“Treatment of long term irradiation embrittlement effects in RPV safety assessment”) was a collaborative project of the 7th Framework Programme of EURATOM under the umbrella of NULIFE/NUGENIA, aiming at an improved understanding of irradiation effects in reactor pressure vessel steels under conditions representative of long term operation. The LONGLIFE project was completed by the end of January 2014. The paper gives an overview of the main project results and their implications for future research, as discussed at the final project workshop. The microstructural database for neutron-irradiated RPV steels was extended considerably and existing gaps on mechanical property data were closed. Indications of late blooming effects (LBE) were found in some cases, but clear criteria for the occurrence/exclusion in terms of irradiation conditions and chemical composition have still to be developed. The commonly accepted trend, that low flux and low irradiation temperature promotes LBE, is supported. A significant flux effect on the size of defect clusters was observed in two high Cu weld materials, while the changes of mechanical properties are not affected by the neutron flux. The database requires completion in particular for low-Cu RPV steels. The shift of reference temperature T 0 over the thickness location of a VVER-440 welding seam does not follow the prediction Russian code, because of the strong variation of the intrinsic weld bead structure. Therefore, the effect of the initial microstructure and of the heterogeneity on the radiation behaviour has to be addressed in future works. Existing embrittlement trend curves models

  16. Contaminants in blood cultures: importance, implications, interpretation and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargère, S; Cormier, H; Verdon, R

    2018-04-03

    Despite the development of new microbiologic technologies, blood cultures (BCs) remain the first-line tool for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Their diagnostic value may be affected when a microorganism of questionable evidence is isolated-for example, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., viridans group streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp. and Micrococcus spp. Finally, making a correct diagnosis of pathogenicity (vs. contamination) is challenging. To review the current ways of dealing with the problem of BC contaminants (BCCs) and to provide practical suggestions to decrease BCC rates. PubMed electronic databases and existing reviews were searched up to December 2017 to retrieve relevant publications related to the topic. This review describes the burden of BCC and analyses the main current issues and controversies in interpreting the occurrence of potential BC contaminants. It focuses on the best-described approaches to decide whether BCC is present and discusses the different strategies of prevention in adults. Each institution should have an efficient policy to prevent BCC, emphasizing the importance of following guidelines for prescribing and collecting BCs. Training healthcare workers should focus on detrimental influence on patient care and highlight the work and costs due to contaminants. The accurate differentiation of a contaminant from a true pathogen relies on a multidisciplinary approach and the clinical judgement of experienced practitioners. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of culture and antibiogram results in burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Balcı, Yasemin I.; Çilengir, Mehmet; Övet, Gültekin; Cebelli, Sami

    2010-01-01

    Infections are most common cause of morbidity and mortality in burned patients due to destruction of skin barrier. In this study, we aimed to determine most common microorganisms and their antibiotic susceptibility detected in wound cultures of these patients. Sixty six positive wound cultures were detected in patients admitted to burn clinic of Denizli State hospital between November, 2008 and November, 2009 and were evaluated in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by d...

  18. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  19. The use of culturally themed HIV messages and their implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that this campaign was perceived as an activation of positive Batswana culture to modify harmful norms, values and social practices, drawing upon those cultural aspects favouring more positive behaviour.We conclude that behaviour change communication should promote links to cultural values and ...

  20. A Review of International Cross-Cultural Mixed Messages and Their Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the concept of international cross-cultural mixed messages. Although there is limited literature on this topic, the review suggests that messages from one's home culture and a second culture can result in conflicting expectations for one's own behavior and for the behavior of others. Double bind theory is…

  1. Culturally Sensitive Counselling in Nunavut: Implications of Inuit Traditional Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihak, Christine; Merali, Noorfarah

    2003-01-01

    The success of the Inuit people of Canada in seeking political autonomy resulted in the creation of the Nunavut territory. The new Government of Nunavut (GN) has instituted Inuit Quajimajatiqangit (IQ), the values, norms, and traditional knowledge of the Inuit, as formal policy to guide the delivery of health, social, and civil services in order…

  2. Western gulf culture-density study-early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...

  3. Building inclusive engineering identities: implications for changing engineering culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atadero, Rebecca A.; Paguyo, Christina H.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Henderson, Heather L.

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing efforts to broaden the participation of women and people of colour in engineering degree programmes and careers have had limited success. This paper describes a different approach to broadening participation that seeks to work with all students and develop inclusive engineering identities. Researchers worked with the instructors of two first-year engineering courses to integrate curriculum activities designed to promote the formation of engineering identities and build an appreciation for how diversity and inclusion strengthen engineering practice. Multilevel modelling results indicated positive effects of the intervention on appreciation for diversity but no effects on engineering identity, and qualitative results indicated students learned the most about diversity not through one of the intervention activities, but through team projects in the courses. We also describe lessons learned in how to teach engineering students about diversity in ways that are relevant to engineering.

  4. Organizational culture: the critical link between strategy and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, K W; Fralicx, R D; Spreier, S W

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is undertaking a massive reorganization to transform itself into a more efficient, patient-focused healthcare system. It has developed a new strategy and structure. But if it is to achieve the rapid, sustainable transformation needed to succeed in today's environment, it must also change its culture. The rigid, functionally focused, command-and-control culture that has long been a hallmark of VA must be replaced by one that values speed, flexibility, and the processes for delivering high-quality, cost-effective patient care. Such a change will not come easily. In addition to the normal hurdles, several barriers are unique to VA. They include ingrained bureaucratic traditions and behaviors, constraints imposed by the federal government, close scrutiny by powerful service organizations, and a Civil Service employee base that makes the hiring, promoting, and removing of employees a slow, unwieldy, and procedurally complex exercise. In a climate that does not encourage change, successful transformation must be well orchestrated. To drive the change, the leadership must be mobilized as a team, new work processes must be developed, and a full range of human resource processes must be established.

  5. Dissociation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Implications of Studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldi, Everton de Oliveira; Krippner, Stanley; Barros, Maria Cristina Monteiro; Cunha, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    A major issue in the study of dissociation concerns the cross-cultural validity of definitions and measurements used to identify and classify dissociative disorders. There is also extensive debate on the etiological factors underlying dissociative experiences. Cross-cultural research is essential to elucidate these issues, particularly regarding evidence obtained from countries in which the study of dissociation is still in its infancy. The aim of this article was to discuss Brazilian research on the topic of dissociation, highlighting its contributions for the understanding of dissociative experiences in nonclinical populations and for the validity and relevance of dissociative disorders in the contexts of psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. We also consider the ways in which dissociative experiences are assimilated by Brazilian culture and religious expressions, and the implications of Brazilian studies for the sociocultural investigation of dissociation. We conclude by addressing the limitations of these studies and potential areas for future research.

  6. MORALITY IN CULTURAL ELEMENTS IN FAIRYTALE AND ITS IMPLICATION IN LEARNING FRENCH AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninuk Lustyantie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of a society is closely related to the language used by the speakers. Moreover, there are opinions saying that in a language there will be patterns of behavior, materials, ideas (beliefs and knowledge, and sentiments (attitudes and norms of a society that are formed and exposed. This fact is in accordance with the opinion that a language is more than just a communion; it is the relation between individual and sociocultural values. Among all characteristics of culture, language is the most prominent distinguishing feature, since each social group feel themselves as a different entity from other groups. For certain social groups, language is used as the social identity/symbol. Close relation between language and culture is reflected in words used by the society. A concept or way of life in a society can be supported by words and language. Someone’s language behavior generally follows the culture of a society where he/she lives, including how the cultural elements appear in the equipment of human life, livelihood, social system, language (and literature system either written or oral, various of arts, knowledge system, and religious system. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis states that there is a close relation between the language used by people and how they understand the world and behave in it. Based on 17th Century French fairytales, this article will review the moral values contained in the cultural elements and the implications in learning French as a foreign language.

  7. Survey Result for the Safety Culture Attitude of HANARO in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jong Sup; An, Seok Hwa

    2009-01-01

    One of the important aims of a nuclear management system is to foster a strong safety culture. The safety culture activities for HANARO have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities has also been emphasized since its first operation. HANARO developed its own safety culture indicators by referring to the IAEA's documents for the purpose of the evaluation of the safety culture attitude. In June 2008 a survey on the safety culture was conducted based on the new safety culture indicators. The result of the survey shows that the safety culture activities contribute positively to its safe operation. But it is necessary to encourage some activities like training, resources and organizational culture. The survey was helpful to understand the general trends of the safety attitudes and to set the safety culture activities necessary for the improvement of its safe operation

  8. Implications of false-positive results for future cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Keating, Nancy L; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    False-positive cancer screening results may affect a patient's willingness to obtain future screening. The authors conducted logistic regression analysis of 450,484 person-years of electronic medical records (2006-2015) in 92,405 individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Exposures were false-positive breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer screening test results (repeat breast imaging or negative breast biopsy ≤3 months after screening mammography, repeat prostate-specific antigen [PSA] test ≤3 months after PSA test result ≥4.0 ng/mL or negative prostate biopsy ≤3 months after any PSA result, or negative colonoscopy [without biopsy/polypectomy] ≤6 months after a positive fecal occult blood test). Outcomes were up-to-date status with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Covariates included prior screening history, clinical information (eg, family history, obesity, and smoking status), comorbidity, and demographics. Women were more likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening if they previously had false-positive mammography findings (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.51] without breast biopsy and AOR, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.62] with breast biopsy; both Pfalse-positive PSA testing were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening (AOR, 1.22 [P = .039] without prostate imaging/biopsy and AOR, 1.60 [P = .028] with imaging/biopsy). Results were stronger for individuals with more false-positive results (all P≤.005). However, women with previous false-positive colorectal cancer fecal occult blood test screening results were found to be less likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening (AOR, 0.73; Pfalse-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test were more likely to engage in future screening. Cancer 2018;124:2390-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  9. Bringing Darwin into the social sciences and the humanities: cultural evolution and its philosophical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Denis, Gilles

    2018-04-10

    In the field of cultural evolution it is generally assumed that the study of culture and cultural change would benefit enormously from being informed by evolutionary thinking. Recently, however, there has been much debate about what this "being informed" means. According to the standard view, an interesting analogy obtains between cultural and biological evolution. In the literature, however, the analogy is interpreted and used in at least three distinct, but interrelated ways. We provide a taxonomy in order to clarify these different meanings. Subsequently, we discuss the alternatives model of cultural attraction theory and memetics, which both challenge basic assumptions of the standard view. Finally, we briefly summarize the contributions to the special issue on Darwin in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, which is the result of a collaborative project between scholars and scientists from the universities of Lille and Ghent. Furthermore, we explain how they add to the discussions about the integration of evolutionary thinking and the study of culture.

  10. Update of GALLEX solar neutrino results and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsten, T.

    1995-01-01

    The galliumchloride detector operated by the GALLEX-collaboration in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory responds primarily to pp-neutrinos. They are produced in the primary fusion reaction of hydrogen into deuterium and directly coupled to the solar luminosity. Standard Solar Models predict ca. 58% of the total signal expected in GALLEX (123-132 SNU) to be due to pp-neutrinos. The relative pp-neutrino dominance becomes even larger if the deficit of higher energy neutrinos (as observed in the Homestake- and Kamiokande experiments) is considered. During the first data taking period, 15 solar runs had been performed within the exposure period 14.5.1991 - 29.4.1992. The result, 81 ± 17 ± 9 SNU provided the first experimental evidence for pp-neutrinos from the Sun. At the same time, it confirmed the depression of higher energy neutrino fluxes relative to the model predictions. Here the authors report the results of 15 more solar neutrino runs, covering the period 19.8.92 - 13.10.93. They obtain 78 ± 13 ± 5 SNU. Evaluated together, the result for all 30 runs is 79 ± 10 ± 6 SNU. While the SNU rate of GALLEX I is well reproduced the statistical error has been reduced so substantially that a value of signal +2σ is required to accommodate not only pp-and pep- but also the 7 Be-neutrino induced 71 Ge-production. Contrary, the fate of 8 B-neutrinos has only little discernible effect on the GALLEX data. In conclusion, with the present errors GALLEX constitutes a 2.5 σ problem for 7 Be neutrinos within the frame of open-quotes astrophysicalclose quotes solutions. Alternatively, the particle physics solution (MSW-effect) can consistently explain all available solar neutrino results, leading to a most probable mass scale with the muon-neutrino at approximately 3 meV (milli-eV). However, since the GALLEX result allows the presence of pp and pep neutrinos at full strength. the latter explanation of the data is not forced

  11. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 2, PIRT results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Dion, Jeanne A.; Radel, Ross F.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the results of a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) exercise performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as well as the experimental and modeling program that have been designed based on the PIRT results. A PIRT exercise is a structured and facilitated expert elicitation process. In this case, the expert panel was comprised of nine recognized fire science and aerosol experts. The objective of a PIRT exercise is to identify phenomena associated with the intended application and to then rank the current state of knowledge relative to each identified phenomenon. In this particular PIRT exercise the intended application was sodium fire modeling related to sodium-cooled advanced reactors. The panel was presented with two specific fire scenarios, each based on a hypothetical sodium leak in an Advanced Breeder Test Reactor (ABTR) design. For both scenarios the figure of merit was the ability to predict the thermal and aerosol insult to nearby equipment (i.e. heat exchangers and other electrical equipment). When identifying phenomena of interest, and in particular when ranking phenomena importance and the adequacy of existing modeling tools and data, the panel was asked to subjectively weigh these factors in the context of the specified figure of merit. Given each scenario, the panel identified all those related phenomena that are of potential interest to an assessment of the scenario using fire modeling tools to evaluate the figure of merit. Each phenomenon is then ranked relative to its importance in predicting the figure of merit. Each phenomenon is then further ranked for the existing state of knowledge with respect to the ability of existing modeling tools to predict that phenomena, the underlying base of data associated with the phenomena, and the potential for developing new data to support improvements to the existing modeling tools. For this PIRT two hypothetical sodium leak scenarios were evaluated for the ABTR design. The

  12. Implications for monitoring: study designs and interpretation of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R. H.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Two innovative statistical approaches to the interpretation and generalization of the results from the study of long-term environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production in the Gulf of Mexico were described. The first of the two methods, the Sediment Quality Triad approach, relies on a test of coherence of responses, whereas the second approach uses small scale spatial heterogeneity of response as evidence of impact. As far as the study design was concerned, it was argued that differing objectives which are demanded of the same study (e.g. generalization about environmental impact of similar platforms versus the spatial pattern of impact around individual platforms) are frequently in conflict. If at all possible, they should be avoided since the conflicting demands tend to compromise the design for both situations. 31 refs., 5 figs

  13. Liquid pathways generic studies; results, interpretation, and design implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.H.; Nutant, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Offshore Power Systems and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have evaluated dose consequences resulting from a release of radioactivity to liquid pathways following a postulated core-melt accident. The objective of these studies was to compare the risks from postulated core-melt accidents for the Floating Nuclear Plant with those for a typical land-based nuclear plant. Offshore Power Systems concluded that the differences in liquid pathway risks between plant types are not significant when compared with the air pathways risks. Air pathways risk is similar to or significantly larger than liquid pathways risk depending on the accident scenario. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission judged the liquid pathways risks from the Floating Nuclear Plant to be significantly greater than the liquid pathway risks for the typical land-based plant. Although OPS disagrees with the NRC judgment, design changes dictated by the NRC are being implemented by OPS

  14. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Quantitation of DNA repair in brain cell cultures: implications for autoradiographic analysis of mixed cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambergs, R.; Kidson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitation of DNA repair in the mixed cell population of mouse embryo brain cultures has been assessed by autoradiographic analysis of unscheduled DNA synthesis following UV-irradiation. The proportion of labelled neurons and the grain density over neuronal nuclei were both less than the corresponding values for glial cells. The nuclear geometries of these two classes of cell are very different. Partial correction for the different geometries by relating grain density to nuclear area brought estimates of neuronal and glial DNA repair synthesis more closely in line. These findings have general implications for autoradiographic measurement of DNA repair in mixed cell populations and in differentiated versus dividing cells. (author)

  16. Commentary on Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Positive Youth Development With Implications for Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Silvia H; Verma, Suman

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing focus on youth positive development issues among researchers and practitioners around the world. In this special issue of Child Development, each of the international authors provides new perspectives and understanding about youth developmental assets in different cultural settings. The present commentary (a) examines some of the cross-cultural themes that emerge from the four articles by international authors in this issue with implications for positive youth development (PYD) and (b) how intervention science can benefit by incorporating a PYD approach. As evident, youth involved in contexts that provide positive resources from significant others not only were less likely to exhibit negative outcomes, but also were more likely to show evidence of positive development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Words that describe chronic musculoskeletal pain: implications for assessing pain quality across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saurab; Pathak, Anupa; Jensen, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    People from different cultures who speak different languages may experience pain differently. This possible variability has important implications for evaluating the validity of pain quality measures that are directly translated into different languages without cultural adaptations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of language and culture on the validity of pain quality measures by comparing the words that individuals with chronic pain from Nepal use to describe their pain with those used by patients from the USA. A total of 101 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain in Nepal were asked to describe their pain. The rates of the different pain descriptor domains and phrases used by the Nepali sample were then compared to the published rates of descriptors used by patients from the USA. The content validity of commonly used measures for assessing pain quality was then evaluated. While there was some similarity between patients from Nepal and the USA in how they describe pain, there were also important differences, especially in how pain quality was described. For example, many patients from Nepal used metaphors to describe their pain. Also, the patients from Nepal often used a category of pain descriptor - which describes a physical state - not used by patients from the USA. Only the original McGill Pain Questionnaire was found to have content validity for assessing pain quality in patients from Nepal, although other existing pain quality measures could be adapted to be content valid by adding one or two additional descriptors, depending on the measure in question. The findings indicate that direct translations of measures that are developed using samples of patients from one country or culture are not necessarily content valid for use in other countries or cultures; some adaptations may be required in order for such measures to be most useful in new language and culture.

  18. Fading Majority Cultures : The Implications of Transnationalism and Demographic Changes for Immigrant Acculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ward, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Processes of globalisation, migration, and increasing cultural diversity within nations have resulted in a growing need to understand intercultural relations in plural societies. Accordingly, this paper highlights the relations between immigrants and members of host societies and considers how

  19. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  20. STARtorialist: Astronomy Fashion & Culture Blog and Reader Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.

    2016-01-01

    STARtorialist (startorialist.com) is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.

  1. Establishment of a Methanogenic Benzene-Degrading Culture and its Implication in Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, W.; Luo, F.; Bawa, N.; Guo, S.; Ye, S.; Edwards, E.

    2017-12-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen and it is a common pollutant in groundwater, mainly resulting from petrochemical industry. Anaerobic degradation of benzene has significant advantages over aerobic processes for in situ bioremediation. In this study, new methanogenic and sulfate-reducing benzene degrading cultures have been enriched. Microbial community composition was characterized with two other previously established benzene-degrading cultures, and their potential use in bioaugmentation is investigated. In this study, a lab microcosm study was conducted anaerobically with contaminated soil and groundwater from a former chemical plant. Benzene degradation was observed in the presence of co-contaminants and electron donor. Through repetitive amendment of benzene, two enrichment cultures have been developed under sulfate and methanogenic conditions. Results from DNA amplicon sequencing and qPCR analysis revealed that an organism similar to previously described benzene-degrading Deltaproteobacterium has been enriched. The microbial community of this culture was compared with other two methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment cultures that were derived from an oil refinery and a decommissioned gasoline station, and have been maintained for decades. Deltaproteobacterium ORM2-like microbes were dominate in all enrichment cultures, which brought to light benzene-degrading microbes, ORM2 were enriched under different geological conditions distributed around the world. The relative abundance of methanogens was much lower compared to previously established cultures, although substantial amount of methane was produced. The peripheral organisms also vary. To investigate effectiveness of using ORM2-dominant enrichment cultures in bioremediation, microcosm studies were set up using contaminated materials, and a ORM2-dominating methanogenic benzene-degrading culture was used for bioaugmentation. Results revealed that benzene degradation was speeded up under methanogenic or

  2. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  3. The relationship between senior management team culture and clinical governance: Empirical investigation and managerial implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenestini, Anna; Calciolari, Stefano; Lega, Federico; Grilli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Health care organizations are pressured to improve the cost-effectiveness of service delivery. Clinical governance is an important trigger to improve care quality and safety and rank high in the reform agenda of health systems. The senior management team culture plays a major role in establishing clinical governance practices, because it strongly influences the values, attitudes, and behaviors of the members of an organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between senior management team culture and clinical governance in the public health care organizations of three Italian regions. The assessment of senior management culture was conducted using the Competing Values Framework and a corresponding instrument adapted for the Italian context. Clinical governance was assessed using an ad hoc instrument focused on the senior management team's perception and attitude toward clinical governance. The survey achieved a 54% response rate. The results of four different models demonstrate that organizations characterized by different dominant cultures are associated with significant differences in attitudes toward clinical governance. In particular, on average, dominant cultures with a prevailing external focus are associated with a more positive attitude toward clinical governance. The selection and appointments of top managers should consider the style of leadership that is most apt to facilitate the growth of rational and developmental cultures. Furthermore, the training of top managers and leading doctors should reinforce leadership aptitude and approaches that are consistent with the desired organizational cultures.

  4. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  6. Globalization of problem-based learning (PBL): cross-cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Matthew Choon-Eng

    2008-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected educational outcomes commonly

  7. Globalization of Problem-based Learning (PBL: Cross-cultural Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Choon-Eng Gwee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is essentially a learning system design that incorporates several educational strategies to optimize student-centered learning outcomes beyond just knowledge acquisition. PBL was implemented almost four decades ago as an innovative and alternative pathway to learning in medical education in McMaster University Medical School. Since then, PBL has spread widely across the world and has now been adopted globally, including in much of Asia. The globalization of PBL has important cross-cultural implications. Delivery of instruction in PBL involves active peer teaching-learning in an open communication style. Consequently, this may pose an apparent serious conflict with the Asian communication style generally dominated by a cultural reticence. However, evidence available, especially from the PBL experience of some senior Korean medical students doing an elective in the University of Toronto Medical School and the cross-cultural PBL experience initiated by Kaohsiung Medical University, strongly suggests creating a conducive and supportive learning environment for students learning in a PBL setting can overcome the perceived cultural barriers; that is, nurture matters more than culture in the learning environment. Karaoke is very much an Asian initiative. The Karaoke culture and philosophy provide a useful lesson on how to create a conducive and supportive environment to encourage, enhance and motivate group activity. Some key attributes associated with Asian culture are in fact consistent with, and aligned to, some of the basic tenets of PBL, including the congruence between the Asian emphasis on group before individual interest, and the collaborative small group learning design used in PBL. Although there are great expectations of the educational outcomes students can acquire from PBL, the available evidence supports the contention the actual educational outcomes acquired from PBL do not really match the expected

  8. Blood culture results from healthy captive and free-ranging elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Harris, Brigita; Wilborn, Rachel E; Young, Forrest A

    2007-09-01

    Blood culture is a diagnostic tool used in confirming bacterial disease in teleostean and elasmobranch fishes. Unlike teleosts, elasmobranchs have a normal microflora in multiple organs, but their blood has generally been considered to be sterile. In regular exams of elasmobranchs conducted at a public aquarium, occasional blood samples have tested positive on culture. This finding prompted a blood culture survey of healthy captive and wild elasmobranchs (sharks and stingrays), which showed that 26.7% of all animals were positive. Stingrays alone showed a 50% occurrence of positive blood cultures, although the total number of animals was low and freshwater species were included in this number. When elasmobranchs other than stingrays were evaluated according to metabolic category, pelagic animals had a higher percentage of positive cultures than nonpelagic animals (38.7% versus 13.9%). These results indicate that a single positive blood culture without other corroborating diagnostics is not sufficient to confirm septicemia in elasmobranchs.

  9. Evaluation of a Cultural Competence Intervention with Implications for the Nurse-Patient Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Althea Betty

    A short-term intervention on participants' knowledge of cultural competence was provided to 38 students in a baccalaureate nursing program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU). The study examined the effectiveness of this intervention. Although WSSU is a Historically Black University, the majority of students in this program were White. Six tools were used for data collection. The Cultural Competence Survey consisted of 19 Likert Scale items that also gave participants an opportunity to elaborate on each response. Four tools allowed participants to provide written answers to prompts related to cultural competence. The final tool made it possible for the investigator to record impressions and reflections regarding various aspects of the study. Results showed that the students are familiar with cultural competence and want to avoid stereotypical behavior in their nurse-patient encounters. The study suggests a need for education in cultural competence in three areas: 1) accepting that cultural competence is a lifelong endeavor, 2) understanding patients from a holistic perspective, and 3) recognizing that all people have biases; however, the competent nurse is self-aware and has been educated to recognize biased behavior.

  10. A Study of Formulaic Language in Traditional Greek Tales and Its Cultural Implications in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaragda PAPADOPOULOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study we examine teaching mother tongue through faire and folk tales from the perspectives of recognizing clichés in fairy tales and myths, idiomatic phrases which work as morals, proverbs and very specific phrases of traditional tales’. We suggest that formulaic language can be involved in children’s language games at school and become a methodological tool for innovative approaches in Language and Teaching especially at the primary education. We search the sources from Greek traditional tales that could serve as teaching material for this option of teaching formulaic language in mother tongue. Cultural and geographical implications of the examples applied are noted as a suggestion for further discussion.

  11. Exploring the implications of the influence of organisational culture on work-life balance practices: evidence from Nigerian medical doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, Toyin Ajibade; Modi, Chima; Osabutey, Ellis L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - Whilst significant evidence of western work-life balance (WLB) challenges exists, studies that explore Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce. This article explores how organisational culture in Nigerian medical organisations influences doctors’ WLB and examines the implications of supportive and unsupportive cultures on doctors’ WLB. \\ud \\ud Methodology - The paper uses qualitative data gleaned from semi-structured interviews of 60 medical doctors across the six geo-political zones of...

  12. A Cross-cultural Exploration of Children's Everyday Ideas: Implications for science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bryan

    2012-03-01

    Children's everyday ideas form critical foundations for science learning yet little research has been conducted to understand and legitimize these ideas, particularly from an international perspective. This paper explores children's everyday ideas about the environment across the US, Singapore and China to understand what they reveal about children's relationship to the environment and discuss its implications for science teaching and learning. A social constructivist lens guides research, and a visual methodology is used to frame children's realities. Participants' ages range from elementary to middle school, and a total of 210 children comprized mainly of Asians and Asian Americans were sampled from urban settings. Drawings are used to elicit children's everyday ideas and analyzed inductively using open coding and categorizing of data. Several categories support existing literature about how children view the environment; however, novel categories such as affect also emerged and lend new insight into the role that language, socio-cultural norms and perhaps ethnicity play in shaping children's everyday ideas. The findings imply the need for (a) a change in the role of science teachers from knowledge providers to social developers, (b) a science curriculum that is specific to learners' experiences in different socio-cultural settings, and (c) a shift away from inter-country comparisons using international science test scores.

  13. Interaction of cultured mammalian cells with WR-2721 and its thiol, WR-1065: implications for mechanisms of radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.W.; Inhaber, E.R.; Schneider, H.; Labelle, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    An isothermal microcalorimeter was used to measure changes in heat flow when radioprotective drugs were added to cultured mammalian cells. The heat produced when WR-2721 was added continued for at least 90 min. WR-2721 was dephosphorylated by the cells to thiol (WR-1065) which oxidizes to disulphide. In the microcalorimeter, thiols give an immediate burst of heat due to this oxidation. A biological oxygen monitor revealed that WR-1065 and cysteamine rapidly consumed all the oxygen in culture medium. (10mM WR-1065 deoxygenated medium in 2 min.). Rapid consumption of oxygen by radioprotective thiols indicates that they will not co-exist with oxygen for long in cells. This has two important implications with respect to mechanisms of radioprotection: (1) oxygen in tissues will be consumed rapidly and could results in local hypoxia; and, (2) at modest doses of protective agents the thiol will be consumed in oxic cells and hence very little will be available for reactions such as hydrogen donation. The results indicate that anoxia is probably the principle mechanism of protection by aminothiols in mammals and aerated cells. (author)

  14. SIDDHARTA results and implications of the results on antikaon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, J.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bellotti, G.; Bosnar, D.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; Butt, A. Dawood; Fiorini, C.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R.; Iliescu, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Sandri, P. Levi; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Vidal, A. Romero; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of antikaons (K-) with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field in hadron physics. There are important open questions like the existence of antikaon nuclear bound states like the prototype system being K- pp. Unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states in light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen and helium isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K-p atom leading to energy shift and broadening of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work, which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness reflected by the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths calculated with the K--proton amplitudes constrained by the SIDDHARTA data. The most important open question is the experimental determination of the hadronic energy shift and width of kaonic deuterium which is planned by the SIDDHARTA-2 Collaboration.

  15. Adolescents, Families and Television in Five Countries: Implications for Cross-Cultural Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, James; Morgan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Examines results of surveys of secondary school students in Argentina, Taiwan, South Korea, China, and the United States regarding television use. Issues addressed include broadcasting schedules, amount of viewing, social and family contexts of viewing, relationships with parents, and parental attitudes. Cross-cultural patterns and implications…

  16. Cultural variation in communal versus exchange norms: Implications for social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G; Akiyama, Hiroko; Kapadia, Shagufa

    2017-07-01

    Whereas an interdependent cultural view of self has been linked to communal norms and to socially supportive behavior, its relationship to social support has been called into question in research suggesting that discomfort in social support is associated with an interdependent cultural view of self (e.g., Taylor et al., 2004). These contrasting claims were addressed in 2 studies conducted among Japanese, Indian, and American adults. Assessing everyday social support, Study 1 showed that Japanese and Americans rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians among friends, whereas American rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians and Japanese among siblings. Assessing responses to vignettes, Study 2 demonstrated that Japanese and Americans rely more frequently on exchange norms than Indians, with greatest relational concerns and most negative outlooks on social support observed among Japanese, less among Americans, and least among Indians. Results further indicated that relational concerns mediated the link between exchange norms and negative social support outlooks. Supporting past claims that relational concerns explain cultural variation in discomfort in social support (e.g., Kim, Sherman, & Taylor, 2008), the findings underscore the need to take into account as well the role of exchange norms in explaining such discomfort. The findings also highlight the existence of culturally variable approaches to exchange and call into question claims that discomfort in social support can be explained in terms of the global concept of an interdependent cultural view of self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Downsides of an overly context-sensitive self: implications from the culture and subjective well-being research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Eunkook M

    2007-12-01

    The self becomes context sensitive in service of the need to belong. When it comes to achieving personal happiness, an identity system that derives its worth and meaning excessively from its social context puts itself in a significantly disadvantageous position. This article integrates empirical findings and ideas from the self, subjective well-being, and cross-cultural literature and tries to offer insights to why East Asian cultural members report surprisingly low levels of happiness. The various cognitive, motivational, behavioral, and affective characteristics of the overly relation-oriented self are discussed as potential explanations. Implications for the study of self and culture are offered.

  18. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  19. Religio-cultural factors contributing to perinatal mortality and morbidity in mountain villages of Nepal: Implications for future healthcare provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanparast, Sara; Dasvarma, Gouranga; Newman, Lareen

    2018-01-01

    Objective and the context This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. Methods Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders. The data were analysed using a thematic analysis technique with a comprehensive coding process. Findings Three key themes emerged from the study: (1) ‘Everyone has gone through it’: perinatal death as a natural occurrence; (2) Dewata (God) as a factor in health and sickness: a cause and means to overcome sickness in mother and baby; and (3) Karma (Past deeds), Bhagya (Fate) or Lekhanta (Destiny): ways of rationalising perinatal deaths. Conclusion Religio-cultural interpretations underlie a fatalistic view among villagers in Nepal’s mountain communities about any possibility of preventing perinatal deaths. This perpetuates a silence around the issue, and results in severe under-reporting of ongoing high perinatal death rates and almost no reporting of stillbirths. The study identified a strong belief in religio-cultural determinants of perinatal death, which demonstrates that medical interventions alone are not sufficient to prevent these deaths and that broader social determinants which are highly significant in local life must be considered in policy making and programming. PMID:29544226

  20. Religio-cultural factors contributing to perinatal mortality and morbidity in mountain villages of Nepal: Implications for future healthcare provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Mohan; Javanparast, Sara; Dasvarma, Gouranga; Newman, Lareen

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders. The data were analysed using a thematic analysis technique with a comprehensive coding process. Three key themes emerged from the study: (1) 'Everyone has gone through it': perinatal death as a natural occurrence; (2) Dewata (God) as a factor in health and sickness: a cause and means to overcome sickness in mother and baby; and (3) Karma (Past deeds), Bhagya (Fate) or Lekhanta (Destiny): ways of rationalising perinatal deaths. Religio-cultural interpretations underlie a fatalistic view among villagers in Nepal's mountain communities about any possibility of preventing perinatal deaths. This perpetuates a silence around the issue, and results in severe under-reporting of ongoing high perinatal death rates and almost no reporting of stillbirths. The study identified a strong belief in religio-cultural determinants of perinatal death, which demonstrates that medical interventions alone are not sufficient to prevent these deaths and that broader social determinants which are highly significant in local life must be considered in policy making and programming.

  1. Evaluation of a cross-cultural training program for Pakistani educators: Lessons learned and implications for program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Rebecca; Woodland, Rebecca H

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we share the results of a summative evaluation of PEILI, a US-based adult professional development/training program for secondary school Pakistani teachers. The evaluation was guided by the theories of cultural competence (American Psychological Association, 2003; Bamberger, 1999; Wadsworth, 2001) and established frameworks for the evaluation of professional development/training and instructional design (Bennett, 1975; Guskey, 2002; King, 2014; Kirkpatrick, 1967). The explicit and implicit stakeholder assumptions about the connections between program resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes are described. Participant knowledge and skills were measured via scores on a pre/posttest of professional knowledge, and a standards-based performance assessment rubric. In addition to measuring short-term program outcomes, we also sought to incorporate theory-driven thinking into the evaluation design. Hence, we examined participant self-efficacy and access to social capital, two evidenced-based determinants or "levers" that theoretically explain the transformative space between an intervention and its outcomes (Chen, 2012). Data about program determinants were collected and analyzed through a pre/posttest of self-efficacy and social network analysis. Key evaluation findings include participant acquisition of new instructional skills, increased self-efficacy, and the formation of a nascent professional support network. Lessons learned and implications for the design and evaluation of cross-cultural teacher professional development programs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Ethical Implications of Cultural Intervention by Space-faring Civilizations -- What Science Fiction Has to Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupa, M.

    Science fiction (Scifi) plays out the concerns of our possible scientistic futures; it is a source for exploring the deep rooted psychological concerns of mankind with science and the humanities. In this paper it is proposed Scifi is a valid source of hypotheses to examine, not as "evidence", but as candidate ­ often cautionary ­ notions, i.e., scenarios to be studied. Scifi represents a kind of Jungian mythological based story-telling, putting forward tales that express our conscious/unconscious concerns. Thus, when looking into ethical questions like, "where will techno-progressive futures take us?", we import into them these archetypes, hopes and fears, as a result they frequently reappear as familiar tropes. In this respect it is appropriate not to ignore them, but to openly challenge/appreciate them: to see what scenarios are indeed likely and how they may impact us reciprocally. This paper examines some of these aspects, and provides examples of how they are represented in the Scifi genre, in particular with consideration of the ethical implications of cultural intervention by space-faring civilizations. Given the specific analysis/examples provided, it concludes with an ethical scenario analysis (a dialectic argument), within the limiting conditions of the Drake Equation, Fermi Paradox and Cultural History. It comments on the potential existential risk of the Active SETI programmes recently initiated, indeed the need for an ethical exosociological review of all proposed Interstellar projects that express an "Intervention-Propensity".

  3. The family in Romania: cultural and economic context and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Adriana; Butiu, Otilia

    2012-04-01

    The study of family structures, functioning, roles and values is fundamental in family therapist's activities for better understanding the psychological, cultural and social specificity of different clients and interventions. In this paper we describe the Romanian family and the family therapies which are available in Romania. We illustrate basic needs using demographic data and research available from Romania. The nuclear family remains dominant instead of other alternatives, the age of marriage is earlier than in western European countries and celibate and consensual living are exceptions or only for the transitional period before marriage. The role of marriage and childbirth within the marital setting is still important. The model of a single child appears increasingly common due to an improvement in financial resources and better living conditions. Relations with family of origin remain close. The difficulties for children with parents working in different countries raise problems and have implications for the extended family, educators and psychotherapists as well as mental health service providers. Family therapists should keep in mind the structure, function, role and values of the Romanian family for better understanding the issues and resources and use these accordingly in therapy. Policy-makers should be aware of the difficulties concerning availability and access to this therapeutic approach.

  4. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2018-06-01

    This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Social learning of diet and foraging skills by wild immature Bornean orangutans: implications for culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Dunkel, Lynda P; Van Noordwijk, Maria A; Wich, Serge A; Sura, Agnes A L; Van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-01-01

    Studies of social learning in the wild are important to complement findings from experiments in captivity. In this field study, immature Bornean orangutans rarely foraged independently but consistently followed their mothers' choices. Their diets were essentially identical to their mothers' even though not all mothers had the same diet. This suggests vertical transmission of diet by enhancement. Also, immatures selectively observed their mothers during extractive foraging, which increased goal-directed practice but not general manipulation of similar objects, suggesting observational forms of learning of complex skills. Teaching was not observed. These results are consistent with the reported presence of food traditions and skill cultures in wild orangutans. We suggest that food traditions can develop wherever association commonly allows for social learning. However, the capacity for observational learning, and thus more complex culture, is more likely to evolve among extractive foragers with prolonged association between adults and immatures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Cultural differences in the dialectical and non-dialectical emotional styles and their implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural studies have repeatedly demonstrated that East Asians are more likely to show a dialectical emotional style than Americans, but do not distinguish between specific types of dialectical emotional styles. Using an age diverse sample, we found that compared to Americans, Japanese are more likely to experience both positive and negative emotions moderately frequently (i.e., moderate dialectical), but are no more likely to experience them frequently (i.e., high dialectical). Thus, dialectical emotions prevalent in East Asia may be characterised by a "middle way" rather than by emotional extremes. Furthermore, we explored whether dialectical emotion types are associated with better health profiles depending on cultural background. Our results show that the moderate dialectical type is associated with fewer physical symptoms in Japan than in the USA. Together, these findings show the cultural differences in the experience of balanced positive and negative emotions and their health correlates. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  7. Administration of antibiotic agents before intraoperative sampling in orthopedic infections alters culture results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayahi, Mohamed; Cian, Anais; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Suvà, Domizio; Müller, Camillo; Landelle, Caroline; Miozzari, Hermès H; Uçkay, Ilker

    2015-11-01

    Many physicians and surgeons think that prescribing antibiotics before intraoperative sampling does not alter the microbiological results. Case-control study of adult patients hospitalized with orthopedic infections. Among 2740 episodes of orthopedic infections, 1167 (43%) had received antibiotic therapy before surgical sampling. Among these, 220 (19%) grew no pathogens while the proportion of culture-negative results in the 2573 who had no preoperative antibiotic therapy was only 6%. By multivariate analyses, pre-operative antibiotic exposure was associated with significantly more culture-negative results (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 2.1-3.7), more non-fermenting rods and skin commensals (odds ratio 2.8 and 3.0, respectively). Even a single pre-operative dose of antibiotic was significantly associated with subsequent culture-negative results (19/93 vs. 297/2350; χ²-test, p = 0.01) and skin commensals (17/74 vs. 274/2350; p = 0.01) compared to episodes without preceding prophylaxis. Prior antibiotic use, including single-dose prophylactic administrations, is three-fold associated with culture-negative results, non-fermenting rods and resistant skin commensals. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Birthweight distribution in ART singletons resulting from embryo culture in two different culture media compared with the national population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela; Pinborg, Anja; Rasmussen, S

    2014-01-01

    IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION......: This study was a retrospective comparison of birthweights in IVF/ICSI singletons conceived after fresh embryo transfer following embryo culture in Cook or Medicult medium and in a national cohort of naturally conceived singletons in nulliparous women. The study compares four independent groups consisting...... of singletons in nulliparous women from Cook-d2: 2-day culture in Cook medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 974), Medicult-d2: 2-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 147), Medicult-d3: 3-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium with and without added GM-CSF (n = 204), and DK...

  9. Management Control, Results-Oriented Culture and Public Sector Performance : Empirical Evidence on New Public Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H M; Speklé, Roland F.

    2015-01-01

    New Public Management (NPM) has been guiding public sector reform for over 25 years. Its position on the design of effective management control rests on three key ideas: (1) performance improvement requires a results-oriented culture that emphasizes outcomes rather than inputs or processes; (2)

  10. The implications of extreme response style (ERS for cross-cultural and comparative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Watkins

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural research in which fivepoint, Likert-type and semantic-differential scales are utilized, is a popular research practice. Extreme response style (ERS may contaminate the validity of research results, however this possibility is often ignored in behavioural science research. In this study, the influence of biographical variables on extreme response style and the contaminating effect thereof on the validity of research results is investigated. The results of the study reveal that culture separately, and interaction with age and gender has a meaningful influence on ERS when five-point scales are utilized. The underlying causes of the phenomenon can however not exclusively be ascribed to biographical variables. Opsomming Kruiskulturele navorsing waarin vyfpunt, Likerttipe- en semanties-differensiale skale benut word, is 'n bekende navorsingspraktyk. Ekstreme responsiestyl is egter daartoe in staat om die geldigheid van sondanige navorsingsresultate te kontamineer, maar hierdie moontlikheid word dikwels in die gedragswetenskaplike navorsingspraktyk geignoreer. In hierdie studie word ondersoek ingestel na die invloed van biografiese faktore op ekstreme responsiestyl en die kontaminerende effek daarvan op die geldigheid van navorsingsresultate. Daar is gevind dat kultuur in interaksie met ouderdom en geslag, ERS betekenisvol beinvloed wanneer vyfpuntskale gebruik word. Die onderliggende oorsake van die verskynsel kan egter nie uitsluitlik aan biografiese veranderlikes toegeskryf word nie.

  11. At the intersection of culture and religion: a cultural analysis of religion's implications for secondary control and social affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Kim, Heejung S

    2011-08-01

    Religion helps people maintain a sense of control, particularly secondary control-acceptance of and adjustment to difficult situations--and contributes to strengthening social relationships in a religious community. However, little is known about how culture may influence these effects. The current research examined the interaction of culture and religion on secondary control and social affiliation, comparing people from individualistic cultures (e.g., European Americans), who tend to be more motivated toward personal agency, and people from collectivistic cultures (e.g., East Asians), who tend to be more motivated to maintain social relationships. In Study 1, an analysis of online church mission statements showed that U.S. websites contained more themes of secondary control than did Korean websites, whereas Korean websites contained more themes of social affiliation than did U.S. websites. Study 2 showed that experimental priming of religion led to acts of secondary control for European Americans but not Asian Americans. Using daily diary methodology, Study 3 showed that religious coping predicted more secondary control for European Americans but not Koreans, and religious coping predicted more social affiliation for Koreans and European Americans. These findings suggest the importance of understanding sociocultural moderators for the effects of religion.

  12. The cultural implications of growth: Modeling nonlinear interaction of trait selection and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Galeotti, Marcello; Russu, Paolo; Luigi Sacco, Pier

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study a nonlinear model of the interaction between trait selection and population dynamics, building on previous work of Ghirlanda et al. [Theor. Popul. Biol. 77, 181-188 (2010)] and Antoci et al. [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 58, 92-106 (2018)]. We establish some basic properties of the model dynamics and present some simulations of the fine-grained structure of alternative dynamic regimes for chosen combinations of parameters. The role of the parameters that govern the reinforcement/corruption of maladaptive vs. adaptive traits is of special importance in determining the model's dynamic evolution. The main implication of this result is the need to pay special attention to the structural forces that may favor the emergence and consolidation of maladaptive traits in contemporary socio-economies, as it is the case, for example, for the stimulation of dysfunctional consumption habits and lifestyles in the pursuit of short-term profits.

  13. The cultural implications of growth: Modeling nonlinear interaction of trait selection and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Galeotti, Marcello; Russu, Paolo; Luigi Sacco, Pier

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study a nonlinear model of the interaction between trait selection and population dynamics, building on previous work of Ghirlanda et al. [Theor. Popul. Biol. 77, 181-188 (2010)] and Antoci et al. [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 58, 92-106 (2018)]. We establish some basic properties of the model dynamics and present some simulations of the fine-grained structure of alternative dynamic regimes for chosen combinations of parameters. The role of the parameters that govern the reinforcement/corruption of maladaptive vs. adaptive traits is of special importance in determining the model's dynamic evolution. The main implication of this result is the need to pay special attention to the structural forces that may favor the emergence and consolidation of maladaptive traits in contemporary socio-economies, as it is the case, for example, for the stimulation of dysfunctional consumption habits and lifestyles in the pursuit of short-term profits.

  14. The use of culturally themed HIV messages and their implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activation of positive Batswana culture to modify harmful norms, values and social practices, drawing upon those cultural aspects .... language communication to present learning contexts ... (Setswana proverbs and English text messages).An.

  15. Analysis of the survey results for the safety culture attitudes of HANARO management division staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.; Hwang, S. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Kang, T. J.; Choi, H. Y

    2003-12-01

    This report provides the that analysis results of the surveys on the safety culture attitude and related topics for the HANARO Management Division staff. The survey form consisted of the questionnaire on the safety culture attitude, happiness and life style, drinking habit and traffic safety attitude. The key information drawn from the analysis are as follow; First, the level of safety culture attitude of the staff was confirmed and it was found that the attitude improved when the present analysis results were compared with them for the survey in 1998. Second, the degree of happiness that the staff feel is higher than the average Korean and they enjoy more leisure time than the average Korean. Third, the staff drink more alcohol than the average Korean. Thus, the drinking habit must be improved for the health of the staff. Fourth, the questionnaire of the happiness and the traffic safety attitude should be improved to verify the hypotheses on the relation between them and the safety culture attitude.

  16. Analysis of the survey results for the safety culture attitudes of HANARO management division staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Hwang, S. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Kang, T. J.; Choi, H. Y.

    2003-12-01

    This report provides the that analysis results of the surveys on the safety culture attitude and related topics for the HANARO Management Division staff. The survey form consisted of the questionnaire on the safety culture attitude, happiness and life style, drinking habit and traffic safety attitude. The key information drawn from the analysis are as follow; First, the level of safety culture attitude of the staff was confirmed and it was found that the attitude improved when the present analysis results were compared with them for the survey in 1998. Second, the degree of happiness that the staff feel is higher than the average Korean and they enjoy more leisure time than the average Korean. Third, the staff drink more alcohol than the average Korean. Thus, the drinking habit must be improved for the health of the staff. Fourth, the questionnaire of the happiness and the traffic safety attitude should be improved to verify the hypotheses on the relation between them and the safety culture attitude

  17. The Effect of Family and School Cultural Environment Through Self Efficacy on Student Learning Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Rizky Amaliyah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the relationship between environmental variables out g a, school culture, self-efficacy and student learning outcomes Administrative Program Program at SMK. This research includes quantitative research type with the explanatory descriptive method. The sampling technique was proportionate stratified random sampling, the study sample consisted of 114 students. Data analysis in this research using path analysis. Results research shows that there is a positive and significant influence of family environment on self-efficacy, there is the positive and significant influence of school culture on self-efficacy, there is a direct positive and significant influence between the environment to the family on the results of learning. While the school culture The air does not directly influence the learning outcomes, but the air of self-efficacy ng driving direct effect on learning outcomes, and the family environment is not aired directly influence the outcome through self-efficacy jar arts students, and school culture has an indirect effect on learning outcomes through students' self-efficacy.

  18. Cultural expressions of social class and their implications for group-related beliefs and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Becker, Julia; Kraus, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the Great Recession, rising inequality has increased social class disparities between people in society. In this research, we examine how differences in social class shape unique patterns of cultural expression, and how these cultural expressions affirm ingroup beliefs. In Study 1 (N=113), we provide evidence that cultural expressions of social class on an online social network can signal the social class of targets: by simply viewing the cultural practices of individuals captu...

  19. Ethnic Identity and Parenting Stress in South Asian Families: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Aneesa

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…

  20. Cultural Diversity in the Classroom: Implications for Curriculum Literacy in South African Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiba, Maropeng; Van Rensburg, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Cultural literacy is considered as crucial in the process of redress, and of equal recognition, affirmation and nurturing of different cultural symbols and other forms of expression within South Africa. In this paper we reflect conceptually on what the new curriculum policy in Arts and Culture education proposes with regard to acknowledging and…

  1. Chinese Cultural Collectivism and Work-Related Stress: Implications for Employment Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Randy K.; Kosinski, Frederick A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Employment counselors should take cultural issues into consideration as they provide consultation or counseling services. Stress is influenced by cultural and social variables. Examines the collectivism-individualism construct to measure cultural variables and attempt to explain the differences of some social behaviors between Eastern and Western…

  2. New Metaphors about Culture: Implications for Research in Science Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been commonly used in science education research, in particular to examine issues of equity for students from low-income, racial, and ethnic minority communities. It has provided a lens with which to appreciate science classrooms as cultural places and to recognize the importance of students' cultural ways of being as resources for…

  3. Culture and Leadership in a Public University Setting: Implications for Shared Governance and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Noting a lack of quantitative research on perceptions of culture, leadership and change in the shared governance environment of Higher Education, this study utilized the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (Cameron & Quinn, 2011) to measure current (now) and preferred cultural perceptions of faculty and administrative leaders.…

  4. Influence Of Competence Cultural Organization And Job Satisfaction Of Career Development And Implications On The Performance Of EmployeesSurvey On State-Owned Enterprises Soes In The Region Of Cirebon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuki Kurniawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is describing and analyzing the influence of competence organizational culture and career development for job satisfaction and its implications on the performance of employees. The purpose of this study is determining the effect of competence organizational culture and career development for satisfaction and its implications for employee performance improvement of SOEs in the region of Cirebon either partially or simultaneously. The method used is descriptive verification with the type of survey sampling using simple random sampling technique. The object of the study is conducting on employees of State Owned Enterprises SOEs Cirebon region with the sample of 240 respondents from the population of 605. The data analysis is descriptive analysis and verification using the Structural Equation Model SEM with the program Linear Structural Relationship LISREL 8.80. The results showed that partial and simultaneous job satisfaction career development competency and organizational culture affect the performance. Competencies organizational culture career development and job satisfaction simultaneously positive and significant effect on employee performance. However the partial organizational culture is not significant to affect the performance of employee. The greatest good for job satisfaction on employee performance and career development is variable. Managerial implications based on the analysis of research need to improve performance through job satisfaction in any aspect expectations are met while the priority in improving job satisfaction and employee performance should give priority to the aspects of career development assessment further premises employee competence skills and later human aspects of organizational culture with aspect results orientation.

  5. Fifty Shades: ambivalence about birth control in an erotic bestseller and its cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maierhofer, Waltraud; Israel, Emanuella

    2017-04-01

    The Fifty Shades trilogy by E.L. James has taken the world by storm and become a cultural phenomenon. The lack of contraceptive use in the erotic fiction, first pointed out by bloggers, is analysed in this article and compared to medical information. James may be praised for sexualising condom use. However, her protagonist makes poor choices in terms of hormonal contraception and is negligent about its use, resulting in an unintended pregnancy and resolved in marital bliss and motherhood. What is of more interest here than a possible message about contraceptive use, is the outcome that the fiction's negligence in birth control and responsibility affirms an ideology in which female sexuality and sexual experimentation can only be tolerated within the context of procreation and affirmation of motherhood. Subsequently, the cultural significance of the trilogy's popularity and its tension between sexual exploration, birth control and fertility is explored. In a globally popular fantasy published more than five decades after the introduction of the pill, the protagonist's lack of attention to reliable birth control leads to a telling dichotomy that combines adventurous exploration of female sexuality and affirmation of the nuclear family.

  6. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  7. AMERICAN DREAM: THE AMERICAN HEGEMONIC CULTURE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasiyarno .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nation could be a great one as long as it has a great dream. The best example for this is America. Through its long history, it manages to realize a dream to be a superpower. It can be said that “American Dream” is one of the most significant features for the growth of a “constantly eyeing for winner” culture. American Studies experts call it as a “hegemonic culture” in which American norms, values and cultural practices are considered superior against the world culture. Globalizing the culture has been the most effective engine to spread American cultural values and to shape the global civilizations. Using American Studies perspective, this paper attempts to review the extent to which the “American Dream” has successfully established Americanization, as well as how the hegemonic culture has influenced the lives of peoples across the world in the form of popular culture.

  8. Report on the results of the safety culture survey conducted in PNRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Corazon M.; Nohay, Carl M.; Badinas, Nelson P.; Melendez, Johnylen V.; Parami, Vangeline K.

    2001-01-01

    An initial safety culture survey was conducted in the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Sixty six (66) questionnaires as given in A. Adams and A. Williamson's Measurement of Safety Culture in the Nuclear Industry, UNSW, July 1999 were distributed to the different units of PNRI. The number of sets of survey sheets distributed to the different units corresponded to the number of personnel in the unit based on the information obtained from them. Results were obtained from only 33 respondents. ANSTO has been requested to analyze the results of this survey. While waiting for the results from ANSTO, we attempted to proceed with this analysis in order to learn and practice applying the procedure based on the reference cited above.The respondents from the PNRI showed on the overall neutral views towards safety and their work. Although a minority showed positive responses to safety while a small minority showed negative responses. A remarkable result is that all respondents show strong concern over the welfare of the institute, indicating that there is still a good chance for safety culture to be developed positively among the employees given the proper strategies for motivation. (author)

  9. Maintaining Oversight of Licensee Safety Culture. CSNI/WGHOF Survey Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for this workshop, a survey was sent to members of the WGHOF in Autumn 2006. Purpose of the Survey was to explore and share the methods and approaches used to maintain oversight of licensee safety culture. 13 countries responded to the survey. The responses were used in the development of discussion topics and themes for this workshop. This presentation (slides) summarizes the results of the survey

  10. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications

  12. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications.

  13. Birthweight distribution in ART singletons resulting from embryo culture in two different culture media compared with the national population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, J G; Pinborg, A; Rasmussen, S; Ziebe, S

    2014-10-10

    Is there a difference in birthweight distribution in ART singletons born after IVF culture in two different culture media? There is no effect of culture media on both crude and adjusted birthweight distributions in ART singletons from nulliparous mothers. Studies on human ART singletons have reported a difference in birthweight in singletons following IVF culture in different culture media. However, other studies comparing different culture media have not shown any significant differences in birthweight. This study was a retrospective comparison of birthweights in IVF/ICSI singletons conceived after fresh embryo transfer following embryo culture in Cook or Medicult medium and in a national cohort of naturally conceived singletons in nulliparous women. The study compares four independent groups consisting of singletons in nulliparous women from Cook-d2: 2-day culture in Cook medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 974), Medicult-d2: 2-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium at Rigshospitalet (n = 147), Medicult-d3: 3-day culture in Medicult EmbryoAssist medium with and without added GM-CSF (n = 204), and DK: pregnancies from the Danish birth registry (n = 106842). The study compares the birthweights of singletons from nulliparous women in the four independent groups mentioned above; Cook-d2: Medicult-d2: Medicult-d3: and DK. In addition, distributions of large and small for gestational age infants were compared between the groups and a multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine which factors determined birthweight. We found no significant difference in the crude birthweight distributions between singletons born after culture in Cook-d2 or Medicult-groups. Singleton girls from the Cook-d2 group weighed 3302 ± 28 g, versus 3252 ± 76 in the Medicult-d2 group (difference 50 g; P = 0.547). Singleton boys from the Cook-d2 group weighed 3430 ± 27 g, versus 3354 ± 56 in the Medicult-d2 group (difference 76 g; P = 0.279). In the background population, mean

  14. Results of nuclear security culture survey on personnel at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hosik; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new surveying questionnaire for evaluating the security awareness of personnel was developed. • The developed surveying tools consist of four categories and 44 questions in total. • The surveying tools developed in this study can be used in other countries. - Abstract: A survey to evaluate awareness of the nuclear security culture of personnel at nuclear facilities was developed. The survey was made up of a series of questionnaires that were divided into four categories, beliefs and attitude, operating systems, leadership behaviors and staff behaviors. Each category contained six to 16 questions. The category on beliefs and attitude was composed of questions that asked plant workers on how much consideration facility personnel give to issues of security when doing his/her work. The section pertaining to operating systems for nuclear security consisted of questions on guidance documents, information security, and education and training. The questions on leadership behaviors were separated into two parts, one for managers and another for staff. These include questions relating to communication between management and staff, surveillance work related to nuclear security and the sharing of information. The last category of questions concerned staff behaviors. It consisted of questions on knowledge, procedures and implementation related to nuclear security. A survey was conducted on 858 people who worked at nuclear power plants using the questionnaire that was developed in this study. The survey was performed between October 7 to 17, 2014. The survey results were collected and analyzed. A numerical value was given to each question, so that the results of the survey were represented as a score. The data revealed that awareness of the nuclear security culture increased with age. This increase stopped when staff members entered their 50s. It is believed that a person in his/her 50s has a greater degree of experience and passion for their work than

  15. Functional implications of the microbial community structure of undefined mesophilic starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Eddy J; Erkus, Oylum; Spus, Maciej; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Alexeeva, Svetlana; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2014-08-29

    This review describes the recent advances made in the studies of the microbial community of complex and undefined cheese starter cultures. We report on work related to the composition of the cultures at the level of genetic lineages, on the presence and activity of bacteriophages and on the population dynamics during cheese making and during starter culture propagation. Furthermore, the link between starter composition and starter functionality will be discussed. Finally, recent advances in predictive metabolic modelling of the multi-strain cultures will be discussed in the context of microbe-microbe interactions.

  16. Bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenic species in solution culture and soil system: implications to remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, Nanthi; Mahimairaja, Santiago; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Seshadri, Balaji; Thangarajan, Ramya

    2015-06-01

    In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture and soil system. Firstly, the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was compared using a number of non-allophanic and allophanic soils. Secondly, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were examined using germination, phytoavailability, earthworm, and soil microbial activity tests. Both As-spiked soils and As-contaminated sheep dip soils were used to test bioavailability and ecotoxicity. The sheep dip soil which contained predominantly As(V) species was subject to flooding to reduce As(V) to As(III) and then used along with the control treatment soil to compare the bioavailability between As species. Adsorption of As(V) was much higher than that of As(III), and the difference in adsorption between these two species was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. In the solution culture, there was no significant difference in bioavailability and ecotoxicity, as measured by germination and phytoavailability tests, between these two As species. Whereas in the As-spiked soils, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were higher for As(III) than As(V), and the difference was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. Bioavailability of As increased with the flooding of the sheep dip soils which may be attributed to the reduction of As(V) to As(III) species. The results in this study have demonstrated that while in solution, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity do not vary between As(III) and As(V), in soils, the latter species is less bioavailable than the former species because As(V) is more strongly retained than As(III). Since the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of As depend on the nature of As species present in the environment, risk-based remediation approach should aim at controlling the dynamics of As transformation.

  17. The cross-cultural validity of posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    There is considerable debate about the cross-cultural applicability of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) category as currently specified. Concerns include the possible status of PTSD as a Western culture-bound disorder and the validity of individual items and criteria thresholds. This review examines various types of cross-cultural validity of the PTSD criteria as defined in DSM-IV-TR, and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-5. Searches were conducted of the mental health literature, particularly since 1994, regarding cultural-, race-, or ethnicity-related factors that might limit the universal applicability of the diagnostic criteria of PTSD in DSM-IV-TR and the possible criteria for DSM-5. Substantial evidence of the cross-cultural validity of PTSD was found. However, evidence of cross-cultural variability in certain areas suggests the need for further research: the relative salience of avoidance/numbing symptoms, the role of the interpretation of trauma-caused symptoms in shaping symptomatology, and the prevalence of somatic symptoms. This review also indicates the need to modify certain criteria, such as the items on distressing dreams and on foreshortened future, to increase their cross-cultural applicability. Text additions are suggested to increase the applicability of the manual across cultural contexts: specifying that cultural syndromes-such as those indicated in the DSM-IV-TR Glossary-may be a prominent part of the trauma response in certain cultures, and that those syndromes may influence PTSD symptom salience and comorbidity. The DSM-IV-TR PTSD category demonstrates various types of validity. Criteria modification and textual clarifications are suggested to further improve its cross-cultural applicability. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Cultural Distance and Firm Internationalization : A Meta-Analytical Review and Theoretical Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Kostova, Tatiana; van Essen, M.; Kunst, Vincent; Spadafora, E.

    This paper presents the most comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the literature on cultural distance and firm internationalization to date. We analyze the effects of cultural distance on key strategic decisions throughout the entire process of internationalization. For the preinvestment stage,

  19. Cross-Cultural Comparisons and Implications for Students with EBD: A Decade of Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti-Ghosh, Sumita; Mofield, Emily; Orellana, Karee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents cross-cultural comparisons on definitions, prevalence, and outcomes of students with emotional-behavior disorders (EBD). In addition, the paper addresses the concern of disproportionality and the need for teachers of students with behavior problems to be culturally responsive to perceived inappropriate behaviors. A review of…

  20. Cultural distance and the process of firm internationalization : A meta-analytical review and theoretical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Kostova, T.; Kunst, Vincent E; Spadafora, Ettore; van Essen, M.

    This paper presents the most comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the literature on cultural distance and firm internationalization to date. We analyze the effects of cultural distance on key strategic decisions throughout the entire process of internationalization. For the preinvestment stage,

  1. Understanding Gender and Culture within the Context of Spirituality: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Sue; Cervantes, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines roles that gender, culture, and spirituality play in elements of therapeutic process. It presents an initial literature review of gender, culture, and spirituality as these factors relate to shaping identities and defining one's behavior. Discussions on how these 3 dimensions influence the level of understanding and effective…

  2. Embedded Culture and Intercultural Adaptation: Implications for Managing the Needs of Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Students who travel abroad for study bring with them a wealth of cultural resources and expectations that influence their ability to adapt and acculturate into their new environment. While the ability to fit into their new context is a largely personal endeavour, for students from Confucian heritage societies, the cultural expectations of family…

  3. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  4. Plagiarism, Cultural Diversity and Metaphor--Implications for Academic Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Betty

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex, culturally loaded concept which causes much anxiety for both academics and students. Exactly what constitutes plagiarism is dependent on a number of contextual factors. Despite the difficulties associated with defining and detecting plagiarism, it is said to be on the increase, and students from "other cultures"…

  5. Transformative Autoethnography: An Examination of Cultural Identity and its Implications for Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Brent E.

    2014-01-01

    The cultural experiences of minority learners are often omitted from the formal curriculum leading to exclusion and a sense of cultural loss. In this study, the researcher's lived experience serves as the basis to develop a novel research strategy: transformative autoethnography. The researcher uses the method of autoethnography to more…

  6. Functional implications of the microbial community structure of undefined mesophilic starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Erkus, O.; Spus, M.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the recent advances made in the studies of the microbial community of complex and undefined cheese starter cultures. We report on work related to the composition of the cultures at the level of genetic lineages, on the presence and activity of bacteriophages and on the

  7. The Effect of Primary Cancer Cell Culture Models on the Results of Drug Chemosensitivity Assays: The Application of Perfusion Microbioreactor System as Cell Culture Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Dao; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To precisely and faithfully perform cell-based drug chemosensitivity assays, a well-defined and biologically relevant culture condition is required. For the former, a perfusion microbioreactor system capable of providing a stable culture condition was adopted. For the latter, however, little is known about the impact of culture models on the physiology and chemosensitivity assay results of primary oral cavity cancer cells. To address the issues, experiments were performed. Results showed that minor environmental pH change could significantly affect the metabolic activity of cells, demonstrating the importance of stable culture condition for such assays. Moreover, the culture models could also significantly influence the metabolic activity and proliferation of cells. Furthermore, the choice of culture models might lead to different outcomes of chemosensitivity assays. Compared with the similar test based on tumor-level assays, the spheroid model could overestimate the drug resistance of cells to cisplatin, whereas the 2D and 3D culture models might overestimate the chemosensitivity of cells to such anticancer drug. In this study, the 3D culture models with same cell density as that in tumor samples showed comparable chemosensitivity assay results as the tumor-level assays. Overall, this study has provided some fundamental information for establishing a precise and faithful drug chemosensitivity assay. PMID:25654105

  8. A culture of striving augments use of working memory? Implications for attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-01-01

    A culture of striving was notable in the developmental background of many of the elite and super elite athletes in the Hardy et al. Critically, a culture of striving was credited with a positive influence on a range of issues relevant to elite sports performance, including performance under pressure. Of the six athletes who did not reveal a culture of striving, five reported the greatest difficulty performing in high-pressure situations. We suspect that a culture of striving facilitates the development of attention control ability, which subsequently assists performance under pressure. We discuss attention control from the perspective of working memory and hypothesize that a culture of striving trains individuals to maximize their working memory capacity. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Implications of long-term culture for mesenchymal stem cells: genetic defects or epigenetic regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-12-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells change dramatically during culture expansion. Long-term culture has been suspected to evoke oncogenic transformation: overall, the genome appears to be relatively stable throughout culture but transient clonal aneuploidies have been observed. Oncogenic transformation does not necessarily entail growth advantage in vitro and, therefore, the available methods - such as karyotypic analysis or genomic profiling - cannot exclude this risk. On the other hand, long-term culture is associated with specific senescence-associated DNA methylation (SA-DNAm) changes, particularly in developmental genes. SA-DNAm changes are highly reproducible and can be used to monitor the state of senescence for quality control. Notably, neither telomere attrition nor SA-DNAm changes occur in pluripotent stem cells, which can evade the 'Hayflick limit'. Long-term culture of mesenchymal stem cells seems to involve a tightly regulated epigenetic program. These epigenetic modifications may counteract dominant clones, which are more prone to transformation.

  10. Radiation induction of drug resistance in RIF-1: Correlation of tumor and cell culture results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulder, J.E.; Hopwood, L.E.; Volk, D.M.; Davies, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    The RIF-1 tumor line contains cells that are resistant to various anti-neoplastic drugs, including 5-fluorouracil (5FU), methotrexate (MTX), adriamycin (ADR), and etoposide (VP16). The frequency of these drug-resistant cells is increased after irradiation. The frequency of drug-resistant cells and the magnitude of radiation-induced drug resistance are different in cell culture than in tumors. The dose-response and expression time relationships for radiation induction of drug resistance observed in RIF-1 tumors are unusual.We hypothesize that at high radiation doses in vivo, we are selecting for cells that are both drug resistant and radiation resistant due to microenvironmental factors, whereas at low radiation doses in vivo and all radiation doses in vitro, we are observing true mutants. These studies indicate that there can be significant differences in drug-resistance frequencies between tumors and their cell lines of origin, and that radiation induction of drug resistance depends significantly on whether the induction is done in tumors or in cell culture. These results imply that theories about the induction of drug resistance that are based on cell culture studies may be inapplicable to the induction of drug resistance in tumors

  11. Higher-Density Culture in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Results in DNA Damage and Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Jacobs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESC show great promise for clinical and research applications, but their well-known proneness to genomic instability hampers the development to their full potential. Here, we demonstrate that medium acidification linked to culture density is the main cause of DNA damage and genomic alterations in hESC grown on feeder layers, and this even in the short time span of a single passage. In line with this, we show that increasing the frequency of the medium refreshments minimizes the levels of DNA damage and genetic instability. Also, we show that cells cultured on laminin-521 do not present this increase in DNA damage when grown at high density, although the (long-term impact on their genomic stability remains to be elucidated. Our results explain the high levels of genome instability observed over the years by many laboratories worldwide, and show that the development of optimal culture conditions is key to solving this problem.

  12. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  13. Organizational culture and its implications for infection prevention and control in healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, S; Heling, G; Borg, M A

    2014-01-01

    It is not uncommon for infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions to be successful in one hospital yet fail, or have significantly less success, when implemented in another healthcare institution. Organizational factors have been postulated to be a major reason. As a result, there has been an increasing drive in recent years to understand and address organizational culture (OC) in order to achieve improved healthcare performance. To examine the inter-relationship between OC and behavioural attitudes by healthcare professionals; to determine whether and how OC may impact on IPC compliance; and to highlight the potential for OC modification interventions to improve IPC practices within hospitals. Previous literature is reviewed and synthesized, using both IPC journals as well as publications focusing on human behaviour and organizational change. The article evaluates the theory of OC within healthcare settings and identifies how various elements appear to impact on IPC-related behaviour. It highlights the paucity of well-designed studies but identifies sporadic literature suggesting that well-designed and customized OC change initiatives can have a positive impact on IPC practices, such as hand hygiene. OC change appears to be a promising, albeit challenging, target for IPC improvement campaigns - both from a theoretical perspective as well as from the results of the few available studies. However, more data and quality information are needed to identify effective strategies that can elicit effective and sustained change. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. "It's a Dog's Life": Culture, Empathy, Gender, and Domestic Violence Predict Animal Abuse in Adolescents-Implications for Societal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Malcolm; van Schaik, Paul; Gullone, Eleonora; Flynn, Clifton

    2016-07-01

    Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males ( n = 21) and females ( n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.

  15. Russian Oil and Natural Gas: Strategic Culture and Security Implications of European Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William M

    2007-01-01

    .... The first section looks into the past actions and strategic culture of Russia to determine if there exists a threat that Russia will deny energy resources to European countries for political or economic gain...

  16. Culture, ritual, and errors of repudiation: some implications for the assessment of alternative medical traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, G

    2000-07-01

    In this article, sources of error that are likely involved when alternative medical traditions are assessed from the standpoint of orthodox biomedicine are discussed. These sources include (1) biomedicine's implicit reductive materialism (manifested in its negative orientation toward placebo effects), (2) a related bias against ritual, and (3) cultural barriers to the construction of externally valid protocols. To overcome these biases, investigators must attend to ritualistic elements in alternative treatments and should recruit patients from appropriate cultural groups. Collaborative research may be the key. Benefits of collaborative research include (1) increased mutual respect and integration between culturally distinct groups and practices, (2) increased understanding and use of sophisticated techniques of empirical analysis among practitioners from the alternative traditions, (3) increased appropriation of the therapeutic benefits of ritual, and (4) enhanced overall benefit for patients of all cultural backgrounds.

  17. Workshop Introducing Innovation and Risk: Implications of Transforming the Culture of DoD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    On 21-22 October 2003, the Institute for Defense Analyses hosted a workshop on issues facing DoD in transforming its culture from the today's Industrial Age to one more prepared for and accepting of the Information Age...

  18. Cultural Trends and the Implications for the Transformation of the Bundeswehr

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brust, Klaus M

    2006-01-01

    .... Above all, it is about the integration of different national military cultures and traditions that are based on different national ideas of soldiering as well as the altered meaning of soldierly...

  19. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing health in an urban neighborhood: community process, data results and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idali Torres, M

    1998-06-01

    This article examines the community process and data results of a health assessment conducted in an urban neighborhood of a middle-size city in Western Massachusetts. It describes the four-stage development process of the Health Assessment Project (HAP), a collaboration of the UMASS School of Public Health faculty and students, community based organizations and youth residents: (1) planning with a contemporary participatory approach, (2) implementing the data collection with traditional survey methodology, (3) tailoring the data analysis for a presentation at a community forum and report, and (4) incorporating the community's reaction to data results. In addition, it presents selected data results on health conditions of individual household members and perceived community health concerns and resources. Salient data results include high rates of chronic health conditions such as asthma and other respiratory problems among residents 0-18, back pain and other musculoskeletal among younger adults 19-54, and high blood pressure and other cardi-circulatory problems among older adults age 55 and older. The three most prevalent perceived community concerns are substance abuse, gangs and drug dealing. Identified community resources include sources of (1) providers of primary care, (2) health information as family/friends and Spanish media, (3) social activity such as churches and schools. Finally, this paper concludes by discussing implications for community health practice.

  1. Battelle integrity of nuclear piping program. Summary of results and implications for codes/standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    The BINP(Battelle Integrity of Nuclear Piping) program was proposed by Battelle to elaborate pipe fracture evaluation methods and to improve LBB and in-service flaw evaluation criteria. The program has been conducted from October 1998 to September 2003. In Japan, CRIEPI participated in the program on behalf of electric utilities and fabricators to catch up the technical backgrounds for possible future revision of LBB and in-service flaw evaluation standards and to investigate the issues needed to be reflected to current domestic standards. A series of the results obtained from the program has been well utilized for the new LBB Regulatory Guide Program by USNRC and for proposal of revised in-service flaw evaluation criteria to the ASME Code Committee. The results were assessed whether they had implications for the existing or future domestic standards. As a result, the impact of many of these issues, which were concerned to be adversely affected to LBB approval or allowable flaw sizes in flaw evaluation criteria, was found to be relatively minor under actual plant conditions. At the same time, some issues that needed to be resolved to address advanced and rational standards in the future were specified. (author)

  2. Profile of oral piercing users and implications resulting from its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson da Costa Marchiori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the profile of oral piercing users and the possible implications resulting from its use, as well as explaining to dentists about the possible consequences to their patients as a result of wearing this type of jewelry in the oral region.Methods: Fifty-one oral piercing users were interviewed. They were aged between 18 and 42 year, from different social classes, and resident in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.Results: Based on the questionnaires analyzed, the majority of users had tongue or lip piercing as a way to express identity, and 45% reported the occurrence of some type of oral and/or general alteration associated with the use of piercings. Conclusion: The majority of alterations are harmful to the piercing user’s health, therefore, professionals in the Dentistry area must be warnedto explain to their patients, who use oral piercings, about the consequences that may occur and the need for special care to ameliorate these problems.

  3. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  4. Nissan Showcases the Results of an Energy-Wise Corporate Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-11

    The corporate leadership at Nissan cultivates a culture of energy efficiency, encouraging employees to practice good energy management at work and in every part of their lives. Read about Nissan's energy-conscience culture.

  5. A Naturalistic Inquiry into the Cultures of Two Divergent MA-TESOL Programs: Implications for TESOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Vai; Davies, Catherine Evans; Schleppegrell, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Reports a comparison of two MA-TESOL programs and suggests some implications of the findings for the TESOL profession. Based on interviews, observations, and written documentation, characteristics of two of the programs are identified that are associated with the larger departments in which the programs are housed. (Author/VWL)

  6. "Perezhivanie": Advancing on Its Implications for the Cultural-Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Fernando Luís González; Martínez, Albertina Mitjáns

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the relevance that the concept of "perezhivanie" had for Soviet psychology and its implication for the development of topics that have been largely neglected both in Soviet psychology and in the Western Vygotskian tradition. According to the position defended in this paper, "perezhivanie" is not just…

  7. Colonic involvement in celiac disease and possible implications of the sigmoid mucosa organ culture in its diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarelli, Antonio; Di Tola, Marco; Borghini, Raffaele; Isonne, Claudia; Saponara, Annarita; Marino, Mariacatia; Casale, Rossella; Tiberti, Antonio; Pica, Roberta; Donato, Giuseppe; Frieri, Giuseppe; Corazziari, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease (CD), a systemic autoimmune disorder that typically involves duodenal mucosa, can also affect other intestinal areas. Duodenal and oral mucosa organ culture has already been demonstrated as a reliable procedure to identify CD. The present study investigated gluten-dependent immunological activation of colonic mucosa in CD patients. We took advantage of the numerous colonoscopies performed for various clinical conditions or only for defensive medicine. Forty-four patients with gastrointestinal symptoms or in need of colorectal cancer screening were divided into patients with serum anti-endomysium (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) antibody positive results (Group A), patients with serum antibody negative results (Group B), and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Group C). The autoantibodies EMA and anti-tTG were evaluated in supernatants of cultured sigmoid and duodenal biopsies from patients on a gluten-containing diet. In Group A, EMA and anti-tTG resulted positive in all duodenal culture supernatants. In sigmoid culture supernatants, EMA and anti-tTG were detected in 12/16 (75 %) and 13/16 (81.3 %) patients, respectively. In Group B, none of the 17 patients showed EMA and anti-tTG positive results in both duodenal and sigmoid cultures. In Group C, all 11 patients presented EMA negative results in sigmoid cultures. Only in one patient, anti-tTG were detectable in the sigmoid culture supernatant, as expected in cases of IBD. Data confirm that the gluten-dependent immunological activation affects more intestinal tracts with different degrees of involvement, suggesting that the organ culture of colonic biopsies could represent a new tool to opportunistically detect CD.

  8. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. Objective To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. Methods A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. Results The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. Conclusion The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. PMID:27524887

  9. Cultural adaptation and validation of an instrument on barriers for the use of research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; Haas, Vanderlei José; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Felix, Márcia Marques Dos Santos; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2017-03-02

    to culturally adapt The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale and to analyze the metric validity and reliability properties of its Brazilian Portuguese version. methodological research conducted by means of the cultural adaptation process (translation and back-translation), face and content validity, construct validity (dimensionality and known groups) and reliability analysis (internal consistency and test-retest). The sample consisted of 335 nurses, of whom 43 participated in the retest phase. the validity of the adapted version of the instrument was confirmed. The scale investigates the barriers for the use of the research results in clinical practice. Confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument is adequately adjusted to the dimensional structure the scale authors originally proposed. Statistically significant differences were observed among the nurses holding a Master's or Doctoral degree, with characteristics favorable to Evidence-Based Practice, and working at an institution with an organizational cultural that targets this approach. The reliability showed a strong correlation (r ranging between 0.77 and 0.84, pcultura organizacional dirigida hacia tal aproximación. La fiabilidad presentó correlación fuerte (r variando entre 0,77 y 0,84, pcultura organizacional direcionada para tal abordagem. A confiabilidade apresentou correlação forte (r variando entre 0,77e 0,84, p<0,001) e a consistência interna foi adequada (alfa de Cronbach variando entre 0,77 e 0,82) . a versão para o português brasileiro do instrumento The Barriers Scale demonstrou-se válida e confiável no grupo estudado.

  10. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanandy P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Palanisamy Sivanandy,1 Mari Kannan Maharajan,1 Kingston Rajiah,1 Tan Tyng Wei,2 Tan Wee Loon,2 Lim Chong Yee2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, 2School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use.Objective: To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia.Methods: A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted.Results: The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup.Conclusion: The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. Keywords

  11. Discordant HIV Test Results: Implications on Perinatal and Haemotransfusion Screening for HIV Infection, Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Ato Kwamena; Agyarko, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Screening results of 488 pregnant women aged 15-44 years whose blood samples had been tested on-site, using First Response® HIV 1/2, and confirmed with INNO-LIA™ HIV I/II Score were used. Of this total, 178 were reactive (HIV I, 154; HIV II, 2; and HIV I and HIV II, 22). Of the 154 HIV I-reactive samples, 104 were confirmed to be HIV I-positive and 2 were confirmed to be HIV II-positive, while 48 were confirmed to be negative [false positive rate = 17.44% (13.56-21.32)]. The two HIV II samples submitted were confirmed to be negative with the confirmatory test. For the 22 HIV I and HIV II samples, 7 were confirmed to be HIV I-positive and 1 was confirmed to be HIV I- and HIV II-positive, while 14 were confirmed to be negative. Of the 310 nonreactive samples, 6 were confirmed to be HIV I-positive and 1 was confirmed to be HIV II-positive [false negative rate = 5.79% (1.63-8.38)], while 303 were negative. False negative outcomes will remain unconfirmed, with no management options for the client. False negative rate of 5.79% requires attention, as its resultant implications on control of HIV/AIDS could be dire.

  12. The Culture of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Academic Framework: Some Literary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sandhya Rao

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is swiftly emerging as an integral part of corporate culture and discourse. Associated with notions of responsibility, accountability and community involvement, it remains privileged with concerns that increasingly define the new millennium. Less developed, however, is the relevance of CSR ideas to academic…

  13. The Intersection of Race, Culture, Language, and Disability: Implications for Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchett, Wanda J.; Klingner, Janette K.; Harry, Beth

    2009-01-01

    To date, few researchers have sought to examine the effect of issues of race, culture, language, and disability, let alone to look specifically at the intersection of these issues, as it relates to special education identification, special education service delivery, and students of color's access to an equitable education. Thus, this article will…

  14. Deaf Students as a Linguistic and Cultural Minority: Shifting Perspectives and Implications for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael; Lieberman, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children have traditionally been perceived and educated as a special needs population. Over the past several decades, many factors have converged to enable a shift in perspective to one in which deaf children are viewed as a cultural and linguistic minority, and the education of deaf children is approached from a bilingual framework. This…

  15. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  16. Enteric neurospheres are not specific to neural crest cultures : Implications for neural stem cell therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, E. (Ellen); D. Natarajan (Dipa); J.E. Cooper (Julie E.); Kronfli, R. (Rania); Cananzi, M. (Mara); J.-M. Delalande (Jean-Marie); C. Mccann; A.J. Burns (Alan); N. Thapar (Nikhil)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Enteric neural stem cells provide hope of curative treatment for enteric neuropathies. Current protocols for their harvesting from humans focus on the generation of 'neurospheres' from cultures of dissociated gut tissue. The study aims to better understand the derivation,

  17. Literacy in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, B.

    This paper reviews some of the issues in the new literacy studies and the questions, from an anthropological perspective, of self, person, and identity that affect literacy practices. It is suggested that in discussing literacy, it is better to start from a cultural viewpoint rather than an educational one. The traditional autonomous model of…

  18. Cultural Factors and Program Implications: HIV/AIDS Interventions and Condom Use among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV…

  19. Cultural Factors Influencing the Cambodian Refugee School Child: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Barbara A.

    Of all of the Southeast Asian populations, Cambodian refugees are at the highest risk for physical and psychosocial problems. In order to treat them, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of Khmer culture. This paper describes the Khmer value of equilibrium as it affects such things as home remedies, for children's illnesses, managing…

  20. Four Approaches to Cultural Diversity: Implications for Teaching at Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Dankwa, Joseph; Lane, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to cultural diversity that professors at institutions of higher education may take. These are neutrality, similarity, diversity, and diversimilarity. Identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches, and argues for the diversimilarity approach, using the teaching of the death penalty (and examination…

  1. Implications of Cross-cultural Findings for a Theory of Family Socialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E.; Wolfe, Janis

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the traditional approach to understanding socialization, focusing on authoritarian and authoritative parenting. Explores authoritative parenting and its promotion of autonomy and authoritarian parenting, considering its effects among cultural groups. Presents data indicating that autonomy support is valued more than power assertion as a…

  2. Integrating Military and Veteran Culture in Social Work Education: Implications for Curriculum Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Julie; Weiss, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual question of how to best integrate military culture and issues into social work education. Military service members, veterans, and their families are returning to civilian communities with the ending of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and seeking community-based providers for health and mental health…

  3. Cultural Implications of Death and Loss from AIDS among Women in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2012-01-01

    Over 1.8 million people have died of AIDS in South Africa, and it continues to be a death sentence for many women. The purpose of this study was to examine the broader context of death and loss from HIV/AIDS and to identify the cultural factors that influenced existing beliefs and attitudes. The participants included 110 women recruited from 3…

  4. Working with Navajo Special Education Students on the Reservation: Cultural Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Carolyn; Sorgnit, Heather; Medina, Catherine; Jennings, Marianne; Heimbecker, Connie; Gonnie, Pat; Dugi, Audrelia; Bowsley, Virginia; Prater, Greg

    A study in the Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona) on the Navajo Nation--the largest reservation in the United States--examined cultural and language barriers in teaching Navajo special education students. Questionnaires were returned from 26 teachers at all grade levels, and interviews were conducted with 5 teachers and the district…

  5. Cultural Influences on the Professions in European Union Countries and Their Implications for Continuing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anna; Thomas, Edward

    1996-01-01

    Although the European Union encourages professional mobility, the practice of continuing professional development (CPD) in pharmacy and law in various countries shows that cultural differences may hinder cross-border mobility. It is also surprising that universities are relatively little involved in CPD. (SK)

  6. A Discussion of Individual, Institutional, and Cultural Racism, with Implications for HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Chaunda L.

    2007-01-01

    The problem highlighted in this qualitative inquiry is that literature in HRD exploring racism in the United States in the forms of individual, institutional, and cultural racism is scant. This inquiry serves to encourage research and dialogue in HRD for the purpose of getting HRD more involved in developing strategies that can be used to…

  7. Results from D-T experiments on TFTR and implications for achieving an ignited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Blanchard, W.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enable not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain. In this paper, the implications for the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed

  8. Consumer perceptions of smart grid development: Results of a Hong Kong survey and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Vleuten, Johannes Marinus van der; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Consumers have a major role to play in smart grid technologies which can be instrumental in addressing climate change and energy challenges. However, little is known about how consumers perceive, and how they might respond to the opportunities that smart grid technologies offer. This paper reports the results from a Hong Kong survey (n=505). It contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the perceptions and behaviour of electricity consumers about the possible deployment of smart grids. Our results indicate that Hong Kong consumers generally welcomed smart grid technologies and had a preference for energy saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy while they showed a high level of opposition to nuclear power. They displayed an interest in playing a much more informed and active role in energy decision-making, but they were sensitive to tariff increases. Motivations and barriers for consumers to support smart grid developments are also discussed. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for effective consumer engagement. More policy attention is needed on demand-side measures, introducing institutional and regulatory changes, and modifying relationships between consumers, the government and utilities. - Highlights: ► Consumers have a major role in smart grid technologies. ► This paper reports findings of a Hong Kong survey on how consumers perceive and respond. ► Hong Kong consumers are interested in being informed and playing an active role in energy decision-making. ► Motivations and barriers are discussed. ► Policy recommendations for effective consumer engagement are suggested.

  9. Blood culture contamination with Enterococci and skin organisms: implications for surveillance definitions of primary bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua T; Chen, Luke Francis; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2011-06-01

    Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia but are also common contaminants. In our institution, approximately 17% of positive blood cultures with enterococci are mixed with skin organisms. Such isolates are probable contaminants. The specificity of the current definition of primary bloodstream infection could be increased by excluding enterococci mixed with skin organisms. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-Cultural Competency in the General Purpose Force: Training Strategies and Implications for Future Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1951, October 2011. 29 Zimbardo, Phillip. The Lucifer Effect : Understanding How...12. 13 Phillip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect : Understanding How Good People Turn Evil, (New York, NY: Random House, Inc., 2007), p. 353-355. Dr...culture and language will enhance the effectiveness of the GPF. Using the same body of research, this paper will delineate the key However, the

  11. Russian Oil and Natural Gas: Strategic Culture and Security Implications of European Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William M

    2007-01-01

    .... The third section investigates the importance of revenues that Russia receives from consumption of oil and natural gas exports to Europe on their Gross National Product and economic growth for the future. By understanding Russia's strategic culture and the interdependence of European demand and Russian supply, conclusions are made that determine the threat, risk, and circumstances that Russia will deny energy resources to European countries.

  12. Sociodemographic and cultural determinants of sleep deficiency: implications for cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristen L

    2013-02-01

    Sleep is a biological imperative associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. As such, a thorough discussion of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of sleep is warranted, if not overdue. This paper begins with a brief review of the laboratory and epidemiologic evidence linking sleep deficiency, which includes insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, with increased risk of chronic cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Identification of the determinants of sleep deficiency is the critical next step to understanding the role sleep plays in human variation in health and disease. Therefore, the majority of this paper describes the different biopsychosocial determinants of sleep, including age, gender, psychosocial factors (depression, stress and loneliness), socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity. In addition, because sleep duration is partly determined by behavior, it will be shaped by cultural values, beliefs and practices. Therefore, possible cultural differences that may impact sleep are discussed. If certain cultural, ethnic or social groups are more likely to experience sleep deficiency, then these differences in sleep could increase their risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, if the mechanisms underlying the increased risk of sleep deficiency in certain populations can be identified, interventions could be developed to target these mechanisms, reduce sleep differences and potentially reduce cardiometabolic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Building a quality culture in the Office of Space Flight: Approach, lessons learned and implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. Shannon

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach and lessons learned by the Office of Space Flight (OSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in its introduction of quality. In particular, the experience of OSF Headquarters is discussed as an example of an organization within NASA that is considering both the business and human elements of the change and the opportunities the quality focus presents to improve continuously. It is hoped that the insights shared will be of use to those embarking upon similar cultural changes. The paper is presented in the following parts: the leadership challenge; background; context of the approach to quality; initial steps; current initiatives; lessons learned; and implications for the future.

  14. Adaptive learning can result in a failure to profit from good conditions: implications for understanding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Pete C; Higginson, Andrew D; Fawcett, Tim W; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2015-04-26

    Depression is a major medical problem diagnosed in an increasing proportion of people and for which commonly prescribed psychoactive drugs are frequently ineffective. Development of treatment options may be facilitated by an evolutionary perspective; several adaptive reasons for proneness to depression have been proposed. A common feature of many explanations is that depressive behaviour is a way to avoid costly effort where benefits are small and/or unlikely. However, this viewpoint fails to explain why low mood persists when the situation improves. We investigate whether a behavioural rule that is adapted to a stochastically changing world can cause inactivity which appears similar to the effect of depression, in that it persists after the situation has improved. We develop an adaptive learning model in which an individual has repeated choices of whether to invest costly effort that may result in a net benefit. Investing effort also provides information about the current conditions and rates of change of the conditions. An individual following the optimal behavioural strategy may sometimes remain inactive when conditions are favourable (i.e. when it would be better to invest effort) when it is poorly informed about the current environmental state. Initially benign conditions can predispose an individual to inactivity after a relatively brief period of negative experiences. Our approach suggests that the antecedent factors causing depressed behaviour could go much further back in an individual s history than is currently appreciated. The insights from our approach have implications for the ongoing debate about best treatment options for patients with depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  15. Practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance under long term operation based on latest research results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, H.; Keim, E.; Barthelmes, J.; Schnabel, H.

    2015-01-01

    The international programs CARISMA, CARINA and LONGLIFE belong to the research programs which have been performed during the last 10 years to study the irradiation behavior of RPV steels under long term operation of more than 60 years. Some characteristic but different irradiated RPV steels used in Pressurized Water Reactors have been extensively investigated in each of those three programs. Whereas the CARISMA and CARINA programs were mainly focused on material testing to study the irradiation-induced change of material properties in terms of fracture toughness, the main objective of LONGLIFE was to investigate the change of microstructure with various analysis techniques and to understand the mechanisms behind. In this way it was possible to get a comprehensive material characterization in terms of macro-physical properties and micro-structural features for a number of RPV steels which have been studied at different irradiation levels up to 8*10 19 cm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The essential macro-physical and micro-structural results are summarized, in particular regarding the impact of copper and nickel, and the neutron flux on the irradiation behavior and with respect to possible late irradiation effects under long term operation. Moreover, the change of material properties is linked with embrittlement mechanisms such as formation of element specific precipitations, segregations, and matrix defects. Well-known trend curves are also applied to the measured T 41 and T 0 data in order to assess their appropriateness for long term operation. Based on the comprehensive available data base, practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance programs under long term operation are highlighted with respect to issues like material specific application of reference temperature concepts, data scattering, prediction of high fluence behavior and how to cope with possible late irradiation effects. Finally, best practices for RPV irradiation surveillance programs are suggested from

  16. Do students have cultural scripts? Results from the first implementation of open source tutorials in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Michael Malvern

    In the 1980's and 1990's, results from flurries of standardized exams (particularly in 4th and 8th grade mathematics and science) reached the attention of ever-growing numbers of Americans with an alarming message: our children are not even close to keeping up with those in China, Japan, and Korea. As a step towards improving American classrooms, cross-cultural education researchers began to investigate differences in classroom structure, curricular content and focus, and attitudes and beliefs of students towards learning. Based upon research findings in cognitive science about the fluidity of student beliefs, we hypothesized that the treatment of student beliefs as being stable is overly simplistic and ineffective at describing certain classroom phenomena that would be of interest to the cross-cultural education research field. We felt such phenomena could be instructional to American educators, and that a failure to understand such phenomena would imply a failure to learn from these classrooms. We hypothesized that, were we to introduce reformed physics curriculum from America to students in Japan, we would observe context-dependency in how students approached the material. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this curriculum, which was motivated by the assumption that students have multiple ways of approaching knowing and learning, would be productive in the Japanese classroom. Either of these results would go against the tacit assumption of the cross-cultural education research field that students have a stable belief about how learning should take place, and would cast doubt on such a framework. Curriculum developed and tested at the University of Maryland was translated into Japanese and implemented in the spring semester of 2011 at Tokyo Gakugei University. Based upon available literature on the education system in Japan, we hypothesized that students would be entering the college classroom having had three years of cramming for entrance exams in high school

  17. Pilot outcome results of culturally adapted evidence-based substance use disorder treatment with a Southwest Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla L. Venner

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that culturally adapted EBTs yield significant improvements in alcohol use, psychological distress, and legal problems among AI/ANs. Future research using RCT methodology is needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness.

  18. Therapeutic decisions in ALS patients: cross-cultural differences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter M; Kuzma-Kozakiewicz, Magdalena; Keller, Jürgen; Aho-Oezhan, Helena E A; Ciecwierska, Katarzyna; Szejko, Natalia; Vázquez, Cynthia; Böhm, Sarah; Badura-Lotter, Gisela; Meyer, Thomas; Petri, Susanne; Linse, Katharina; Hermann, Andreas; Semb, Olof; Stenberg, Erica; Nackberg, Simona; Dorst, Johannes; Uttner, Ingo; Häggström, Ann-Cristin; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2018-05-04

    Quantitative analysis of decision-making on therapeutic options in different sociocultural context in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS patients (n = 244) were consecutively recruited in Germany (n = 83), Poland (n = 83), and Sweden (n = 78) in a prospective cross-cultural study ( www.NEEDSinALS.com ). They were interviewed on preferences for therapeutic techniques including invasive (IV) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV), as well as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and on hypothetical termination of these using quantitative questions. Using standardized questionnaires, religiousness, personal values, quality of life, and depressiveness were assessed. NIV was most frequently used in Germany and PEG in Sweden. Swedish patients were most liberal on initiation and termination of PEG, NIV and IV. Polish patients were mostly undecided and were least likely to consider discontinuing supportive management. Current use was partly associated with age, gender and state of physical function; also, financial support explained some variance. Future preferences on therapeutic options from the patient's perspective were also closely associated with cultural factors. The more oriented towards traditional and conservative values, the less likely patients were to decide for invasive therapeutic devices (IV, PEG), the least likely to have ideations to discontinue any device and the more likely to have an undecided attitude. Current use of therapeutic options is determined by medical condition in analogy to clinical guidelines. For future considerations, other factors such as cultural background are crucial, yielding hurdles to be regarded in the implementation of advanced directives in a multicultural environment.

  19. Innovation-oriented culture in the public sector: do managerial autonomy and result control lead to innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wynen; K. Verhoest; E. Ongaro; S. van Thiel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effect of specific new public management (NPM)-related characteristics to explain innovation-oriented culture within public sector organizations. According to NPM doctrines, an enhanced managerial autonomy combined with result control will stimulate a more innovation-oriented culture in such organizations. Using multi-country survey data of over 200 public sector agencies, we test for the influence of organizational autonomy, result control and their interactions, on...

  20. Challenges to parenting in a new culture: Implications for child and family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewig, Kerry; Arney, Fiona; Salveron, Mary

    2010-08-01

    Increasing numbers of families arriving through Australia's humanitarian settlement scheme are coming into contact with Australian child protection systems. A large number of these families come from African and Middle Eastern countries and have common experiences of trauma, dislocation, loss and many are victims of genocide, war, and torture. Pre-migration experiences together with the considerable challenges of settling into a new country can significantly affect family well-being and parenting practices. It is therefore important that child and family welfare service planners are well informed about how best to support refugee families using culturally competent family intervention and community development practices. This paper draws on the findings of a research project designed to examine why recently arrived families from refugee backgrounds are presenting in the South Australian child protection system and to identify culturally appropriate strategies for intervention. The paper presents findings from the project that relate to (1) refugee parents', community members' and child protection practitioners' perspectives on the challenges to being a refugee parent in Australia and (2) strategies and resources relevant to prevention and early intervention in refugee families before statutory child protection intervention becomes necessary. Copyright (c)2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  3. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    This article origines as part of a Danish national food research program: Market-based Process and Product Innovation in the Food Sector (MAPP), presenting some of the results of a project concerning the cultural dimension of food consumption. Two questions of importance to Asian (with special...... attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do change processes in the European food cultures faclitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? Of course...... homogenoues export markets but ingeneral confirms the heterogeneity of the European fo cultures. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated certain food consumption trends from a micro...

  4. Metal fires and their implications for advanced reactors. Part 3: Experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Figueroa, Victor G.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    This report details the primary results of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project (LDRD 08-0857) Metal Fires and Their Implications for Advance Reactors. Advanced reactors may employ liquid metal coolants, typically sodium, because of their many desirable qualities. This project addressed some of the significant challenges associated with the use of liquid metal coolants, primary among these being the extremely rapid oxidation (combustion) that occurs at the high operating temperatures in reactors. The project has identified a number of areas for which gaps existed in knowledge pertinent to reactor safety analyses. Experimental and analysis capabilities were developed in these areas to varying degrees. In conjunction with team participation in a DOE gap analysis panel, focus was on the oxidation of spilled sodium on thermally massive surfaces. These are spills onto surfaces that substantially cool the sodium during the oxidation process, and they are relevant because standard risk mitigation procedures seek to move spill environments into this regime through rapid draining of spilled sodium. While the spilled sodium is not quenched, the burning mode is different in that there is a transition to a smoldering mode that has not been comprehensively described previously. Prior work has described spilled sodium as a pool fire, but there is a crucial, experimentally-observed transition to a smoldering mode of oxidation. A series of experimental measurements have comprehensively described the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. A new physics-based model has been developed that also predicts the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. The model introduces smoldering oxidation through porous oxide layers to go beyond traditional pool fire analyses that have been carried out previously in order to predict experimentally observed trends. Combined, these developments add significantly to the safety

  5. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    OpenAIRE

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Met...

  6. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  7. Toponymic Stratigraphy of the Middle Oka Region: The Results of a Comparison of Substrate Toponymy Areas and Archaeological Culture Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Yu. Gordova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the potential of an integrative approach to ethnohistoric reconstruction. Using both onomastic and archaeological data, the author makes an attempt to reveal the correlations between the substrate toponymy of the Middle Oka Region and the areas of the archaeological cultures found on this territory. The results of the research show that the main types of non-Slavic place names of the region correlate with some important archaeological cultures: Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, Shagar culture, Gorodets culture, cultures of Merya, Muroma, Meshchera and Mordva. Taking into account the most recent etymologies, the paper provides a toponymic stratigraphy of the territory in the remotest periods: Neolithic Era, Bronze Age and early Iron Age. The author argues that the formation of the basic hydronymic systems of the Middle Oka Region may be dated to the Bronze Age and reliably ascribed to the regional corded ware and battle axe cultures (Fatyanovo-Balanovo, Shagar whilst the formation of the basic toponymic areas of the North-Eastern part of the region may be attributed to a later period (late 1st — early 2nd millennium AD. The article points out that the toponymic data are crucial for the ethnocultural attribution of the population of the settlements poorly studied by archaeologists. They acquire a particular importance when the interpretation of archaeological materials is disputable or insufficient.

  8. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  9. An Assessment of the Hmong American New Year and Its Implications for Hmong-American Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou Yang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This author attended the first day of the 2005-06 Hmong New Year in Fresno,1 which was held during the week of December 26 to 31, 2005; and found it to be strongly influenced by commercial, political and informational/educational activities. This was the 30th annual Hmong New Year event celebrated in the United States and it appears to have developed itself into a unique Hmong American festival. It included many elements and traditions from the pre-1975 New Year of the Hmong of Laos. This includes the youth displaying their Hmong traditional costumes, the ball tossing, and the singing of traditional Hmong songs. On the other hand, this New Year event was also dominated by commercial, entertainment, political and informational/educational activities that appeared to be influenced by the American and Western concepts of the market economy, technology and freedom of expression. The Hmong New Yyear in the United States has become a festival that embraces two cultures, nurtured by the Hmong Diaspora and the long-time Hmong strengths of adaptability and flexibility.

  10. After August: Causes, Results and Policy Implications of the Russo-Georgian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-02

    U.S. power while retaining its seats of power and influence in international organizations, increasingly authoritarian at home and hyper-sovereign and...will always have a cultural connection to its former imperial subjects and will exhibit traces of paternalism in its relationships with them. Finally...pressuring Russia and being excessively accommodating, and remarks that “both approaches indirectly contribute to strengthening Russian authoritarianism

  11. Goal Translation: How To Create a Results-Focused Organizational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Presents a model for changing human and organizational behavior. Highlights include behavioral dynamics; expectations; alignment; organizational structure; organizational culture; individual skills and training; leadership; management systems; developing corporate-level goals; communicating goals to the organization; and developing employee goals.…

  12. Effect of Changing Governance System: Result of Western Style Management Adoption to Japanese Culture of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohichiro Hotta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the difficulty of management style change through observation of the management style of Company-A, one of the biggest Japanese IT companies. Japanese economy grew after World War II until the early 1990's. During that era, Ba or SECI process worked in Japanese organizations very well. Further, there was an ambiguous culture in the background of such characteristics. Some kinds of ambiguity or adhocracy made positive effects for Japanese organizational activity, or ambiguity played an important role for Ba activity. There were nested Ba's in each organization with ambiguity. Ambiguous descriptions of roles for each organizational unit activated nested Ba's and generated hot groups. After the economic crisis, Company-A changed its governance and gave clear targets for each organizational unit and for each employee. This change gave new difficulty and diminishes its competence. The change denied the ambiguity in the organization but it was the basis of the competence. Adopting a new system of governance is not a simple activity. Systems must be adjusted to the culture of the organization. Company-A should study competitors in different cultures and adjust the methodology for its culture.

  13. Generalist palliative care in hospital - Cultural and organisational interactions. Results of a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbaek, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-oriented treatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactions that occur is sparse. To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, if possible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies: a quantitative study, in which three independent datasets were triangulated to study the organisation and evaluation of generalist palliative care, and a qualitative, ethnographic study exploring the culture of generalist palliative nursing care in medical departments. A Danish regional hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Two overall themes emerged: (1) 'generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital', suggesting contrasting issues regarding prioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) 'knowledge and use of generalist palliative care clinical guideline', suggesting that the guideline had not reached all levels of the organisation. Contrasting issues in the hospital's provision of generalist palliative care at different organisational levels seem to hamper the interactions between organisation and culture - interactions that appear to be necessary for the provision of integrated palliative care in the hospital. The implementation of palliative care is also hindered by the main focus being on disease-oriented treatment, which is reflected at all the organisational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Bioavailability of mineral-bound iron to a snow algae-bacteria co-culture and implications for albedo-altering snow algae blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Z R; Hausrath, E M; Garcia, A H; Murray, A E; Tschauner, O; Raymond, J; Huang, S

    2018-01-26

    comprehensive evidence that mineral-bound Fe in Fe-bearing Fo 90 was bioavailable to Chloromonas brevispina snow algae within an algae-bacteria co-culture. This evidence includes: 1) an observed increase snow algae density and growth rate; 2) decreased bacteria:algae ratios in Fo 90 -containing cultures relative to cultures grown under similarly Fe-depleted conditions with no mineral-bound Fe present; and 3) increased Fo 90 dissolution rates in the presence of algae-bacteria co-cultures relative to abiotic mineral controls. These results have important implications for the role of mineral dust in supplying micronutrients to the snow microbiome, which may help support dense snow algae blooms capable of lowering snow albedo, and increase snow melt rates on regional, and possibly global, scales. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students’ environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the U.S. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the American respondents. Both groups desired transpar...

  16. Do different funding mechanisms produce different results? The implications of family planning for fiscal federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J

    1998-06-01

    The 104th Congress considered massive structural changes in federal aid to the states. Not only would federal categorical grants be consolidated into block grants, but entitlement programs would be converted to block grants too. Using family planning as a case study, this article examines whether program impacts change if different grant mechanisms are employed. Findings from a pooled time series analysis of state family planning expenditures show that categorical funding (here, title X of the Public Health Service Act) is the most cost effective in producing desired outcomes, such as lowering infant mortality. Policies using entitlement grants are generally more cost effective than those that rely upon block grants. We discuss the implications of these findings for health policy more broadly and for fiscal federalism in general.

  17. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  18. Understanding Decision-Making, Communication Rules, and Communication Satisfaction as Culture: Implications for Organizational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela

    A study of decision making processes and communication rules, in a corporate setting undergoing change as a result of organizational ineffectiveness, examined whether (1) decisions about formal communication reporting systems were linked to management assumptions about technical creativity/effectiveness, (2) assumptions about…

  19. History of Mathematics in Korean Mathematics Textbooks: Implication for Using Ethnomathematics in Culturally Diverse School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Mi-Kyung; Moon, Jong-Eun; Song, Ryoon-Jin

    2016-01-01

    From a multicultural perspective, this research investigated to what extent Korean mathematics textbooks use history of mathematics. The results show even though educational use of history presented in Korean mathematics textbooks may provide a rich outlook, it does not encourage a fundamental change in the educational practice of school…

  20. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of "staff training and skills" were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety.

  1. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: cultural adaptations and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.

  2. An evaluation of culture results during treatment for tuberculosis as surrogate endpoints for treatment failure and relapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P J Phillips

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that new regimens are urgently needed for the treatment of tuberculosis. The primary endpoint in the Phase III trials is a composite outcome of failure at the end of treatment or relapse after stopping treatment. Such trials are usually both long and expensive. Valid surrogate endpoints measured during or at the end of treatment could dramatically reduce both the time and cost of assessing the effectiveness of new regimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate sputum culture results on solid media during treatment as surrogate endpoints for poor outcome. Data were obtained from twelve randomised controlled trials conducted by the British Medical Research Council in the 1970s and 80s in East Africa and East Asia, consisting of 6974 participants and 49 different treatment regimens. The month two culture result was shown to be a poor surrogate in East Africa but a good surrogate in Hong Kong. In contrast, the month three culture was a good surrogate in trials conducted in East Africa but not in Hong Kong. As well as differences in location, ethnicity and probable strain of Mycobacteria tuberculosis, Hong Kong trials more often evaluated regimens with rifampicin throughout and intermittent regimens, and patients in East African trials more often presented with extensive cavitation and were slower to convert to culture negative during treatment. An endpoint that is a summary measure of the longitudinal profile of culture results over time or that is able to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis later in treatment is more likely to be a better endpoint for a phase II trial than a culture result at a single time point and may prove to be an acceptable surrogate. More data are needed before any endpoint can be used as a surrogate in a confirmatory phase III trial.

  3. Nutritional implications of organic conversion in large scale food service preliminary results from Core Organic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; He, Chen

    food coordinators in public schools in Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Italy. A questionnaire was adapted to fit the different languages and food cultures in the countries.. The data suggest that schools with organic supply tend to develop organisational environments that a more supportive for healthy......The discussion about nutritional advantages of organic consumption has traditionally focused on the properties of the food it self. Studies have shown however that change of consumption patterns towards organic food seems to induce changed dietary patterns. The current research was a part of the i......POPY study and was conducted to investigate if such changes can be found in school food settings. In other words does organic food schemes at school and related curricular activities help to create environments that are supportive for healthier eating among children? The research was carried out among school...

  4. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  5. Assessment of sputum smear-positive but culture-negative results among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyambwa NP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa,1,2 Esther S Ngadaya,2 Godfather Kimaro,2 Dong-Jin Kim,1 Rudovick Kazwala,3 Pammla Petrucka,1,4 Sayoki G Mfinanga2 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Abstract: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections among 94 “smear-positive culture-negative” patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania. Out of 94 sputa, 25 (26.60% were GeneXpert® mycobacteria TB positive and 11/94 (11.70% repeat-culture positive; 5 were Capilia TB-Neo positive and confirmed by GenoType MTBC to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Mycobacterium canettii. The remaining 6 Capilia TB-Neo negative samples were genotyped by GenoType® CM/AS, identifying 3 (3.19% NTM, 2 Gram positive bacteria, and 1 isolate testing negative, together, making a total of 6/94 (6.38% confirmed false smear-positives. Twenty-eight (29.79% were confirmed TB cases, while 60 (63.83% remained unconfirmed cases. Out of 6 (6.38% patients who were HIV positive, 2 patients were possibly coinfected with mycobacteria. The isolation of NTM and other bacteria among smear-positive culture-negative samples and the presence of over two third of unconfirmed TB cases emphasize the need of both advanced differential TB diagnostic techniques and

  6. Organizational culture and the implementation of person centered care: results from a change process in Swedish hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Tariq Saleem J; Ekman, Inger; Olsson, Lars-Eric; Dudas, Kerstin; Carlström, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Sweden has one of the oldest, most coherent and stable healthcare systems in the world. The culture has been described as conservative, mechanistic and increasingly standardized. In order to provide a care adjusted to the patient, person centered care (PCC) has been developed and implemented into some parts of the health care industry. The model has proven to decrease patient uncertainty. However, the impact of PCC has been limited in some clinics and hospital wards. An assumption is that organizational culture has an impact on desired outcomes of PCC, such as patient uncertainty. Therefore, in this study we identify the impact of organizational culture on patient uncertainty in five hospital wards during the implementation of PCC. Data from 220 hospitalized patients who completed the uncertainty cardiovascular population scale (UCPS) and 117 nurses who completed the organizational values questionnaire (OVQ) were investigated with regression analysis. The results seemed to indicate that in hospitals where the culture promotes stability, control and goal setting, patient uncertainty is reduced. In contrast to previous studies suggesting that a culture of flexibility, cohesion and trust is positive, a culture of stability can better sustain a desired outcome of reform or implementation of new care models such as person centered care. It is essential for health managers to be aware of what characterizes their organizational culture before attempting to implement any sort of new healthcare model. The organizational values questionnaire has the potential to be used as a tool to aid health managers in reaching that understanding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Neuronal Cells Are Required to Mediate the Effects of Neuroinflammation: Results from a Neuron-Enriched Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chin Wai; Zhang, Yang; Herrup, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with activated microglia and reactive astrocytes and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokine responses to immune challenges contribute to neuronal death during neurodegeneration. In order to investigate the role of glial cells in this phenomenon, we developed a modified method to remove the non-neuronal cells in primary cultures of E16.5 mouse cortex. We modified previously reported methods as we found that a brief treatment with the thymidine analog, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdU), is sufficient to substantially deplete dividing non-neuronal cells in primary cultures. Cell cycle and glial markers confirm the loss of ~99% of all microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). More importantly, under this milder treatment, the neurons suffered neither cell loss nor any morphological defects up to 2.5 weeks later; both pre- and post-synaptic markers were retained. Further, neurons in FdU-treated cultures remained responsive to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate application. The immunobiology of the FdU culture, however, was significantly changed. Compared with mixed culture, the protein levels of NFκB p65 and the gene expression of several cytokine receptors were altered. Individual cytokines or conditioned medium from β-amyloid-stimulated THP-1 cells that were, potent neurotoxins in normal, mixed cultures, were virtually inactive in the absence of glial cells. The results highlight the importance of our glial-depleted culture system and identifies and offer unexpected insights into the complexity of -brain neuroinflammation.

  8. Relationships between milk culture results and treatment for clinical mastitis or culling in Norwegian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reksen, O; Sølverød, L; Branscum, A J; Osterås, O

    2006-08-01

    In quarter milk samples from 2,492 randomly sampled cows that were selected without regard to their current or previous udder health status, the relationships between the following outcome variables were studied: treatment of clinical mastitis; the joint event of either treatment or culling for mastitis; culling for all reasons; culling specifically for mastitis; and the covariates of positive milk culture for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., or other pathogens, or of negative culture for mastitis pathogens. Microbiological diagnoses were assigned at the cow level, and altogether 3,075 diagnoses were related to the outcome variables. The relation between the absence of pathogens and rich (>1,500 cfu/mL of milk) or sparse (mastitis was greater for cows diagnosed with Staph. aureus compared with cows with no pathogens in all analyses. Cows with sparse growth of Staph. aureus upon microbiological analysis were more likely to be treated for clinical mastitis, and cows with rich growth of the bacteria experienced a higher overall risk of culling when the models adjusted for cow composite milk somatic cell count. No difference between rich and sparse growth of Staph. aureus was found when mastitis was defined as the joint event of either culling for mastitis or treatment of clinical mastitis, and when the relationship with culling specifically for mastitis was assessed. The combined outcome of treatment and culling for mastitis was related to a positive diagnosis of Strep. spp. after cow composite milk somatic cell count was omitted from the model. Presence of Streptococcus spp. was also related to culling specifically for mastitis, whereas culling for all reasons and treatment of clinical mastitis was not related to a positive culture of Strep. spp. Presence of coagulase-negative Staph. spp. or other pathogens was not associated with either of the outcome variables.

  9. Plasma-wall interaction: Recent TFTR results and implications on design and construction of limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, D.K.; Ulrickson, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The first wall of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) consists of a water cooled toroidal belt limiter, a cooled moveable limiter, and cooled protective plates to shield the vacuum vessel from neutral beam shinethrough. Each of these systems consists of Inconel support plates covered with graphite tiles. In addition, there are Inconel and stainless steel bellows cover plates to protect the bellows and the surface pumping system which provides enhanced pumping in the torus and also serves to protect the bellows. These systems are described and the design requirements, simulations and actual thermal and mechanical loads reviewed. The normal and off-normal operating conditions which were considered in the design of the TFTR components include thermal loading during normal and disruptive plasma operation, eddy-current induced mechanical forces and arcing. The failures which have occurred are generally associated with thermal stress rather than mechanical failure due to disruption induced eddy currents. The models which were developed to design the TFTR hardware appear to have worked well as the performance of these systems has generally been satisfactory at loads approaching design limits. The implications of the TFTR experience for reactor design are discussed

  10. Micro-layers of polystyrene film preventing metal oxidation: implications in cultural heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, Francesca; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-12-01

    Protection of surfaces directly exposed to the detrimental action of degradative agents (i.e. oxygen, air pollutants and bacteria) is one of the most important challenges in the field of conservation of works of art. Metallic objects are subjected to specific surface corrosion phenomena that, over the years, make mandatory the research of innovative materials that should avoid the direct contact between the metal surface and the weathering agents. In this paper, the set-up, characterisation and application of a new reversible material for preserving metal artefacts are reported. Micro-layers constituted of low-adhesive polystyrene (PS) films obtained from recycling waste packaging materials made of expanded PS were studied. The morphology and thickness of PS films were characterised by optical, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A further check on thickness was carried out by means of visible spectrophotometry doping the films with a hydrophobic dye. Thermal properties of the PS micro-layers were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry coupled with optical microscopy. Permeability of the PS films to water vapour was also determined. The potential of the low-adhesive PS films, that enabled an easy removal in case of film deterioration, for preventing metal oxidation was investigated on brass specimens by simulating standard artificial corrosion programmes. Morphological and chemical (coupling the energy-dispersive X-rays spectrometry to SEM measurements) analyses carried out on these metal samples showed promising results in terms of surface protection against corrosion.

  11. Cyberbullying as a negative result of cyber-culture of Slovak children and adolescents: selected research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollá Katarína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-culture points out the life in cyberspace and goes beyond national cultures. It is particularly attractive for the young people who use Information and Communications Technologies (ICT to express their attitudes, values, beliefs and thinking. Those do not need to be necessarily in accordance with the standards of an individual society. Cyberculture becomes dangerous. Great risk lies in cyberbullying that represents negative impact of cyber-culture on human behavior. The aim of the study is to detect cyberbullying as a negative impact of cyber-culture among of Slovak children and adolescents. The research was carried out on a sample of 1619 11-18-year old respondents (average age was 14.51. Results of cyberbullying research carried out using Latent Class Analysis (LCA have proved the appropriateness of 3-latent-class module. Relative entropy of the module reached 0.915. It was demonstrated that 52.9% of respondents belonged to the group of uninvolved, 42.7% were victims and 4.4% were victims-aggressors. Being a negative consequence of cyber-culture, cyberbullying is a challenge that educators - including other assisting professions - face when educating children and adolescents to orientate in cyberspace, behave responsibly, express themselves in a way that would not interfere others’ integrity and identity (personal and virtual. The study was written under VEGA MŠVVaŠ SR a SAV č. 1/0244/15: “Detekcia a riešenie kyberšikany”.

  12. Is the General Self-Efficacy Scale a Reliable Measure to be used in Cross-Cultural Studies? Results from Brazil, Germany and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno F; Valentini, Felipe; Núñes-Rodriguez, Susana I; Kliem, Soeren; Koller, Sílvia H; Hinz, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar; Finck, Carolyn; Zenger, Markus

    2016-05-26

    This study evaluated cross-cultural measurement invariance for the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) in a large Brazilian (N = 2.394) and representative German (N = 2.046) and Colombian (N = 1.500) samples. Initially, multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) analyses showed that sex and age were biasing items responses on the total sample (2 and 10 items, respectively). After controlling for these two covariates, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was employed. Configural invariance was attested. However, metric invariance was not supported for five items, in a total of 10, and scalar invariance was not supported for all items. We also evaluated the differences between the latent scores estimated by two models: MIMIC and MGCFA unconstraining the non-equivalent parameters across countries. The average difference was equal to |.07| on the estimation of the latent scores, and 22.8% of the scores were biased in at least .10 standardized points. Bias effects were above the mean for the German group, which the average difference was equal to |.09|, and 33.7% of the scores were biased in at least .10. In synthesis, the GSES did not provide evidence of measurement invariance to be employed in this cross-cultural study. More than that, our results showed that even when controlling for sex and age effects, the absence of control on items parameters in the MGCFA analyses across countries would implicate in bias of the latent scores estimation, with a higher effect for the German population.

  13. Paths to Lawful Immigration Status: Results and Implications from the PERSON Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom K. Wong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant percentage of unauthorized immigrants are potentially eligible for some sort of immigration relief, but they either do not know it or are not able to pursue lawful immigration status for other reasons. However, no published study that we are aware of has systematically analyzed this question. The purpose of this study is thus to evaluate and quantify the number of unauthorized immigrants who, during the course of seeking out legal services, have been determined to be potentially eligible for some sort of immigration benefit or relief that provides lawful immigration status. Using the recent implementation of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program as a laboratory for this work, this study attempts to answer the question of the number of unauthorized immigrants who, without knowing it, may already be potentially eligible for lawful immigration status. In surveying 67 immigrant-serving organizations that provide legal services, we find that 14.3 percent of those found to be eligible for DACA were also found to be eligible for some other form of immigration relief—put otherwise, 14.3 percent of individuals that were found to be eligible for DACA, which provides temporary relief from deportation, may now be on a path towards lawful permanent residency. We find that the most common legal remedies available to these individuals are family-based petitions (25.5 percent, U-Visas (23.9 percent, and Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (12.6 percent. These findings make clear that—with comprehensive immigration reform legislation or eligibility for administrative relief —legal screening can have significant and long-lasting implications on the lives of unauthorized immigrants and their families.

  14. The results of the Mexican election and the implications it may have on foreign investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.

    1994-01-01

    The general effects of the recent Mexican election on that country's socio-economic development are discussed. Future directions of the new government include a trend toward greater deregulation, more privatization, and a greater importance of social welfare policies. The Mexican climate for new investment appears positive; the first half of 1994 saw $8 billion of foreign investment in Mexico. Canadian investment in Mexico dates from the 1850s and Mexico is now Canada's largest economic and trading partner in Latin America. Canada-Mexico trade is expected to rise to over $8 billion/y by 2000. To assist in this relationship, a Canadian Business Centre was opened in Mexico City in 1994 and programs are in place to aid potential Canadian exporters. The implications of the above developments for the oil and gas industry are examined. The Mexican state oil monopoly PEMEX is concentrating on core activities (extraction and refining of oil) and has sold almost all of its secondary petrochemical business. Private contractors can now obtain drilling contracts. PEMEX plans to invest ca $23 billion between now and 2000 and it is likely that at least some of this investment will come via partnerships between private firms and government. This is especially possible in the natural gas sector, where supply and demand are essentially in balance. Gas production will likely increase 60-80% by 2001 and Canadian companies are well suited to help bring this about. Some Canadian firms such as Novacorp and Associated Pipeline Services are already doing business with PEMEX or participating in joint ventures with Mexican firms. Suggestions are offered for doing business in Mexico

  15. Ethno-cultural variations in the experience and meaning of mental illness and treatment: implications for access and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Chu, Edward; Drake, Robert E; Ritsema, Mieka; Smith, Beverly; Alverson, Hoyt

    2010-04-01

    We conducted a study to investigate how understandings of mental illness and responses to mental health services vary along ethno-racial lines. Participants were 25 African American, Latino, and Euro-American inner-city residents in Hartford Connecticut diagnosed with severe mental illness and currently enrolled in a larger study of a community mental health center. Data were collected through 18 months of ethnographic work in the community. Overall, Euro-Americans participants were most aligned with professional disease-oriented perspectives on severe mental illness and sought the advice and counsel of mental health professionals. African-American and Latino participants emphasized non-biomedical interpretations of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive problems and were critical of mental health services. Participants across the sample expressed expectations and experiences of psychiatric stigma. Although Euro-Americans were aware of the risk of social rejection because of mental illness, psychiatric stigma did not form a core focus of their narrative accounts. By contrast, stigma was a prominent theme in the narrative accounts of African Americans, for whom severe mental illness was considered to constitute private "family business." For Latino participants, the cultural category of nervios appeared to hold little stigma, whereas psychiatric clinical labels were potentially very socially damaging. Our findings provide further empirical support for differences in symptom interpretation and definitions of illness among persons from diverse ethno-racial backgrounds. First-person perspectives on contemporary mental health discourses and practices hold implications for differential acceptability of mental health care that may inform variations in access and utilization of services in diverse populations.

  16. The Effect of Preoperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis on Intraoperative Culture Results in Patients with a Suspected or Confirmed Prosthetic Joint Infection : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Benito, Natividad; Soriano, Alex

    Obtaining reliable cultures during revision arthroplasty is important to adequately diagnose and treat a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The influence of antimicrobial prophylaxis on culture results remains unclear. Since withholding prophylaxis increases the risk for surgical site infections,

  17. Cross-cultural differences for adapting overactive bladder symptoms: results of an epidemiologic survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Myung-Soo; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Lee, Jong Bok; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Joon Chul; Kim, Hyung-Jee; Lee, Jeong Ju; Park, Won-Hee

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Korean national community sample of adults aged 40-89 years. A national Korean telephone survey using quota sampling methods was conducted. A clinically validated computer-assisted telephone interview approach was used in the survey. In 2,005 subjects (1,005 women and 1,000 men) interviewed, the prevalence of OAB(wet) increased with age in both men and women but OAB(dry) did not. OAB(dry) of men and women was not different in each age decade but OAB(wet) was more common among women than men aged cross-cultural differences for adapting OAB symptoms.

  18. Design and results of a culturally tailored cancer outreach project by and for Micronesian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Braun, Kathryn L; Estrella, Julia; Epeluk, Aritae; Tsark, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, approximately 26% of Micronesian women aged 40 or older in Hawai'i used mammography for breast cancer screening. We describe an 18-month project to increase screening participation in this population by tailoring educational materials and using a lay educator approach. New immigrants to Hawai'i are Marshallese from the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Chuukese, Pohnpeians, and Kosraeans from the Federated States of Micronesia. In Hawai'i, these 4 groups refer to themselves collectively as Micronesians, although each group has its own distinct culture and language. From 2006 through 2007, we applied principles of community-based participatory research--trust building, joint assessment, cultural tailoring of materials, and skills transfer--to develop and track the reach of Micronesian women lay educators in implementing a cancer awareness program among Micronesian women living in Hawai'i. Using our tailored in-language materials, 11 lay educators (5 Chuukese, 3 Marshallese, 2 Pohnpeians, and 1 Kosraean) provided one-on-one and small group in-language cancer information sessions to 567 Micronesian women (aged 18-75 years). Among the 202 women aged 40 or older eligible for mammography screening, 166 (82%) had never had a mammogram and were assisted to screening appointments. After 6 months, 146 (88%) of the 166 had received a mammogram, increasing compliance from 18% to 90%. Lay educators reported increases in their skills and their self-esteem and want to extend their skills to other health issues, including diabetes management and immunization. Tailoring materials and using the lay educator model successfully increased participation in breast cancer screening. This model may work in other communities that aim to reduce disparities in access to cancer screening.

  19. Implications for advanced safeguards derived from PR and PP case study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) working group produced a case study on the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). The ESFR is a hypothetical nuclear energy system consisting of four sodium-cooled fast reactors of medium size collocated with an on-site dry fuel storage facility and a spent fuel reprocessing facility using pyroprocessing technology. This study revealed how safeguards would be applied at such site consisting of integrated multiple fuel cycle facilities and the implications of what safeguards technology and safeguards concepts would need to be adapted and developed to safeguard successfully this Generation IV nuclear energy system concept. The major safeguards concepts driving our safeguards analysis are timeliness goals and material quantity goals. Because the fresh transuranic (TRU) fuel to be produced in the ESFR fuel fabrication facility contains plutonium, the ESFR will be reprocessing, using in the reactor, and storing material on site that will have IAEA defined 'direct-use material' in it with stringent timeliness goals and material quantity goals that drive the safeguards implementation. Specifically, the TRU fresh fuel, pyroprocessing in process material, LWR spent fuel sent to the ESFR, and TRU spent fuel will contain plutonium. This material will need to be verified at interim intervals four times per year because the irradiated direct-use material, as defined previously, has three-month timeliness goals and 8 kg material quantity goals for plutonium. The TRU in-process material is, of course, irradiated direct-use material as defined by the IAEA. Keeping the plutonium and uranium together with TRu products should provide a radiation barrier. this radiation barrier slows down the ability to reprocess the fuel. Furthermore, the reprocessing technique, if it has some intrinsic proliferation resistance, will need major modifications to be able to separate plutonium from the uranium and TRU mixture. The ESFR design

  20. Implications for Advanced Safeguards Derived from PR and PP Case Study Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nuclear Nonproliferation Division, N-4, Safeguards and Security Group, P. O. Box 1663, N-4, Mail Stop E541, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) working group produced a case study on the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). The ESFR is a hypothetical nuclear energy system consisting of four sodium-cooled fast reactors of medium size collocated with an on-site dry fuel storage facility and a spent fuel reprocessing facility using pyro-processing technology. This study revealed how safeguards would be applied at such site consisting of integrated multiple fuel cycle facilities and the implications of what safeguards technology and safeguards concepts would need to be adapted and developed to safeguard successfully this Generation IV nuclear energy system concept. The major safeguards concepts driving our safeguards analysis are timeliness goals and material quantity goals. Because the fresh transuranic (TRU) fuel to be produced in the ESFR fuel fabrication facility contains plutonium, the ESFR will be reprocessing, using in the reactor, and storing material on site that will have IAEA defined 'direct use material' in it with stringent timeliness goals and material quantity goals that drive the safeguards implementation. Specifically, the TRU fresh fuel, pyro-processing in process material, LWR spent fuel sent to the ESFR, and TRU spent fuel will contain plutonium. This material will need to be verified at interim intervals four times per year because the irradiated direct use material, as defined previously, has three-month timeliness goals and 8 kg material quantity goals for plutonium. The TRU in-process material is, of course, irradiated direct-use material because of keeping the plutonium and uranium together with TRU products that should provide a radiation barrier that slows down the ability to reprocess the fuel and by the process if it intrinsically will take major modification to be able to separate plutonium from the uranium and TRU mixture. This is an issue that the ESFR design must answer to state it has valuable

  1. Management-by-Results and Performance Measurement in Universities--Implications for Work Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari; Kallio, Tomi J.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current…

  2. Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross-cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Survey of childhood empyema in Asia: Implications for detecting the unmeasured burden of culture-negative bacterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Xuzhuang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parapneumonic empyema continues to be a disease of significant morbidity and mortality among children despite recent advances in medical management. To date, only a limited number of studies have assessed the burden of empyema in Asia. Methods We surveyed medical records of four representative large pediatric hospitals in China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam using ICD-10 diagnostic codes to identify children Results During the study period, we identified 1,379 children diagnosed with empyema or pleural effusion (China, n = 461; Korea, n = 134; Taiwan, n = 119; Vietnam, n = 665. Diagnoses of pleural effusion (n = 1,074 were 3.5 times more common than of empyema (n = 305, although the relative proportions of empyema and pleural effusion noted in hospital records varied widely between the four sites, most likely because of marked differences in coding practices. Although pleural effusions were reported more often than empyema, children with empyema were more likely to have a cultured pathogen. In addition, we found that median age and gender distribution of children with these conditions were similar across the four countries. Among 1,379 empyema and pleural effusion specimens, 401 (29% were culture positive. Staphylococcus aureus (n = 126 was the most common organism isolated, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 83, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 37 and Klebsiella (n = 35 and Acinetobacter species (n = 34. Conclusion The age and gender distribution of empyema and pleural effusion in children in these countries are similar to the US and Western Europe. S. pneumoniae was the second leading bacterial cause of empyema and pleural effusion among Asian children. The high proportion of culture-negative specimens among patients with pleural effusion or empyema suggests that culture may not be a sufficiently sensitive diagnostic method to determine etiology in the majority of cases. Future prospective studies in different countries would

  4. [Comparison of endotracheal aspiration and mini-BAL culture results in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuk, Cumhur; Gül, Hanefi Cem; Mert, Gürkan; Karakaş, Ahmet; Bedir, Orhan; Eyigün, Can Polat

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of cultures obtained by mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and endotracheal aspiration (ETA) techniques, used for rapid and accurate determination of pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care units. Of the 92 patients on mechanical ventilation followed at the emergency intensive care unit of our hospital between June 2010 and June 2011, 30 (32.2%) patients were diagnosed as VAP and they were included in this study. VAP diagnosis were based on the clinical and radiological findings. Clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) of > 6 was accepted as the clinical criteria of VAP. Initially ETA samples were collected from the patients followed by mini-BAL sampling 15 minutes later, together with urine and two blood cultures. Microbiological evaluation and identification were performed by conventional methods and Phoenix 100 (BD Diagnostic Systems, ABD) automated system. In quantitative culture analysis, > 10.000 cfu/ml for BAL and > 100.000 cfu/ml for ETA were accepted as the positive result. The mean ages of VAP-developed (n= 30; 18 were male) and nondeveloped (n= 62; 39 were male) patients were 68.23 ± 16.19 and 52.16 ± 10.41 years, respectively, and the mean durations of mechanical ventilation were 29.57 ± 15.78 and 12.11 ± 6.01 days, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age (pVAP development. There was also a statistically significant difference in CPIS values between patients who developed VAP and not (6.8 ± 1.15 and 2.71 ± 1.06, respectively; pVAP diagnosis was found to be useful in patients on mechanical ventilation. In our study, a total of 16 strains (six A.baumannii, three P.aeruginosa, one K.pneumoniae, six S.aureus) were isolated from ETA cultures, while 34 strains (16 A.baumannii, six P.aeruginosa, four K.pneumoniae, two E.coli, six S.aureus) were isolated from mini-BAL cultures of 30 VAP patients. The contamination rate for ETA

  5. Cultural Expressions of Intergenerational Trauma and Mental Health Nursing Implications for U.S. Health Care Delivery Following Refugee Resettlement: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christina Camille; Adams, Susie; Lauderdale, Jana

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this integrative review of the literature is to examine cultural expressions of intergenerational trauma among refugees following resettlement, and to determine culturally sensitive mental health care practice implications for health care practitioners working in U.S. health care delivery. Data were collected utilizing a comprehensive computer-assisted search in CINAHL and PsychARTICLES/ProQuest from 2003 to 2013 of full text, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal articles, published in English. Eight articles met selection criteria and were analyzed using Gadamer's philosophical interpretation of play, symbolism, and festival in The Relevance of the Beautiful Six recurrent themes were identified important to refugee health care delivery: silence, communication, adaptation, relationship, remembering, and national redress. Practitioners need to consider cultural influences of intergenerational trauma in processing grief related to loss and how artistic modes of expression are experienced, both individually and communally, in refugee health care delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Cognitive and collaborative demands of freight conductor activities: results and implications of a cognitive task analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    This report presents the results of a cognitive task analysis (CTA) that examined the cognitive and collaborative demands placed on conductors, as well as the knowledge and skills that experienced conductors have developed that enable them to operate...

  7. Laboratory plasma interactions experiments: Results and implications to future space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The experimental results discussed show the significance of the effects caused by spacecraft plasma interactions, in particular the generation of Electromagnetic Interference. As the experimental results show, the magnitude of the adverse effects induced by Plasma Interactions (PI) will be more significant for spacecraft of the next century. Therefore, research is needed to control possible adverse effects. Several techniques to control the selected PI effects are discussed. Tests, in the form of flight experiments, are needed to validate these proposed ideas.

  8. Research culture and capacity in community health services: results of a structured survey of staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Emma L; Comino, Elizabeth J

    2017-05-01

    Developing research capacity is recognised as an important endeavour. However, little is known about the current research culture, capacity and supports for staff working in community-based health settings. A structured survey of Division of Community Health staff was conducted using the research capacity tool. The survey was disseminated by email and in paper format. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. In total, 109 usable responses were received, giving a response rate of 26%. Respondents were predominately nurses (n=71, 65.7%), with ~50% reporting post-graduate vocational qualifications. The highest levels of skills or organisational success were in using evidence to plan, promote and guide clinical practice. Most participants were unsure of organisational and team level skills and success at generating research. Few reported recent experience in research-generating activities. Barriers to undertaking research included lack of skills, time and access to external support and funding. Lack of skills and success in accessing external funding and resources to protect research time or to 'buy-in' technical expertise appeared to exacerbate these barriers. Community health staff have limited capacity to generate research with current levels of skill, funding and time. Strategies to increase research capacity should be informed by knowledge of clinicians' research experience and interests, and target development of skills to generate research. Resources and funding are needed at the organisational and team levels to overcome the significant barriers to research generation reported.

  9. Globalization and Multilingualism: Case Studies of Indigenous Culture-Based Education from the Indian Sub-Continent and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents some of the major program initiatives honoring Indigenous knowledge, culture, heritage, arts, and skills through curricular reforms and culturally appropriate educational practices on the Indian sub-continent. It presents case studies of Indigenous culture-based education, with reference to mother tongue and multicultural…

  10. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  11. Defining a framework for medical teachers' competencies to teach ethnic and cultural diversity: Results of a European Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Rowan; Hendrickx, Kristin; Lanting, Katja; MacFarlane, Anne; Muntinga, Maaike; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2018-02-28

    Medical students need to be trained in delivering diversity-responsive health care but unknown is what competencies teachers need. The aim of this study was to devise a framework of competencies for diversity teaching. An open-ended questionnaire about essential diversity teaching competencies was sent to a panel. This resulted in a list of 74 teaching competencies, which was sent in a second round to the panel for rating. The final framework of competencies was approved by the panel. Thirty-four experts participated. The final framework consisted of 10 competencies that were seen as essential for all medical teachers: (1) ability to critically reflect on own values and beliefs; (2) ability to communicate about individuals in a nondiscriminatory, nonstereotyping way; (3) empathy for patients regardless of ethnicity, race or nationality; (4) awareness of intersectionality; (5) awareness of own ethnic and cultural background; (6) knowledge of ethnic and social determinants of physical and mental health of migrants; (7) ability to reflect with students on the social or cultural context of the patient relevant to the medical encounter; (8) awareness that teachers are role models in the way they talk about patients from different ethnic, cultural and social backgrounds; (9) empathy for students of diverse ethnic, cultural and social background; (10) ability to engage, motivate and let all students participate. This framework of teaching competencies can be used in faculty development programs to adequately train all medical teachers.

  12. Results on a Binding Neuron Model and Their Implications for Modified Hourglass Model for Neuronal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008 in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.

  13. Science Camps in Europe--Collaboration with Companies and School, Implications and Results on Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M.; Kubat, C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper informs on the characteristics of a Comenius Network of seven organizations, who are collaborating in exchanging best practice on science camps. This exchange includes evaluation results on more science camps of European organizations, which will deliver information on organization, collaboration with companies, pedagogical aspects, as…

  14. Auditory localisation of conventional and electric cars : laboratory results and implications for cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Agterberg, M.J.H. & Wee, B. van

    2016-01-01

    When driven at low speeds, cars operating in electric mode have been found to be quieter than conventional cars. As a result, the auditory cues which pedestrians and cyclists use to assess the presence, proximity and location oncoming traffic may be reduced, posing a safety hazard. This laboratory

  15. Auditory localisation of conventional and electric cars: laboratory results and implications for cycling safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Commandeur, J.J.F.; Agterberg, M.J.H.; van Wee, B.

    2016-01-01

    When driven at low speeds, cars operating in electric mode have been found to be quieter than conventional cars. As a result, the auditory cues which pedestrians and cyclists use to assess the presence, proximity and location oncoming traffic may be reduced, posing a safety hazard. This laboratory

  16. Measurements of mesospheric water vapor in 1984 and 1985 - Results and implications for middle atmospheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Richard M.; Schwartz, Philip R.; Wilson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed results of ground-based mesospheric water vapor measurements obtained by microwave spectroscopy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from December 1984 to April 1985 (JPL 1984/85), and an overview of results obtained the previous year from April to June 1984 are presented. The JPL 1984/85 spectral data appeared to contain an instrumental baseline curvature which was bracketed and removed. In general, the JPL 1984/85 results are in good agreement with those of previous measurements. They indicate water vapor mixing ratios between 6 and 8 ppmv at 60 or 65 km and falling off steeply with height above this point to values of less than 2 ppmv at 80 km. In addition, there is a large amount of day-to-day variability indicated in the data. A major result of the study is that it is found that both the observed vertical gradient of water vapor mixing ratio and its seasonal variation are consistent with the hypothesis that vertical transport time scales are smaller, perhaps by an order of magnitude, than values currently used in both one- and two-dimensional photochemical/dynamical models.

  17. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  18. Teaching Non-Beginner Programmers with App Inventor: Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Andrey; Martin, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey with 40 students enrolled in an Android Application Development course offered during the spring semester of 2013 and 2014. The course used App Inventor to build the apps and required students to have an introduction to programming course as a prerequisite. The survey asked for demographic information and…

  19. Fast Filtration of Bacterial or Mammalian Suspension Cell Cultures for Optimal Metabolomics Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Bordag

    Full Text Available The metabolome offers real time detection of the adaptive, multi-parametric response of the organisms to environmental changes, pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modifications and thus rationalizes the optimization of cell cultures in bioprocessing. In bioprocessing the measurement of physiological intracellular metabolite levels is imperative for successful applications. However, a sampling method applicable to all cell types with little to no validation effort which simultaneously offers high recovery rates, high metabolite coverage and sufficient removal of extracellular contaminations is still missing. Here, quenching, centrifugation and fast filtration were compared and fast filtration in combination with a stabilizing washing solution was identified as the most promising sampling method. Different influencing factors such as filter type, vacuum pressure, washing solutions were comprehensively tested. The improved fast filtration method (MxP® FastQuench followed by routine lipid/polar extraction delivers a broad metabolite coverage and recovery reflecting well physiological intracellular metabolite levels for different cell types, such as bacteria (Escherichia coli as well as mammalian cells chinese hamster ovary (CHO and mouse myeloma cells (NS0.The proposed MxP® FastQuench allows sampling, i.e. separation of cells from medium with washing and quenching, in less than 30 seconds and is robustly designed to be applicable to all cell types. The washing solution contains the carbon source respectively the 13C-labeled carbon source to avoid nutritional stress during sampling. This method is also compatible with automation which would further reduce sampling times and the variability of metabolite profiling data.

  20. Seeking for the Definition of "Culture": Current Concerns and their Implications. A Comment on Gustav Jahoda's Article "Critical Reflections on some Recent Definitions of "Culture'"'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, Irina A; Sorokin, Pavel S

    2018-06-01

    This article takes as a starting point the critical analysis of attempts to define "culture", offered by Jahoda in 2012. Basing on the observed proliferation of various, often contradicting, definitions of "culture" (for instance, trying to refer to its both internal and external aspects), Jahoda arrives at the conclusion that attempts to define the concept of "culture" are vain and useless and it is quite practicable simply to use the term without seeking to define it. We find it hard to agree with this statement. Elaborating on Jahoda reflections and drawing on the recent debates in social sciences, cultural studies and philosophy, we argue that seeking for the definition of culture is necessary in the context of contemporary development of social and humanitarian knowledge. Moreover, we claim that the debates about culture indicate the need for a large-scale methodological reorganization of the social and humanitarian sciences, in response to the novel ontological congruence between internal and external, the fundamental "ontological shift", "reversing the poles" of the human-related reality. The human individual becomes its core element and pivot. Other "objects", "external" in relation to the individual (for instance, social structures and institutions), undergo such massive and rapid changes that grow progressively fuzzy and sometimes even less "real", comparing to the individual. The "inner" nature of the individual also transforms: from being "subjected" to think, act and feel according to certain external conditions, an individual becomes an Actor, who is empowered to change the environment following his purposive plans, desires and visions.

  1. Preliminary results on ocean dynamics from Skylab and their implications for future spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J.; Pierson, W. J.; Cardone, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    The instrument aboard Skylab designated S193 - a combined passive and active microwave radar system acting as a radiometer, scatterometer, and altimeter - is used to measure the surface vector wind speeds in the planetary boundary layer over the oceans. Preliminary results corroborate the hypothesis that sea surface winds in the planetary boundary layer can be determined from satellite data. Future spacecraft plans for measuring a geoid with an accuracy up to 10 cm are discussed.

  2. A quality assurance in a Nuclear Medicine Department: Implementation, results and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komninos, C.; Roach, P.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: An increasing emphasis is being placed on quality assurance programs in all areas of health care delivery. We describe our experience with such a program in the Nuclear Medicine Department of a large teaching hospital. We obtained completed patient questionnaires from 92 outpatients referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department. Questions related to areas such as provision of information about the test; patient``s impressions of staff involved with the procedure (doctors, technologists, nurses, secretaries); waiting times and delays; the appearance of the department; and the patients`` general level of satisfaction with their attendance in our department. Suggestions for improvement were specifically encouraged. The results indicated that while there was a high level of satisfaction with the people performing the studies, comments and criticisms were made by a significant number of people in some areas. These included provision of more information about the study prior to and during the test; all staff introducing themselves by name during the procedure; better communication about any delays; and an upgrading in the appearance of the department. Based on the results of this questionnaire, we have been able to implement various changes within the department. Although the results of our survey will apply specifically to this department, we encourage other departments and practices to implement similar patient surveys, thereby potentially improving the quality of service and patient satisfaction.

  3. A quality assurance in a Nuclear Medicine Department: Implementation, results and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komninos, C.; Roach, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: An increasing emphasis is being placed on quality assurance programs in all areas of health care delivery. We describe our experience with such a program in the Nuclear Medicine Department of a large teaching hospital. We obtained completed patient questionnaires from 92 outpatients referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department. Questions related to areas such as provision of information about the test; patient''s impressions of staff involved with the procedure (doctors, technologists, nurses, secretaries); waiting times and delays; the appearance of the department; and the patients'' general level of satisfaction with their attendance in our department. Suggestions for improvement were specifically encouraged. The results indicated that while there was a high level of satisfaction with the people performing the studies, comments and criticisms were made by a significant number of people in some areas. These included provision of more information about the study prior to and during the test; all staff introducing themselves by name during the procedure; better communication about any delays; and an upgrading in the appearance of the department. Based on the results of this questionnaire, we have been able to implement various changes within the department. Although the results of our survey will apply specifically to this department, we encourage other departments and practices to implement similar patient surveys, thereby potentially improving the quality of service and patient satisfaction

  4. Understanding culture in territorial management and its implications for spatial planning. The case of floodplain management in urbanised delta regions in the Netherlands and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanna Rongwiriyaphanich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiences have shown that the implementation of planning policy does not always lead to the originally intended territorial management outcomes. This issue
is particularly crucial when policy ideas, institutions, models and programmes are transferred into places with different cultural settings without adaptations (Knieling and Othengrafen 2009b; Sanyal 2005. These unexpected consequences in planning practice and management outcomes have brought a significant amount of attention to the importance and roles of culture on shaping decision-making in territorial management process and determining transferability of a policy (Friedmann 2005a, 2005b; de Jong and Mamadouh 2002; Sanyal 2005; Ostrom 2005a; Knieling and Othengrafen 2009b. However, conceptual frameworks that seek to understand the roles of culture and its implications for spatial planning are still rather limited. This study presents and applies an integrative conceptual framework which is used
to explain how culture, planning policy and territorial management outcomes are interrelated, and what the implications are for spatial planning. The framework integrates relevant theories and ideas from anthropology, organisational management and political sciences to understand influences of culture on spatial planning. The integrative framework suggests a way of characterising territorial management in the form of ideal types. This helps simplify cultures regarding territorial management to make them comparable. It enables an analysis of ‘cultures’ that includes a broader scope of culture than existing frameworks that focus primarily on ‘planning cultures’ expressed in forms of planning systems, organisations and instruments. This broader scope includes also the implicit expressions of culture in informal forms, such as ideas, customs and social behaviours shared by involved actors in the management of a given territory. The framework also offers two analytical perspectives

  5. Evaluation of in-vehicle HMI using occlusion techniques: experimental results and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Martin; Keinath, Andreas; Krems, Josef F; Bengler, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Despite the usefulness of new on-board information systems one has to be concerned about the potential distraction effects that they impose on the driver. Therefore, methods and procedures are necessary to assess the visual demand that is connected to the usage of an on-board system. The occlusion-method is considered a strong candidate as a procedure for evaluating display designs with regard to their visual demand. This paper reports results from two experimental studies conducted to further evaluate this method. In the first study, performance in using an in-car navigation system was measured under three conditions: static (parking lot), occlusion (shutter glasses), and driving. The results show that the occlusion-procedure can be used to simulate visual requirements of real traffic conditions. In a second study the occlusion method was compared to a global evaluation criterion based on the total task time. It can be demonstrated that the occlusion method can identify tasks which meet this criterion, but are yet irresolvable under driving conditions. It is concluded that the occlusion technique seems to be a reliable and valid method for evaluating visual and dialogue aspects of in-car information systems.

  6. Results and implications of the EBR-II inherent safety demonstration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, H.P.; Golden, G.H.; Sackett, J.I.; Mohr, D.; Chang, L.K.; Feldman, E.E.; Betten, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3, 1986 two milestone tests were conducted in Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-II). The first test was a loss of flow without scram and the second was a loss of heat sink without scram. Both tests were initiated from 100% power and in both tests the reactor was shut down by natural processes, principally thermal expansion, without automatic scram, operator intervention or the help of special in-core devices. The temperature transients during the tests were mild, as predicted, and there was no damage to the core or reactor plant structures. In a general sense, therefore, the tests plus supporting analysis demonstrated the feasibility of inherent passive shutdown for undercooling accidents in metal-fueled LMRs. The results provide a technical basis for future experiments in EBR-II to demonstrate inherent safety for overpower accidents and provide data for validation of computer codes used for design and safety analysis of inherently safe reactor plants

  7. Recent results from the DIII-D tokamak and implications for future devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxon, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    Improvements to the DIII-D tokamak have led to significant new research results and enhanced performance. These results provide important inputs to the design of next generation divertor systems including the upgrade of the DIII-D divertor. The use of graphite for the plasma facing components and careful wall preparation has enabled the routine achievement of regimes of enhanced energy confinement. In elongated discharges, triangularity has been found to be important in attaining good discharge performance as measured by the product of the normalized plasma pressure and the energy confinement time, βτ E This constrains the design of the divertor configuration (X-point location). Active pumping of the divertor region using an in-situ toroidal cryogenic pump has demonstrated control of the plasma density in H-mode discharges and allowed the dependence of confinement on plasma density and current to be separately determined. Helium removal from the plasma edge sufficient to achieve effective ash removal in reactor discharges has also been demonstrated using this pumping configuration. The reduction of the heat flux to the divertor plates has been demonstrated using two different techniques to increase the radiation in the boundary regions of the plasma and thus reduce the heat flux to the divertor plates; deuterium gas injection has been used to create a strongly radiating localized zone near the X-point, and impurity (neon) injection to enhance the radiation from the plasma mantle. Precise shaping of the plasma current profile has been found to be important in achieving enhanced tokamak performance. Transiently shaped current profiles have been used to demonstrate regimes of plasmas with high beta and good confinement. Control of the current profile also is important to sustaining the plasma in the Very High (VH)-mode of energy confinement

  8. Ecosystem health pattern analysis of urban clusters based on emergy synthesis: Results and implication for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Fath, Brian D.; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study. - Highlights: • The use of integrated emergy synthesis and set pair analysis model was standardized. • The integrated model was applied on the scale of an urban cluster. • Health patterns of different urban clusters were compared. • Policy suggestions were provided based on the health pattern analysis

  9. Phencyclidine-induced social withdrawal results from deficient stimulation of cannabinoid CB₁ receptors: implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, Alexandre; Martinez, Alex A; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, are not well understood. Recent studies suggest an involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, in particular, of negative symptoms. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches to investigate the role played by the endocannabinoid system in social withdrawal induced by sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid levels via systemic administration of URB597, an inhibitor of endocannabinoid degradation, reversed social withdrawal in PCP-treated rats via stimulation of CB1 receptors, but reduced social interaction in control animals through activation of a cannabinoid/vanilloid-sensitive receptor. In addition, the potent CB agonist CP55,940 reversed PCP-induced social withdrawal in a CB₁-dependent manner, whereas pharmacological blockade of CB₁ receptors by either AM251 or SR141716 reduced the time spent in social interaction in control animals. PCP-induced social withdrawal was accompanied by a decrease of anandamide (AEA) levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and these deficits were reversed by URB597. As CB₁ receptors are predominantly expressed on GABAergic interneurons containing the anxiogenic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK), we also examined whether the PCP-induced social withdrawal resulted from deficient CB₁-mediated modulation of CCK transmission. The selective CCK2 antagonist LY225910 blocked both PCP- and AM251-induced social withdrawal, but not URB597 effect in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that AEA-mediated activation of CB₁ receptors is crucial for social interaction, and that PCP-induced social withdrawal results from deficient endocannabinoid transmission.

  10. Mitral valve reconstruction in Barlow disease: long-term echographic results and implications for surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouan, Jérôme; Berrebi, Alain; Chauvaud, Sylvain; Menasché, Philippe; Carpentier, Alain; Fabiani, Jean-Noël

    2012-04-01

    Owing to the complexity of the underlying lesions, Barlow disease remains a challenge for surgeons performing mitral valve repair. We aimed to assess whether our most recent results involving several surgeons were comparable with those of a previous experience in which mitral valve repair was performed by a more limited group of surgeons. From September 2000 to January 2007, 200 patients with Barlow disease (135 men and 65 women; mean age, 56 ± 13 years) were referred to our institution for surgical treatment of their mitral regurgitation. We retrospectively analysed the mitral lesions characteristics, the surgical techniques used, and clinical outcomes. Follow-up echocardiograms were biannually reviewed. Lesions comprised annular dilatation, excess tissue, and leaflet prolapse in all cases. The most frequent prolapsed segments were P2 (88.5%; n = 177) and A2 (55.5%; n = 111). Annular calcifications and restrictive valvular motion were associated in 20% (n = 40). Repair was feasible in 94.7% (n = 179/189) of non-redo interventions. Immediate postoperative echocardiography showed residual mitral regurgitation greater than 1+ in 6 cases; these patients were all reoperated on within the next months. Operative mortality was 1.5% (n = 3). Mean follow-up was 77.5 ± 25.6 months. At 8 years postoperatively, overall survival was 88.6% ± 3.1%, freedom from reintervention was 95.3% ± 1.7%, and freedom from late recurrent moderate mitral regurgitation (>2+) was 90.2% ± 3.1% Provided that the fundamental principles of mitral valve reconstruction are respected, the surgical techniques are highly reproducible with good long-term results, similar to those published during the pioneering phase of this surgery. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inertial fusion results from Nova and implication for the future of ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Cable, M.D.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    A key objective of the US Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is to obtain high yield (100-1000 MJ) implosions in a laboratory environment. This requires high grain from an inertial fusion target from a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ. Recent results have been sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning for such a capability called the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). In the past two years, we have conducted implosion-related experiments with approximately 20 kJ of 0.35-μm laser light in 1-ns temporally flat-topped pulses. These experiments were done with the Nova laser, the primary US facility devoted to radiatively driven inertial confinement fusion. Our results show that we can accurately model a significant fraction of the phenomena required to obtain the fuel conditions needed for high gain. Both the x-ray conversion efficiency and the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities are shown to be at acceptable levels. Targets designed so that the shape of the stagnated fuel can be imaged show that the x-ray drive in our hohlraums can be made isotropic to better than 3%. With this optimized drive and temporally unshaped laser pulses many critical implosion parameters are measured on targets designed for higher density. Good agreement is obtained with one-dimensional simulations. Maximum compressions of between 20--30 in radius are measured with a variety of diagnostics. Improvements in the driver technology are demonstrated; we anticipate operation of Nova at the 50-kJ level at 3ω. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Implications of post-gadolinium MRI results in 13 cases with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugurel, Mehmet Sahin; Hayakawa, Minako

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a relative lack of definitive information about the contrast-enhancement characteristics of lesions in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Objective: Evaluation of contrast-enhanced MRI findings in PRES with a special emphasis on pathophysiology of post-gadolinium behavior of these lesions. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced 1.5 T MRI findings and relevant clinical data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed on 13 cases (six males, seven females; age range: 22-78; mean age 47). Although fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted MR images were considered for identification of the entity, primarily post-contrast T1-weighted MR images were searched for traces of enhancement in the lesions. Results: No definitely enhancing lesion was identified in the MR images obtained in 6-48 h after onset of symptoms (mostly headaches, seizures and cortical visual field deficits) in this series. Severity of disease indicated by small hemorrhages, confluence of lesions or progression to cytotoxic edema did not seem to alter this result. Typical lesion characteristics were consistent with vasogenic edema on FLAIR and diffusion MR images. Acute elevation of blood pressure on chronic hypertensive background was responsible in four, eclampsia in three, uremia with blood pressure fluctuations in three, and cyclosporine-toxicity in three cases. Conclusion: Although occasional enhancing brain lesions have been reported in the literature on PRES, contrast-enhancement of lesions may be a factor of scan timing and underlying etiology. Prospective studies with larger series on PRES are required for better evaluation of contrast-enhancement in MRI with respect to scan timing, which in turn may help understand its pathophysiology better

  13. Randomized controlled trial of perioperative antimicrobial therapy based on the results of preoperative bile cultures in patients undergoing biliary reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Kunishige; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Miura, Takumi; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Noji, Takehiro; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    The high frequency of surgical site infections (SSIs) after hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery is a problem that needs to be addressed. This prospective, randomized, controlled study examined whether perioperative prophylactic use of antibiotics based on preoperative bile culture results in HPB surgery could decrease SSI. Participants comprised 126 patients who underwent HPB (bile duct, gallbladder, ampullary, or pancreatic) cancer surgery with biliary reconstruction at Hokkaido University Hospital between August 2008 and March 2013 (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry #00001278). Before surgery, subjects were randomly allocated to a targeted group administered antibiotics based on bile culture results or a standard group administered cefmetazole. The primary endpoint was SSI rates within 30 days after surgery. Secondary endpoint was SSI rates for each operative procedure. Of the 126 patients, 124 were randomly allocated (targeted group, n = 62; standard group, n = 62). Frequency of SSI after surgery was significantly lower in the targeted group (27 patients, 43.5%) than in the standard group (44 patients, 71.0%; P = 0.002). Among patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and hepatectomy, SSI occurred significantly less frequently in the targeted group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.025, respectively). This study demonstrated that preoperative bile culture-targeted administration of prophylactic antibiotics decreased SSIs following HBP surgery with biliary reconstruction. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. An Autonomous System for Experimental Evolution of Microbial Cultures: Test Results Using Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Escherichia Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouandji, Cynthia; Wang, Jonathan; Arismendi, Dillon; Lee, Alonzo; Blaich, Justin; Gentry, Diana

    2017-01-01

    At its core, the field of microbial experimental evolution seeks to elucidate the natural laws governing the history of microbial life by understanding its underlying driving mechanisms. However, observing evolution in nature is complex, as environmental conditions are difficult to control. Laboratory-based experiments for observing population evolution provide more control, but manually culturing and studying multiple generations of microorganisms can be time consuming, labor intensive, and prone to inconsistency. We have constructed a prototype, closed system device that automates the process of directed evolution experiments in microorganisms. It is compatible with any liquid microbial culture, including polycultures and field samples, provides flow control and adjustable agitation, continuously monitors optical density (OD), and can dynamically control environmental pressures such as ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation and temperature. Here, the results of the prototype are compared to iterative exposure and survival assays conducted using a traditional hood, UV-C lamp, and shutter system.

  15. Results of experimental testing of system of future physical culture teachers’ training for art pedagogic means’ application in pedagogic functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Nizhevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the research is devoted to seeking of ways to rising of quality of future physical culture teachers. Material: in experiment 436 students and 29 teachers participated. Results: it was found that readiness of future physical culture teachers for application of art pedagogic means in professional functioning is achieved through realization of appropriate block system. Such system ensures mastering by students of the following: theoretical principles of art pedagogic; mastering of art pedagogic skills in teaching and quasi professional functioning; acquiring of practical experience of art means’ application in period of pedagogic practice at schools. It was also determined that training system of future teachers includes the following three blocks: conceptual-target, knowledge-procedural; control-correcting. Conclusions: it is recommended to use such criteria of students’ readiness for application of art means in pedagogic functioning: motivation-axiological, cognitive-active, personality’s-reflexive.

  16. Paleomagnetic results of Neogene strata in Eastern Vietnam and their paleogeographic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, C.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Z.; Dong Pha, P.

    2017-12-01

    Neogene paleomagnetic data from the Vietnam, southeastern margin of the Indochina Block, are essential to reconstruct post-collisional paleogeography. This is key to understanding the evolution of the western South China Sea and verifying the model of extrusion tectonic. Mid-Miocene siltstone of the Song Ba Formation and Pliocene basalt were sampled from Phu Tue area, eastern Vietnam. Paleomagnetic samples were collected using a gasoline-powered drill and a magnetic compass mounted on an orienting device. We corrected for the effect of local magnetic anomalies on magnetic orientation by taking solar azimuths using a sun compass. For most samples, the discrepancy between the two compass readings is within 3°. Remanent magnetization measurements were carried out with 2G-755-4K cryogenic magnetometers, installed in the Plaleomagnetism Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai. All the instruments are located in a shielded room with residual fields less than 200 nT. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results of four siltstone sites (sites 2, 6, 9, 10) indicate the siltstone preserve a normal sedimentary magnetic fabric. The other sites of the AMS (including basalt sites) show that the directions of K1, K2, K3 are scattered without any regulation. The thermal demagnetization and AF demagnetization were performed on specimens and stepwise demagnetization up to 600°C or 150 mT. ChRM directions were determined for all the specimens using principal component analysis. The directions obtained from Neogene rocks are far from the present geomagnetic field (PGF) and include antipodal dual polarities, suggesting a primary origin. A visible fluctuation in paleomagnetic direction from one site to another is evident from the results. Shallow inclination are obtained from most samples which range of 7.4° to 21.5°. The siltstone declination range of 16.8° to 34.5° while the basalt declination rang of 178.3° to 335.0°. This wide range of direction fluctuation

  17. Control of MHD instabilities by ECCD: ASDEX Upgrade results and implications for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, H.; Gantenbein, G.; Leuterer, F.; Manini, A.; Maraschek, M.; Yu, Q.

    2007-01-01

    The requirements for control of MHD instabilities by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) are reviewed. It is shown that a localized current drive is needed for control of both sawteeth and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). In the case of NTMs, the deposition width should be smaller than the island width for efficient control. At island widths smaller than the deposition width, as is predicted to occur in ITER, theory suggests that efficient control is possible only by modulating the ECCD power in phase with the island. These predictions are experimentally confirmed in ASDEX Upgrade for NTM control. Narrow deposition has also been used to extend the operational range of NTM stabilization in ASDEX Upgrade to lower q 95 and in the improved H-mode scenario. Our results suggest that, for the ITER ECCD system, good localization of the driven current profile as well as the capability to modulate the ECCD in phase with rotating modes will be needed for efficient MHD control by ECCD

  18. Measurement equivalence of the German Job Satisfaction Survey used in a multinational organization: implications of Schwartz's culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Borg, Ingwer; Spector, Paul E

    2004-12-01

    The authors tested measurement equivalence of the German Job Satisfaction Survey (GJSS) using structural equation modeling methodology. Employees from 18 countries and areas provided data on 5 job satisfaction facets. The effects of language and culture on measurement equivalence were examined. A cultural distance hypothesis, based on S. H. Schwartz's (1999) theory, was tested with 4 cultural groups: West Europe, English speaking, Latin America, and Far East. Findings indicated the robustness of the GJSS in terms of measurement equivalence across countries. The survey maintained high transportability across countries speaking the same language and countries sharing similar cultural backgrounds. Consistent with Schwartz's model, a cultural distance effect on scale transportability among scales used in maximally dissimilar cultures was detected. Scales used in the West Europe group showed greater equivalence to scales used in the English-speaking and Latin America groups than scales used in the Far East group. 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  20. Antibiotic Conformity with Culture Results of Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients in Melati Ward at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhi Rinaldi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is an infection with the highest mortality rate in Indonesian hospitals. According to The American Thoracic Society and The Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA, empirical use of antibiotics is still effective for pneumonia treatment. Inappropriate use of antibiotics would cause negative effects such as prolonged hospitalization, a high cost of treatment, and increased antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The goal of this study was to clarify the empirical use of antibiotic conformity with a bacteria culture. Methods: This study was conducted from August to October 2013 using a descriptive retrospective method based on 116 medical records of pneumonia patients hospitalized in Melati Ward, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung during 2011–2012. The type of bacteria, conformity with antibiotics given to patients, and type of antibiotics were analyzed. The conformity of antibiotics was assessed based on the resistance test. If the results were sensitive, they would be put in the conforming group and in the non-conforming group if the results were resistant or intermediate. Data was derived with descriptive statistics, using percentage and frequency distribution, illustrated in tables and figures. Results: Based on culture results and sensitivity of antibiotic empirical therapy given, 55.17% cases were conformed. The most widely used antibiotic group was Third-generation Cephalosporin (60.34%. The most common bacterias were Klebsiella pneumonia (34.5% and Acinetobacter baumanni (13.8%. Conclusions: Most of the antibiotics given to pneumonia patients are still appropriate with results of the bacteria culture test and resistance test.

  1. Exploring How Korean Teacher's Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Using Inquiry and Language Based Teaching Practices Impacts Learning for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Implications for Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jennifer; Chu, Hye-Eun; Martin, Sonya N.

    2016-01-01

    Demographic trends in Korea indicate that the student population is becoming more diverse with regards to culture, ethnicity and language. These changes have implications for science classrooms where inquiry-based, student-centered activities require culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students to connect with their peers and successfully…

  2. Examining How Proactive Management and Culturally Responsive Teaching Relate to Student Behavior: Implications for Measurement and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine E.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Day-Vines, Norma L.

    2018-01-01

    The discipline gap between White students and African American students has increased demand for teacher training in culturally responsive and behavior management practices. Extant research, however, is inconclusive about how culturally responsive teaching practices relate to student behavior or how to assess using such practices in the classroom.…

  3. The S201 far-ultraviolet imaging survey - A summary of results and implications for future surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Page, T.

    1984-01-01

    The results from all-sky surveys with the S201 FUV camera/spectrograph from the moon during the Apollo 16 mission are summarized with respect to implications for future UV all-sky surveys. The scans provided imagery of 10 fields, each 20 deg in diameter, in the wavelength ranges 1050-1600 A and 1250-1600 A. Best detection thresholds were obtained with 10 and 30 min exposures at 1400 A. Only 7 percent sky coverage was recorded, and then only down to 11th mag. A Mark II camera may be flown on the Shuttle on the Spartan 3 mission, as may be an all-reflector Schmidt telescope. An additional 20 percent of the sky will be mapped and microchannel intensification will increase the diffuse source sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Several objects sighted with the S201 will be reviewed with the Mark II.

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE): Results and implications for test ban treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, M.D.; Stull, S.P. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    The large amounts of chemical explosives used worldwide in mining, quarrying, and civil engineering projects presents a challenge for policy makers molding a test ban, since their use could provide the necessary cover for a clandestine nuclear test. The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) seeks to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical explosion in the same geology. Two chemical explosions were detonated at the Nevada Test Site to compare their signatures with previous nuclear tests. This conference presents results of these tests and discusses implications for test ban treaties. Conference papers are divided into the following sections: Background; Test preparations; EOS and code simulations; Rainier Mesa structure; Ground motion measurements; Non-seismic technologies; On-site inspection technologies; and a panel discussion. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.

  6. Cultural universality and specificity of student engagement in school: The results of an international study from 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Shin, Hyeonsook; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Kikas, Eve; Wong, Bernard P H; Stanculescu, Elena; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Nelson, Brett; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors that are linked to student engagement requires research that includes cross-cultural perspectives. This study investigated how student engagement in school is associated with grade, gender, and contextual factors across 12 countries. It also investigated whether these associations vary across countries with different levels of individualism and socio-economic development. The participants were 3,420 7th, 8th, and 9th grade students from Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The participants completed a questionnaire to report their engagement in school, the instructional practices they experienced, and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine the effects at both student and country levels. The results across countries revealed a decline in student engagement from Grade 7 to Grade 9, with girls reporting higher engagement than boys. These trends did not vary across the 12 countries according to the Human Development Index and Hofstede's Individualism Index. Most of the contextual factors (instructional practices, teacher support, and parent support) were positively associated with student engagement. With the exception that parent support had a stronger association with student engagement in countries with higher collectivism, most of the associations between the contextual factors and student engagement did not vary across countries. The results indicate both cultural universality and specificity regarding contextual factors associated with student engagement in school. They illustrate the advantages of integrating etic and emic approaches in cross-cultural investigations. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The importance of history in definitions of culture: Implications from phylogenetic approaches to the study of social learning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J

    2010-08-01

    Some have claimed that wild chimpanzees possess multiple socially learned traditions that might constitute cultural patterns. Others, however, have suggested that even fundamental alternative explanations, such as proximate genetic mechanisms, have not been addressed satisfactorily. Multiple analyses using phylogenetic (cladistic) methods, however, have been shown not to support the genetic proposition. Rather, such analyses are more consistent with the growing body of evidence from studies of both wild and captive animals suggesting that behavioral patterns in wild chimpanzees are socially learned. The question remains, however, as to whether, from a scientific viewpoint, it is useful to term such patterns cultural. It is argued here that cultural mosaics of multiple behaviors that differ intercommunally, both in humans and chimpanzees, are an emergent property of a phylogenetic (i.e., historical) process of descent with modification, mediated by mechanisms of social transmission, variation, and sorting through time. This historical perspective is productive when attempting to consider the phenomenon of culture across species.

  8. All in the Blood: A Review of Aboriginal Australians' Cultural Beliefs About Blood and Implications for Biospecimen Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Greenwood, Ashley; McWhirter, Rebekah E

    2015-10-01

    Public participation in medical research and biobanking is considered key to advances in scientific discovery and translation to improved health care. Cultural concerns relating to blood have been found to affect the participation of indigenous peoples and minorities in research, but such concerns are rarely specified in the literature. This article presents a review of the role of blood in Australian Aboriginal cultures. We discuss the range of meanings and uses of blood in traditional culture, including their use in ceremonies, healing, and sorcery. We draw on more recent literature on Aboriginal Australians and biomedicine to consider how traditional beliefs may be changing over time. These findings provide an empirical basis for researchers and bioethicists to develop culturally grounded strategies to boost the participation of Aboriginal Australians in biomedical research. They also serve as a model for integrating anthropological literature with bioethical concerns that could be applied to other indigenous and minority groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends Into Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    that is most lacking— culture. He said, “(t)he two sides should expand exchanges in the fields of culture, education, sport , media, and tourism , to...2007 switch in recognition from Taipei to Beijing, the PRC rewarded Costa Rica with a “new $90 million sports stadium and purchas(ed) $300 million of...and tourism .”18 Shortly thereafter, the Mexican government announced that CRCC would be compensated $1.3 million.19 Whether Mexico did this to

  10. Negative Symptom Dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Across Geographical Regions: Implications for Social, Linguistic, and Cultural Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    factors, but not the experiential factors, across regions. This could be due to a lack of equivalence between the original and translated versions, cultural differences with the interpretation of items, dissimilarities in rater training, or diversity in the understanding of scoring anchors. Knowing which items are challenging for raters across regions can help to guide Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale training and improve the results of international clinical trials aimed at negative symptoms.

  11. Loss of notochordal cell phenotype in 3D-cell cultures: implications for disc physiology and disc repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, G W; Nerlich, A G; Tirlapur, U K; Urban, J P; Guehring, T

    2014-12-01

    Embryonic notochordal disc nucleus cells (NC) have been identified to protect disc tissue against disc degeneration but in human beings NC phenotype gets lost with aging and the pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. NC may stimulate other cells via soluble factors, and NC-conditioned medium can be used to stimulate matrix production of other disc cells and mesenchymal stem cells and thus may be of special interest for biological disc repair. As this stimulatory effect is associated with the NC phenotype, we investigated how cell morphology and gene-expression of the NC phenotype changes with time in 3D-cell culture. NC and inner annulus chondrocyte-like cells (CLC) from immature pigtails (freshly isolated cells/tissue, 3D-alginate beads, 3D-clusters) were cultured for up to 16 days under normoxia and hypoxia. Protein-expression was analysed by immunohistology and gene-expression analysis was carried out on freshly isolated cells and cultured cells. Cell morphology and proliferation were analysed by two-photon-laser-microscopy. Two-photon-laser-microscopy showed a homogenous and small CLC population in the inner annulus, which differed from the large vacuole-containing NC in the nucleus. Immunohistology found 93 % KRT8 positive cells in the nucleus and intracellular and pericellular Col2, IL6, and IL12 staining while CLC were KRT8 negative. Freshly isolated NC showed significantly higher KRT8 and CAIII but lower Col2 gene-expression than CLC. NC in 3D-cultures demonstrated significant size reduction and loss of vacuoles with culture time, all indicating a loss of the characteristic NC morphology. Hypoxia reduced the rate of decrease in NC size and vacuoles. Gene-expression of KRT8 and CAIII in NC fell significantly early in culture while Col2 did not decrease significantly within the culture period. In CLC, KRT8 and CAIII gene-expression was low and did not change noticeably in culture, whereas Col2 expression fell with time in culture. 3D-culture

  12. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  13. Growth-supporting activity for Legionella pneumophila in tap water cultures and implication of hartmannellid amoebae as growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Butler, L J; Cook, M K; Verma, S M; Paul, M A; Fields, B S; Keleti, G; Sykora, J L; Yee, R B

    1988-11-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, free-living amoebae, and ciliated protozoa may support growth of Legionella pneumophila. Studies were done with two tap water cultures (WS1 and WS2) containing L. pneumophila and associated microbiota to characterize growth-supporting activity and assess the relative importance of the microbiota in supporting multiplication of L. pneumophila. The water cultures were incubated in the dark at 35 degrees C. The growth-supporting factor(s) was separated from each culture by filtration through 1-micron-pore-size membrane filters. The retentate was then suspended in sterile tap water. Multiplication of L. pneumophila occurred when both the retentate suspension and the filtrate from either culture were inoculated into sterile tap water. L. pneumophila did not multiply in tap water inoculated with only the filtrate, even though filtration did not reduce the concentration of L. pneumophila or heterotrophic bacteria in either culture. Growth-supporting activity of the retentate suspension from WS1 was inactivated at 60 degrees C but unaffected at 0, 25, and 45 degrees C after 30-min incubations. Filtration experiments indicated that the growth-supporting factor(s) in WS1 was 2 to 5 micron in diameter. Ciliated protozoa were not detected in either culture. Hartmannellid amoebae were conclusively demonstrated in WS2 but not in WS1. L. pneumophila multiplied in tap water inoculated with the amoebae (10(3)/ml) and the 1-micron filtrate of WS2. No multiplication occurred in tap water inoculated with the filtrate only. Growth-supporting activity for L. pneumophila may be present in plumbing systems; hartmannellid amoebae appear to be important determinants of multiplication of L. pneumophila in some tap water cultures.

  14. Perceived cultural importance and actual self-importance of values in cultural identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ching; Chiu, Chi-yue; Tam, Kim-pong; Lee, Sau-lai; Lau, Ivy Yee-man; Peng, Siqing

    2007-02-01

    Cross-cultural psychologists assume that core cultural values define to a large extent what a culture is. Typically, core values are identified through an actual self-importance approach, in which core values are those that members of the culture as a group strongly endorse. In this article, the authors propose a perceived cultural importance approach to identifying core values, in which core values are values that members of the culture as a group generally believe to be important in the culture. In 5 studies, the authors examine the utility of the perceived cultural importance approach. Results consistently showed that, compared with values of high actual self-importance, values of high perceived cultural importance play a more important role in cultural identification. These findings have important implications for conceptualizing and measuring cultures. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  16. Cultural evolution over the last 40 years in China: using the Google Ngram Viewer to study implications of social and political change for cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2015-02-01

    Chinese people have held collectivistic values such as obligation, giving to other people, obedience and sacrifice of personal interests for thousands of years. In recent decades, China has undergone rapid economic development and urbanisation. This study investigates changing cultural values in China from 1970 to 2008 and the relationship of changing values to ecological shifts. The conceptual framework for the study was Greenfield's (2009) theory of social change and human development. Changing frequencies of contrasting Chinese words indexing individualistic or collectivistic values show that values shift along with ecological changes (urbanisation, economic development and enrollment in higher education), thereby adapting to current sociodemographic contexts. Words indexing adaptive individualistic values increased in frequency between 1970 and 2008. In contrast, words indexing less adaptive collectivistic values either decreased in frequency in this same period of time or else rose more slowly than words indexing contrasting individualistic values. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  18. Implications of the Abolition of Milk Quota System for Polish Agriculture – Simulation Results Based on the AG MEMOD Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Hamulczuk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to asses the economics effects of the dairy policy reform sanctioned by CAP Health Check on the agricultural market in Poland. The paper presents a theoretical study of the production control program as well as a model based quantitative analysis of the implications of the reform on the agricultural markets. The partial equilibrium model AGMEMOD was used for simulation. The results obtained indicate that the expansion and subsequently the elimination of milk quota system lead to the growth of milk production and consumption in Poland which confirms the hypothesis derived from theoretical study. As a consequence, the growth of the production of most of dairy products and the decrease of their prices is expected. As the growth of dairy consumption is smaller than the growth of milk production the increase of self-sufficiency in the dairy market is predicted. The comparison of the scale of price adjustment resulting from the dairy reform to the market price changes observed recently leads to the conclusion that global market factors will probably be more important for the future development of milk production and prices in Poland than the milk quota abolition. Nevertheless, the reform constitutes a significant change in business conditions for producers and consumers of milk and dairy products. As a consequence, milk production will become more market based, as far as market prices, production costs and milk yields are concerned. Simulation results from the AGMEMOD model confirm the opinion brought by other authors that the abolition of milk quotas will lead to the decline of dairy farmer income. The main beneficiaries of the reform would become the consumers who could take advantage of the decline in prices of the dairy products.

  19. Heavy metal incorporation in foraminiferal calcite: results from multi-element enrichment culture experiments with Ammonia tepida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-J. Reichart

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of heavy metals into carbonate tests of the shallow water benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Temperature, salinity, and pH of the culture solutions were kept constant throughout the duration of this experiment, while trace metal concentrations were varied. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were set 5-, 10-, and 20 times higher than levels found in natural North Sea water; for reference, a control experiment with pure filtered natural North Sea water was also analysed. The concentrations of Cu and Ni from newly grown chambers were determined by means of both μ-synchrotron XRF and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS. The results of both independent analytical techniques agreed within the analytical uncertainty. In general, the concentration of the analysed elements in the tests increased in line with their concentration in the culture solutions. Potential toxic and/or chemical competition effects might have resulted in the decreased incorporation of Ni and Cu into the calcite of the specimens exposed to the highest elemental concentrations. Mn incorporation exhibited large variability in the experiment with the 20-fold increased element concentrations, potentially due to antagonistic effects with Cu. The partition coefficients of Cu and Ni were calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively, whereas the partition coefficient of Mn was estimated to be least 2.4. These partition coefficients now open the way for reconstructing past concentrations for these elements in sea water.

  20. Developing Cross-Cultural Awareness through Foreign Immersion Programs: Implications of University Study Abroad Research for Global Competency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokkesmoe, Karen J.; Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficacy of foreign immersion programs in terms of increasing cross-cultural awareness among university students in business, accounting, human resources and agriculture. The authors extrapolate from their population to the practice of developing business professionals on international…

  1. Enhancing pediatric workforce diversity and providing culturally effective pediatric care: implications for practice, education, and policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This policy statement serves to combine and update 2 previously independent but overlapping statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) on culturally effective health care (CEHC) and workforce diversity. The AAP has long recognized that with the ever-increasing diversity of the pediatric population in the United States, the health of all children depends on the ability of all pediatricians to practice culturally effective care. CEHC can be defined as the delivery of care within the context of appropriate physician knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of all cultural distinctions, leading to optimal health outcomes. The AAP believes that CEHC is a critical social value and that the knowledge and skills necessary for providing CEHC can be taught and acquired through focused curricula across the spectrum of lifelong learning. This statement also addresses workforce diversity, health disparities, and affirmative action. The discussion of diversity is broadened to include not only race, ethnicity, and language but also cultural attributes such as gender, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, and disability, which may affect the quality of health care. The AAP believes that efforts must be supported through health policy and advocacy initiatives to promote the delivery of CEHC and to overcome educational, organizational, and other barriers to improving workforce diversity.

  2. Self and the other in the Confucian cultural context: Implications of China's higher education development for comparative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2011-08-01

    The central purpose of China's modern higher education has been to combine Chinese and Western elements at all levels including institutional arrangements, research methodologies, educational ideals and cultural spirit, a combination that brings together aspects of Chinese and Western philosophical heritages. This, however, has not been achieved. There is an urgent need for critical examination of the long-term consequences of grafting American academic practices onto a Chinese base. This article examines the tensions in the interactions in higher education between the traditional Chinese and the imposed Western modes of thinking. Borrowing a definition of the structure of culture, this paper reveals the various extents to which layers of Chinese higher education have achieved any degree of success. It finds that with a strong catch-up mentality, China's contemporary higher education policies are responsive to Western influences. These are however only applied as panic-stricken and expedient band-aid remedies, rather than as strategies based on systematic understanding of cultural contexts. Accordingly, Chinese universities are uncritical towards the European-American model and its variants. This article warns that without an infusion of traditional education values, universities in China risk losing touch with their cultural contexts in their quest for world-class status.

  3. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  4. Latina Mothers' Cultural Beliefs about Their Children, Parental Roles, and Education: Implications for Effective and Empowering Home-School Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents' cultural beliefs about children, education, and their caregiving roles can influence both the parent-child and parent-school relationships. Given the centrality of the mother-child relationship in Mexican families, mothers were situated as experts in their children's development and education in the present investigation. Specifically,…

  5. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  6. Themes in the Research on Preservice Teachers' Views of Cultural Diversity: Implications for Researching Millennial Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Antonio J.

    2010-01-01

    This article traces themes found in the research on preservice teachers' views of cultural diversity published in peer-reviewed journals from 1985 to 2007. The article seeks to draw insights that inform education researchers interested in interrogating and unpacking views about diversity expressed by today's millennial college students. Findings…

  7. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASISH KUMAR PARIDA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analysing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500 and 750 mM NaCl under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na+ contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K+ content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl. There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, hypodermal cell diameter, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by 2-fold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl. The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM, whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl. The proline content increased in the NaCl treated seedlings as

  8. Effects of processing delay, temperature, and transport tube type on results of quantitative bacterial culture of canine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Carly A; Bishop, Micah A; Pack, Julie D; Cook, Audrey K; Lawhon, Sara D

    2016-01-15

    To determine the impact of processing delay, temperature, and transport tube type on results of quantitative bacterial culture (QBC) of canine urine. Diagnostic test evaluation. 60 mL of pooled urine from 4 dogs, divided into six 10-mL aliquots. Urine aliquots were spiked with bacteria from 1 of 6 independent Escherichia coli cultures to achieve a target bacterial concentration of 10(5) CFUs/mL. One milliliter from each aliquot was transferred into 5 silicone-coated clot tubes (SCTs) and 5 urine transport tubes (UTTs). Samples were stored at 4°C (39°F) and 25°C (77°F) for 0, 8, and 24 hours, and then standard QBCs were performed. Median bacterial concentration for urine samples stored in a UTT for 24 hours at 4°C was lower than that for samples stored in an SCT under the same conditions. Conversely, a substantial decrease in median bacterial concentration was identified for samples stored for 24 hours in an SCT at 25°C, compared with the median concentration for samples stored in a UTT under the same conditions. Median bacterial concentration in samples stored in an SCT at 25°C for 24 hours (275 CFUs/mL) was less than the cutoff typically used to define clinically important bacteriuria by use of urine samples obtained via cystocentesis (ie, > 1,000 CFUs/mL). Canine urine samples submitted for immediate QBC should be transported in plain sterile tubes such as SCTs. When prolonged (24-hour) storage at room temperature is anticipated, urine samples should be transported in UTTs.

  9. 'Emotiplay': a serious game for learning about emotions in children with autism: results of a cross-cultural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridenson-Hayo, S; Berggren, S; Lassalle, A; Tal, S; Pigat, D; Meir-Goren, N; O'Reilly, H; Ben-Zur, S; Bölte, S; Baron-Cohen, S; Golan, O

    2017-08-01

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) experience difficulties recognizing others' emotions and mental states. It has been shown that serious games (SG) can produce simplified versions of the socio-emotional world. The current study performed a cross-cultural evaluation (in the UK, Israel and Sweden) of Emotiplay's SG, a system aimed to teach emotion recognition (ER) to children with ASC in an entertaining, and intrinsically motivating way. Participants were 6-9 year olds with high functioning ASC who used the SG for 8-12 weeks. Measures included face, voice, body, and integrative ER tasks, as well as parent-reported level of autism symptoms, and adaptive socialization. In the UK, 15 children were tested before and after using the SG. In Israel (n = 38) and Sweden (n = 36), children were randomized into a SG or a waiting list control group. In the UK, results revealed that 8 weeks of SG use significantly improved participants' performance on ER body language and integrative tasks. Parents also reported their children improved their adaptive socialization. In Israel and Sweden, participants using the SG improved significantly more than controls on all ER measures. In addition, parents in the Israeli SG group reported their children showed reduced autism symptoms after using the SG. In conclusion, Emotiplay's SG is an effective and motivating psycho-educational intervention, cross-culturally teaching ER from faces, voices, body language, and their integration in context to children with high functioning ASC. Local evidence was found for more generalized gains to socialization and reduced autism symptoms.

  10. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This paper was presented at the First Asia-Pacific Conference of the Association for Consumer Research in Singapore, June 1994. It was an invited paper for a special session on food research. The invitation asked us to explain "the relevance of some of our MAPP research...... change processes in the European food culture facilitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? 4. Our contribution to an answer to the first question is based on interviews concerning food consumption with 20,000 consumers in 16 European countries. The data suggest ways of clustering...... different European countries and regions to more homogeneous export markets but in general confir heterogeneity of the European food cultures. 5. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated...

  11. Are measurements of patient safety culture and adverse events valid and reliable? Results from a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Per G

    2015-05-02

    The association between measurements of the patient safety culture and the "true" patient safety has been insufficiently documented, and the validity of the tools used for the measurements has been questioned. This study explored associations between the patient safety culture and adverse events, and evaluated the validity of the tools. In 2008/2009, a survey on patient safety culture was performed with Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) in two medical departments in two geographically separated hospitals of Innlandet Hospital Trust. Later, a retrospective analysis of adverse events during the same period was performed with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). The safety culture and adverse events were compared between the departments. 185 employees participated in the study, and 272 patient records were analysed. The HSOPSC scores were lower and adverse events less prevalent in department 1 than in department 2. In departments 1 and 2 the mean HSOPSC scores (SD) were at the unit level 3.62 (0.42) and 3.90 (0.37) (p culture and adverse events. Until the criterion validity of the tools for measuring patient safety culture and tracking of adverse events have been further evaluated, measurement of patient safety culture could not be used as a proxy for the "true" safety.

  12. Assessing Adolescents' Understanding of and Reactions to Stress in Different Cultures: Results of a Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John H.; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    This article expands on an emerging mixed-method approach for validating culturally-specific constructs (see Hitchcock et al., 2005). Previous work established an approach for dealing with cultural impacts when assessing psychological constructs and the current article extends these efforts into studying stress reactions among adolescents in Sri…

  13. Exploring empowerment within the Gullah Geechee cultural heritage corridor: implications for heritage tourism development in the Lowcountry

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Bynum Boley; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    While scholarship on the Gullah Geechee (GG) people has been extensive, little research has examined heritage tourism’s potential to empower or disempower the GG. In an attempt to shed light on this, the Gullah Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor (GGCHC) was chosen as a case-study site because of its 2006 designation by Congress to protect and promote the unique...

  14. Developing a social practice‐based typology of British drinking culture in 2009–2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K.; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S.; Brennan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health‐related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Design Cross‐sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1‐week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Setting Great Britain, 2009–11. Cases A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Measurements Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start‐time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Findings Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get‐together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). Conclusions An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. PMID:27095617

  15. Developing a social practice-based typology of British drinking culture in 2009-2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John

    2016-09-01

    The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health-related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Cross-sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1-week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Great Britain, 2009-11. A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start-time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get-together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Social and Cultural Context of Betel Quid Consumption in Taiwan and Implications for Prevention and Cessation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Ma, Wei-Fen; Lam, Cho; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Mi-Ting; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Tsai-Chung; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Lu, I-Ying; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-04-16

    In Taiwan, betel quid chewing is a part of social life for chewers. Betel quid itself, with or without tobacco, is a Group 1 human carcinogen. Betel quid chewing has become a severe health threat in Taiwan. The aim of the present study was to identify the individual, social, contextual, and cultural factors related to initiation, continuous use, and cessation of betel quid chewing. Four focus groups and 15 in depth face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2013 with current and former users of betel quid, members of a community organization located in central Taiwan. A thematic analysis identified themes evident across all groups. Study participants (N = 41) were 66% male and 34% female; mean age was 40.34 ± 9.23 years. Participants stated that betel quid initiation usually occurs during childhood and that the most frequent reasons for chewing were: to follow cultural/social traditions, to achieve an energetic feeling, and to avoid boredom. Participants perceived betel quid chewing as an addiction and a risk factor for cancer and other health-related conditions. The most frequently mentioned barriers to quitting betel quid included: peer pressure and selected withdrawal symptoms. For the development of culturally relevant and effective cessation interventions for betel quid in Taiwan, it is critical to understand and address perceptions of betel quid chewing and barriers to cessation.

  17. Clinicians' interpretations of point of care urine culture versus laboratory culture results: analysis from the four-country POETIC trial of diagnosis of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullegie, Saskia; Wootton, Mandy; Verheij, Theo J M; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Bates, Janine; Hood, Kerenza; Gal, Micaela; Francis, Nick A; Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Llor, Carl; Pickles, Timothy; Gillespie, David; Kirby, Nigel; Brugman, Curt; Butler, Christopher C

    2017-08-01

    Urine culture at the point of care minimises delay between obtaining the sample and agar inoculation in a microbiology laboratory, and quantification and sensitivity results can be available more rapidly in primary care. To identify the degree to which clinicians' interpretations of a point-of-care-test (POCT) urine culture (Flexicult™ SSI-Urinary Kit) agrees with laboratory culture in women presenting to primary care with symptoms of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). Primary care clinicians used the Flexicult™-POCT, recorded their findings and took a photograph of the result, which was interpreted by microbiology laboratory technicians. Urine samples were additionally processed in routine care laboratories. Cross tabulations were used to identify important differences in organism identification, quantification and antibiotic susceptibility between these three sources of data. The influence of various laboratory definitions for UTI on culture were assessed. Primary care clinicians identified 202/289 urine samples (69.9%) as positive for UTI using the Flexicult™-POCT, whereas laboratory culture identified 94-190 (32.5-65.7%) as positive, depending on definition thresholds. 82.9% of samples identified positive for E. coli on laboratory culture were also considered positive for E. coli using the Flexicult™ -POCT, and susceptibilities were reasonably concordant. There were major discrepancies between laboratory staff interpretation of Flexicult™ photographs, clinicians' interpretation of the Flexicult™ test, and laboratory culture results. Flexicult™-POCT overestimated the positivity rate of urine samples for UTI when laboratory culture was used as the reference standard. However, it is unclear whether point-of-care or laboratory based urine culture provides the most valid diagnostic information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Effect of Preoperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis on Intraoperative Culture Results in Patients with a Suspected or Confirmed Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Benito, Natividad; Soriano, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Obtaining reliable cultures during revision arthroplasty is important to adequately diagnose and treat a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The influence of antimicrobial prophylaxis on culture results remains unclear. Since withholding prophylaxis increases the risk for surgical site infections, clarification on this topic is critical. A systematic review was performed with the following research question: in patients who undergo revision surgery of a prosthetic joint, does preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis affect the culture yield of intraoperative samples in comparison with nonpreoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis? Seven articles were included in the final analysis. In most studies, standard diagnostic culture techniques were used. In patients with a PJI, pooled analysis showed a culture yield of 88% (145/165) in the prophylaxis group versus 95% (344/362) in the nonprophylaxis group ( P = 0.004). Subanalysis of patients with chronic PJIs showed positive cultures in 88% (78/89) versus 91% (52/57), respectively ( P = 0.59). In patients with a suspected chronic infection, a maximum difference of 4% in culture yield between the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups was observed. With the use of standard culture techniques, antimicrobial prophylaxis seems to affect cultures in a minority of patients. Along with the known risk of surgical site infections due to inadequate timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis, we discourage the postponement of prophylaxis until tissue samples are obtained in revision surgery. Future studies are necessary to conclude whether the small percentage of false-negative cultures after prophylaxis can be further reduced with the use of more-sensitive culture techniques, like sonication. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Benthic foraminifera cultured over a large salinity gradient: first results and comparison with field data from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Jeroen; Filipsson, Helena L.; Austin, William E. N.; Darling, Kate; Quintana Krupinski, Nadine B.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most significant challenges in paleoclimate research arise from the need to both understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with proxy methods for climate reconstructions. This is especially important for shelf and coastal environments where increasing numbers of high-resolution paleorecords are being generated. These challenges are further highlighted in connection with ECORD/IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironments. This large-scale drilling operation took place in the Baltic Sea region during the autumn of 2013. At this time, there is a pressing need for proxy calibrations directly targeted at the brackish Baltic environment. Within the CONTEMPORARY project we are investigating different temperature and salinity proxy variables through a combination of field- and culture-based benthic foraminiferal samples, together with genetic characterization (genotyping) of the morphospecies. We have completed two field campaigns where we collected (living) foraminifera and water samples at several sites, ranging from fully marine to low salinity conditions. The core-top foraminifera have been analysed for trace metal/Ca, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, and faunal composition. Living foraminifera collected from the sediment-water interface were cultured in sea water in two long-term experiments at different temperatures (5°C and 10°C) and at three different salinities (15, 25, and 35). The first experiment yielded a large number of reproduced and experimentally-grown Elphidium specimens. The second experiment resulted in growth but no reproduction. We will provide a summary of the experimentally grown material and discuss the challenges of generating new proxy calibrations for foraminiferal shell geochemistry in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, specimens of Elphidium and Ammonia, found at two sampling sites (Anholt, Kattegat and Hanöbay) with differing salinities, were genotyped and the results indicate that the same genotype of Elphidium is

  20. [The method and result analyses of pathogenic bacteria culture on chronic periprosthetic joint infection after total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baochao; Xu, Enjie; Cao, Li; Yang, Desheng; Xu, Boyong; Guo, Wentao; Aili, Rehei

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the results of pathogenic bacteria culture on chronic periprosthetic joint infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). The medical data of 23 patients with chronic periprosthetic joint infection after TKA or THA from September 2010 to March 2014 were reviewed. Fifteen cases of TKA and 8 cases of THA were included in this study. There were 12 male and 11 female patients with the mean age of 62 years (range from 32 to 79 years), and among them 9 patients with sinus. All patients discontinued antibiotic therapy for a minimum of 2 weeks before arthrocentesis, taking pathogenic bacteria culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test by using synovial fluid taken preoperatively and intraoperatively of revision. Common pathogenic bacteria culture and pathological biopsy were taken on tissues intraoperatively of revision. Culture-negative specimens were prolonged the period of incubation for 2 weeks. The overall culture-positive rate of all 23 patients for 1 week before revision was 30.4% (7/23), and the positive rate of culture-negative samples which prolonged for 2 weeks was 39.1% (9/23). The overall culture-positive rate of patients for 1 week intraoperatively of revision was 60.9% (14/23), and the positive rate of culture-negative samples which prolonged for 2 weeks was 82.6% (19/23). The incubation results of 7 cases (30.4%) preoperatively conformed to that of intraoperation. The culture-positive rate of pathogenic bacteria culture can be increased evidently by discontinuing antimicrobial therapy for a minimum of 2 weeks prior to the definite diagnosis.

  1. Culture and Imperialism’s implications for thinking about the lives and identities of contemporary post-imperial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Edward Said has been perhaps the most important influence on my own work in postcolonial studies. Three things have struck me in my deliberations over how to engage with Culture and Imperialism twenty years after it was first published; a) what new scholarship has brought new light on the thematic...... develop a new approach better equipped to deal with the reality of 2012. In my paper I wish to interconnect these three points to my own current research on postcolonial/post-imperial Europe, which builds upon Said’s insistence on relating the European presence in the non-European world to the very core...

  2. Cultural acceptance of robotic telestroke medicine among patients and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khathaami, Ali M; Alshahrani, Saeed M; Kojan, Suleiman M; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A; Alamry, Ahmed A; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers.

  3. Growth and artemisinin content of artemisia Annua L. As a result of gamma irradiation on shoot culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Muji Ermayanti; Erwin Al Hafiizh; Andri Fadillah Martin; Arthur A Lelono; Wiguna Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin is the main compound produced by Artemisia annua is used as antimalarial drug. Many research have been conducted in order to increase artemisinin content in A. annua so that it can be produced economically. In several plants, mutation can be induced by Gamma irradiation to increase their secondary metabolite production. The aim of this research was to investigate the growth and artemisinin content of A. annua after Gamma irradiation. Irradiation was conducted using in vitro shoot tips with 5-50 Gy. Survival rate, growth of shoot culture, ploidy level confirmation, acclimatization, growth of plants in the field and artemisinin content were recorded. The results showed that LD_5_0 of A. annua was 37 Gy, therefore, shoots only grew in the control environment in the laboratory, their growth in the field was inhibited. Irradiation with 50 Gy, shoots only grew for 8 weeks, and died afterwards. Irradiation dose affected on growth of plants in the field as well as their artemisinin content. (author)

  4. Education and guidance to the civil protection culture: insights and first results from the SicuraMente project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Saverio; Benvenuti, Eugenio; Calabrese, Danilo; Galluccio, Dario Giuseppe; Tocci, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    To gain awareness on natural hazards social and educational initiatives are required, aimed at promoting a civil protection culture able to guide towards conscious and correct behavior. People, well-informed about risks in their territory, are safer citizens. In this perspective, it is important that the learning environments, such as schools and universities, play a key role on promoting dialogue and interactions among institutions, becoming a useful resource for the local community. In this framework, the present work describes an experimental project, called SicuraMente, started 2 years ago, about safety and civil protection culture coordinated by LARES Italia, a national civil protection association. This ongoing project, that involves high school and university students, is a training course that teaches skills and grants its participants specific toolset to increase the civic awareness and personal knowledge on actions to take in specific emergency situations. SicuraMente is a multi-hazard project, concerning several natural phenomena such as earthquake, flood, landslide, fire and extreme meteorological events. Each topic is discussed with a global approach starting from the scientific knowledge of the phenomenon, with a final discussion on the best practices about disaster prevention and preparedness. Additionally, in order to encourage the interest of students, 4 contexts are taken in example (home, school, city, society) with special case study sessions of each, with open discussion and debate. The project's activities are conducted on two levels: peer education lessons with "learning by doing" approach (e.g. simulation-based learning) under the coordination of LARES volunteers, and a further training stage at home in e-learning environment (www.sicuramentelab.it). In the first year of the project, 669 students from 9 schools of Regione Umbria (Central Italy) were involved. Thanks to the fundamental support of the volunteers of LARES association, 543

  5. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-12-27

    Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary

  6. Revisiting wild stocks of black lip oyster Pinctada margaritifera in the Tuamotu Archipelago: The case of Ahe and Takaroa atolls and implications for the cultured pearl industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Lo, Cédrik

    2016-12-01

    Spat collecting of the black lip oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is the foundation of cultured black pearl production, the second source of income for French Polynesia. To understand spat collecting temporal and spatial variations, larval supply and its origin need to be characterized. To achieve this, it is necessary to account for the stock of oysters, its distribution and population characteristics (size distribution, sex-ratio). While the farmed stock in concessions can be easily characterized, the wild stock is elusive. Here, we investigate the distribution and population structure of the wild stock of Ahe and Takaroa atolls using fine-scale bathymetry and in situ census data. Stocks were surprisingly low (∼666,000 and ∼1,030,000 oysters for Ahe and Takaroa respectively) considering these two atolls have both been very successful spat collecting atolls in the past. Furthermore, in Ahe atoll, wild populations are aging with a dominant but small female population. Comparison with the cultured stock population (∼14 millions oysters) and its dominant young male population suggests that to maximize larval supply and spat collecting on the long term, it would be useful to increase the number of females in selected sanctuaries. We discuss the implication of our findings for the long-term management of stocks and for spat collection in pearl farming atolls, and for on-going numerical modelling studies on larval dispersal.

  7. A sociocultural analysis of Latino high school students' funds of knowledge and implications for culturally responsive engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Joel Alejandro

    Previous studies have suggested that, when funds of knowledge are incorporated into science and mathematics curricula, students are more engaged and often develop richer understandings of scientific concepts. While there has been a growing body of research addressing how teachers may integrate students' linguistic, social, and cultural practices with science and mathematics instruction, very little research has been conducted on how the same can be accomplished with Latino and Latina students in engineering. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by investigating how fourteen Latino and Latina high school adolescents used their funds of knowledge to address engineering design challenges. This project was intended to enhance the educational experience of underrepresented minorities whose social and cultural practices have been traditionally undervalued in schools. This ethnographic study investigated the funds of knowledge of fourteen Latino and Latina high school adolescents and how they used these funds of knowledge in engineering design. Participant observation, bi-monthly group discussion, retrospective and concurrent protocols, and monthly one-on-one interviews were conducted during the study. A constant comparative analysis suggested that Latino and Latina adolescents, although profoundly underrepresented in engineering, bring a wealth of knowledge and experiences that are relevant to engineering design thinking and practice.

  8. The cultural background of the non-academic concept of psychology in Japan: its implications for introductory education in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. End-of-life experiences and expectations of Africans in Australia: cultural implications for palliative and hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruy, Kiros; Mwanri, Lillian

    2014-03-01

    The ageing and frail migrants who are at the end of life are an increasing share of migrants living in Australia. However, within such populations, information about end-of-life experiences is limited, particularly among Africans. This article provides some insights into the sociocultural end-of-life experiences of Africans in Australia and their interaction with the health services in general and end-of-life care in particular. It provides points for discussion to consider an ethical framework that include Afro-communitarian ethical principles to enhance the capacity of current health services to provide culturally appropriate and ethical care. This article contributes to our knowledge regarding the provision of culturally appropriate and ethical care to African patients and their families by enabling the learning of health service providers to improve the competence of palliative care systems and professionals in Australia. Additionally, it initiates the discussion to highlight the importance of paying sufficient attention to a diverse range of factors including the migration history when providing palliative and hospice care for patients from African migrant populations.

  10. A cross-cultural study on noise problems: Comparison of the results obtained in Japan, West Germany, the U.S.A., China and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, S.; Kuwano, S.; Schick, A.; Açlar, A.; Florentine, M.; Da Rui, Zheng

    1991-12-01

    Neighborhood noise has become a serious problem in many countries, and it is difficult to regulate by physical means alone. A cross-cultural survey was conducted in five countries, Japan, West Germany, the United States, China and Turkey, among residents of apartment houses in order to examine the cultural differences involved. Interesting differences were found in preferred countermeasures, highly annoying sounds, attitudes against noise, expectations for laws, etc. The use of loudspeakers in public places was accepted in all five countries, provided that they were used for conveying necessary information. The results suggest that it is important to take cultural or social backgrounds into consideration in order to find suitable countermeasures.

  11. Class size and academic results, with a focus on children from culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zyngier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of class size continues to attract the attention of educational policymakers and researchers alike. Australian politicians and their advisers, policy makers and political commentators agree that much of Australia’s increased expenditure on education in the last 30 years has been ‘wasted’ on efforts to reduce class sizes. They conclude that funding is therefore not the problem in Australian education, arguing that extra funding has not led to improved academic results. Many scholars have found serious methodological issues with the existing reviews that make claims for the lack of educational and economic utility in reducing class sizes in schools. Significantly, the research supporting the current policy advice to both state and federal ministers of education is highly selective, and based on limited studies originating from the USA. This comprehensive review of 112 papers from 1979-2014 assesses whether these conclusions about the effect of smaller class sizes still hold. The review draws on a wider range of studies, starting with Australian research, but also includes similar education systems such as England, Canada, New Zealand and non-English speaking countries of Europe. The review assesses the different measures of class size and how they affect the results, and also whether other variables such as teaching methods are taken into account. Findings suggest that smaller class sizes in the first four years of school can have an important and lasting impact on student achievement, especially for children from culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised communities. This is particularly true when smaller classes are combined with appropriate teacher pedagogies suited to reduced student numbers. Suggested policy recommendations involve targeted funding for specific lessons and schools, combined with professional development of teachers. These measures may help to address the inequality of schooling and

  12. Preliminary results from the ESA STSE project on SST diurnal variability, its regional extent and implications in atmospheric modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR...

  13. Implications of new GALLEX results for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution of the solar neutrino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Kwong, Waikwok; Rosen, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    We compare the implications for Be-7 and pp neutrinos of the two Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein fits to the new GALLEX solar neutrino measurements. Small-mixing-angle solutions tend to suppress the former as electron neutrinos, but not the latter, and large-angle solutions tend to reduce both by about a factor of two. The consequences for BOREXINO and similar solar neutrino-electron scattering experiments are discussed.

  14. Implications of new GALLEX results for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution of the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelb, J.M.; Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    We compare the implications for 7 Be and pp neutrinos of the two Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein fits to the new GALLEX solar neutrino measurements. Small-mixing-angle solutions tend to suppress the former as electron neutrinos, but not the latter, and large-angle solutions tend to reduce both by about a factor of 2. The consequences for BOREXINO and similar solar neutrino-electron scattering experiments are discussed

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  16. Locating causes of accidents in the social organisation of building workers and some wider implications: An approach from Cultural Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews and re-interprets accident causation in the British Building and Construction Industry (BCI), chosen because its accident rate is high. The paper, a preliminary report of ongoing work, suggests why incidences vary widely between different sites and workgroups. Explanation appears to lie not in variant technical complexity but variant social organisation. Four archetypal forms of organisation are identified derived from Cultural Theory via social anthropology that avoid personality explanations, and focus on micro social organisation. Different kinds of micro social organisation are known to differentially influence attitudes to authority and risk-taking, views of time, filtering of information and deviance. This approach focuses on the social side of socio-technical systems when most commentators over-emphasise the technical and it is also appropriate to more technologically complex industries. The paper concludes with a plea to collect accident statistics with emphasis on micro social components and offers a method - LISTORG - to order the social dimensions involved. (author)

  17. Differences in Perceptions of Patient Safety Culture between Charge and Noncharge Nurses: Implications for Effectiveness Outcomes Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleise Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of evidence-based practice guidelines can be influenced by nurses’ perceptions of the organizational safety culture. Shift-by-shift management of each nursing unit is designated to a subset of staff nurses (charge nurses, whom are often recruited as champions for change. The findings indicate that compared to charge nurses, noncharge nurses were more positive about overall perceptions of safety (=.05 and teamwork (<.05. Among charge nurses, significant differences were observed based on the number of years’ experience in charge: perception of teamwork within units [(3,365=3.52, <.01]; overall perceptions of safety, [(3,365=4.20, <.05]; safety grade for work area [(3,360=2.61, <.05]; number of events reported within the last month [(3,362=3.49, <.05]. These findings provide important insights to organizational contextual factors that may impact effectiveness outcomes research in the future.

  18. Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Rock Art from the Mongolian Altai: The Material and its Cultural Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Jacobson-Tepfer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rock-pecked images from the northern Mongolian Altai attest to the presence of human communities within the high valleys of that region during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. The material provides evidence that is hitherto largely missing from the archaeological record of that region. This paper reviews the rock art, its find sites and larger physical contexts and uses evidence from paleoenvironmental studies to propose dating and cultural significance. The material is compared with other sites said to have Paleolithic imagery from Mongolia and the adjoining Russian Altai. The body of presented material offers a major resource for the study of early hunter-gatherer communities at the interface of Central and North Asia.

  19. Treating an unhealthy organisational culture: the implications of the Bundaberg Hospital Inquiry for managerial ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Gian Luca; Day, Gary E

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the interplay between individual values, espoused organisational values and the values of the organisational culture in practice in light of a recent Royal Commission in Queensland, Australia, which highlighted systematic failures in patient care. The lack of congruence among values at these levels impacts upon the ethical decision making of health managers. The presence of institutional ethics regimes such as the Public Sector Ethics Act 1994 (Qld) and agency codes of conduct are not sufficient to counteract the negative influence of informal codes of practice that undermine espoused organisational values and community standards. The ethical decision-making capacity of health care managers remains at the front line in the battle against unethical and unprofessional practice.

  20. Family Decision Making and Self-Determination Among Consumers With Schizophrenia in China: Cross-Cultural Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Lam, Chow S; Deng, Hong; Corrigan, Patrick W; Yau, Eva

    2018-04-01

    Self-determination is viewed as an important ingredient of successful recovery in psychiatric rehabilitation. The concept of autonomy, a key component of self-determination, may be of less importance in Chinese cultures, whereby an individual's choices may be in conflict with the family's expectations. This study aimed to develop an instrument to measure opinions about self-determination among Chinese consumers and their family members. A 27-item questionnaire, the Consumer and Family Decision Making Scale (CFDMS), was constructed to measure consumers' and family members' views of self-determination in various aspects of daily life. A total of 364 (182 consumers of psychiatric services with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 182 of their family members) participated in the study. The CFDMS was found to possess good psychometric properties and appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of consumers' decision making. (The Cronbach's alphas of psychiatric care and treatment factor, personal and social function factor, community and daily living factor, and money management factor were as follows: .86, .89, .87 and .76. The respective test-retest reliabilities were as follows: .81, .89, .80, and .88). Chinese consumers preferred autonomous decision making in regard to personal and social functioning and community and daily living but preferred to defer decisions regarding psychiatric care and treatment and money management to others. Family members and consumers had similar views. Deferring decisions to family members is common in Chinese families. The emphasis on autonomy in Western health care may need to be reconsidered in the treatment of Chinese consumers. Chinese families have a strong influence on treatment decisions, and providers must respect this style and remain nonjudgmental when dealing with situations or decisions that may be contradictory to their own culture and values.

  1. Women in management means women in power: implications for society, family and culture in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-irani, L

    1995-01-01

    A May 1995 conference in Beirut on "The Arab Woman and Business Management" focused on the fact that women are relatively absent from decision-making positions in the public and private sectors in the Arab world. Conference participants also identified characteristics of Arab women who have successfully penetrated the ranks of management, discussed how to balance work and home life, and considered the potentially important role of women managers in the nonprofit sector. Recurring and interrelated themes of the conference addressed the fact that women who have become empowered at work will have increased self-confidence in every aspect of their lives. Also, women who have successfully managed a busy household are able to transfer these skills to the workplace. Women will increasingly demand access to the highest ranks of decision-making, but their culturally-shaped sense of themselves may ultimately hinder them from attaining positions currently reserved for men. Research has shown that women's conceptions of power are more egalitarian and cooperative than the competitiveness exhibited by men. Women may, therefore, offer an important approach to the rapidly changing world market which requires the cooperation of people from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, it is women who define themselves (rather than accept an identity chosen by society, the family, or culture) who will progress the fastest and achieve the highest ranks in management. Women should neither passively wait to be handed power not allow men to define the nature and uses of power. Instead they must seize their own power and exercise it in their own ways.

  2. Deficits in knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood culture sampling: results of a nationwide mixed-methods study among inpatient care physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Duddeck, Arne; Gehrlich, Maike; Helmke, Charlotte; Huebner, Johannes; Pletz, Mathias W; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Karch, André

    2017-08-01

    Blood culture (BC) sampling rates in Germany are considerably lower than recommended. Aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice of physicians in Germany regarding BC diagnostics. We conducted a cross-sectional mixed-methods study among physicians working in inpatient care in Germany. Based on the results of qualitative focus groups, a questionnaire-based quantitative study was conducted in 2015-2016. In total, 706 medical doctors and final-year medical students from 11 out of 16 federal states in Germany participated. BC sampling was considered an important diagnostic tool by 95% of the participants. However, only 23% of them would collect BCs in three scenarios for which BC ordering is recommended by present guidelines in Germany; almost one out of ten physicians would not have taken blood cultures in any of the three scenarios. The majority of participants (74%) reported not to adhere to the guideline recommendation that blood culture sampling should include at least two blood culture sets from two different injection sites. High routine in blood culture sampling, perceived importance of blood culture diagnostics, the availability of an in-house microbiological lab, and the department the physician worked in were identified as predictors for good blood culture practice. Our study suggests that there are substantial deficits in BC ordering and the application of guidelines for good BC practice in Germany. Based on these findings, multimodal interventions appear necessary for improving BC diagnostics.

  3. The Role of Chronic Mesh Infection in Delayed-Onset Vaginal Mesh Complications or Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Results From Explanted Mesh Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellano, Erin M; Nakamura, Leah Y; Choi, Judy M; Kang, Diana C; Grisales, Tamara; Raz, Shlomo; Rodriguez, Larissa V

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal mesh complications necessitating excision are increasingly prevalent. We aim to study whether subclinical chronically infected mesh contributes to the development of delayed-onset mesh complications or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Women undergoing mesh removal from August 2013 through May 2014 were identified by surgical code for vaginal mesh removal. Only women undergoing removal of anti-incontinence mesh were included. Exclusion criteria included any women undergoing simultaneous prolapse mesh removal. We abstracted preoperative and postoperative information from the medical record and compared mesh culture results from patients with and without mesh extrusion, de novo recurrent UTIs, and delayed-onset pain. One hundred seven women with only anti-incontinence mesh removed were included in the analysis. Onset of complications after mesh placement was within the first 6 months in 70 (65%) of 107 and delayed (≥6 months) in 37 (35%) of 107. A positive culture from the explanted mesh was obtained from 82 (77%) of 107 patients, and 40 (37%) of 107 were positive with potential pathogens. There were no significant differences in culture results when comparing patients with delayed-onset versus immediate pain, extrusion with no extrusion, and de novo recurrent UTIs with no infections. In this large cohort of patients with mesh removed for a diverse array of complications, cultures of the explanted vaginal mesh demonstrate frequent low-density bacterial colonization. We found no differences in culture results from women with delayed-onset pain versus acute pain, vaginal mesh extrusions versus no extrusions, or recurrent UTIs using standard culture methods. Chronic prosthetic infections in other areas of medicine are associated with bacterial biofilms, which are resistant to typical culture techniques. Further studies using culture-independent methods are needed to investigate the potential role of chronic bacterial infections in delayed vaginal mesh

  4. A Culture-Proven Case of Community-Acquired Legionella Pneumonia Apparently Classified as Nosocomial: Diagnostic and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bargellini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a 78-year-old patient affected by cerebellar haemangioblastoma continuously hospitalised for 24 days prior to the onset of overt symptoms. According to the established case definition, this woman should have been definitely classified as a nosocomial case (patient spending all of the ten days in hospital before onset of symptoms. Water samples from the oncology ward were negative, notably the patient’s room and the oxygen bubbler, and the revision of the case history induced us to verify possible contamination in water samples collected at home. We found that the clinical strain had identical rep-PCR fingerprint of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated at home. The description of this culture-proven case of Legionnaires’ disease has major clinical, legal, and public health consequences as the complexity of hospitalised patients poses limitations to the rule-of-thumb surveillance definition of nosocomial pneumonia based on 2–10-day incubation period.

  5. Cultural differences in risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Yeong Kim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We compared South Koreans with Australians in order to characterize cultural differences in attitudes and choices regarding risk, at both the individual and group levels. Our results showed that Australians, when assessed individually, consistently self-reported higher preference for risk than South Koreans, regardless of gender. The data revealed that South Koreans, regardless of gender composition, were willing to take greater risks when making decisions in group decision-making situations than when they were alone. This is a different pattern from that seen in the Australian sample, in which a risky shift was noted only among males. This difference was attributed to the influence of various cultural orientations (independent vs. interdependent relationship styles. This study also provides a discussion of the implications of these results in terms of cultural differences in attitudes and decisions regarding risk.

  6. How many sputum culture results do we need to monitor multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients during treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Saskia; Padanilam, Xavier; Louw, Rianna; Mahanyele, Russel; Coetzee, Gerrit; Hänscheid, Thomas; Leenstra, Tjalling; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Discharge of a hospital patient after a single negative sputum culture may save money when treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. However, after initial sputum conversion in 336 South Africans, 11.6% and 5.4% reconverted after 1 and 2 months, respectively. These findings endorse the WHO

  7. Cultural Universality and Specificity of Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Shin, Hyeonsook; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Kikas, Eve; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Stanculescu, Elena; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Nelson, Brett; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors that are linked to student engagement requires research that includes cross-cultural perspectives. Aims: This study investigated how student engagement in school is associated with grade, gender, and contextual factors across 12 countries. It also investigated whether these…

  8. Socioeconomic and Cultural Correlates of Diet Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2015-09-01

    We examined the impact of socioeconomic and cultural factors on dietary quality in adult Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. Interviews and a 24-h dietary recall were administered to 805 men and 1292 women from Inuit regions in the Canadian Arctic. We examined the effect of age, sex, education, income, employment, and cultural variables on respondents' energy, macronutrient intake, sodium/potassium ratio, and healthy eating index. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on diet quality indicators. Age was positively associated with traditional food (TF) consumption and greater energy from protein but negatively associated with total energy and fibre intake. Associations between SES and diet quality differed considerably between men and women and there was considerable regional variability in diet quality measures. Age and cultural variables were significant predictors of diet quality in logistic regression. Increased age and use of the Inuit language in the home were the most significant predictors of TF consumption. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting a nutrition transition in circumpolar Inuit. We found considerable variability in diet quality and complex interaction between SES and cultural variables producing mixed effects that differ by age and gender.

  9. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven......-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities....

  10. Internet culture

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, David

    2013-01-01

    The internet has recently grown from a fringe cultural phenomenon to a significant site of cultural production and transformation. Internet Culture maps this new domain of language, politics and identity, locating it within the histories of communication and the public sphere. Internet Culture offers a critical interrogation of the sustaining myths of the virtual world and of the implications of the current mass migration onto the electronic frontier. Among the topics discussed in Internet Culture are the virtual spaces and places created by the citizens of the Net and their claims to the hotly contested notion of "virtual community"; the virtual bodies that occupy such spaces; and the desires that animate these bodies. The contributors also examine the communication medium behind theworlds of the Net, analyzing the rhetorical conventions governing online discussion, literary antecedents,and potential pedagogical applications.

  11. Mapping the Health Information Landscape in a Rural, Culturally Diverse Region: Implications for Interventions to Reduce Information Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Ruiz, Ariana

    2017-08-01

    The media is an important source of health information, especially critical in rural communities with geographically-dispersed populations that are harder to reach through other channels. Yet health information is unequally distributed; these information disparities are compounded in rural areas, which may contribute to health disparities. We identify and describe health-related news in a culturally-diverse rural California county characterized by high levels of poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and over half of Mexican-origin. We conducted a census of all available print news sources and then used content analysis to identify and characterize all health information printed in a 6-month study period. A total of 570 health-related articles were published. Five newspapers accounted for more than 80% of published health-related articles (n = 466); only one targeted the majority Latino population. The most common topic was access to health care/insurance/policy (33%), followed by diet/nutrition (13%), infectious disease (10%), and general prevention (9%). Just over one-quarter of health-related articles included useful information. Differences across newspaper types existed: independent newspapers reported more on health-related events compared with chain newspapers, and both ethnic-targeted newspapers and independently-published papers were more likely to include useful information compared with chain newspapers. While this region suffers from high rates of obesity and diabetes, there were relatively few articles on obesity and diabetes themselves, or linking behavioral risk factors with these conditions. One area we found absent from coverage pertained to the numerous environmental health threats prevalent in this heavily polluted, agricultural area (just 40 articles discussed environmental health threats). We also discovered that coverage of social determinants of health was lacking (just 24 of the 570 health articles), which was notable in a

  12. Successful operation of continuous reactors at short retention times results in high-density, fast-rate Dehalococcoides dechlorinating cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anca G; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Popat, Sudeep C; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    The discovery of Dehalococcoides mccartyi reducing perchloroethene and trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene was a key landmark for bioremediation applications at contaminated sites. D. mccartyi-containing cultures are typically grown in batch-fed reactors. On the other hand, continuous cultivation of these microorganisms has been described only at long hydraulic retention times (HRTs). We report the cultivation of a representative D. mccartyi-containing culture in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) at a short, 3-d HRT, using TCE as the electron acceptor. We successfully operated 3-d HRT CSTRs for up to 120 days and observed sustained dechlorination of TCE at influent concentrations of 1 and 2 mM TCE to ≥ 97 % ethene, coupled to the production of 10(12) D. mccartyi cells Lculture (-1). These outcomes were possible in part by using a medium with low bicarbonate concentrations (5 mM) to minimize the excessive proliferation of microorganisms that use bicarbonate as an electron acceptor and compete with D. mccartyi for H2. The maximum conversion rates for the CSTR-produced culture were 0.13 ± 0.016, 0.06 ± 0.018, and 0.02 ± 0.007 mmol Cl(-) Lculture (-1) h(-1), respectively, for TCE, cis-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride. The CSTR operation described here provides the fastest laboratory cultivation rate of high-cell density Dehalococcoides cultures reported in the literature to date. This cultivation method provides a fundamental scientific platform for potential future operations of such a system at larger scales.

  13. Clinicians' interpretations of point of care urine culture versus laboratory culture results : Analysis from the four-country POETIC trial of diagnosis of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, Saskia; Wootton, Mandy; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Bates, Janine; Hood, Kerenza; Gal, Micaela; Francis, Nick A.; Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Llor, Carl; Pickles, Timothy; Gillespie, David; Kirby, Nigel; Brugman, Curt; Butler, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Urine culture at the point of care minimises delay between obtaining the sample and agar inoculation in a microbiology laboratory, and quantification and sensitivity results can be available more rapidly in primary care.  Objective. To identify the degree to which clinicians'

  14. Faunal extinction and human habitation in New Caledonia : initial results and implications of new research at the Pindai Caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Sand, C.; Petchey, F.; Worthy, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological and palaeontological investigations occurred in 2003 at the Pindai Caves in New Caledonia, where remains of prehistoric settlement exist in conjunction with the richest fossil deposits found to date on Grand Terre. Among more than 45 bird taxa in our excavations at least 20 that are locally or globally extinct are represented at levels immediately below or within the era of human occupation. These include the giant megapode, Sylviornis sp., the flightless swamphen, Porphyrio kukuwiedei, and other rails, a kagu, pigeons, a large snipe, Coenocorypha sp., several taxa of owls, a nightjar, and an owlet-nightjar. Unresolved problems in dating and taphonomy, however, make it difficult to specify the strength of cultural associations and thus the extent to which human activities were responsible for extinctions or extirpations. We present the first radiocarbon dates upon Sylviornis bone, showing that, at least, the species survived into the late Holocene. Relatively frequent occurrence of Sylviornis bone in the cultural levels, coupled with a radiocarbon date on a bone sample of about 3000 calBP make a case for human contact. (author). Refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Childhood Context Explains Cultural Variance in Implicit Parenting Motivation: Results from Two Studies with Six Samples from Cameroon, Costa Rica, Germany, and PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Chasiotis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the childhood context variables number of siblings (study 1 and 2 and parental SES (study 2 on implicit parenting motivation across six cultural samples, including Africa (2xCameroon, Asia (PR China, Europe (2xGermany, and Latin America (Costa Rica. Implicit parenting motivation was assessed using an instrument measuring implicit motives (OMT, Operant Multimotive Test; Kuhl and Scheffer, 2001. Replicating and extending results from previous studies, regression analyses and structural equation models show that the number of siblings and parental SES explain a large amount of cultural variance, ranging from 64% to 82% of the cultural variance observed in implicit parenting motivation. Results are discussed within the framework of evolutionary developmental psychology.

  16. Comparison of Estrogen Receptor Assay Results from Pathology Reports with Results from Central Laboratory Testing: Implications for Population-Based Studies of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, LC; Marotti, J; Baer, HJ; Deitz, AC; Colditz, GA; Tamimi, RM

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies of women with breast cancer commonly utilize information culled from pathology reports rather than central pathology review. The reliability of this information, particularly with regard to tumor biomarker results, is of concern. To address this, we evaluated the concordance between estrogen receptor (ER) results as determined from the original pathology reports and ER results obtained on the same specimens following testing in a single laboratory. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from paraffin blocks of 3,167 breast cancers that developed in women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study. ER immunostains were performed on all TMA sections in single run. Results of ER immunostains performed on the TMA sections were compared with ER assay results abstracted from pathology reports. Among 1,851 cases of invasive breast cancer in which both ER results from pathology reports and central ER test results were available, the reported ER status and the ER status as determined from immunostains on TMAs were in agreement in 1,651 cases (87.3 %; kappa value 0.64, ppathology reports is a reasonable, albeit imperfect, alternative to central laboratory ER testing for large, population-based studies of patients with breast cancer. PMID:18230800

  17. A study on factors of dissatisfaction and stress of the blacksmiths resulting from the organizational culture in the surgical instrument industry of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is important to understand what motivates workers and the extent to which the organization and other contextual variables satisfy them. The aim of the study was to determine factors of dissatisfaction resulting from the organizational culture among the blacksmiths involved in the surgical instrument industry. Materials and Methods: Fifty male surgical blacksmiths each of the skilled and unskilled groups of the forging section were selected. Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to measure the individuals′ role stress and several forms of conflict within an organization. Also, the organizational culture and personal involvement in an organization was measured among the surgical blacksmiths. Results: The mean score for total role stress for Skilled was 71.7 and for unskilled was 77.2. The most frequent type of organizational culture was reported to be hierarchy, both by skilled and unskilled surgical blacksmiths, followed by market and clan culture. Conclusion: This study shows that the skilled surgical blacksmiths have lower level of stress and conflicts in comparison with unskilled surgical blacksmiths. Both skilled and unskilled surgical blacksmiths estimated their level of personal involvement as low and indicated insufficient involvement in work teams. The satisfaction of the employees with their status and role in the organizational culture was also poor for both skilled and unskilled surgical blacksmiths.

  18. "Narrow-Minded and Oppressive" or a "Superior Culture"? Implications of Divergent Representations of Islam for Pakistani-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar-Kucher, Ameena

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic data, this article examines the complex terrain that working-class Pakistani-American youth must negotiate in their daily lives. Specifically, the article illustrates how particular views of Islam and Americanization manifest in particular sites and within educational discourses, and the resulting dissonance that youth…

  19. The effects of wood anisotropy on the mode of attack by the woodborer Teredo navalis and the implications for underwater cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Anne Marie; Gregory, David John; Villa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    of the tunnels. Panels of pine, cut in tangential, radial and transversal planes, were placed in the sea at a location where shipworm was known to be abundant. After attack, the panels were weighed, X-rayed, entrance holes counted and 3D CT models created. All results show a difference between the three planes....... The specific direction of the single tunnels could be evaluated using the CT models, since the individual tunnels could be isolated, and followed throughout the panel. The results show that the radial plane suffered a more severe attack than either of the two other planes. These results have implications...... for archaeological interpretation and conservation. For example, the results show that ancient ships built with timbers cut in a radial plane (e.g. Viking Ships or other structural elements cut in radial plane) may be more prone to attack and thus require more protection than those built in tangential or transversal...

  20. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends into Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    American Development Bank, and United States Export -Import Bank combined for that year.”7 Furthermore, China has signed free trade agreements with... American Relations, 930. 23   two countries is the result of China’s export to Mexico . China’s investment in Mexico is also substantially larger than... Mexico at War Against China in the WTO (2005) China Hits Markets (2005) The Dragon Monopolizes (2005) Chinese Pirates Invade Chiapas (2005

  1. Negative Symptom Dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Across Geographical Regions: Implications for Social, Linguistic, and Cultural Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D.; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions are understood across localities might result in better understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15 geographical regions to determine whet...

  2. Farmers' willingness to pay for power in India. Conceptual issues, survey results and implications for pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Rafiq [Senior Research Scholar, Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, 616 Serra Street, Stanford, CA 94305-6055 (United States); Ranganathan, V. [Professor of Economics and Energy, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore 560076 (India)

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop strategies useful for raising prices of rural power in India. Such power is currently subsidized and policymakers are eager to make the transition to more efficient prices. The traditionally used measure, willingness to pay (WTP), is shown to have no useful policy implications due to the rationing of power. Using survey data from rural Andhra Pradesh, we show that the utility's cost of power exceeds the income generated by the power. This suggests a political problem - the possibility that low power prices have led to large-scale farming of unproductive land - that will be hard to resolve. Our survey also shows that subsidies are regressive with income. We use measured WTP for higher income groups to propose a discriminatory pricing regime that will raise total revenue by 20%. When combined with removing the causes of motor burnout, such as voltage fluctuations, and eliminating rostering, subsidies can be reduced substantially but probably remain too high to be resolved without political action.

  3. Farmers' willingness to pay for power in India: conceptual issues, survey results and implications for pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Rafiq [Stanford Univ., Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Ranganathan, V. [Indian Inst. of Management, Bangalore (India)

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop strategies useful for raising prices of rural power in India. Such power is currently subsidized and policymakers are eager to make the transition to more efficient prices. The traditionally used measure, willingness to pay (WTP), is shown to have no useful policy implications due to the rationing of power. Using survey data from rural Andhra Pradesh, we show that the utility's cost of power exceeds the income generated by the power. This suggests a political problem - the possibility that low power prices have led to large-scale farming of unproductive land - that will be hard to resolve. Our survey also shows that subsidies are regressive with income. We use measured WTP for higher income groups to propose a discriminatory pricing regime that will raise total revenue by 20%. When combined with removing the causes of motor burnout, such as voltage fluctuations, and eliminating rostering, subsidies can be reduced substantially but probably remain too high to be resolved without political action. (Author)

  4. A study on factors of dissatisfaction and stress of the blacksmiths resulting from the organizational culture in the surgical instrument industry of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Tirthankar; Das, Banibrata; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2011-07-01

    It is important to understand what motivates workers and the extent to which the organization and other contextual variables satisfy them. The aim of the study was to determine factors of dissatisfaction resulting from the organizational culture among the blacksmiths involved in the surgical instrument industry. Fifty male surgical blacksmiths each of the skilled and unskilled groups of the forging section were selected. Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to measure the individuals' role stress and several forms of conflict within an organization. Also, the organizational culture and personal involvement in an organization was measured among the surgical blacksmiths. The mean score for total role stress for Skilled was 71.7 and for unskilled was 77.2. The most frequent type of organizational culture was reported to be hierarchy, both by skilled and unskilled surgical blacksmiths, followed by market and clan culture. This study shows that the skilled surgical blacksmiths have lower level of stress and conflicts in comparison with unskilled surgical blacksmiths. Both skilled and unskilled surgical blacksmiths estimated their level of personal involvement as low and indicated insufficient involvement in work teams. The satisfaction of the employees with their status and role in the organizational culture was also poor for both skilled and unskilled surgical blacksmiths.

  5. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Work life and patient safety culture in Canadian healthcare: connecting the quality dots using national accreditation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan I

    2012-01-01

    Fostering quality work life is paramount to building a strong patient safety culture in healthcare organizations. Data from two patient safety culture and work-life questionnaires used for Accreditation Canada's national program were analyzed. Strong team leadership was reported in that units were doing a good job of identifying, assessing and managing risks to patients. Seventy-one percent of respondents gave their unit a positive overall grade on patient safety, and 79% of respondents felt that they could often do their best-quality work in their job. However, healthcare workers felt that they did not have enough time to do their jobs adequately and indicated that co-workers were cutting corners in patient care in order to save time. This article discusses engaging both senior leadership and the entire organization in the change process, ensuring supervisory support, and using performance measures to focus organizational efforts on key priorities all as improvement strategies relevant to these findings. These strategies can be used by organizations across sectors and jurisdictions and by healthcare leaders to positively affect work life and patient safety.

  7. Ten Years toward Equity: Preliminary Results from a Follow-Up Case Study of Academic Computing Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L. Crenshaw

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Just over 10 years ago, we conducted a culture study of the Computer Science Department at the flagship University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, one of the top five computing departments in the country. The study found that while the department placed an emphasis on research, it did so in a way that, in conjunction with a lack of communication and transparency, devalued teaching and mentoring, and negatively impacted the professional development, education, and sense of belonging of the students. As one part of a multi-phase case study spanning over a decade, this manuscript presents preliminary findings from our latest work at the university. We detail early comparisons between data gathered at the Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2005 and our most recent pilot case study, a follow-up research project completed in 2016. Though we have not yet completed the full data collection, we find it worthwhile to reflect on the pilot case study data we have collected thus far. Our data reveals improvements in the perceptions of undergraduate teaching quality and undergraduate peer mentoring networks. However, we also found evidence of continuing feelings of isolation, incidents of bias, policy opacity, and uneven policy implementation that are areas of concern, particularly with respect to historically underrepresented groups. We discuss these preliminary follow-up findings, offer research and methodological reflections, and share next steps for applied research that aims to create positive cultural change in computing.

  8. Oxygen Glucose Deprivation in Rat Hippocampal Slice Cultures Results in Alterations in Carnitine Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thomas F.; Lu, Qing; Sharma, Shruti; Sun, Xutong; Leary, Gregory; Beckman, Matthew L.; Hou, Yali; Wainwright, Mark S.; Kavanaugh, Michael; Poulsen, David J.; Black, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by depolarization of mitochondrial membranes and the initiation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis are pathological responses to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain. Carnitine metabolism directly supports mitochondrial metabolism by shuttling long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for beta-oxidation. Our previous studies have shown that HI disrupts carnitine homeostasis in neonatal rats and that L-carnitine can be neuroprotective. Thus, this study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which HI alters carnitine metabolism and to begin to elucidate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine (LCAR) supplementation. Utilizing neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures we found that oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) decreased the levels of free carnitines (FC) and increased the acylcarnitine (AC): FC ratio. These changes in carnitine homeostasis correlated with decreases in the protein levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) 1 and 2. LCAR supplementation prevented the decrease in CPT1 and CPT2, enhanced both FC and the AC∶FC ratio and increased slice culture metabolic viability, the mitochondrial membrane potential prior to OGD and prevented the subsequent loss of neurons during later stages of reperfusion through a reduction in apoptotic cell death. Finally, we found that LCAR supplementation preserved the structural integrity and synaptic transmission within the hippocampus after OGD. Thus, we conclude that LCAR supplementation preserves the key enzymes responsible for maintaining carnitine homeostasis and preserves both cell viability and synaptic transmission after OGD. PMID:22984394

  9. Considering the culture of disability in cultural competence education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddey, Gary E; Robey, Kenneth L

    2005-07-01

    Cultural competence extends beyond understanding those values, beliefs, and needs that are associated with patients' age or gender or with their racial, ethnic, or religious backgrounds. People hold many simultaneous cultural associations, and each have implications for the care process. The "culture of disability" is a pan-ethnic culture for which a set of physician competencies are required to ensure appropriate, culturally sensitive care to persons with congenital or acquired disabilities. Such competencies include communicating with patients who have deficits in verbal communication and avoidance of infantilizing speech; understanding the values and needs of persons with disabilities; the ability to encourage self-advocacy skills of patients and families; acknowledging the core values of disability culture including the emphasis on interdependence rather than independence; and feeling comfortable with patients with complex disabilities. Medical schools have developed programs to increase students' exposure to persons with disabilities and it is suggested that such programs are most effective when they are the result of collaboration with community-based facilities or organizations that serve persons with disabilities in the natural environment. Combining lecture-based instruction and structured experiences with the opportunity for students to interact with patients in their natural environments may facilitate development of competencies with respect to patients with disabilities. The culture of disability should be included as one of the many cultures addressed in cultural competence initiatives in medical school and residency curricula.

  10. Calcium-sensitive regulation of monoamine oxidase-A contributes to the production of peroxyradicals in hippocampal cultures: implications for Alzheimer disease-related pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li XinMin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium (Ca2+ has recently been shown to selectively increase the activity of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A, a mitochondria-bound enzyme that generates peroxyradicals as a natural by-product of the deamination of neurotransmitters such as serotonin. It has also been suggested that increased intracellular free Ca2+ levels as well as MAO-A may be contributing to the oxidative stress associated with Alzheimer disease (AD. Results Incubation with Ca2+ selectively increases MAO-A enzymatic activity in protein extracts from mouse hippocampal HT-22 cell cultures. Treatment of HT-22 cultures with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 also increases MAO-A activity, whereas overexpression of calbindin-D28K (CB-28K, a Ca2+-binding protein in brain that is greatly reduced in AD, decreases MAO-A activity. The effects of A23187 and CB-28K are both independent of any change in MAO-A protein or gene expression. The toxicity (via production of peroxyradicals and/or chromatin condensation associated with either A23187 or the AD-related β-amyloid peptide, which also increases free intracellular Ca2+, is attenuated by MAO-A inhibition in HT-22 cells as well as in primary hippocampal cultures. Conclusion These data suggest that increases in intracellular Ca2+ availability could contribute to a MAO-A-mediated mechanism with a role in AD-related oxidative stress.

  11. Discrepancies between bilinguals' performance on the Spanish and English versions of the WAIS Digit Span task: Cross-cultural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Hardy, David J; IsHak, Waguih W; Anderson, W Brantley

    2016-01-01

    This study explored within-subjects differences in the performance of 40 bilingual participants on the English and Spanish versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span task. To test the linguistic hypothesis that individuals would perform worse in Spanish because of its syllabic demand, we compared the number of syllables correctly recalled by each participant for every correct trial. Our analysis of the correct number of syllables remembered per trial showed that participants performed significantly better (i.e., recalling more syllables) in Spanish than in English on the total score. Findings suggest the Spanish version of the Digit Span (total score) was significantly more difficult than the English version utilizing traditional scoring methods. Moreover, the Forward Trial, rather than the Backward Trial, was more likely to show group differences between both language versions. Additionally, the Spanish trials of the Digit Span were correlated with language comprehension and verbal episodic memory measures, whereas the English trials of the Digit Span were correlated with confrontational naming and verbal fluency tasks. The results suggest that more research is necessary to further investigate other cognitive factors, rather than just syllabic demand, that might contribute to performance and outcome differences on the WAIS Digit Span in Spanish-English bilinguals.

  12. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  13. PTSD and key somatic complaints and cultural syndromes among rural Cambodians: the results of a needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Hinton, Alexander L; Eng, Kok-Thay; Choung, Sophearith

    2012-09-01

    This article describes a culturally sensitive assessment tool for traumatized Cambodians, the Cambodian "Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory" (SSI), and reports the outcome of a needs assessment conducted in rural Cambodia using the instrument. Villagers locally identified (N = 139) as still suffering the effects of the Pol Pot genocide were evaluated. All 139 had post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as assessed by the PTSD Checklist (PCL), and they had elevated SSI scores. The severity of the SSI items varied by level of PTSD severity, and several items--for example, dizziness, dizziness on standing, khyâl (a windlike substance) attacks, and "thinking a lot"--were extremely elevated in those participants with higher levels of PTSD. The SSI was more highly correlated to self-perceived health (Short Form Health Survey-3) and past trauma events (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) than was the PCL. The study shows the SSI items to be a core aspect of the Cambodian trauma ontology.

  14. Complexity of culture: the role of identity and context in bicultural individuals' body ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mei; Lee, Fiona; Cole, Elizabeth R

    2012-07-01

    Culture plays an important role in shaping body image, and people from different cultures have different beliefs about what constitutes the "ideal" body type. This study examines the relationship between culture and body ideals in Asian-American and Black-American women. Results from two studies show that subjective cultural identity and situational cultural cues had different relationships with body ideals. Among Asian-American women, identification with Asian culture was related to a thinner body ideal, but exposure to Asian cultural cues (relative to American cultural cues) was related to a thicker body ideal. Among Black-American women, identification with Black culture was related to a thicker body ideal, but exposure to Black cultural cues (relative to American cultural cues) was related to a thinner body ideal. These results have theoretical and practical implications for understanding how internal and external manifestations of culture can differentially influence body image.

  15. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....

  16. [Evaluation of mycobacterial microscopy and culture results of Sureyyapasa Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital: A 3-year analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akduman Alaşehir, Elçin; Balıkçı, Ahmet; Partal, Mualla; Çatmabacak, Gülay; Yaman, Görkem

    2016-09-01

    Effective diagnosis of tuberculosis is of great importance for transmission control and treatment success. The purpose of this study is to evaluate microscopic examination results of Ehrlich-Ziehl Neelsen (EZN) and Auramine-Rhodamine staining methods and automated BACTEC MGIT 960™ system and Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture results of various clinical samples in the light of recent data from the world and Turkey. Specimens that were sent from various clinics to Sureyyapasa Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital Microbiology Laboratory from January 2012 to December 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. From a total of 62456 samples; 60923 (97.5%) were pulmonary and 1533 (2.5%) were non-pulmonary samples, especially pleura. 2853 (4.6%) Acid-resistant bacilli (ARB) positivity was detected and mycobacterial culture positivity was in total 12.2%. 7076 (93%) and 535 (7%) mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) strains were isolated. In 356 specimens the cultures were negative in despite the positive ARB results. Considering mycobacterial culture as the gold standard; the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ARB microscopy were 32.8%, 99.4%, 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively. The contamination rates in total were within acceptable limits being 2.7% for L-J and 3.8% for MGIT. Analysis of our data indicated that the sensitivity of microscopy is low and it should be evaluated together with the mycobacterial culture to rule out tuberculosis infection. With the use of fluorescent staining and also L-J and MGIT broth together for routine culture since 2013; ARB false negativity rate was observed to fall to 51.7% from 74.1% compared to the years. The follow-up of data such as the sensitivity of microscopy, culture positivity, false-positivity and false-negativity rates and contamination values is of great importance in terms of assessing compliance with laboratory quality standards and contributing to the surveillance

  17. The Uluzzian technology of Grotta di Fumane and its implication for reconstructing cultural dynamics in the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition of Western Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresani, Marco; Cristiani, Emanuela; Romandini, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    From the intricate ensemble of evidence related to the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the presumed first spread of anatomically modern humans in Europe, the Uluzzian has attracted major attention in the past few years. Although the Uluzzian has been viewed as a supposed product of modern humans settling in Mediterranean Europe, the techno-cultural complex has been the subject of few investigations aiming to clarify its chronology, bone industry, and settlement dynamics. Further, little is known of its technological structure. This article presents the results of an extensive study of the lithic and bone technologies from assemblages recovered at Fumane Cave in the north of Italy. Results confirm that the Uluzzian is a flake-dominated industry that brings together a set of technological innovations. The Levallois is the most used method in the initial phase, which is replaced by more varied flaking procedures and an increase in bladelets and flake-blades. Sidescrapers and points also represent a Mousterian feature in the initial phase, while splintered pieces, backed knives and other Upper Palaeolithic tools increase in the later phase. Our results suggest that the Uluzzian is rooted in the Mousterian lithic technological context and cannot be viewed as a proxy for anatomically modern humans, the carriers of the abrupt cultural changes related to the Aurignacian. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Symbolic universes between present and future of Europe. First results of the map of European societies' cultural milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Sergio; Fini, Viviana; Mannarini, Terri; Veltri, Giuseppe Alessandro; Avdi, Evrinomi; Battaglia, Fiorella; Castro-Tejerina, Jorge; Ciavolino, Enrico; Cremaschi, Marco; Kadianaki, Irini; Kharlamov, Nikita A; Krasteva, Anna; Kullasepp, Katrin; Matsopoulos, Anastassios; Meschiari, Claudia; Mossi, Piergiorgio; Psinas, Polivios; Redd, Rozlyn; Rochira, Alessia; Santarpia, Alfonso; Sammut, Gordon; Valsiner, Jaan; Valmorbida, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the framework, method and main findings of an analysis of cultural milieus in 4 European countries (Estonia, Greece, Italy, and UK). The analysis is based on a questionnaire applied to a sample built through a two-step procedure of post-hoc random selection from a broader dataset based on an online survey. Responses to the questionnaire were subjected to multidimensional analysis-a combination of Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Cluster Analysis. We identified 5 symbolic universes, that correspond to basic, embodied, affect-laden, generalized worldviews. People in this study see the world as either a) an ordered universe; b) a matter of interpersonal bond; c) a caring society; d) consisting of a niche of belongingness; e) a hostile place (others' world). These symbolic universes were also interpreted as semiotic capital: they reflect the capacity of a place to foster social and civic development. Moreover, the distribution of the symbolic universes, and therefore social and civic engagement, is demonstrated to be variable across the 4 countries in the analysis. Finally, we develop a retrospective reconstruction of the distribution of symbolic universes as well as the interplay between their current state and past, present and future socio-institutional scenarios.

  19. Symbolic universes between present and future of Europe. First results of the map of European societies' cultural milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Viviana; Mannarini, Terri; Veltri, Giuseppe Alessandro; Avdi, Evrinomi; Battaglia, Fiorella; Castro-Tejerina, Jorge; Ciavolino, Enrico; Cremaschi, Marco; Kadianaki, Irini; Kharlamov, Nikita A.; Krasteva, Anna; Kullasepp, Katrin; Matsopoulos, Anastassios; Meschiari, Claudia; Mossi, Piergiorgio; Psinas, Polivios; Redd, Rozlyn; Rochira, Alessia; Santarpia, Alfonso; Sammut, Gordon; Valsiner, Jaan; Valmorbida, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the framework, method and main findings of an analysis of cultural milieus in 4 European countries (Estonia, Greece, Italy, and UK). The analysis is based on a questionnaire applied to a sample built through a two-step procedure of post-hoc random selection from a broader dataset based on an online survey. Responses to the questionnaire were subjected to multidimensional analysis–a combination of Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Cluster Analysis. We identified 5 symbolic universes, that correspond to basic, embodied, affect-laden, generalized worldviews. People in this study see the world as either a) an ordered universe; b) a matter of interpersonal bond; c) a caring society; d) consisting of a niche of belongingness; e) a hostile place (others’ world). These symbolic universes were also interpreted as semiotic capital: they reflect the capacity of a place to foster social and civic development. Moreover, the distribution of the symbolic universes, and therefore social and civic engagement, is demonstrated to be variable across the 4 countries in the analysis. Finally, we develop a retrospective reconstruction of the distribution of symbolic universes as well as the interplay between their current state and past, present and future socio-institutional scenarios. PMID:29298349

  20. Charmonia absorption in p-A collisions at the CERN SPS : results and implications for Pb-Pb interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2003-01-01

    The NA50 experiment has measured charmonia and Drell-Yan production in proton-nucleus collisions at 450 GeV incident energy. We present results on the nuclear absorption cross section for J/ psi and psi ', extracted with the Glauber model. The p-A results are then compared with S-U data, and the observed behavior is extrapolated to Pb-Pb collisions, providing a new reference for the study of the anomalous J/ psi suppression. (13 refs).

  1. Warm Rain Processes Over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GOES GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to a larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  2. Warm Rain Processes over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GEOS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  3. Examining Cultural Drifts in Artworks through History and Development: Cultural Comparisons between Japanese and Western Landscape Paintings and Drawings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eNand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members’ landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008, and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014. However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1 17th to 20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2 cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial cultural drifts (Herskovits, 1948 where at certain time periods in history and in development, people’s expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed.

  4. Examining cultural drifts in artworks through history and development: cultural comparisons between Japanese and western landscape paintings and drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Kristina; Masuda, Takahiko; Senzaki, Sawa; Ishii, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Research on cultural products suggest that there are substantial cultural variations between East Asian and European landscape masterpieces and contemporary members' landscape artwork (Masuda et al., 2008c), and that these cultural differences in drawing styles emerge around the age of 8 (Senzaki et al., 2014b). However, culture is not static. To explore the dynamics of historical and ontogenetic influence on artistic expressions, we examined (1) 17–20th century Japanese and Western landscape masterpieces, and (2) cross-sectional adolescent data in landscape artworks alongside previous findings of elementary school-aged children, and undergraduates. The results showed cultural variations in artworks and masterpieces as well as substantial “cultural drifts” (Herskovits, 1948) where at certain time periods in history and in development, people's expressions deviated from culturally default patterns but occasionally returned to its previous state. The bidirectional influence of culture and implications for furthering the discipline of cultural psychology will be discussed. PMID:25285085

  5. Implications of failure to achieve a result from prenatal maternal serum cell-free DNA testing: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, N; Smet, M-E; Sandow, R; da Silva Costa, F; McLennan, A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women who failed to obtain a result in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Historical cohort study. A multicentre private practice in Sydney, Australia. Women who failed to obtain a result from NIPT (n = 131). The maternal characteristics, antenatal investigations and pregnancy outcomes for these women were compared with those who obtained a result at the same practice and to the general Australian obstetric population. Antenatal investigations: pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG), placental growth factor (PlGF), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI), mean arterial pressure (MAP). Pregnancy outcomes: chromosomal abnormality, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm delivery. Only 1.1% of NIPT samples failed to return a result. This cohort was significantly older and had significantly increased weight compared with the general Australian obstetric population. Pregnancy outcomes were available for 94% of the cohort. There were significantly higher rates of chromosomal aneuploidies (6.5% versus 0.2%, P < 0.0001), pre-eclampsia (11% versus 1.5%, P < 0.0001) and gestational diabetes (23% versus 7.5%, P < 0.0001) compared with the general obstetric population. Rates of preterm delivery and SGA were elevated but did not reach significance. Antenatal investigations demonstrated decreased PAPP-A MoM (0.75 versus 1.14, P < 0.0001), decreased free β-hCG (0.71 versus 1.01, P < 0.0001) and increased uterine artery PI (1.79 versus 1.65, P = 0.02). Women who fail to obtain a result from NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular chromosomal aneuploidy, gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. None received. Women who fail to obtain a result from cell-free DNA NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Statistical U-Th dating results of speleothem from south Europe and the orbital-scale implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing of hydroclimate in the Mediterranean on an orbital time scale helps improve our understanding of interaction between orbital forcing and north hemisphere climate. We collected 180 speleothem subsamples from Observatoire Cave (Monaco), Prince Cave (south France), Chateaueuf Cave (South France), Arago Cave (South France), and Basura Cave (North Italy) during 2013 to 2015 C.E. Uranium-thorium dating were conducted in the High-Precision Mass Spectrometry and Environment Change Laboratory (HISPEC), National Taiwan University. The results show that most of the speleothem formed during interglacial periods, particularly in marine isotope stage (MIS) 1, 5, and 11. However, only a few speleothem were dated between 180 to 250 thousand years ago (ka). The interval is approximately equivalent to MIS 7, which is a period with contrasting orbital parameters compared to MIS1, 5, and 11. Our statistical dating result implies that the orbital-scale humid/dry condition in southern Europe could be dominantly controlled by orbital forcing.

  7. Combined Lidar-Radar Remote Sensing: Initial Results from CRYSTAL-FACE and Implications for Future Spaceflight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Li, Li-Hua; Hart, William D.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.

    2003-01-01

    In the near future NASA plans to fly satellites carrying a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar and a 94-GHz cloud profiling radar in formation to provide complete global profiling of cloud and aerosol properties. The CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign, conducted during July 2002, provided the first high-altitude colocated measurements from lidar and cloud profiling radar to simulate these spaceborne sensors. The lidar and radar provide complementary measurements with varying degrees of measurement overlap. This paper presents initial results of the combined airborne lidar-radar measurements during CRYSTAL-FACE. The overlap of instrument sensitivity is presented, within the context of particular CRYSTAL-FACE conditions. Results are presented to quantify the portion of atmospheric profiles sensed independently by each instrument and the portion sensed simultaneously by the two instruments.

  8. Dynamical Scaling Implications of Ferrari, Prähofer, and Spohn's Remarkable Spatial Scaling Results for Facet-Edge Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, T. L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    Spurred by theoretical predictions from Ferrari et al. (Phys Rev E 69:035102(R), 2004), we rederived and extended their result heuristically. With experimental colleagues we used STM line scans to corroborate their prediction that the fluctuations of the step bounding a facet exhibit scaling properties distinct from those of isolated steps or steps on vicinal surfaces. The correlation functions was shown to go as , decidedly different from the behavior for fluctuations of isolated steps.

  9. VHB-JOURQUAL2: Method, Results, and Implications of the German Academic Association for Business Research's Journal Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Ulf; Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    VHB-JOURQUAL represents the official journal ranking of the German Academic Association for Business Research. Since its introduction in 2003, the ranking has become the most influential journal evaluation approach in German-speaking countries, impacting several key managerial decisions of German, Austrian, and Swiss business schools. This article reports the methodological approach of the ranking’s second edition. It also presents the main results and additional analyses on the validity of t...

  10. A feasibility study of prepubertal and over mature aged local goat in relation to results of In Vitro growth culture to obtain additional M-II oocyte resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptadi, Gatot; Ihsan, M. Nur; Rahayu, Sri; Widjaja, D. H. K.; Mudawamah, Mudawamah

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this research are to study the potential source of mature (M-II) oocytes of domestic animals using follicles isolated from prepubertal and over mature aged Indonesian local goats, resulting from an in vitro growth (IVG) method. This method of IVG could provide a new source of M-II oocytes for embryo production. In Indonesia, a very limited number of a good quality oocytes are available for research purposes, as there is a limited number of reproductive females slaughtered, which is dominated by prepubertal and old mature aged animals. IVG culture systems could be improved as an alternative method to provide a new source of a good quality oocytes for in vitro maturation of M-II oocytes. From a number of prepubertal and mature aged goats slaughtered in a local abattoir, the small oocytes in the preantral follicles were cultured in vitro to normal oocyte growth. The methods used in this research are experimental. Follicles were isolated, cultured in vitro for 14 days individually using a sticky medium containing 4% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone in TCM 199 10% Fetal Bovine Serum supplemented with Follicle Stimulating Hormone, which was then evaluated for their follicle development and oocyte quality. The research results showed that a minimum follicle size and oocyte diameter is needed (>100 um) for early evaluation of maturation to be achieved, meanwhile oocytes recovered from IVG after being cultured in vitro for maturation resulted in a very low rate of maturation. However, in the future, IVG of the preantral follicles of Indonesian local goat could be considered as an alternative source of oocytes for both research purposes and embryo production in vitro.

  11. How many replicate tests do I need?$-$ Variability of cookstove performance and emissions has implications for obtaining useful results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yungang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wang, Yilun [ISO Innovative Analytics San Francisco, CA (United States); Lask, Kathleen M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). College of Engineering Applied Science and Technology Program; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-01

    Almost half of the world’s population still cooks on biomass cookstoves of poor efficiency and primitive design, such as three stone fires (TSF). Emissions from biomass cookstoves contribute to adverse health effects and climate change. A number of “improved cookstoves” with higher energy efficiency and lower emissions have been designed and promoted across the world. During the design development, and for selection of a stove for dissemination, the stove performance and emissions are commonly evaluated, communicated and compared using the arithmetic average of replicate tests made using a standardized laboratory-based test, commonly the water boiling test (WBT). However, published literature shows different WBT results reported from different laboratories for the same stove technology. Also, there is no agreement in the literature on how many replicate tests should be performed to ensure “significance” in the reported average performance. This matter has not received attention in the rapidly growing literature on stoves, and yet is crucial for estimating and communicating the performance of a stove, and for comparing the performance between stoves. We present results of statistical analyses using data from a number of replicate tests of performance and emission of the Berkeley-Darfur Stove (BDS) and the TSF under well-controlled laboratory conditions. We observed moderate variability in the test results for the TSF and BDS when measuring several characteristics. Here we focus on two as illustrative: time-to-boil and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in diameter) emissions. We demonstrate that interpretation of the results comparing these stoves could be misleading if only a small number of replicates had been conducted. We then describe a practical approach, useful to both stove testers and designers, to assess the number of replicates needed to obtain useful data. Caution should be exercised in attaching high credibility to

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and preliminary psychometric properties of the Affective Reactivity Index in Brazilian Youth: implications for DSM-5 measured irritability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Araújo DeSousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the Affective Reactivity Index (ARI to Brazilian Portuguese and to investigate preliminary psychometric properties of the adapted version. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation was based on the investigation of the theoretical and operational equivalences of the original ARI in the Brazilian context, followed by a process of translation, back-translation, and review by a committee of experts. Data analysis was carried out in a community sample of 133 schoolchildren aged 8 to 17 years to investigate the following characteristics of the ARI: 1 factor structure; 2 internal consistency; 3 construct validity comparing differential relationships between irritability and anxiety dimensions and impairment; and 4 item response theory (IRT parameters. Results: A final Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was defined and is presented. Internal consistency was good, and our analysis supported the original single-factor structure of the ARI. Correlations of the ARI with distress-related anxiety dimensions were higher than with phobic-related anxiety dimensions, supporting its construct validity. In addition, higher ARI scores were associated with higher irritability-related impairment. IRT analysis underscored frequency of loss of temper as essential to inform about pathological states of irritability. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the ARI seems to be very similar to the original instrument in terms of conceptual, item, semantic, and operational equivalence. Our preliminary analysis replicates and extends previous evidence confirming promising psychometric properties for the ARI.

  13. Intra-Site Variability in the Still Bay Fauna at Blombos Cave: Implications for Explanatory Models of the Middle Stone Age Cultural and Technological Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Discamps

    Full Text Available To explain cultural and technological innovations in the Middle Stone Age (MSA of southern Africa, scholars invoke several factors. A major question in this research theme is whether MSA technocomplexes are adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions and subsistence strategies or, on the contrary, to a wide range of different foraging behaviours. While faunal studies provide key information for addressing these factors, most analyses do not assess intra-technocomplex variability of faunal exploitation (i.e. variability within MSA phases. In this study, we assess the spatial variability of the Still Bay fauna in one phase (M1 of the Blombos Cave sequence. Analyses of taxonomic composition, taphonomic alterations and combustion patterns reveal important faunal variability both across space (lateral variation in the post-depositional history of the deposits, spatial organisation of combustion features and over time (fine-scale diachronic changes throughout a single phase. Our results show how grouping material prior to zooarchaeological interpretations (e.g. by layer or phase can induce a loss of information. Finally, we discuss how multiple independent subdivisions of archaeological sequences can improve our understanding of both the timing of different changes (for example in technology, culture, subsistence, environment and how they may be inter-related.

  14. Differential effects of culture senescence and mechanical stimulation on the proliferation and leiomyogenic differentiation of MSC from different sources: implications for engineering vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koobatian, Maxwell T; Liang, Mao-Shih; Swartz, Daniel D; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of senescence on the proliferation and leiomyogenic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) or hair follicles (HF-MSCs). To this end, we compared ovine HF-MSCs and BM-MSCs in terms of their proliferation and differentiation potential to the smooth muscle cell lineage. We discovered that HF-MSCs are less susceptible to culture senescence compared with BM-MSCs. We hypothesized that application of mechanical forces may enhance the contractility and mechanical properties of vascular constructs prepared from senescent MSCs. Interestingly, HF-MSCs and BM-MSCs responded differently to changes in the mechanical microenvironment, suggesting that despite phenotypic similarities, MSCs from different anatomic locations may activate different pathways in response to the same microenvironmental factors. In turn, this may also suggest that cell-based tissue regeneration approaches may need to be tailored to the stem cell origin, donor age, and culture time for optimal results.

  15. Effect of UVC Radiation on Hydrated and Desiccated Cultures of Slightly Halophilic and Non-Halophilic Methanogenic Archaea: Implications for Life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navita; Kral, Timothy A

    2018-05-12

    Methanogens have been considered models for life on Mars for many years. In order to survive any exposure at the surface of Mars, methanogens would have to endure Martian UVC radiation. In this research, we irradiated hydrated and desiccated cultures of slightly halophilic Methanococcus maripaludis and non-halophilic Methanobacterium formicicum for various time intervals with UVC (254 nm) radiation. The survivability of the methanogens was determined by measuring methane concentrations in the headspace gas samples of culture tubes after re-inoculation of the methanogens into their growth-supporting media following exposure to UVC radiation. Hydrated M. maripaludis survived 24 h of UVC exposure, while in a desiccated condition they endured for 16 h. M. formicicum also survived UVC radiation for 24 h in a liquid state; however, in a desiccated condition, the survivability of M. formicicum was only 12 h. Some of the components of the growth media could have served as shielding agents that protected cells from damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Overall, these results suggest that limited exposure (12⁻24 h) to UVC radiation on the surface of Mars would not necessarily be a limiting factor for the survivability of M. maripaludis and M. formicicum .

  16. Medical curriculum reform in Sun Yat-sen University: implications from the results of GMER evaluation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Haipeng; Xian, Liqing; Yu, Xueqing; Wang, Jianping

    2007-09-01

    Created by interlocking economies, a global language, the informatics revolution and rapid travel, globalization has penetrated all aspects of human life including science, environment, public health and medicine. Physicians are now members of a global community. The global physician should possess universal core essential competences required for medical practice throughout the world. The Institute for International Medical Education (IIME), created by the China Medical Board (CMB) of New York, has developed the " global minimal essential requirements" (GMER) that define the knowledge, skills, professional behavior and ethics that all physicians must have regardless of where they received their general medical education and training. The IIME initiated a pilot project in China in October, 2003, to evaluate the graduates of the 7- or 8-year track program of eight leading medical schools, including Medical School of Sun Yat-sen University. The results of GMER evaluation indicated strengths and areas for improvement of our school in relation to international standards, which greatly re-invigorate our enthusiasm on medical curriculum reform on the new 8-year track program in Medical School of Sun Yat-sen University. The modifications of our medical curriculum for the new 8-year track program based on the results of GMER evaluation are discussed in this paper.

  17. A Dynamic Model of Cultural Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The authors draw on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction to develop a formal model of the pathways through which cultural capital acts to enhance children’s educational and socioeconomic success. The authors’ approach brings conceptual and empirical clarity to an important area...... of study. Their model describes how parents transmit cultural capital to their children and how children convert cultural capital into educational success. It also provides a behavioral framework for interpreting parental investments in cultural capital. The authors review results from existing empirical...... research on the role of cultural capital in education to demonstrate the usefulness of their model for interpretative purposes, and they use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979—Children and Young Adults survey data to test some of its implications....

  18. Phencyclidine-Induced Social Withdrawal Results from Deficient Stimulation of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors: Implications for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, Alexandre; Martinez, Alex A; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, are not well understood. Recent studies suggest an involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, in particular, of negative symptoms. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches to investigate the role played by the endocannabinoid system in social withdrawal induced by sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid levels via systemic administration of URB597, an inhibitor of endocannabinoid degradation, reversed social withdrawal in PCP-treated rats via stimulation of CB1 receptors, but reduced social interaction in control animals through activation of a cannabinoid/vanilloid-sensitive receptor. In addition, the potent CB agonist CP55,940 reversed PCP-induced social withdrawal in a CB1-dependent manner, whereas pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors by either AM251 or SR141716 reduced the time spent in social interaction in control animals. PCP-induced social withdrawal was accompanied by a decrease of anandamide (AEA) levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and these deficits were reversed by URB597. As CB1 receptors are predominantly expressed on GABAergic interneurons containing the anxiogenic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK), we also examined whether the PCP-induced social withdrawal resulted from deficient CB1-mediated modulation of CCK transmission. The selective CCK2 antagonist LY225910 blocked both PCP- and AM251-induced social withdrawal, but not URB597 effect in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that AEA-mediated activation of CB1 receptors is crucial for social interaction, and that PCP-induced social withdrawal results from deficient endocannabinoid transmission. PMID:23563893

  19. New Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronological Results for the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica, and Their Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jianmin; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Pei, Junling

    2018-01-01

    To reconstruct the paleoposition of the Antarctic Peninsula relative to the South American Plate during the breakup of Gondwana, as well as the opening kinematics of the Drake Passage, we conducted detailed paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and isotopic chronology studies of Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island) and Fildes Peninsula (King George Island) of the South Shetland Islands. The 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Agate Beach Formation to the Long Hill Formation in Fildes Peninsula range from 56.38 ± 0.2 Ma to 52.42 ± 0.19 Ma. Low natural remanent magnetization/isothermal remanent magnetization ratios, inconsistency with the polarity constrained by the paleomagnetic results and 40Ar/39Ar age constraints, as well as the widespread cation-deficient titanomagnetite and Ti-free magnetite of secondary origin, indicate that the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Fildes Peninsula were remagnetized at about 55 Ma. Combining our results with previous data from the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we calculated the paleopoles for 110 Ma and 55 Ma for the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The paleomagnetic reconstruction of the relative paleoposition of the Antarctic Peninsula and South America shows that these plates were connected and experienced a southward movement and clockwise rotation from 110 to 55 Ma. Subsequently, southward translation and clockwise rotation of the Antarctic Peninsula between 55 and 27 Ma separated the Antarctic Peninsula and South America, forming the Drake Passage. Northward translation of South America after 27 Ma increased the N-S divergence and increased the distance between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South American Plate.

  20. Culture and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-06-01

    While anthropological research has long emphasized cultural differences in whether emotions are viewed as beneficial versus harmful, psychological science has only recently begun to systematically examine those differences and their implications for emotion regulation and well-being. Underscoring the pervasive role of culture in people's emotions, we summarize research that has examined links between culture, emotion regulation, and well-being. Specifically, we focus on two questions. First, how does culture lead individuals to regulate their emotions? And second, how does culture modulate the link between emotion regulation and well-being? We finish by suggesting directions for future research to advance the study of culture and emotion regulation.

  1. Words in a cultural context* | Kavanagh | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes by considering the implications for lexicographers developing dictionaries in multicultural South Africa. Keywords: communication, cross-cultural communication, cultural information, culture, curriculum, dictionaries for special purposes, dictionary, dictionary design, encyclopedia, encyclopedic ...

  2. RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY: IMPLICATION FOR ... Education and Culture of any country determine its developmental rate. Culture affects the way ... expectations that people of one gender are expected to fulfill ...

  3. Assessing Historical and Projected Carbon Balance of Alaska: A Synthesis of Results and Policy/Management Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A David; Genet, Hélène; Lyu, Zhou; Pastick, Neal; Stackpoole, Sarah; Birdsey, Richard; D'Amore, David; He, Yujie; Rupp, T Scott; Striegl, Robert; Wylie, Bruce K; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhuang, Qianlai; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2018-06-20

    We summarize the results of a recent interagency assessment of land carbon dynamics in Alaska, in which carbon dynamics were estimated for all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for the historical period (1950-2009) and a projection period (2010-2099). Between 1950 and 2009, upland and wetland (i.e., terrestrial) ecosystems of the State gained 0.4 Tg C yr -1 (0.1% of net primary production, NPP), resulting in a cumulative greenhouse gas radiative forcing of 1.68 x 10 -3 W m -2 . The change in carbon storage is spatially variable with the region of the Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) losing carbon because of fire disturbance. The combined carbon transport via various pathways through inland aquatic ecosystems of Alaska was estimated to be 41.3 Tg C yr -1 (17% of terrestrial NPP). During the projection period (2010-2099), carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems of Alaska was projected to increase (22.5 to 70.0 Tg C yr -1 ), primarily because of NPP increases of 10 to 30% associated with responses to rising atmospheric CO 2 , increased nitrogen cycling, and longer growing seasons. Although carbon emissions to the atmosphere from wildfire and wetland CH 4 were projected to increase for all of the climate projections, the increases in NPP more than compensated for those losses at the statewide level. Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems continue to warm the climate for four of the six future projections, and cool the climate for only one of the projections. The attribution analyses we conducted indicated that the response of NPP in terrestrial ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO 2 (~5% per 100 ppmv CO 2 ) saturates as CO 2 increases (between approximately +150 and +450 ppmv among projections). This response, along with the expectation that permafrost thaw would be much greater and release large quantities of permafrost carbon after 2100, suggests that projected carbon gains in terrestrial ecosystems of Alaska may not be sustained

  4. Early Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica: Implications for the Weddellia collage of crustal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divenere, Vic; Kent, Dennis V.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.

    1995-05-01

    A new approximately 117 Ma paleomagnetic pole has been defined from the study of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the eastern portion Marie Byrd Land (MBL). The new pole (185.6 deg E/56.8 deg S, A(sub 95) = 8.7 deg) implies that the eastern portion of MBL was an integral part of Weddellia, which included the ancestral Antarctic Peninsula, Thurston Island, and Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains blocks of West Antarctica. This pole is generally similar to a approximately 125 Ma pole from Thurston Island. Both poles call for major clockwise rotation and poleward motion of eastern MBL and Thurston Island between the Early Cretaceous (125-117 Ma) and the mid-Cretaceous (110-100 Ma). We propose that in the Early Cretaceous, eastern MBL and the Eastern Province of New Zealand were part of a continuous active Pacific margin of Gondwana, connecting with the Antarctic Peninsula, and distinct from western MBL, the Western Province of New Zealand, and North Victoria Land. These western terranes are thought to have accreted to Gondwana in the Devonian. Eastern MBL and the Eastern Province of New Zealand amalgamated with western MBL and the Western Province of New Zealand by the mid-Cretaceous. Major Early Cretaceous motions of the Weddellia blocks postdate the estimated initiation of seafloor spreading in the Weddell Sea and therefore may be the result of plate reorganization during the Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  5. Transcatheter Treatment of Tricuspid Regurgitation Using Edge-to-Edge Repair: Procedural Results, Clinical Implications and Predictors for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurz, Philipp; Besler, Christian; Noack, Thilo; Forner, Anna Flo; Bevilacqua, Carmine; Seeburger, Joerg; Rommel, Karl-Philipp; Blazek, Stephan; Hartung, Philipp; Zimmer, Marion; Mohr, Friedrich; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Ender, Joerg; Thiele, Holger

    2018-04-10

    To analyze the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of Tricuspid valve (TV) repair using the MitraClip system in patients at high surgical risk. Forty-two elderly high-risk patients (76.8±7.3 years, EuroScore II 8.1±5.7) with isolated TR or combined TR and mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent edge-to-edge repair of the TV (n=11) or combined edge-to-edge repair of the TV and mitral valve (n=31). Procedural details, success rate, impact on TR severity and predictors for success at 30 day follow-up were analyzed. Successful edge-to-edge repair of TR was achieved in 35/42 patients (83%, 68 clips in total, 94% in the anteroseptal commissure, 6% in the posteroseptal commissure). In 5 patients, grasping of the leaflets was impossible and two patients had no decrease in TR after clipping. In those with procedural success, clipping of the TV led to a reduction in effective regurgitant orifice area by -62,5 % (from 0.8±0.4 to 0.3±0.2 cm2; pEdge-to-edge repair of the TV is feasible with promising reduction in TR, which could result in clinical improvement.

  6. Experiences of Transgender-Related Discrimination and Implications for Health: Results From the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Honnold, Julie A.; Xavier, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between social determinants of health and experiences of transgender-related discrimination reported by transgender people in Virginia. Methods. In 2005 through 2006, 387 self-identified transgender people completed a statewide health needs assessment; 350 who completed eligibility questions were included in this examination of factors associated with experiences of discrimination in health care, employment, or housing. We fit multivariate logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations to adjust for survey modality (online vs paper). Results. Of participants, 41% (n = 143) reported experiences of transgender-related discrimination. Factors associated with transgender-related discrimination were geographic context, gender (female-to male spectrum vs male-to-female spectrum), low socioeconomic status, being a racial/ethnic minority, not having health insurance, gender transition indicators (younger age at first transgender awareness), health care needed but unable to be obtained (hormone therapy and mental health services), history of violence (sexual and physical), substance use health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol), and interpersonal factors (family support and community connectedness). Conclusions. Findings suggest that transgender Virginians experience widespread discrimination in health care, employment, and housing. Multilevel interventions are needed for transgender populations, including legal protections and training for health care providers. PMID:23153142

  7. Paleomagnetic Results of the 925 Ma Mafic Dykes From the North China Craton: Implications for the Neoproterozoic Paleogeography of Rodinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Peng, P.

    2017-12-01

    Precambrian mafic dyke swarms are useful geologic records for Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstruction. We present a paleomagnetic study of the 925 Ma Dashigou dyke swarm from 3 widely separated locations in the central and northern parts of the North China Craton, which are previously unsampled regions. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations were successful in isolating two magnetic components. The lower unblocking temperature component represents the recent Earth magnetic field. The higher unblocking temperature component is the characteristic remanent magnetization and yields positive baked contact test. Results from detailed rock magnetic measurements corroborate the demagnetization behavior and show that titanomagnetites are the main magnetic carrier in these rocks. There was no regional event that has reset the remanent magnetization of all the dyke sites, as indicated by the magnetization directions of both overlying and underlying strata. The similarity of the virtual paleomagnetic poles for the 3 sampled regions also argues that the characteristic remanent magnetizations are primary magnetization when the dykes were emplaced. The paleomagnetic poles from the Dashigou dyke swarm of the North China Craton are not similar to those of the identical aged Bahia dykes from the São Francisco Craton, Brazil, indicating that these mafic dykes may be not parts of a common regional magmatic event that affected North China Craton and NE Brazil at about 925 Ma.

  8. Source contributions to PM2.5 in Guangdong province, China by numerical modeling: Results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaohong; Huang, Zhijiong; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Zhu, Wenbo; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Duohong

    2017-04-01

    As one of the most populous and developed provinces in China, Guangdong province (GD) has been experiencing regional haze problems. Identification of source contributions to ambient PM2.5 level is essential for developing effective control strategies. In this study, using the most up-to-date emission inventory and validated numerical model, source contributions to ambient PM2.5 from eight emission source sectors (agriculture, biogenic, dust, industry, power plant, residential, mobile and others) in GD in 2012 were quantified. Results showed that mobile sources are the dominant contributors to the ambient PM2.5 (24.0%) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, the central and most developed area of GD, while industry sources are the major contributors (21.5% 23.6%) to those in the Northeastern GD (NE-GD) region and the Southwestern GD (SW-GD) region. Although many industries have been encouraged to move from the central GD to peripheral areas such as NE-GD and SW-GD, their emissions still have an important impact on the PM2.5 level in the PRD. In addition, agriculture sources are responsible for 17.5% to ambient PM2.5 in GD, indicating the importance of regulations on agricultural activities, which has been largely ignored in the current air quality management. Super-regional contributions were also quantified and their contributions to the ambient PM2.5 in GD are significant with notable seasonal differences. But they might be overestimated and further studies are needed to better quantify the transport impacts.

  9. From Science to Finance-A Tool for Deriving Economic Implications from the Results of Dietary Supplement Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Christopher J; de Lorimier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines evidence showing that the use of key dietary supplements can reduce overall disease treatment-related hospital utilization costs associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States among those at a high risk of experiencing a costly, disease-related event. Results show that the potential avoided hospital utilization costs related to the use of omega-3 supplements at preventive intake levels among the target population can be as much as $2.06 billion on average per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs after accounting for the cost of omega-3 dietary supplements at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $3.88 billion in cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020. Furthermore, the use of folic acid, B6, and B12 among the target population at preventive intake levels could yield avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs savings of an average savings of $1.52 billion per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related health care costs after accounting for the cost of folic acid, B6, and B12 utilization at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $5.23 billion in cumulative health care cost net savings during the same period. Thus, targeted dietary supplement regimens are recommended as a means to help control rising societal health care costs, and as a means for high-risk individuals to minimize the chance of having to deal with potentially costly events and to invest in increased quality of life.

  10. Young generation in Romanian nuclear system - Romanian nuclear organizations implication in nuclear knowledge management at University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest - Results and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghizdeanu, E.N.; Dumitrescu, M.C.; Budu, A.R.; Pavelescu, A.O.

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge management should be assumed by the major players within the nuclear community: government, industry and university. Starting from these problems this article gives an overview about Romanian nuclear knowledge management and the Young Generation implications. In Romania there are many government and non-government nuclear institutions such: CNCAN (Romanian Regulatory Body), ROMATOM (Romanian Atomic Forum), AREN (Romanian 'Nuclear Energy' Association), and companies: SNN ('Nuclearelectrica' SA National Company), CITON (Centre of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects), SCN (Institute for Nuclear Research), ROMAG - PROD (Romanian Heavy Water Plant). All these institutes and companies are sustaining the national nuclear program and promoting the new technologies in the nuclear industry according with CNCAN and ROMATOM regulations. University 'POLITEHNICA' of Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty - through Nuclear Power Plant Department is the promoter of nuclear knowledge management. It is implied in assuring and maintaining a high-quality training for young staff. Young Generation is implicated in nuclear knowledge management through University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty - Nuclear Power Plant Department and AREN (Romanian 'Nuclear Energy' Association). Young Generation Department has special educational programs for attracting and supporting students. It provides adequate information and interacts with potential students. Moreover the article gives results about Romanian nuclear engineers since 1970 till now. An analysis of these data is done. Also it is discussed how University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest, the Romanian Government and the Industry work together to co-ordinate more effectively their efforts to encourage the young generation. (author)

  11. Ecological effects and chemical composition of fine sediments in Upper Austrian streams and resulting implications for river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Sarah; Pichler-Scheder, Christian; Gumpinger, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    classification maps. This led to findings concerning the main sources and processes, which are responsible for anthropogenically induced high fine sediment loads in the streams. According to these results a GIS-based risk assessment tool for all Upper Austrian watercourses is developed, which will be used as instrument for the planning and measure implementation of the water management authorities. Due to the necessity of highly integrative improvement measures covering whole catchments, fine sediments must be expected to be one of the most challenging future topics in aquatic ecology. Erosion, loss of soil, economical and social disadvantages due to that processes as well as ecological degradation of riverine systems and related flood risk issues, urgently have to be discussed and solved on a highly comprehensive basis.

  12. Cyclic pressurisation of Mount St Helens dacites and basalt. Laboratory results and implications for lava dome monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie; Dainty, Matthew; Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter; Pallister, John; Meredith, Phillip

    2010-05-01

    rocks ranged from 18 MPa for a sample from the Pine Creek age to 100 MPa for samples extruded later in the 2004-2008 eruption, whilst basalt samples failed at strengths of up to 198 MPa. Static Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were comparable to the calculated dynamic elastic moduli. With each successive cycle, Poisson's ratio increased (total increase of factor of 1.25-3), while the peak Young's Modulus decreased (total decrease of 20-44%). However, the pre-heated samples had comparable strength and elastic moduli to their unheated counterparts. The amount of AE increased for stronger samples and during successive loading cycles, though there was often more AE in the penultimate loading cycle than the final one. Reduction in Young's modulus during successive cycles is attributed to the nucleation, propagation and coalescence of microcracks, whilst the increase in Poisson's ratio in successive cycles is attributed to the closure of radially aligned cracks. The lower strength of Pine Creek dacite compared with modern dacites could be due to weakening over time, potentially due to stress cycling; whilst the higher strength and Youngs modulus of the basalt reflects typical differences between these rock types. The increase of strength for samples that were rapidly unloaded is possibly due to the rock being held under stress for a shorter amount of time. The decreasing Young's modulus and strength with subsequent loading cycles indicate that in subsequent cycles of lava dome pressurisation, similar amounts of inflation may indicate less pressurisation, but the dome rocks being closer to failure. A greater amount of AE in the penultimate burst indicates that a seismic swarm resulting in a lava dome collapse or eruption may be smaller than the swarm preceding it.

  13. Gene disruption of Plasmodium falciparum p52 results in attenuation of malaria liver stage development in cultured primary human hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben C L van Schaijk

    Full Text Available Difficulties with inducing sterile and long lasting protective immunity against malaria with subunit vaccines has renewed interest in vaccinations with attenuated Plasmodium parasites. Immunizations with sporozoites that are attenuated by radiation (RAS can induce strong protective immunity both in humans and rodent models of malaria. Recently, in rodent parasites it has been shown that through the deletion of a single gene, sporozoites can also become attenuated in liver stage development and, importantly, immunization with these sporozoites results in immune responses identical to RAS. The promise of vaccination using these genetically attenuated sporozoites (GAS depends on translating the results in rodent malaria models to human malaria. In this study, we perform the first essential step in this transition by disrupting, p52, in P. falciparum an ortholog of the rodent parasite gene, p36p, which we had previously shown can confer long lasting protective immunity in mice. These P. falciparum P52 deficient sporozoites demonstrate gliding motility, cell traversal and an invasion rate into primary human hepatocytes in vitro that is comparable to wild type sporozoites. However, inside the host hepatocyte development is arrested very soon after invasion. This study reveals, for the first time, that disrupting the equivalent gene in both P. falciparum and rodent malaria Plasmodium species generates parasites that become similarly arrested during liver stage development and these results pave the way for further development of GAS for human use.

  14. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  15. Cross-cultural aspects of ICT use by older people: preliminary results of a four-country ethnographical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blat, Josep; Sayago, Sergio; Kälviäinen, Mirja

    2011-01-01

    addresses this issue by drawing on an ethnographical study of ICT use conducted with over 120 people, aged 67-71, in four European countries: Finland, Denmark, Italy and Spain, over a 6-month period. The preliminary results show that making a social, independent and worth use of ICT are common aspects...... across the four countries, despite the so-called heterogeneity of older people as ICT users. This short paper also touches on two key aspects which emerged from the study, engaging older people in research and the evolution of some barriers to technology use....

  16. The modulation of the phosphorylation status of NKCC1 in organ cultured bovine lenses: Implications for the regulation of fiber cell and overall lens volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsova, Irene; Donaldson, Paul J; Kong, Zhiying; Wickremesinghe, Chiharu; Lam, Leo; Lim, Julie C

    2017-12-01

    In previous work, we have shown the Sodium/Potassium/2 Chloride Cotransporter (NKCC1) to be a key effector of lens fiber cell volume regulation. Since others have shown that the activity of NKCC1 is regulated via its phosphorylation status, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether NKCC1 phosphorylation can be modulated in organ cultured bovine lenses, and to see how this relates to changes in lens wet weight. Western blotting was first used to confirm the expression of NKCC1, phosphorylated NKCC1 (NKCC1-P) and the regulatory kinases WNK/SPAK and phosphatases PP1/PP2A in bovine lenses at the protein level. Changes to NKCC1-P status were then assessed by organ culturing bovine lenses in either isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions in the presence or absence of the NKCC inhibitor, bumetanide, or phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A. After 1-22 h of culturing, lenses were weighed, assessed for transparency and the cortical protein fractions analyzed by western blot using antibodies to detect total NKCC1 and NKCC1-P. NKCC1, NKCC1-P, SPAK, PP1 and PP2A were all detected in the membrane fraction of bovine lenses. Under hypertonic conditions, NKCC1 is phosphorylated and activated to mediate a regulatory volume increase. Finally, NKCC1-P signal increased in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors indicating that PP1/PP2A can dephosphorylate NKCC1. These results show that the phosphorylation status and hence activity of NKCC1 is dynamically regulated and that in response to hypertonic stress, NKCC1 activity is increased to effect a regulatory volume increase that limits cell shrinkage. These findings support the view that the lens dynamically regulates ion fluxes to maintain steady state lens volume, and suggest that dysfunction of this regulation maybe an initiating factor in the localized fiber cell swelling that is a characteristic of diabetic lens cataract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious...... and non-EU countries. Results showed that although the perceived cultural similarity between host and home country for the two groups of investigated respondents was different, there was neither any difference in their adjustment nor in the time it took for them to become proficient. Implications...

  18. Implications of normal exercise electrocardiographic results in patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Correlation with left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; DePace, N.L.; Colby, J.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and implications of false-negative exercise electrocardiographic results among 216 consecutive patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (50 percent diameter narrowing or greater of one or more vessels). Exercise electrocardiography gave negative (false-negative) results in 23 patients and positive (true-positive) results in 102 patients, and were nondiagnostic in the rest. Exercise thallium-201 imaging was performed in 88 patients. The extent of coronary artery disease was quantitated by a scoring system that takes into consideration the degree and site of narrowing in the major vessels and their branches. The exercise heart rate was higher in patients with false-negative than in patients with true-positive exercise electrocardiographic results (161 +/- 18 versus 133 +/- 24 beats per minute, mean +/- SD; p less than 0.0001). Q-wave infarction was present in two patients (9 percent) with false-negative and 20 patients (20 percent) with true-positive exercise electrocardiographic results; left ventricular asynergy at rest was observed in 13 patients (57 percent) with false-negative and in 74 patients (74 percent) with true-positive results. Patients with false-negative results had less extensive coronary disease than did patients with true-positive results (score 5.8 +/- 3.6 versus 9.2 +/- 5.0; p . 0.0025). Angina during exercise was less frequent in patients with false-negative results (p less than 0.01). Abnormal exercise thallium-201 images were seen in 15 of 20 patients (75 percent) with false-negative results and in 56 of 68 patients (82 percent) with true-positive results

  19. Culture and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    INTRODUCTION The present publication deals with issues of imagination and creativity as a notion, philosophy – and social and cultural form, with point of departure in current debates on visual culture. Whereas these debates cover a large ground, spanning from media studies over design to cultural...... studies, they seldom reflect on the basic fact that visual culture in its present form indicates a huge collective creativity in some capacity, implicating the entire postwar era. From early focuses on the possible social and cultural roles of the image in the 1950s and 60s - e.g. in work of Roland...... and cognitive science. Thus visual culture points to an interesting inroad to - and a possible novel focus on - the image - pictorial representation - as an issue of cultural creativity. For one thing the current interest in visual culture goes along with a surge in concrete interest in culture and creativity...

  20. Culture and the Immune System: Cultural Consonance in Social Support and C-reactive Protein in Urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we examine the distribution of a marker of immune system stimulation-C-reactive protein-in urban Brazil. Social relationships are associated with immunostimulation, and we argue that cultural dimensions of social support, assessed by cultural consonance, are important in this process. Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, approximate shared cultural models. A measure of cultural consonance in social support, based on a cultural consensus analysis regarding sources and patterns of social support in Brazil, was developed. In a survey of 258 persons, the association of cultural consonance in social support and C-reactive protein was examined, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, depressive symptoms, and a social network index. Lower cultural consonance in social support was associated with higher C-reactive protein. Implications of these results for future research are discussed. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  2. Counseling Third Culture Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Carolyn Fox

    Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…

  3. Culture and Negotiator Cognition: Judgment Accuracy and Negotiation Processes in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand; Christakopoulou

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, we argue that judgment biases in negotiation are perpetuated by underlying cultural values and ideals, and therefore, certain judgment biases will be more prevalent in certain cultural contexts. Based on theory in cultural psychology (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Triandis, 1989), we considered the notion that fixed pie error, a judgment bias in which negotiators fail to accurately understand their counterparts' interests (Pruitt & Lewis, 1975; Thompson & Hastie, 1990), would be more prevalent at the end of negotiations in the United States, an individualistic culture, than Greece, a collectivistic culture. The results of a 2-week computer-mediated intercultural negotiation experiment, which took place between American students in Illinois and Greek students in Athens, supported this view. Theoretical implications of culture and cognition in negotiation are also discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Cross cultural differences in mood regulation: An empirical comparison of individualistic and collectivistic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luomala, Harri; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    more socially based emotional consequences, and are more easily pursued and are more effective in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic cultures. The paper concludes by outlining the theoretical and managerial implications of the results and spelling out a few research suggestions....

  5. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  6. CULTURAL ISSUES IN ECONOMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Meyer

    2012-01-01

    This article has been written with the purpose of attracting attention to the cultural issues, or rather lack of them, in economics. This topic has not been taken frequently into theoretical considerations due to some difficulties, although its practical implications are of great importance. The meaning of institutions which are a part of cultures has been given more coverage in the literature. The following hypothesis is proposed: culture is an important but underestimated component of the e...

  7. Understanding culture in territorial management and its implications for spatial planning : The case of floodplain management in urbanised delta regions in the Netherlands and Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwiriyaphanich, S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiences have shown that the implementation of planning policy does not always lead to the originally intended territorial management outcomes. This issue is particularly crucial when policy ideas, institutions, models and programmes are transferred into places with different cultural

  8. A multilevel model of patient safety culture: cross-level relationship between organizational culture and patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Li, Hung-Hui

    2012-01-01

    As health-care organizations endeavor to improve their quality of care, there is a growing recognition of the importance of establishing a culture of patient safety. The main objective of this study was to investigate the cross-level influences of organizational culture on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The authors measured organizational culture (bureaucratic, supportive and innovative culture), patient safety culture and behavior from 788 hospital workers among 42 hospitals in Taiwan. Multilevel analysis was applied to explore the relationship between organizational culture (group level) and patient safety behavior (individual level). Patient safety culture had positive impact on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The results also indicated that bureaucratic, innovative and supportive organizational cultures all had direct influence on patient safety behavior. However, only supportive culture demonstrated significant moderation effect on the relationship between patient safety culture and patient safety behavior. Furthermore, organizational culture strength was shown correlated negatively with patient safety culture variability. Overall, organizational culture plays an important role in patient safety activities. Safety behaviors of hospital staff are partly influenced by the prevailing cultural norms in their organizations and work groups. For management implications, constructed patient priority from management commitment to leadership is necessary. For academic implications, research on patient safety should consider leadership, group dynamics and organizational learning. These factors are important for understanding the barriers and the possibilities embedded in patient safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Scheib, Peter; Ko, Nayeong; Wirsching, Michael; Kuhnert, Andrea; Hick, Jie; Schüßler, Gerhard; Wu, Wenyuan; Yuan, Shen; Cat, Nguyen Huu; Vongphrachanh, Sisouk; Linh, Ngo Tich; Viet, Ngyuen Kim

    2012-08-29

    news," the handling of negative emotions, discontinuities in participation, the hierarchical doctor-patient relationship, culture-specific syndromes and language barriers. In addition to practical skills for daily clinical practice, the participants wanted to learn more about didactic teaching methods. Half a year after the completion of the training program, the participants stated that the program had a great impact on their daily medical practice. The training in psychosomatic medicine for postgraduate medical doctors resulted in a positive response and is an important step in addressing the barriers in providing psychosomatic primary care. The transferability of western concepts should be tested locally, and adaptations should be undertaken where necessary. The revised curriculum forms the basis of training in psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy for medical students and postgraduate doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos.

  10. Black and Blue: Explaining the Continuing Gap in Career Progression for African-American Air Force Officers and Its Implications on Culture and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Air Force stresses the importance of knowing each Airman’s story. The United States Air Force story of how diversity makes the Air Force a better...testing in the science. Some researchers stress that any concept being studied relying on participants’ performance in another assignment, such as...about culture are particularly relevant to this study: (1) the process of socialization or acculturation and (2) how culture is inferred.85

  11. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of [3H] saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites

  12. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  13. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  14. Beyond the 'new cross-cultural psychiatry': cultural biology, discursive psychology and the ironies of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2006-03-01

    The 'new cross-cultural psychiatry' heralded by Kleinman in 1977 promised a revitalized tradition that gave due respect to cultural difference and did not export psychiatric theories that were themselves culture bound. In the ensuing years, the view of culture within anthropology has continued to change, along with our understanding of the relationship of biological processes to cultural diversity, and the global political economic contexts in which mental health care is delivered. This article considers the implications of these new notions of culture, biology and the context of practice for theory in cultural psychiatry. The future of cultural psychiatry lies in advancing a broad perspective that: (a) is inherently multidisciplinary (involving psychiatric epidemiology, medical anthropology and sociology, cognitive science and social psychology), breaking down the nature/culture dichotomy with an integrative view of culture as a core feature of human biology, while remaining alert to cultural constructions of biological theory; (b) attends to psychological processes but understands these as not exclusively located within the individual but as including discursive processes that are fundamentally social; and (c) critically examines the interaction of both local and global systems of knowledge and power. Globalization has brought with it many ironies for cultural psychiatry: Transnational migrations have resulted in cultural hybridization at the same time as ethnicity has become more salient; the call for evidence-based medicine has been used to limit the impact of cultural research; and cultural psychiatry itself has been co-opted by pharmaceutical companies to inform marketing campaigns to promote conventional treatments for new populations. Cultural psychiatry must address these ironies to develop the self-critical awareness and flexibility needed to deliver humane care in shifting contexts.

  15. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...

  16. Dynamics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell/mesenchymal stem cell interaction in co-culture and its implications in angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, A.; Planell, J.A.; Engel, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → BM-EPCs and MSCs establish complex, self-organizing structures in co-culture. → Co-culture decreases proliferation by cellular self-regulatory mechanisms. → Co-cultured cells present an activated proangiogenic phenotype. → qRT-PCR and cluster analysis identify new target genes playing important roles. -- Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues and organs by using cell and biomaterial-based approaches. One of the current challenges in the field is to promote proper vascularization in the implant to prevent cell death and promote host integration. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow resident stem cells widely employed for proangiogenic applications. In vivo, they are likely to interact frequently both in the bone marrow and at sites of injury. In this study, the physical and biochemical interactions between BM-EPCs and MSCs in an in vitro co-culture system were investigated to further clarify their roles in vascularization. BM-EPC/MSC co-cultures established close cell-cell contacts soon after seeding and self-assembled to form elongated structures at 3 days. Besides direct contact, cells also exhibited vesicle transport phenomena. When co-cultured in Matrigel, tube formation was greatly enhanced even in serum-starved, growth factor free medium. Both MSCs and BM-EPCs contributed to these tubes. However, cell proliferation was greatly reduced in co-culture and morphological differences were observed. Gene expression and cluster analysis for wide panel of angiogenesis-related transcripts demonstrated up-regulation of angiogenic markers but down-regulation of many other cytokines. These data suggest that cross-talk occurs in between BM-EPCs and MSCs through paracrine and direct cell contact mechanisms leading to modulation of the angiogenic response.

  17. A Técnica Esportiva como Construção Cultural: implicações para a pedagogia do esporte Sport Technique as a Cultural Construction: Implications to Sport Pedagogy La técnica deportiva como construcción cultural: implicaciones hacia la pedagogía del deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O texto discute a técnica esportiva a partir de alguns referenciais das ciências sociais e humanas, fazendo um contraponto ao conceito tradicional de técnica utilizado pela área de Educação Física e Esporte, cuja base teórica é composta primordialmente por contribuições das ciências da natureza. Considerando a técnica como o conjunto de modos de fazer e a tática como as razões do fazer, o texto trata das implicações para a pedagogia do esporte, propondo o ensino da cultura esportiva de forma mais democrática, singular e autoral, respeitando as especificidades culturais e as constantes ressignificações do esporte.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: esporte - cultura esportiva - pedagogia do esporte - técnica esportiva

    This text discusses technique in sport based on references from the social and human sciences and it questions the traditional concept of technique used in the field of physical education and sports, which is taken primarily from contributions of the natural sciences. By considering technique as a set of procedures to do something, and tactics as the reasons for doing something, the text discusses its possible implications for sport pedagogy and argues for a teaching of sport culture that is more democratic, singular, and authoral, with a respect for cultural specificities and for the constant resignifications of sports.


    Keywords: sport – sport culture – sport pedagogy – sport technique.

    El texto discute la técnica deportiva partiendo de algunos referenciales de las ciencias sociales y humanas, y hace un contrapunto al concepto tradicional de técnica utilizado por el área de Educación Física y Deporte, cuya base teórica se compone primordialmente por contribuciones de las ciencias naturales. Considerando la técnica como el conjunto de maneras de hacer, y la táctica como las razones de hacer, el texto trata de las implicaciones para la pedagogía deportiva, y propone la ense

  18. Elder mistreatment, culture, and help-seeking: a cross-cultural comparison of older Chinese and Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Moon, Ailee; Gomez, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This study explored and compared the salient sociocultural characteristics that influenced elder mistreatment and help-seeking behaviors among older Chinese and Korean immigrants. Results from qualitative, in-depth focus groups with 30 participants revealed that elder mistreatment is a culturally laden construct, and core values of traditional culture and acculturation are significant contextual factors that profoundly affect the perceptions of elder abuse and receptivity of interventions. Older Korean participants, compared to their Chinese counterparts, demonstrated stronger influence of hierarchy and cultural beliefs in exclusive family ties and gender norms, and were less likely to disclose abuse. Implications for culturally based interventions are also discussed.

  19. Mechanism of radiation tolerance in higher plants. Radiation damage of DNA in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells and implication from its repair process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yuichiro; Narumi, Issay; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Jun; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of radiation tolerance at the cellular level in higher plants, of which fundamental study basis is rather poor, in cultured cells in the title (BY-2 cells, Nicotiana tabacum L., allotetraploid). When compared with LD 50 of radiation in higher animals (2.4-8.6 Gy), higher plants are generally tolerant to radiation (known LD 50 , >360-2000 Gy). Authors have made unicellular BY-2 cells (protoplasts) by enzyme treatment to see their colony forming ability (CFA) and have found those cells are also resistant to radiation: D 10 (10% CFA dose) (Gy) is found to be 8.2-47.2 by radiation with various linear energy transfer (LET)s like gamma ray and heavy ion beams, in contrast to human D 10 (1.17-8.12, by X-ray and carbon beam). Double strand break (DSB) of DNA by radiation per one BY-2 cell initially occurs 7-10 times more frequently than mammalian cells (CHO-K1). However, DSB repair in BY-2 cells is found only as efficient as in mammalian cells: a slow repair relative to DSB number. Checkpoint mechanism of DNA damage is found poorly working in BY-cells, which results in frequent chromosome aberration like micronucleus. Authors consider that, for an herbaceous plant, to precede the cell cycle rather than to recover from the genomic instability can be profitable for growing more rapidly to have more sunlight energy than other individuals. Improvement of plants by gene technological approach with such a mean as mutation by radiation is conceivably important from aspects of food supply and of ecological environment. (R.T.)

  20. Cultural Consonance, Religion and Psychological Distress in an Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals approximate prototypes encoded in cultural models. Low cultural consonance is associated with higher psychological distress. Religion may moderate the association between cultural consonance and psychological distress. Brazil, with substantial variation in religion, is an important society for the examination of this hypothesis. Research was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, using a mixed-methods design. Measures of cultural consonance were derived using ethnographic methods and then applied in a survey of 271 individuals drawn from four distinct social strata. Low cultural consonance was associated with higher psychological distress in multiple regression analysis ( B = -.430, p < .001. Members of Pentecostal Protestant churches reported lower psychological distress independently of the effect of cultural consonance ( B = -.409, p < .05. There was no buffering effect of religion. Implications of these results for the study of religion and health are discussed.

  1. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  2. Cultural influences behind cholera transmission in the Far North Region, Republic of Cameroon: a field experience and implications for operational level planning of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Young, Alyson; Liang, Song; Blackburn, Jason; Mouhaman, Arabi; Morris, John Glenn

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the Far North Region of Cameroon has experienced serious and recurrent cholera outbreaks. Yet, understanding of cultural influences on outbreaks and spread remain poorly understood. This qualitative study explored cultural influences on cholera exposure in this region. Interviews and group discussions were conducted in two phases. Phase I involved key informants and phase II included focus group and household discussions. Thematic techniques including word repetition, key-indigenous-terms, and key-words-in-context were used for qualitative data analysis. Key informants attributed cholera etiology to dirt and spread through water ( caneri ) and food (group eating or faire-un-rond ) while group discussions attributed it to a reprimand from god and transmission through the air. Participants suggested that funerals, weddings, open defecation, and mountaintop burial might influence cholera exposure and facilitate its spread. Hospital avoidance and non-adherence with cholera treatment regimens were linked to favorable beliefs about traditional medicine (rural-urban mentality confrontation). Furthermore, a multiplicity of ethnic languages, mistrust of message sources, culture of dependency and sentimental animal husbandry were barriers to the reception of public health messages. Many participants had limited scientific knowledge about cholera etiology and transmission. The cultural practice of mountain burial seemed to explain the high cholera attack rate in the mountainous terrain compared to the floodplains. Cultural factors are likely to play important roles in the exposure to and spread of cholera. Understanding cultural context, individual and community perceptions of risk and disease may help public health agencies in response to outbreak prevention and control.

  3. Spatial variability and trends in Younger Dryas equilibrium line altitudes across the European Alps using a hypsometrically based ELA model: results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, D. G.; Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Finkel, R. C.; Maurer, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Alpine glaciers constitute an important component of terrestrial paleoclimate records due to, among other characteristics, their high sensitivity to climate change, near global extent, and their integration of myriad climate variables into a single, easily detected signal. Because the glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) provides a more explicit representation of climate than many other glacier properties, ELA methods allow for more direct comparisons of multiple glaciers within or between regions. Such comparisons allow for more complete investigations of the ultimate causes of mountain glaciation during specific events. Many studies however tend to focus on a limited number of sites, and employ a large variety of different techniques for ELA reconstruction between studies, making wider climate implications more tenuous. Methods of ELA reconstruction that can be rapidly and consistently applied to an arbitrary number of paleo-glaciers would provide a more accurate portrayal of the changes in climate across a given region. Here we present ELA reconstructions from Egesen Stadial moraines across the European Alps using an ELA model accounting for differences in glacier width, glacier shape, bed topography, ice thickness, and glacier length, including several glaciers constrained to the Younger Dryas using surface exposure dating techniques. We compare reconstructed Younger Dryas ELA values to modern ELA values using the same model, or using end of summer snowline estimates where no glacier is currently present. We further provide uncertainty estimates on the ΔELA using bootstrapped Monte Carlo simulations for the various input parameters. Preliminary results compare favorably to previous glacier studies of the European Younger Dryas, but provide greater context from many glaciers across the region as a whole. Such results allow for a more thorough investigation of the spatial variability and trends in climate during the Younger Dryas across the European Alps, and

  4. Application of the cultured epidermal autograft "JACE(®") for treatment of severe burns: Results of a 6-year multicenter surveillance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Matsushima, Asako; Ueyama, Masashi; Kumagai, Norio

    2016-06-01

    In the 1970s, Green et al. developed a method that involved culturing keratinocyte sheets and used for treatment of burns. Since then, the take rate of cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) onto fascia, granulation tissue, or allografts has been extensively reported, while that on an artificial dermis in a large case series is not. Moreover, the contribution of CEA to patient survival has not been analyzed in a multicenter study. We conducted a 6-year multicenter surveillance on the application of the CEA "JACE(®") for treatment of burns >30% total body surface area (TBSA) across 118 Japanese hospitals. This surveillance included 216 patients and 718 graft sites for efficacy analysis. The CEA take rate at 4 weeks after grafting was evaluated, and safety was monitored until 52 weeks. In addition, the survival curve obtained in this study and the data obtained from the Tokyo Burn Unit Association (TBUA) were compared. The mean CEA take rates at week 4 were 66% (sites) and 68% (patients), and the rate on the artificial dermis was 65% for 226 sites. CEA application combined with wide split-thickness auto or patch autograft increased the CEA take rate. On comparison with the data obtained from the TBUA, which included data on individuals with burns of the same severity, CEA application was found to contribute to patient survival until 7 weeks after burn. We reported the take rate of CEA based on a 6-year multicenter surveillance. From our results, we found that the application of CEA is a useful treatment for the patients with extensive burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  6. Unanticipated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex culture inhibition by immune modulators, immune suppressants, a growth enhancer, and vitamins A and D: clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Greenstein

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that, at a minimum, studies with virulent M. tuberculosis are indicated with the agents mentioned above, as well as with the thioamide 5-propothiouricil, which has previously been shown to inhibit the M. tuberculosis complex in culture. Our data additionally emphasize the importance of vitamins A and D in treating mycobacterial diseases.

  7. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Gender-Bound Language Use in Turkish and English Plays: Implications for Foreign Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Zubeyde Sinem; Armagan, Kiymet Selin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate gender-bound language use in Turkish and English languages and to identify the differences and similarities across cultures and genders in the plays with family and social themes. Four English and five Turkish plays were chosen randomly for comparison. The number of words in the plays were taken into…

  8. Studies on the formation of lactate and pyruvate from glucose in cultured skin fibroblasts: implications for detection of respiratory chain defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, F. A.; Feller, N.; Scholte, H. R.; Przyrembel, H.; Wanders, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the time course of the formation of lactate and pyruvate from glucose in cultured skin fibroblasts from controls, from a patient with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and from controls treated with inhibitors of the individual respiratory chain complexes. Fibroblasts from the

  9. Unanticipated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex culture inhibition by immune modulators, immune suppressants, a growth enhancer, and vitamins A and D: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Robert J; Su, Liya; Shahidi, Azra; Brown, William D; Clifford, Anya; Brown, Sheldon T

    2014-09-01

    The development of novel antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is time-consuming and expensive. Multiple immune modulators, immune suppressants, anti-inflammatories, and growth enhancers, and vitamins A and D, inhibit Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in culture. We studied the culture inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by these agents. Biosafety level two M. tuberculosis complex (ATCC 19015 and ATCC 25177) was studied in radiometric Bactec or MGIT culture. Agents evaluated included clofazimine, methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine A, rapamycin, tacrolimus, monensin, and vitamins A and D. All the agents mentioned above caused dose-dependent inhibition of the M. tuberculosis complex. There was no inhibition by the anti-inflammatory 5-aminosalicylic acid, which causes bacteriostatic inhibition of MAP. We conclude that, at a minimum, studies with virulent M. tuberculosis are indicated with the agents mentioned above, as well as with the thioamide 5-propothiouricil, which has previously been shown to inhibit the M. tuberculosis complex in culture. Our data additionally emphasize the importance of vitamins A and D in treating mycobacterial diseases. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. In-vitro developmental potential of individual mouse blastomeres cultured with and without zona pellucida: future implications for human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the developmental potential of individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell mouse embryos cultured with and without zona pellucida (ZP). In the first series, one, three, five and seven blastomeres were biopsied from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos respectively, and inserted individually into empty ZP recipients, leaving the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. In the second series, the same protocol was used except that the biopsied blastomeres were cultured without ZP and compared with the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. For the first series, individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos cultured with ZP showed blastocyst development of 82.4, 68.6, 44.4 and 23.1% respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 70.6, 60.0, 25.9 and 7.7%. For the second series, individual blastomeres cultured without ZP progressed with blastocyst development of 73.3, 64.5, 35.7 and 22.7% respectively. Blastocyst multiplication was achieved most efficiently when using individual blastomeres from 4- and 6-cell embryos. This is the first report on comparative in-vitro propagation of single blastomeres derived from various cleavage stages in a mammalian species. Blastomere cloning with its multiple applications may be envisaged for human assisted reproductive technologies.

  11. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of LA-ICP-MS sulfide mapping from Algoma-type BIF gold systems with implications for the nature of mineralizing fluids, metal sources, and deposit models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, B.; Kontak, D. J.; Thurston, P. C.; Petrus, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) element distribution maps combined with traverse mode analyses have been acquired on various sulfides (pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite) from three Canadian Algoma-type BIF-hosted gold deposits ( 4 Moz Au Meadowbank, ≥ 2.8 Moz Au Meliadine district, 6 Moz Au Musselwhite). These data, in conjunction with detailed petrographic and SEM-EDS observations, provide insight into the nature and relative timing of gold events, the presence and implication of trace element zoning regarding crystallization processes, and elemental associations that fingerprint gold events. Furthermore, the use of an innovative method of processing the LA-ICP-MS data in map and traverse modes, whereby the results are fragmented into time-slice data, to generate various binary plots (Ag versus Ni) provides a means to identify elemental associations (Te, Bi) not otherwise apparent. This integrated means of treating geochemical data, along with petrography, allows multiple gold events and remobilization processes to be recognized and their elemental associations determined. The main gold event in each of these deposits is characterized by the coupling of an As-Se-Te-Ag element association coincident with intense stratabound sulfide-replacement of the Fe-rich host rock. Additionally, the data indicate presence of a later remobilization event, which upgraded the Au tenor, as either non-refractory or refractory type, along fracture networks due to the ingress of subsequent base metal-bearing metamorphic fluids (mainly a Pb-Bi association). Furthermore, the data reveal a stratigraphic influence, as reflected in the elemental associations and the elemental enrichments observed and the nature of the sulfide phase hosting the gold mineralization (arsenopyrite versus pyrite).

  13. Formation of zinc-containing nanoparticles from Zn²⁺ ions in cell culture media: implications for the nanotoxicology of ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Terence W; Duriska, Martin B; Jayaratne, Vidura; Elbaz, Abdulkareem; O'Keefe, Sean J; Hastings, Andrew S; Piva, Terrence J; Wright, Paul F A; Feltis, Bryce N

    2012-10-15

    Zinc ions generate a range of poorly soluble Zn-containing nanoparticles when added to commonly used mammalian cell culture media. The formation of these nanoparticles confounds the use of soluble Zn salts as positive controls during cytotoxicity testing of other Zn-containing nanoparticles, such as ZnO. These nanoprecipitates can either be crystalline or amorphous and vary in composition depending upon the concentration of Zn(II) within the medium. The cytotoxicity and immune system response of these nanoparticles in situ are similar to those of 30 nm ZnO nanoparticles. The low residual level of truly soluble Zn species (taken as species passing through a 2 kDa membrane) in cell culture media with serum is insufficient to elicit any appreciable cytotoxicity. These observations highlight the importance of employing appropriate controls when studying ZnO nanoparticle toxicity and suggest a re-evaluation of the conclusions drawn in some previous cytotoxicity studies.

  14. Adjustment of International Graduate Students of Eastern Cultures to the American Popular and Educational Culture : A Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    稲葉, 美由紀; Inaba, Miyuki

    2010-01-01

    The number of international students coming into the U.S. for higher education is steadily rising. The ability of these students to perform well in their educational endeavors is related to their degree of success in adjusting to American popular and educational culture. This study uses a naturalistic perspective to understand the factors involved in the adjustment of international graduate students from India and Japan to American popular and educational culture. Implications of these result...

  15. Employee Engagement and a Culture of Safety in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Susan L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Siedlecki, Sandra L; Dolansky, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    A descriptive, retrospective design was used to explore the relationship between employee engagement and culture of safety in ICUs within a large Midwestern healthcare system. Results demonstrated a strong positive relationship between total engagement score and total patient safety score (r = 0.645, P engagement score and the 12 safety culture dimensions. These findings have implications for improving managerial strategies relative to employee engagement that may ultimately impact perceptions of a safety culture.

  16. Intra- and Inter-Cultural Usability in Computer-Supported Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Suthers, Dan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for an increased scope of universal design to encompass usability and accessibility for not only users with physical disabilities but also for users from different cultures. Towards this end, we present an empirical evaluation of cultural usability in computer......-Chinese, and Chinese-Chinese) appropriated affordances and produced technological intersubjectivity. Cultural usability was analyzed through the use of performance and satisfaction measures. The results show a systemic variation in efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction between the two cultural groups....... Implications of these findings for the research and practice of usability, in general, and cultural usability, in particular, are discussed in this paper....

  17. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrohman Taufiqurrohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle trash then take advantage of it by selling the collected and the recycled trash. It makes trash have good transformation of values, repelling against the prior stereotype. Finally, by taking example from Trash Bank management at schools, human can have so cultured trash that they would not be trapped by trash culture.

  18. A differential centrifugation protocol and validation criterion for enhancing mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) results in microbial identification using blood culture growth bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March-Rosselló, G A; Muñoz-Moreno, M F; García-Loygorri-Jordán de Urriés, M C; Bratos-Pérez, M A

    2013-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is a widely used tool in clinical microbiology for rapidly identifying microorganisms. This technique can be applied directly on positive blood cultures without the need for its culturing, thereby, reducing the time required for microbiological diagnosis. The present study proposes an innovative identification protocol applied to positive blood culture bottles using MALDI-TOF. We have processed 100 positive blood culture bottles, of which 36 of 37 Gram-negative bacteria (97.3 %) were correctly identified directly with 100 % of Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative rods and 87.5 % of non-fermenting Gram-negative rods. We also correctly identified directly 62 of 63 of Gram-positive bacteria (98.4 %) with 100 % of Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Gram-positive bacilli and 98 % of Staphylococcus. Applying the differential centrifugation protocol at the moment the automatic blood culture incubation system gives a positive reading together with the proposed validation criterion offers 98 % sensitivity (95 % confidence interval: 95.2-100 %). The MALDI-TOF system, thus, provides a rapid and reliable system for identifying microorganisms from blood culture growth bottles.

  19. The socio-cultural importance of Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) and implications for multi-use management in two Maijuna communities of the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Michael P; Endress, Bryan A; Horn, Christa M

    2013-04-22

    Fruit from the palm Mauritia flexuosa (aguaje) is harvested throughout the Peruvian Amazon for subsistence and commercial purposes. Recent estimates suggest that residents of Iquitos, the largest city in the region, consume approximately 148.8 metric tons of aguaje fruit per month, the vast majority of which is harvested by felling and killing adult female trees. In this study, we sought to better understand and document the importance of M. flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) in two Maijuna indigenous communities to inform the sustainable management of this habitat and species. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and household surveys were carried out to assess the significance of aguajales and their associated plant and animal resources as well as to determine how the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed over time. Aguajales and their associated resources are culturally significant and useful to the Maijuna in a wide variety of ways. In addition to M. flexuosa, the Maijuna use over 60 different species of plants from aguajales. When M. flexuosa is in fruit, aguajales are important hunting areas with a total of 20 different animal species hunted. The Maijuna also have traditional beliefs about aguajales, believing that malevolent supernatural beings reside in them. Notably, the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed considerably over the years as aguaje fruit went from a subsistence item collected opportunistically from the ground to a market good destructively harvested beginning in the early 1990s. The Maijuna are concerned not only about how this has affected the future commercial harvest of aguaje but also about its effects on game animals given the importance of hunting to Maijuna cultural identity, subsistence, and income generation. In order to meet the multiple socio-cultural and economic needs of the Maijuna, sustainable management efforts must be expanded to not only focus on the commercial harvest of

  20. Photodynamic Treatment of Cultured Human Malignant Melanoma cells and Assessment of Resultant Cell Death and Inflicted Bio molecular Damage As Determined by Synchrotron I.R. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.; Ruppel, M.; Miller, L.M.; Smith, S.; Tsang, T.; Miller, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a very serious skin cancer that if not discovered early and treated by surgery can become fatal. Photodynamic treatment involves the use of a photosensitive dye that is not toxic by itself and is taken up by all cells normal and tumor cells. However it is released from normal cells in a short time while it is kept inside tumor cells for a longer time. A laser light of wave length that is maximally absorbed by the used dye is then used to illuminate tumor cells, still having the dye, and a reaction takes place resulting in the liberation of s inglet oxygen , a very active form of oxygen that damages important biomolecules and results eventually in cell death. The photosensitive dye I ndocyanine green a nd a Ti - Sapphire laser (780 nm wave length ) and power density of 55 m Watt/ cm 2 were used. The percentage of cell death increased slowly with the strength of the PDT until it reached 75% death of the exposed cells at a net dye concentration of 150 u M and laser exposure dose of 60 minute duration.Synchrotron infrared imaging was carried out on control and experimental cultures at the national synchrotron light source (BNL) using FTIR spectro microscopy to reveal the I.R. absorption characteristics of protein, lipids and nucleic acids biomolecules. It was found that increasing the strength of the PDT had an increasingly damaging effect on the concentration of cellular biomolecules, the largest effect being in the protein, lipids and nucleic acid components of the cell. More experiments are planned involving changes in the strengths of the PDT treatments for eventually reaching 100% melanoma cell death