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Sample records for culture model system

  1. The Cultural Analysis of Soft Systems Methodology and the Configuration Model of Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Staadt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that find themselves within a problematic situation connected with cultural issues such as politics and power require adaptable research and corresponding modeling approaches so as to grasp the arrangements of that situation and their impact on the organizational development. This article originates from an insider-ethnographic intervention into the problematic situation of the leading public housing provider in Luxembourg. Its aim is to describe how the more action-oriented cultural analysis of soft systems methodology and the theory-driven configuration model of organizational culture are mutually beneficial rather than contradictory. The data collected between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed manually as well as by means of ATLAS.ti. Results demonstrate that the cultural analysis enables an in-depth understanding of the power-laden environment within the organization bringing about the so-called “socio-political system” and that the configuration model makes it possible to depict the influence of that system on the whole organization. The overall research approach thus contributes toward a better understanding of the influence and the impact of oppressive social environments and evolving power relations on the development of an organization.

  2. Triple co-culture cell model as an in vitro model for oral particulate vaccine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; De Rossi, C.; Lehr, C-M.

    A triple co-culture cell model of Caco-2 cells, dendritic cells and macrophages (Figure 1) has previously been developed for studying intestinal permeability in a state of inflammation [1],[2]. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of this cell model for testing...... the model antigen ovalbumin was spray dried to obtain a particulate vaccine model system for testing in the cell model. The precursors were shown to form cubosomes when dispersed in aqueous medium, and was therefore used as the vaccine formulation for testing on the co-cultures. After 11 days, the TEER...... values of the co-cultures were found to be 860-1340 Ω∙cm2; the formulations were incubated with the co-cultures at this time point. From confocal microscopy images, it was observed that the THP-1 cells (macrophages) migrated into the overlying Caco-2 cell monolayer when the co-cultures were incubated...

  3. Rotating cell culture systems for human cell culture: human trophoblast cells as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Warner, Jessica A; Machado, Heather L; Morris, Cindy A; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin

    2012-01-18

    The field of human trophoblast research aids in understanding the complex environment established during placentation. Due to the nature of these studies, human in vivo experimentation is impossible. A combination of primary cultures, explant cultures and trophoblast cell lines support our understanding of invasion of the uterine wall and remodeling of uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs), which is required for successful establishment of pregnancy. Despite the wealth of knowledge gleaned from such models, it is accepted that in vitro cell culture models using EVT-like cell lines display altered cellular properties when compared to their in vivo counterparts. Cells cultured in the rotating cell culture system (RCCS) display morphological, phenotypic, and functional properties of EVT-like cell lines that more closely mimic differentiating in utero EVTs, with increased expression of genes mediating invasion (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)) and trophoblast differentiation. The Saint Georges Hospital Placental cell Line-4 (SGHPL-4) (kindly donated by Dr. Guy Whitley and Dr. Judith Cartwright) is an EVT-like cell line that was used for testing in the RCCS. The design of the RCCS culture vessel is based on the principle that organs and tissues function in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment. Due to the dynamic culture conditions in the vessel, including conditions of physiologically relevant shear, cells grown in three dimensions form aggregates based on natural cellular affinities and differentiate into organotypic tissue-like assemblies. The maintenance of a fluid orbit provides a low-shear, low-turbulence environment similar to conditions found in vivo. Sedimentation of the cultured cells is countered by adjusting the rotation speed of the RCCS to ensure a constant free-fall of cells. Gas exchange occurs through a permeable hydrophobic membrane located on the back of the bioreactor. Like their parental tissue in vivo, RCCS

  4. System-level modeling and simulation of the cell culture microfluidic biochip ProCell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    -defined micro-channels using valves and pumps. We present an approach to the system-level modeling and simulation of a cell culture microfluidic biochip called ProCell, Programmable Cell Culture Chip. ProCell contains a cell culture chamber, which is envisioned to run 256 simultaneous experiments (viewed...

  5. Effect of Nanoparticles on Complement System in Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-15

    7 Primary endothelial cells isolated from human umbilical veins Aseptically taken umbilical cord, preferably abort 20...suspended in cell culture medium. Prepared suspensions were agitated with ultrasounds for 20 minutes at 37C, then stored at +4C and used for testing on the

  6. Using Cultural Modeling to Inform a NEDSS-Compatible System Functionality Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Olympia; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Objective The culture by which public health professionals work defines their organizational objectives, expectations, policies, and values. These aspects of culture are often intangible and difficult to qualify. The introduction of an information system could further complicate the culture of a jurisdiction if the intangibles of a culture are not clearly understood. This report describes how cultural modeling can be used to capture intangible elements or factors that may affect NEDSS-compatible (NC) system functionalities within the culture of public health jurisdictions. Introduction The National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) comprises many activities including collaborations, processes, standards, and systems which support gathering data from US states and territories. As part of NNDSS, the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) provides the standards, tools, and resources to support reporting public health jurisdictions (jurisdictions). The NEDSS Base System (NBS) is a CDC-developed, software application available to jurisdictions to collect, manage, analyze and report national notifiable disease (NND) data. An evaluation of NEDSS with the objective of identifying the functionalities of NC systems and the impact of these features on the user’s culture is underway. Methods We used cultural models to capture additional NC system functionality gaps within the culture of the user. Cultural modeling is a process of graphically depicting people and organizations referred to as influencers and the intangible factors that affect the user’s operations or work as influences. Influencers are denoted as bubbles while influences are depicted as arrows penetrating the bubbles. In the cultural model, influence can be seen by the size and proximity (or lack of) in the model. We restricted the models to secondary data sources and interviews of CDC programs (data users) and public health jurisdictions (data reporters). Results Three cultural

  7. Modelling of Microalgae Culture Systems with Applications to Control and Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Olivier; Mairet, Francis; Chachuat, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is becoming ever more important to assess the potential, guide the design, and enable the efficient operation and control of industrial-scale microalgae culture systems (MCS). The development of overall, inherently multiphysics, models involves coupling separate submodels of (i) the intrinsic biological properties, including growth, decay, and biosynthesis as well as the effect of light and temperature on these processes, and (ii) the physical properties, such as the hydrodynamics, light attenuation, and temperature in the culture medium. When considering high-density microalgae culture, in particular, the coupling between biology and physics becomes critical. This chapter reviews existing models, with a particular focus on the Droop model, which is a precursor model, and it highlights the structure common to many microalgae growth models. It summarizes the main developments and difficulties towards multiphysics models of MCS as well as applications of these models for monitoring, control, and optimization purposes.

  8. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  9. Modelling and pathway identification involving the transport mechanism of a complex metabolic system in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Xi; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2014-06-01

    The bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can be characterized by a complex metabolic system of interactions among biochemical fluxes, metabolic compounds, key enzymes and genetic regulation. In this paper, in consideration of the fact that the transport ways of 1,3-PD and glycerol with different weights across cell membrane are still unclear in batch culture, we consider 121 possible metabolic pathways and establish a novel mathematical model which is represented by a complex metabolic system. Taking into account the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentration of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium point for the metabolic system of batch culture, the novel approach used here is to define quantitatively biological robustness of the intracellular substance concentrations for the overall process of batch culture. To determine the most possible metabolic pathway, we take the defined biological robustness as cost function and establish an identification model, in which 1452 system parameters and 484 pathway parameters are involved. Simultaneously, the identification model is subject to the metabolic system, continuous state constraints and parameter constraints. As such, solving the identification model by a serial program is a very complicated task. We propose a parallel migration particle swarm optimization algorithm (MPSO) capable of solving the identification model in conjunction with the constraint transcription and smoothing approximation techniques. Numerical results show that the most possible metabolic pathway and the corresponding metabolic system can reasonably describe the process of batch culture.

  10. A 3D modeling and measurement system for cultural heritage preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoguang; Zhou, Mingquan; Ren, Pu; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo; Wu, Zhongke

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Heritage reflects the human production, life style and environmental conditions of various historical periods. It exists as one of the major national carriers of national history and culture. In order to do better protection and utilization for these cultural heritages, a system of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and statistical measurement is proposed in this paper. The system solves the problems of cultural heritage's data storage, measurement and analysis. Firstly, for the high precision modeling and measurement problems, range data registration and integration algorithm used to achieve high precision 3D reconstruction. Secondly, multi-view stereo reconstruction method is used to solve the problem of rapid reconstruction by procedures such as the original image data pre-processing, camera calibration, point cloud modeling. At last, the artifacts' measure underlying database is established by calculating the measurements of the 3D model's surface. These measurements contain Euclidean distance between the points on the surface, geodesic distance between the points, normal and curvature in each point, superficial area of a region, volume of model's part and some other measurements. These measurements provide a basis for carrying out information mining of cultural heritage. The system has been applied to the applications of 3D modeling, data measurement of the Terracotta Warriors relics, Tibetan architecture and some other relics.

  11. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well as a subepithelial lamina propria, harboring the immune cells of the gut mucosa.

  12. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte......-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well...... as a subepithelial lamina propria, harboring the immune cells of the gut mucosa....

  13. Brain Aggregates: An Effective In Vitro Cell Culture System Modeling Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Misol; Kalume, Franck; Pitstick, Rose; Oehler, Abby; Carlson, George; DeArmond, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases is particularly challenging because of the discrepancies in drug effects between in vitro and in vivo studies. These discrepancies occur in part because current cell culture systems used for drug screening have many limitations. First, few cell culture systems accurately model human aging or neurodegenerative diseases. Second, drug efficacy may differ between dividing and stationary cells, the latter resembling nondividing neurons in the CNS. Brain aggregates (BrnAggs) derived from embryonic day 15 gestation mouse embryos may represent neuropathogenic processes in prion disease and reflect in vivo drug efficacy. Here, we report a new method for the production of BrnAggs suitable for drug screening and suggest that BrnAggs can model additional neurological diseases such as tauopathies. We also report a functional assay with BrnAggs by measuring electrophysiological activities. Our data suggest that BrnAggs could serve as an effective in vitro cell culture system for drug discovery for neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Another Route to a General Theory of Cultural Transmission: A Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbert, Marion L.

    1975-01-01

    A cultural transmission theory is presented. The model has two uses: to provide a guide for gathering cultural transmission data; and to set up a computerized cultural transmission simulation. Availability information is given in SO 504 073. (Author/RM)

  15. Model for the feedback control system of bacterial growth. II. Growth in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleecken, S

    1989-12-07

    A mathematical model is developed that describes substrate limited bacterial growth in a continuous culture and that is based upon the conceptual framework elaborated in a previous paper for describing the feedback control system of cell growth [S. Bleecken, (1988). J. theor. Biol. 133, 37.] Central to the theory are the ideas that the limiting substrate is converted into low molecular weight building blocks of macromolecular synthesis which again are converted into biomass (RNA and protein) and that the rates of RNA and protein synthesis are controlled by the intracellular concentration of building blocks. It is shown that a continuous culture can be simulated by two interconnected feedback control systems the actuating signals of which are limiting substrate concentration and the intracellular concentration of building blocks, respectively. Three types of steady-states are found to appear in a continuous culture, besides the well-known stable steady-state of the whole culture there exist two batchlike steady-states of the biotic part of the culture which are metastable. The model is used to analyse the steady-states and their stability properties as well as the dynamic responses of biomass, RNA, protein, building block and substrate concentrations to changes in environmental conditions. Especially the inoculation of a continuous culture and the effects of step changes in dilution rate, inlet substrate concentration and growth temperature are studied in detail. Relations between the growth behaviour of a single cell and that of a continuous culture are derived. The RNA to protein ratio is introduced as a rough measure of the physiological state of cells and it is shown that a cell reacts to environmental changes with a simple pattern of basic responses in growth rate and physiological state. There are reasons to assume that the model presented is the minimal version of a structured model of bacterial growth and represents an optimum compromise between biological

  16. Three-dimensional hydrogel cell culture systems for modeling neural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, John

    Two-dimensional (2-D) neural cell culture systems have served as physiological models for understanding the cellular and molecular events that underlie responses to physical and chemical stimuli, control sensory and motor function, and lead to the development of neurological diseases. However, the development of three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture systems will be essential for the advancement of experimental research in a variety of fields including tissue engineering, chemical transport and delivery, cell growth, and cell-cell communication. In 3-D cell culture, cells are provided with an environment similar to tissue, in which they are surrounded on all sides by other cells, structural molecules and adhesion ligands. Cells grown in 3-D culture systems display morphologies and functions more similar to those observed in vivo, and can be cultured in such a way as to recapitulate the structural organization and biological properties of tissue. This thesis describes a hydrogel-based culture system, capable of supporting the growth and function of several neural cell types in 3-D. Alginate hydrogels were characterized in terms of their biomechanical and biochemical properties and were functionalized by covalent attachment of whole proteins and peptide epitopes. Methods were developed for rapid cross-linking of alginate hydrogels, thus permitting the incorporation of cells into 3-D scaffolds without adversely affecting cell viability or function. A variety of neural cell types were tested including astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. Cells remained viable and functional for longer than two weeks in culture and displayed process outgrowth in 3-D. Cell constructs were created that varied in cell density, type and organization, providing experimental flexibility for studying cell interactions and behavior. In one set of experiments, 3-D glial-endothelial cell co-cultures were used to model blood-brain barrier (BBB) structure and function. This co-culture system was

  17. A 3D human neural cell culture system for modeling Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hye; Choi, Se Hoon; D’Avanzo, Carla; Hebisch, Matthias; Sliwinski, Christopher; Bylykbashi, Enjana; Washicosky, Kevin J.; Klee, Justin B.; Brüstle, Oliver; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell technologies have facilitated the development of human cellular disease models that can be used to study pathogenesis and test therapeutic candidates. These models hold promise for complex neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) because existing animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate all aspects of pathology. We recently reported the characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) culture system that exhibits key events in AD pathogenesis, including extracellular aggregation of β-amyloid and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. Here we provide instructions for the generation and analysis of 3D human neural cell cultures, including the production of genetically modified human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) with familial AD mutations, the differentiation of the hNPCs in a 3D matrix, and the analysis of AD pathogenesis. The 3D culture generation takes 1–2 days. The aggregation of β-amyloid is observed after 6-weeks of differentiation followed by robust tau pathology after 10–14 weeks. PMID:26068894

  18. Increased Arginine and Ornithine Flux in Islets of Langerhans Cultured in a Microgravity Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, B. W.; Sams, C. F.; Smith, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity is associated with alterations in protein metabolism of both muscle and bone. That pancreas-derived insulin is essential to the normal maintenance of body protein balance is well known. The importance of altered endocrine pancreas function in microgravity is not yet established. We proposed to examine the influence of a microgravity model system, the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) upon islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth rats. Islets were cultured in the HARV for 48 hr in Medium-199 and contrasted to static control islets (PLATE). Nitrogenous compounds elaborated into the media (micromoles/ml) were analyzed at 0 and 48 hr of culture and compared to PLATE with a 2-way ANOVA (HARV vs Hour).

  19. Ex vivo organ culture of human hair follicles: a model epithelial-neuroectodermal-mesenchymal interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2011-01-01

    The development of hair follicle organ culture techniques is a significant milestone in cutaneous biology research. The hair follicle, or more accurately the "pilo-sebaceous unit", encapsulates all the important physiologic processes found in the human body; controlled cell growth/death, interactions between cells of different histologic type, cell differentiation and migration, and hormone responsitivity to name a few. Thus, the value of the hair follicle as a model for biological scientific research goes way beyond its scope for cutaneous biology or dermatology alone. Indeed, the recent and dramatic upturn in interest in hair follicle biology has focused principally on the pursuit of two of biology's holy grails; post-embryonic morphogenesis and control of cyclical tissue activity. The hair follicle organ culture model, pioneered by Philpott and colleagues, ushered in an exceptionally accessible way to assess how cells of epithelial (e.g., keratinocytes), mesenchymal (e.g., fibroblasts), and neuroectodermal (e.g., melanocytes) origin interact in a three-dimensional manner. Moreover, this assay system allows us to assess how various natural and pharmacologic agents affect complex tissues for growth modulation. In this article, I focus on the culture of the human hair follicle mini-organ, discussing both the practical issues involved and some possible research applications of this assay.

  20. Investigating patient safety culture across a health system: multilevel modelling of differences associated with service types and staff demographics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego, Blanca; Westbrook, Mary T; Dunn, Adam G; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    To use multilevel modelling to compare the patient safety cultures of types of services across a health system and to determine whether differences found can be accounted for by staffs' professions...

  1. Explant culture of rat colon: A model system for studying metabolism of chemical carcinogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Stoner, G.D.; Jackson, F.

    1978-01-01

    An explant culture system has been developed for the long-term maintenance of colonic tissue from the rat. Explants of 1 cm2 in size were placed in tissue-culture dishes to which was added 2 ml of CMRL-1066 medium supplemented with glucose, hydrocortisone, beta-retinyl acetate, and either 2.5% bo...

  2. Modeling Cultural Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabora, Liane

    2008-01-01

    EVOC (for EVOlution of Culture) is a computer model of culture that enables us to investigate how various factors such as barriers to cultural diffusion, the presence and choice of leaders, or changes in the ratio of innovation to imitation affect the diversity and effectiveness of ideas. It consists of neural network based agents that invent ideas for actions, and imitate neighbors' actions. The model is based on a theory of culture according to which what evolves through culture is not memes or artifacts, but the internal models of the world that give rise to them, and they evolve not through a Darwinian process of competitive exclusion but a Lamarckian process involving exchange of innovation protocols. EVOC shows an increase in mean fitness of actions over time, and an increase and then decrease in the diversity of actions. Diversity of actions is positively correlated with population size and density, and with barriers between populations. Slowly eroding borders increase fitness without sacrificing diver...

  3. A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Du, C.; Herrero Acero, E.; Tang-Schomer, M. D.; Özkucur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems. PMID:27112667

  4. Altered TNF-Alpha, Glucose, Insulin and Amino Acids in Islets Langerhans Cultured in a Microgravity Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.; Hashemi, Brian B.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    The present studies were designed to determine effects of a microgravity model system upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity and indices of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1726+/-1 17,150 u IEU) from Wistar Furth rats were treated as: 1) HARV (High Aspect Ratio Vessel cell culture) , 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (parginine in islets cultured in HARVs. While nitrogenous compound analysis indicated a ubiquitous reliance upon glutamine in all experimental groups, arginine was converted to ornithine at a two-fold greater rate in the islets cultured in the HARV microgravity model system (p<0.05). These studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity averaged cell culture methods or by three dimensional cell assembly.

  5. Explant culture of rat colon: A model system for studying metabolism of chemical carcinogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Stoner, G.D.; Jackson, F.

    1978-01-01

    An explant culture system has been developed for the long-term maintenance of colonic tissue from the rat. Explants of 1 cm2 in size were placed in tissue-culture dishes to which was added 2 ml of CMRL-1066 medium supplemented with glucose, hydrocortisone, beta-retinyl acetate, and either 2....... The explants were incubated at 30 degrees C. The viability of the tissue was measured both by incorporation of specific precursors into cellular macromolecules and by monitoring of tissue morphology with light and electron microscopy. Cultured rat colon was able to metabolize benzo[alpha]pyrene, 7...

  6. A hydroponic rice seedling culture model system for investigating proteome of salt stress in rice leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dea-Wook; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jung, Young-Ho; Shibato, Junko; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kim, Du Hyun; Shim, Ie-Sung; Usui, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By using an in vivo hydroponic rice seedling culture system, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of a model rice japonica cultivar Nipponbare to salt stress using proteomics and classical biochemical methods. Yoshida's nutrient solution (YS) was used to grow rice seedlings. YS-grown 18-day-old seedlings manifested highly stable and reproducible symptoms, prominently the wilting and browning of the 3rd leaf, reduced photosynthetic activity, inhibition in overall seedling growth, and failure to develop new (5th) leaf, when subjected to salt stress by transferring them to YS containing 130 mM NaCl for 4 days. As leaf response to salt stress is least investigated in rice by proteomics, we used the 3rd leaf as source material. A comparison of 2-DE protein profiles between the untreated control and salt-stressed 3rd leaves revealed 55 differentially expressed CBB-stained spots, where 47 spots were increased over the control. Of these changed spots, the identity of 33 protein spots (27 increased and 5 decreased) was determined by nESI-LC-MS/MS. Most of these identified proteins belonged to major metabolic processes like photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation and photorespiration, suggesting a good correlation between salt stress-responsive proteins and leaf morphology. Moreover, 2-DE immunoblot and enzymatic activity analyses of 3rd leaves revealed remarkable changes in the key marker enzymes associated with oxidative damage to salt stress: ascorbate peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were induced, and catalase was suppressed. These results demonstrate that hydroponic culture system is best suited for proteomics of salt stress in rice seedling.

  7. AlgiMatrix™ based 3D cell culture system as an in-vitro tumor model for anticancer studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandraiah Godugu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D in-vitro cultures are recognized for recapitulating the physiological microenvironment and exhibiting high concordance with in-vivo conditions. Taking the advantages of 3D culture, we have developed the in-vitro tumor model for anticancer drug screening. METHODS: Cancer cells grown in 6 and 96 well AlgiMatrix™ scaffolds resulted in the formation of multicellular spheroids in the size range of 100-300 µm. Spheroids were grown in two weeks in cultures without compromising the growth characteristics. Different marketed anticancer drugs were screened by incubating them for 24 h at 7, 9 and 11 days in 3D cultures and cytotoxicity was measured by AlamarBlue® assay. Effectiveness of anticancer drug treatments were measured based on spheroid number and size distribution. Evaluation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic markers was done by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The 3D results were compared with the conventional 2D monolayer cultures. Cellular uptake studies for drug (Doxorubicin and nanoparticle (NLC were done using spheroids. RESULTS: IC(50 values for anticancer drugs were significantly higher in AlgiMatrix™ systems compared to 2D culture models. The cleaved caspase-3 expression was significantly decreased (2.09 and 2.47 folds respectively for 5-Fluorouracil and Camptothecin in H460 spheroid cultures compared to 2D culture system. The cytotoxicity, spheroid size distribution, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and nanoparticle penetration data suggested that in vitro tumor models show higher resistance to anticancer drugs and supporting the fact that 3D culture is a better model for the cytotoxic evaluation of anticancer drugs in vitro. CONCLUSION: The results from our studies are useful to develop a high throughput in vitro tumor model to study the effect of various anticancer agents and various molecular pathways affected by the anticancer drugs and formulations.

  8. a Cultural Market Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  9. A Cultural Market Model

    CERN Document Server

    Herdagdelen, Amac

    2008-01-01

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  10. Development of an in situ evaluation system for neural cells using extracellular matrix-modeled gel culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takayuki; Ikegami, Yasuhiro; Mizumachi, Hideyuki; Shirakigawa, Nana; Ijima, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional monolayer culture is the most popular cell culture method. However, the cells may not respond as they do in vivo because the culture conditions are different from in vivo conditions. However, hydrogel-embedding culture, which cultures cells in a biocompatible culture substrate, can produce in vivo-like cell responses, but in situ evaluation of cells in a gel is difficult. In this study, we realized an in vivo-like environment in vitro to produce cell responses similar to those in vivo and established an in situ evaluation system for hydrogel-embedded cell responses. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-modeled gel consisted of collagen and heparin (Hep-col) to mimic an in vivo-like environment. The Hep-col gel could immobilize growth factors, which is important for ECM functions. Neural stem/progenitor cells cultured in the Hep-col gel grew and differentiated more actively than in collagen, indicating an in vivo-like environment in the Hep-col gel. Second, a thin-layered gel culture system was developed to realize in situ evaluation of the gel-embedded cells. Cells in a 200-μm-thick gel could be evaluated clearly by a phase-contrast microscope and immunofluorescence staining through reduced optical and diffusional effects. Finally, we found that the neural cells cultured in this system had synaptic connections and neuronal action potentials by immunofluorescence staining and Ca(2+) imaging. In conclusion, this culture method may be a valuable evaluation system for neurotoxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

  12. Synthesis of Systemic Functional Theory & Dynamical Systems Theory for Socio-Cultural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    audio resources, requires a range of tools for the annotation, analysis, search and retrieval of semantic patterns in unified but complex semiotic ...unit and linking it to another annotation unit. The links themselves are annotated using system choices for inter- semiotic relations. Automated...linguistic analysis. These are key system choices in the inter- semiotic discoursal structure for visual images and language. The larger pattern count of 73

  13. Pharmacodynamic modeling of anti-cancer activity of tetraiodothyroacetic acid in a perfused cell culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available Unmodified or as a poly[lactide-co-glycolide] nanoparticle, tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac acts at the integrin αvβ3 receptor on human cancer cells to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and xenograft growth. To study in vitro the pharmacodynamics of tetrac formulations in the absence of and in conjunction with other chemotherapeutic agents, we developed a perfusion bellows cell culture system. Cells were grown on polymer flakes and exposed to various concentrations of tetrac, nano-tetrac, resveratrol, cetuximab, or a combination for up to 18 days. Cells were harvested and counted every one or two days. Both NONMEM VI and the exact Monte Carlo parametric expectation maximization algorithm in S-ADAPT were utilized for mathematical modeling. Unmodified tetrac inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells and did so with differing potency in different cell lines. The developed mechanism-based model included two effects of tetrac on different parts of the cell cycle which could be distinguished. For human breast cancer cells, modeling suggested a higher sensitivity (lower IC50 to the effect on success rate of replication than the effect on rate of growth, whereas the capacity (Imax was larger for the effect on growth rate. Nanoparticulate tetrac (nano-tetrac, which does not enter into cells, had a higher potency and a larger anti-proliferative effect than unmodified tetrac. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of harvested cells revealed tetrac and nano-tetrac induced concentration-dependent apoptosis that was correlated with expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as p53, p21, PIG3 and BAD for nano-tetrac, while unmodified tetrac showed a different profile. Approximately additive anti-proliferative effects were found for the combinations of tetrac and resveratrol, tetrac and cetuximab (Erbitux, and nano-tetrac and cetuximab. Our in vitro perfusion cancer cell system together with mathematical modeling successfully described the anti

  14. Synthesis of Systemic Functional Theory & Dynamical Systems Theory for Socio-Cultural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    recurrence analysis, and clustering. These preliminary experiments were designed to determine both the identifying features of the texts and what...SFT is designed to account for how language is used, and it provides tools for the interpretation of (a) the underlying linguistic systems, (b) the... typography and graphology) (c) Context plane for register (field: what the text is about; tenor: the types of social relations; mode: spoken/written) and

  15. A bladder cancer microenvironment simulation system based on a microfluidic co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-fei; Cao, Yan-wei; Zhang, Shu-dong; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Xiao-guang; Shi, Hao-qing; Hu, Ke-yao; Zhu, Guan-qun; Ma, Bo; Niu, Hai-tao

    2015-11-10

    A tumor microenvironment may promote tumor metastasis and progression through the dynamic interplay between neoplastic cells and stromal cells. In this work, the most representative and significant stromal cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages were used as vital component elements and combined with bladder cancer cells to construct a bladder cancer microenvironment simulation system. This is the first report to explore bladder cancer microenvironments based on 4 types of cells co-cultured simultaneously. This simulation system comprises perfusion equipment, matrigel channel units, a medium channel and four indirect contact culture chambers, allowing four types of cells to simultaneously interact through soluble biological factors and metabolites. With this system, bladder cancer cells (T24) with a tendency to form a 'reticular' structure under 3 dimensional culture conditions were observed in real time. The microenvironment characteristics of paracrine interactions and cell motility were successfully simulated in this system. The phenotype change process in stromal cells was successfully reproduced in this system by testing the macrophage effector molecule Arg-1. Arg-1 was highly expressed in the simulated tumor microenvironment group. To develop "precision medicine" in bladder cancer therapy, bladder cancer cells were treated with different clinical 'neo-adjuvant' chemotherapy schemes in this system, and their sensitivity differences were fully reflected. This work provides a preliminary foundation for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in bladder cancer, a theoretical foundation for tumor microenvironment simulation and promotes individual therapy in bladder cancer patients.

  16. Psychosocial and Cultural Modeling in Human Computation Systems: A Gamification Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Haack, Jereme N.; Butner, R. Scott

    2013-11-20

    “Gamification”, the application of gameplay to real-world problems, enables the development of human computation systems that support decision-making through the integration of social and machine intelligence. One of gamification’s major benefits includes the creation of a problem solving environment where the influence of cognitive and cultural biases on human judgment can be curtailed through collaborative and competitive reasoning. By reducing biases on human judgment, gamification allows human computation systems to exploit human creativity relatively unhindered by human error. Operationally, gamification uses simulation to harvest human behavioral data that provide valuable insights for the solution of real-world problems.

  17. Delineating Cultural Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    cultural models of illness, mind, and body in stories concerning the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Social Science and Medicine, 38(6), 775-788...includes a ba- sic description of the research effort, an in-depth review regarding research on opinion dynam- ics, a bibliography of collected research...et al., (2008) Salzarulo, (2006) Description Opinion is a binary state Opinion is one value from a finite discrete set Opinion is a set of

  18. Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Jason E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a global level beyond known immune signaling cascades. Results In the present study, we employed a multivariate modeling approach to characterize and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks between these three model systems after infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype. Using this approach we identified functions and pathways that display similar behavior and/or regulation including the well-studied impact on the interferon response and the inflammasome. Our results also suggest a primary response role for airway epithelial cells in initiating hypercytokinemia, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses. We further demonstrate that we can use a transcriptional regulatory model from the human cell culture data to make highly accurate predictions about the behavior of important components of the innate immune system in tissues from whole organisms. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a global regulatory network modeling conserved host response between in vitro and in vivo models.

  19. A Model of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a Three-Dimensional Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Toshio; Hoshika, Yoshito; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Mitani, Keiko; Okura, Makiko K; Hong, Young Kwon; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a tumor consisting of benign-looking neoplastic cells, but its wretched clinical outcome often resembles a malignant disease. LAM cell clusters (LCCs), unique microstructures commonly found in LAM-associated chylous effusion, are aggregates of LAM cells rimmed by lymphatic endothelium. LCCs seem to be crucial participants in the dissemination and progression of LAM. LCCs isolated from LAM-associated chylous effusion were embedded in a three-dimensional (3-D) culture gels, and then placed in a humidified CO2 incubator. During serial observations of their morphological changes, we found tube formations with lymphatic endothelial cells when LCCs settled side by side in 3-D gels. On the other hand, when LCCs were embedded separately enough to be isolated at their initial sites of settlement in the gels, each of LCCs gradually broke down, leaving a "cyst-like" hole after 7 days at the site where LCCs initially resided. Finally, we demonstrated that "cyst-like" hole formation in 3-D gels was inhibited with treatment with doxycycline or recombinant human VEGF receptor-3. We consider that our observation of this sequence in vitro illustrates how LCCs behave in vivo while enacting their important role in the progression of LAM. Our results indicate that the 3-D gel culture system for LCCs is a useful tool for exploring the effects of new therapeutic drugs under conditions when LCCs are constantly available.

  20. Culture and Social Systems Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Talcott

    1972-01-01

    A brief statement of the history of the relation between culture concepts is given, then, proceeding on the assumption that all human societies are interpenetrated with culture, the author attempts a relatively systematic outline of the structure of cultural systems and of their modes of articulation in social systems. (JB)

  1. Culture and Social Systems Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Talcott

    1972-01-01

    A brief statement of the history of the relation between culture concepts is given, then, proceeding on the assumption that all human societies are interpenetrated with culture, the author attempts a relatively systematic outline of the structure of cultural systems and of their modes of articulation in social systems. (JB)

  2. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  3. A Mixed-Culture Model of a Probiotic Biofilm Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann J. Eberl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model and computer simulations for the control of a pathogenic biofilm by a probiotic biofilm. This is a substantial extension of a previous model of control of a pathogenic biofilm by microbial control agents that are suspended in the aqueous bulk phase (H. Khassehkhan and H.J. Eberl, Comp. Math. Meth. Med, 9(1 (2008, pp. 47–67. The mathematical model is a system of double-degenerate diffusion–reaction equations for the microbial biomass fractions probiotics, pathogens and inert bacteria, coupled with convection–diffusion–reaction equations for two growth controlling substrates, protonated lactic acids and hydrogen ions (pH. The latter are produced by the bacteria and become detrimental at high concentrations. In simulation studies, we find that the site of attachment of probiotics in the flow channel is crucial for success and efficacy of the probiotic control mechanism.

  4. Pierre Bourdieu's Model of Cultural Reproduction: The Role of Teachers in Sustaining Traditional Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not teachers would predict differing educational outcomes for students based on cultural and social capital measures--drawn from the work of Pierre Bourdieu and the field of cultural reproduction theory. To this end, surveys were distributed within a large urban district within North Carolina.…

  5. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are critically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structure of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attempts to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  6. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Akın

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structue of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attemps to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  7. Correlation between enzyme activity and substrate storage in a cell culture model system for Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, U H; Kolter, T; Kaneski, C R; Zirzow, G C; Sandhoff, K; Brady, R O

    2004-01-01

    Gaucher disease, the most common sphingolipidosis, is caused by a decreased activity of glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase, resulting in the accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophage-derived cells known as Gaucher cells. Much of the storage material is thought to originate from the turnover of cell membranes, such as phagocytosed red and white blood cells. In this study, an in vitro model of Gaucher disease was developed by treating the murine macrophage cell line J774 with a specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase, conduritol B-epoxide, and feeding red blood cell ghosts, in order to mimic the disease state. It was found in this model system that glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase activity could be reduced to about 11-15% of the normal control level before increased storage of glucosylceramide occurred. This in vitro system allows insight into the correlation between enzyme activity and lipid storage as predicted by the theory of residual enzyme activity that was proposed by Conzelmann and Sandhoff.

  8. Cultured neurons as model systems for biochemical and pharmacological studies on receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, A; Drejer, J; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1985-01-01

    By the use of primary cultures of neurons consisting of cerebral cortex interneurons or cerebellar granule cells it is possible to study biochemical and pharmacological aspects of receptors for GABA and glutamate. Cerebellar granule cells have been shown to express both high- and low-affinity GAB...

  9. Characterization of chemical-induced sterile inflammation in vitro: application of the model compound ketoconazole in a human hepatic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewering, Franziska; Jouy, Florent; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Gebauer, Scarlett; Blüher, Matthias; Gebhardt, Rolf; Pirow, Ralph; von Bergen, Martin; Kalkhof, Stefan; Luch, Andreas; Zellmer, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Liver injury as a result of a sterile inflammation is closely linked to the activation of immune cells, including macrophages, by damaged hepatocytes. This interaction between immune cells and hepatocytes is as yet not considered in any of the in vitro test systems applied during the generation of new drugs. Here, we established and characterized a novel in vitro co-culture model with two human cell lines, HepG2 and differentiated THP-1. Ketoconazole, an antifungal drug known for its hepatotoxicity, was used as a model compound in the testing of the co-culture. Single cultures of HepG2 and THP-1 cells were studied as controls. Different metabolism patterns of ketoconazole were observed for the single and co-culture incubations as well as for the different cell types. The main metabolite N-deacetyl ketoconazole was found in cell pellets, but not in supernatants of cell cultures. Global proteome analysis showed that the NRF2-mediated stress response and the CXCL8 (IL-8) pathway were induced by ketoconazole treatment under co-culture conditions. The upregulation and ketoconazole-induced secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including CXCL8, TNF-α and CCL3, was observed in the co-culture system only, but not in single cell cultures. Taking together, we provide evidence that the co-culture model applied might be suitable to serve as tool for the prediction of chemical-induced sterile inflammation in liver tissue in vivo.

  10. The effects of hypokalaemia on the hormone exocytosis in adenohypophysis and prolactinoma cell culture model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Z; Pálföldi, R; László, A; Radács, M; László, M; Hausinger, P; Tiszlavicz, L; Rázga, Z; Valkusz, Z; Gálfi, M

    2014-11-01

    The extracellular ion milieu determines the exocytosis mechanism that is coupled to spontaneous electrical activity. The K(+) ion plays crucial role in this mechanism: as the potassium current is associated with membrane hyperpolarization and hormone release through protein cascade activation. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the response mechanisms of normal adenohypophysis and adenohypophyseal prolactinoma cell populations at different extracellular K(+) levels with an otherwise isoionic milieu of all other essential ions. We focused on prolactin (PRL) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) release.In our experimental study, female Wistar rats (n=20) were treated with estrone-acetate (150 μg/kg b.w./week) for 6 months to induce prolactinomas in the adenohypophysis. Primary, monolayer cell cultures were prepared by enzymatic and mechanical digestion. PRL and ACTH hormone presence was measured by radioimmunoassay or immuno-chemiluminescence assay. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess the apoptotic cells.Differences between the effects of hypokalaemia on normal adenohypophysis cultures and prolactinoma cell populations were investigated. Significant alteration (pprolactinoma cell cultures compared to untreated groups. Immunocyto-chemistry showed that Bcl-2 expression was reduced under hypokalaemic conditions.The decrease in hormone exocytosis was tightly correlated to the extracellular K(+) in both cell types, leading to the conclusion that external K(+) may be the major factor for the inhibition of hormone release. The significant increase in hormone content in supernatant media suggests that hypokalaemia may play important role in apoptosis.

  11. Computational Modeling of Culture's Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to formalize the influence of culture on the decision functions of agents in social simulations. The key components are (a) a definition of the domain of study in the form of a decision model, (b) knowledge acquisition based on a dimensional theory of culture, resulti

  12. Culture systems: embryo density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Embryo density is defined as the embryo-to-volume ratio achieved during in vitro culture; in other words, it is the number of embryos in a defined volume of culture medium. The same density can be achieved by manipulating either the number of embryos in a given volume of medium, or manipulating the volume of the medium for a given number of embryos: for example, a microdrop with five embryos in a 50 μl volume under oil has the same embryo-to-volume ratio (1:10 μl) as a microdrop with one embryo in a 10 μl volume under oil (1:10 μl). Increased embryo density can improve mammalian embryo development in vitro; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect may be different with respect to which method is used to increase embryo density.Standard, flat sterile plastic petri dishes are the most common, traditional platform for embryo culture. Microdrops under a mineral oil overlay can be prepared to control embryo density, but it is critical that dish preparation is consistent, where appropriate techniques are applied to prevent microdrop dehydration during preparation, and results of any data collection are reliable, and repeatable. There are newer dishes available from several manufacturers that are specifically designed for embryo culture; most are readily available for use with human embryos. The concept behind these newer dishes relies on fabrication of conical and smaller volume wells into the dish design, so that embryos rest at the lowest point in the wells, and where putative embryotrophic factors may concentrate.Embryo density is not usually considered by the embryologist as a technique in and of itself; rather, the decision to culture embryos in groups or individually is protocol-driven, and is based more on convenience or the need to collect data on individual embryos. Embryo density can be controlled, and as such, it can be utilized as a simple, yet effective tool to improve in vitro development of human embryos.

  13. Anaerobic co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells and anaerobic pathogens - a new in vitro model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Kriebel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are multipotent by nature and are originally isolated from bone marrow. In light of a future application of hMSCs in the oral cavity, a body compartment with varying oxygen partial pressures and an omnipresence of different bacterial species i.e. periodontitis pathogens, we performed this study to gain information about the behavior of hMSC in an anaerobic system and the response in interaction with oral bacterial pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established a model system with oral pathogenic bacterial species and eukaryotic cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. The facultative anaerobe bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were studied. Their effects on hMSCs and primary as well as permanent gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22, HGPEC were comparatively analyzed. We show that hMSCs cope with anoxic conditions, since 40% vital cells remain after 72 h of anaerobic culture. The Ca9-22 and HGPEC cells are significantly more sensitive to lack of oxygen. All bacterial species reveal a comparatively low adherence to and internalization into hMSCs (0.2% and 0.01% of the initial inoculum, respectively. In comparison, the Ca9-22 and HGPEC cells present better targets for bacterial adherence and internalization. The production of the pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 is higher in both gingival epithelial cell lines compared to hMSCs and Fusobacterium nucleatum induce a time-dependent cytokine secretion in both cell lines. Porphyromonas gingivalis is less effective in stimulating secretion of IL-8 in the co-cultivation experiments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HMSCs are suitable for use in anoxic regions of the oral cavity. The interaction with local pathogenic bacteria does not result in massive pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. The test system established in this study allowed further investigation of parameters prior to set up of

  14. A bladder cancer microenvironment simulation system based on a microfluidic co-culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng-Fei; Cao, Yan-wei; Zhang, Shu-Dong; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Xiao-guang; Shi, Hao-qing; Hu, Ke-yao; Zhu, Guan-qun; Ma, Bo; Niu, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    A tumor microenvironment may promote tumor metastasis and progression through the dynamic interplay between neoplastic cells and stromal cells. In this work, the most representative and significant stromal cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages were used as vital component elements and combined with bladder cancer cells to construct a bladder cancer microenvironment simulation system. This is the first report to explore bladder cancer microenvironments based on 4 types of cell...

  15. Applying of an Ontology based Modeling Approach to Cultural Heritage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOVICI, D.-M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Any virtual environment (VE built in a classical way is dedicated to a very specific domain. Its modification or even adaptation to another domain requires an expensive human intervention measured in time and money. This way, the product, that means the VE, returns at the first phases of the development process. In a previous work we proposed an approach that combines domain ontologies and conceptual modeling to construct more accurate VEs. Our method is based on the description of the domain knowledge in a standard format and the assisted creation (using these pieces of knowledge of the VE. This permits the explanation within the virtual reality (VR simulation of the semantic of the whole context and of each object. This knowledge may be then transferred to the public users. In this paper we prove the effectiveness of our method on the construction process of an VE that simulates the organization of a Greek-Roman colony situated on the Black Sea coast and the economic and social activities of its people.

  16. A complex 3D human tissue culture system based on mammary stromal cells and silk scaffolds for modeling breast morphogenesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Sun, Lin; Maffini, Maricel V; Soto, Ana; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Kaplan, David L

    2010-05-01

    Epithelial-stromal interactions play a crucial role in normal embryonic development and carcinogenesis of the human breast while the underlying mechanisms of these events remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we constructed a physiologically relevant, three-dimensional (3D) culture surrogate of complex human breast tissue that included a tri-culture system made up of human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A), human fibroblasts and adipocytes, i.e., the two dominant breast stromal cell types, in a Matrigel/collagen mixture on porous silk protein scaffolds. The presence of stromal cells inhibited MCF10A cell proliferation and induced both alveolar and ductal morphogenesis and enhanced casein expression. In contrast to the immature polarity exhibited by co-cultures with either fibroblasts or adipocytes, the alveolar structures formed by the tri-cultures exhibited proper polarity similar to that observed in breast tissue in vivo. Only alveolar structures with reverted polarity were observed in MCF10A monocultures. Consistent with their phenotypic appearance, more functional differentiation of epithelial cells was also observed in the tri-cultures, where casein alpha- and -beta mRNA expression was significantly increased. This in vitro tri-culture breast tissue system sustained on silk scaffold effectively represents a more physiologically relevant 3D microenvironment for mammary epithelial cells and stromal cells than either co-cultures or monocultures. This experimental model provides an important first step for bioengineering an informative human breast tissue system, with which to study normal breast morphogenesis and neoplastic transformation.

  17. Fluid Dynamic Modeling to Support the Development of Flow-based Hepatocyte Culture Systems for Metabolism Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M Pedersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve in vivo extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on in vitro test results. These more physiologically relevant culture systems hold potential for extending metabolic competence of primary hepatocyte cultures as well. In this investigation, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD to determine the optimal design of a flow-based hepatocyte culture system for evaluating chemical metabolism in vitro. The main design goals were 1 minimization of shear stress experienced by the cells to maximize viability, 2 rapid establishment of a uniform distribution of test compound in the chamber, and 3 delivery of sufficient oxygen to cells to support aerobic respiration. Two commercially available flow devices — RealBio® (RB and QuasiVivo® (QV — and a custom developed fluidized bed (FB bioreactor were simulated, and turbulence, flow characteristics, test compound distribution, oxygen distribution, and cellular oxygen consumption were analyzed. Experimental results from the bioreactors were used to validate the simulation results.Our results indicate that maintaining adequate oxygen supply is the most important factor to the long-term viability of liver bioreactor cultures. Cell density and system flow patterns were the major determinants of local oxygen concentrations. The experimental results closely corresponded to the in silico predictions. Of the three bioreactors examined in this study, we were able

  18. Fluid Dynamic Modeling to Support the Development of Flow-Based Hepatocyte Culture Systems for Metabolism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jenny M.; Shim, Yoo-Sik; Hans, Vaibhav; Phillips, Martin B.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Walker, Glenn; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Yoon, Miyoung

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve in vivo extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on in vitro test results. These more physiologically relevant culture systems hold potential for extending metabolic competence of primary hepatocyte cultures as well. In this investigation, we used computational fluid dynamics to determine the optimal design of a flow-based hepatocyte culture system for evaluating chemical metabolism in vitro. The main design goals were (1) minimization of shear stress experienced by the cells to maximize viability, (2) rapid establishment of a uniform distribution of test compound in the chamber, and (3) delivery of sufficient oxygen to cells to support aerobic respiration. Two commercially available flow devices – RealBio® and QuasiVivo® (QV) – and a custom developed fluidized bed bioreactor were simulated, and turbulence, flow characteristics, test compound distribution, oxygen distribution, and cellular oxygen consumption were analyzed. Experimental results from the bioreactors were used to validate the simulation results. Our results indicate that maintaining adequate oxygen supply is the most important factor to the long-term viability of liver bioreactor cultures. Cell density and system flow patterns were the major determinants of local oxygen concentrations. The experimental results closely corresponded to the in silico predictions. Of the three bioreactors examined in this study, we were able to optimize the experimental

  19. Managing organizational culture within a management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comeau, L.; Watts, G. [New Brunswick Power Nuclear, Point Lepreau Generating Station, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) is currently undergoing a major refurbishment of its nuclear reactor. At the same time, a small team is designing the organization that will operate the plant after refurbishment. This paper offers a high level overview of the Post-Refurbishment Organization (PRO) project and will focus primarily on the approach used to address organizational culture and human system dynamics. We will describe how various tools, used to assess organization culture, team performance, and individual self-understanding, are used collectively to place the right person in the right position. We will explain how the career system, Pathfinder, is used to integrate these tools to support a comprehensive model for organization design and development. Finally, we demonstrate how the management of organizational cultural and human system dynamics are integrated into the PLGS Integrated Management System. (author)

  20. [Bacteria ecology in planting-culturing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fenglian; Xia, Beicheng; Dai, Xin; Chen, Guizhu

    2004-06-01

    Planting-culturing system in inter-tidal zone is a new type eco-culturing model. The survey on bacteria biomass and water quality in the designed planting-culturing system in inter-tidal zone showed that the mangrove planted in the system improved water quality and made water quality to II-III type, better than the IV and V type in the control pond. Designed ponds made heterotrophic bacteria, vibrio, phosphorus bacteria and enzyme-producing bacteria populations 1-2 order lower than the control pond without mongrove planting. Correlation analyses with CORREL software showed that the biomass of these bacteria was positively related with the nitrogen and phosphorus contents in water of the system, and the correlation coefficient for heterogeneous bacteria and vibrio was up to 0.9205. Heterotrophic bacteria and vibrio could be used as the water-quality monitoring organisms.

  1. Cultural models of linguistic standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Geeraerts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In line with well-known trends in cultural theory (see Burke et al., 2000, Cognitive Linguistics has stressed the idea that we think about social reality in terms of models – ‘cultural models’ or ‘folk theories’: from Holland & Quinn (1987 over Lakoff (1996 and Palmer (1996 to Dirven et al. (2001a, 2001b, Cognitive linguists have demonstrated how the technical apparatus of Cognitive Linguistics can be used to analyze how our conception of social reality is shaped by underlying patterns of thought. But if language is a social and cultural reality, what are the models that shape our conception of language? Specifically, what are the models that shape our thinking about language as a social phenomenon? What are the paradigms that we use to think about language, not primarily in terms of linguistic structure (as in Reddy 1979, but in terms of linguistic variation: models about the way in which language varieties are distributed over a language community and about the way in which such distribution should be evaluated?In this paper, I will argue that two basic models may be identified: a rationalist and a romantic one. I will chart the ways in which they interact, describe how they are transformed in the course of time, and explore how the models can be used in the analysis of actual linguistic variation.

  2. Culture systems: embryo culture and monozygotic twinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of monozygotic twinning in pregnancies achieved with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is significantly higher than spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The factors associated with ART that predispose the embryos to splitting are not well-characterized. Assisted hatching and extended embryo culture are two ART laboratory methods that have been risk factors for monozygotic twinning. The methods and strategies that may be employed to avoid monozygotic twinning are discussed in this chapter.

  3. Modeling long-term host cell-Giardia lamblia interactions in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bridget S; Estraño, Carlos E; Cole, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there are greater than 700,000 deaths per year associated with diarrheal disease. The flagellated intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is one of the most common intestinal pathogens in both humans and animals throughout the world. While attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium, Giardia induces epithelial cell apoptosis, disrupts tight junctions, and increases intestinal permeability. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of giardiasis, including the role lamina propria immune cells, such as macrophages, play in parasite control or clearance are poorly understood. Thus far, one of the major obstacles in ascertaining the mechanisms of Giardia pathology is the lack of a functionally relevant model for the long-term study of the parasite in vitro. Here we report on the development of an in vitro co-culture model which maintains the basolateral-apical architecture of the small intestine and allows for long-term survival of the parasite. Using transwell inserts, Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and IC-21 macrophages are co-cultured in the presence of Giardia trophozoites. Using the developed model, we show that Giardia trophozoites survive over 21 days and proliferate in a combination media of Caco-2 cell and Giardia medium. Giardia induces apoptosis of epithelial cells through caspase-3 activation and macrophages do not abrogate this response. Additionally, macrophages induce Caco-2 cells to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines, GRO and IL-8, a response abolished by Giardia indicating parasite induced suppression of the host immune response. The co-culture model provides additional complexity and information when compared to a single-cell model. This model will be a valuable tool for answering long-standing questions on host-parasite biology that may lead to discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  4. Modeling long-term host cell-Giardia lamblia interactions in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget S Fisher

    Full Text Available Globally, there are greater than 700,000 deaths per year associated with diarrheal disease. The flagellated intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is one of the most common intestinal pathogens in both humans and animals throughout the world. While attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium, Giardia induces epithelial cell apoptosis, disrupts tight junctions, and increases intestinal permeability. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of giardiasis, including the role lamina propria immune cells, such as macrophages, play in parasite control or clearance are poorly understood. Thus far, one of the major obstacles in ascertaining the mechanisms of Giardia pathology is the lack of a functionally relevant model for the long-term study of the parasite in vitro. Here we report on the development of an in vitro co-culture model which maintains the basolateral-apical architecture of the small intestine and allows for long-term survival of the parasite. Using transwell inserts, Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and IC-21 macrophages are co-cultured in the presence of Giardia trophozoites. Using the developed model, we show that Giardia trophozoites survive over 21 days and proliferate in a combination media of Caco-2 cell and Giardia medium. Giardia induces apoptosis of epithelial cells through caspase-3 activation and macrophages do not abrogate this response. Additionally, macrophages induce Caco-2 cells to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines, GRO and IL-8, a response abolished by Giardia indicating parasite induced suppression of the host immune response. The co-culture model provides additional complexity and information when compared to a single-cell model. This model will be a valuable tool for answering long-standing questions on host-parasite biology that may lead to discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  5. Integrated Safety Culture Model and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪磊; 孙瑞山; 刘汉辉

    2009-01-01

    A new safety culture model is constructed and is applied to analyze the correlations between safety culture and SMS. On the basis of previous typical definitions, models and theories of safety culture, an in-depth analysis on safety culture's structure, composing elements and their correlations was conducted. A new definition of safety culture was proposed from the perspective of sub-cuhure. 7 types of safety sub-culture, which are safety priority culture, standardizing culture, flexible culture, learning culture, teamwork culture, reporting culture and justice culture were defined later. Then integrated safety culture model (ISCM) was put forward based on the definition. The model divided safety culture into intrinsic latency level and extrinsic indication level and explained the potential relationship between safety sub-culture and all safety culture dimensions. Finally in the analyzing of safety culture and SMS, it concluded that positive safety culture is the basis of im-plementing SMS effectively and an advanced SMS will improve safety culture from all around.

  6. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii.

  7. An Improved Culture System for Virus Isolation and Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-chen XIA; Zhi-hong HU; Zhi-juan QIU; Zhong-bin MA; Hua-lin WANG; Fei DENG

    2008-01-01

    Cell culture plays an important role in virology. It provides a platform for the detection and isolation of viruses as well as for the biochemistry and molecular biology based studies of viruses. In the present work, a new system that could permits multiple (different) cell lines to be simultaneously cultured in one dish was developed. In the system, each cell line was cultured in an isolated zone in the same dish or well and the system is therefore called an isolated co-culture system. The usefulness of this novel approach for virus isolation was demonstrated using a model system based on adenovirus.

  8. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  9. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-02-12

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups).

  10. Modular Approach to Designing Computer Cultural Systems: Culture as a Thermodynamic Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland Gilsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture is a complex non-linear system. In order to design computer simulations of cultural systems, it is necessary to break the system down into sub-systems. Human culture is modular. It consists of sets of people that belong to economic units. Access to, and control over matter, energy and information is postulated as the key to development of cultural simulations. Because resources in the real world are patchy, access to and control over resources is expressed in two related arenas: economics (direct control and politics (non-direct control. The best way to create models for cultural ecology/economics lies in an energy-information-economic paradigm based on general systems theory and an understanding of the "thermodynamics" of ecology, or culture as a thermodynamic machine.

  11. Organizational culture diagnosis - a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Ionuţ Constantin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is a key source of competitive advantage. There is a demonstrated relation between organizational culture and organizational performance. This paper reviews previous research in the field and introduce a new model for understanding, diagnosing and changing organizational culture. The main advantage of the new model is based on regarding culture as the management and work practices that are either hindering or helping an organization's bottom line performance.

  12. Safety Cultural Competency Modeling in Nuclear Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Luo, Meiling; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear safety cultural competency model should be supplemented through a bottom-up approach such as behavioral event interview. The developed model, however, is meaningful for determining what should be dealt for enhancing safety cultural competency of nuclear organizations. The more details of the developing process, results, and applications will be introduced later. Organizational culture include safety culture in terms of its organizational characteristics.

  13. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Total soluble proteins (TSP) and culture filtrate (CF) proteins were extracted from the cell culture ... Even though. Arabidopsis provides for an excellent model system for .... stained, destained and imaged using a Molecular Imager PharosFX ... system, are dynamic and heterogeneous, being com- posed of a ...

  14. Towards Culturally-Aware Virtual Agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; André, Elisabeth; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    of different systems using virtual agents need to be considered. Therefore, the authors reflect in this chapter on how virtual agents can help to learn about culture, scan definitions of culture from the social sciences, give an overview on how multiagent systems developed over time and classify the state...... of the art that integrates culture in multiagent systems. In addition, an approach of simulating culture-specific behavior using such a multiagent system is introduced and future trends in enculturating virtual agent systems are outlined....

  15. Pierre Bourdieu's Model of Cultural Reproduction: The Role of Teachers in Sustaining Traditional Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not teachers would predict differing educational outcomes for students based on cultural and social capital measures--drawn from the work of Pierre Bourdieu and the field of cultural reproduction theory. To this end, surveys were distributed within a large urban district within North Carolina.…

  16. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  17. Dental Biofilm and Laboratory Microbial Culture Models for Cariology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollie Yiru Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries form through a complex interaction over time among dental plaque, fermentable carbohydrate, and host factors (including teeth and saliva. As a key factor, dental plaque or biofilm substantially influence the characteristic of the carious lesions. Laboratory microbial culture models are often used because they provide a controllable and constant environment for cariology research. Moreover, they do not have ethical problems associated with clinical studies. The design of the microbial culture model varies from simple to sophisticated according to the purpose of the investigation. Each model is a compromise between the reality of the oral cavity and the simplification of the model. Researchers, however, can still obtain meaningful and useful results from the models they select. Laboratory microbial culture models can be categorized into a closed system and an open system. Models in the closed system have a finite supply of nutrients, and are also simple and cost-effective. Models in the open system enabled the supply of a fresh culture medium and the removal of metabolites and spent culture liquid simultaneously. They provide better regulation of the biofilm growth rate than the models in the closed system. This review paper gives an overview of the dental plaque biofilm and laboratory microbial culture models used for cariology research.

  18. A Dynamic Model of Cultural Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    of study. Their model describes how parents transmit cultural capital to their children and how children convert cultural capital into educational success. It also provides a behavioral framework for interpreting parental investments in cultural capital. The authors review results from existing empirical......The authors draw on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction to develop a formal model of the pathways through which cultural capital acts to enhance children’s educational and socioeconomic success. The authors’ approach brings conceptual and empirical clarity to an important area...

  19. Cultural Policy Implementation: Theoretical Conceptualization and Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Audrone Pauliukeviciute; Alvydas Raipa

    2014-01-01

      Rapidly changing global and technological world, continuous progressive change and cultural transformations determine changes in country's management systems, in separate spheres of public policy and management...

  20. Blooming Again The China Oriental Performing Arts Group is a model for the reform of China's cultural system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2011-01-01

    While Chinese cultural performances are world renowned for their high standards,the difficulties local troupes face in generating adequate revenues from these performances has long stifled the development of China's best performance artists.

  1. Three-dimensional cell culture models for investigating human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Chen, Guomin; Zeng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are physiologically relevant, as they provide reproducible results, experimental flexibility and can be adapted for high-throughput experiments. Moreover, these models bridge the gap between traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and animal models. 3D culture systems have significantly advanced basic cell science and tissue engineering, especially in the fields of cell biology and physiology, stem cell research, regenerative medicine, cancer research, drug discovery, and gene and protein expression studies. In addition, 3D models can provide unique insight into bacteriology, virology, parasitology and host-pathogen interactions. This review summarizes and analyzes recent progress in human virological research with 3D cell culture models. We discuss viral growth, replication, proliferation, infection, virus-host interactions and antiviral drugs in 3D culture models.

  2. A cybernetic model of computerization of the cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Filip

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An e-Europe for all should include the facilitation of European citizens to the cultural heritage of Europe and Mediterranean area. This paper proposes a vision for a transition to complex systems combining IT organizations and cultural institutions. It describes the impact and limits and proposes a preliminary cybernetic model to study the relationship between the organizations implied.

  3. CULTURAL FEATURES SHARED BY INFORMATION SYSTEMS USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Maldonado

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems may arise when organizational culture is not considered in the development of information systems, such as difficulties in system implementation, since users do not accept changes in their work cultures. However, current methodology designs do not contemplate cultural factors. The objective of this investigation was to identify the main cultural features shared by the users of information systems in an Argentinean university. As result of this work it was possible to identify the memes shared by the members of the community selected, and to categorize such memes according to their incidence grade. This work seeks to be an initial step towards the construction of systems that evolve along with the organizational culture they are an integral part of.

  4. A Culture-Sensitive Agent in Kirman's Ant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Heng; Liou, Wen-Ching; Chen, Ting-Yu

    The global financial crisis brought a serious collapse involving a "systemic" meltdown. Internet technology and globalization have increased the chances for interaction between countries and people. The global economy has become more complex than ever before. Mark Buchanan [12] indicated that agent-based computer models will prevent another financial crisis and has been particularly influential in contributing insights. There are two reasons why culture-sensitive agent on the financial market has become so important. Therefore, the aim of this article is to establish a culture-sensitive agent and forecast the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. We based our study on the Kirman's Ant Model[4,5] and Hofstede's Natational Culture[11] to establish our culture-sensitive agent based model. Kirman's Ant Model is quite famous and describes financial market herding behavior from the expectations of the future of financial investors. Hofstede's cultural consequence used the staff of IBM in 72 different countries to understand the cultural difference. As a result, this paper focuses on one of the five dimensions of culture from Hofstede: individualism versus collectivism and creates a culture-sensitive agent and predicts the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. To conclude, this study will be of importance in explaining the herding behavior with cultural factors, as well as in providing researchers with a clearer understanding of how herding beliefs of people about different cultures relate to their finance market strategies.

  5. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T Mark; Barr, Dale J; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-08-07

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems.

  6. Culture systems: mineral oil overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Leonard, Phoebe H

    2012-01-01

    Mineral oil overlay microdrop is commonly used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. Though mineral oil appears homogeneous, it is an undefined product that can vary in quality. Here, we describe the history, chemistry, processing, and optimal use of mineral oil for IVF and embryo culture.

  7. Inferring cultural models from corpus data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    developed methods of inferring cultural models from observed behavior – in particular observed verbal behavior (including both spoken and written language). While there are plenty of studies of the reflection of cultural models in artificially generated verbal behavior, not much research has been made...... of constructional discursive behavior, the present paper offers a covarying collexeme analysis of the [too ADJ to V]-construction in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The purpose is to discover the extent to which its force-dynamic constructional semantics interacts with cultural models. We focus...

  8. A Dynamic Model of Cultural Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier; Breen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The authors draw on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction to develop a formal model of the pathways through which cultural capital acts to enhance children’s educational and socioeconomic success. The authors’ approach brings conceptual and empirical clarity to an important area of st...

  9. Multi-Level Cultural Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-05

    people, groups, ideas and beliefs in a complex web of relations that changes through time and space. If we are to explain and predict socio-cultural... scraped from Lexis-Nexis covering 16 countries for 20 months from August 2010 through March 2012. This data was segmented by country by month...country a generalized other was added to represent the general public and this was linked to the average of the real data. Using web -based reviews

  10. Investigation of acetaminophen toxicity in HepG2/C3a microscale cultures using a system biology model of glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Eric; Hamon, Jeremy; Claude, Isabelle; Jellali, Rachid; Naudot, Marie; Bois, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    We have integrated in vitro and in silico information to investigate acetaminophen (APAP) and its metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) toxicity in liver biochip. In previous works, we observed higher cytotoxicity of HepG2/C3a cultivated in biochips when exposed to 1 mM of APAP for 72 h as compared to Petri cultures. We complete our investigation with the present in silico approach to extend the mechanistic interpretation of the intracellular kinetics of the toxicity process. For that purpose, we propose a mathematical model based on the coupling of a drug pharmacokinetic model (PK) with a systemic biology model (SB) describing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NAPQI and the subsequent glutathione (GSH) depletion. The SB model was parameterized using (i) transcriptomic data, (ii) qualitative results of time lapses ROS fluorescent curves for both control and 1-mM APAP-treated experiments, and (iii) additional GSH literature data. The PK model was parameterized (i) using the in vitro kinetic data (at 160 μM, 1 mM, 10 mM), (ii) using the parameters resulting from a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) literature model for APAP, and (iii) by literature data describing NAPQI formation. The PK-SB model predicted a ROS increase and GSH depletion due to the NAPQI formation. The transition from a detoxification phase and NAPQI and ROS accumulation was predicted for a NAPQI concentration ranging between 0.025 and 0.25 μM in the cytosol. In parallel, we performed a dose response analysis in biochips that shows a reduction of the final hepatic cell number appeared in agreement with the time and doses associated with the switch of the NAPQI detoxification/accumulation. As a result, we were able to correlate in vitro extracellular APAP exposures with an intracellular in silico ROS accumulation using an integration of a coupled mathematical and experimental liver on chip approach.

  11. AlgiMatrix™-Based 3D Cell Culture System as an In Vitro Tumor Model: An Important Tool in Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godugu, Chandraiah; Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    Routinely used two-dimensional cell culture-based models often fail while translating the observations into in vivo models. This setback is more common in cancer research, due to several reasons. The extracellular matrix and cell-to-cell interactions are not present in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models. Diffusion of drug molecules into cancer cells is hindered by barriers of extracellular components in in vivo conditions, these barriers are absent in 2D cell culture models. To better mimic or simulate the in vivo conditions present in tumors, the current study used the alginate based three-dimensional cell culture (AlgiMatrix™) model, which resembles close to the in vivo tumor models. The current study explains the detailed protocols involved in AlgiMatrix™ based in vitro non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models. The suitability of this model was studied by evaluating, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and penetration of nanoparticles into the in vitro tumor spheroids. This study also demonstrated the effect of EphA2 receptor targeted docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles on MDA-MB-468 TNBC cell lines. The methods section is subdivided into three subsections such as (1) preparation of AlgiMatrix™-based 3D in vitro tumor models and cytotoxicity assays, (2) free drug and nanoparticle uptake into spheroid studies, and (3) western blot, IHC, and RT-PCR studies.

  12. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  13. Culture in Transition: A learning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan

    2010-01-01

    of spare capacity, desire, focus, and information. By integrating the element of culture, both in the organizational sense and that pertaining to diversity, otherwise overseen aspects of transition are brought into view, with the potential of reducing stress and increasing job satisfaction. The model......This paper addresses the problem of resistance to attempted changes in organizational culture, particularly those involving diversity, by 1) identifying precisely what is meant by organizational as opposed to societal culture, 2) developing a theoretical model of learning useful in contexts...... of organizational transition, and 3) demonstrating the efficacy of the model by using it to explain empirical research findings. It is argued that learning new cultural currency involves the use of active intelligence to locate and answer relevant questions, and further that this process requires the interplay...

  14. Mechanically loaded ex vivo bone culture system 'Zetos': Systems and culture preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Davies

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the culture preparation of ovine, bovine and human cancellous bone cores to be used in an explants model Zetos. The three dimensional (3D bone cores were prepared and evaluated for all three animals. Bone cells in vivo constantly interact with each other, migratory cells, surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM and interstitial fluid in a microenvironment, which continuously responds to various endogenous and exogenous stimuli. The Zetos system was designed to culture and mechanically load viable cancellous bone explants in their near natural microenvironment. This 3D ex vivo system bridges the current gap between in vitro and in vivo methods. One aim of this work was to compare the macro and micro-architecture of ovine, bovine and human cancellous bone tissue in preparation for culture within the Zetos system in order to determine the optimal source of experimental material. A second aim was to optimise the preparations of the bone cores as well as develop techniques involved during tissue maintenance. Bone core response was visualised using histological and immunohistochemical methods. The results demonstrate that cancellous bone explants vary greatly in trabecular density and bone volume depending on species, age and location. Sheep and human samples displayed the greatest variation between bones cores when compared to bovine. Even cores taken from the same animal possessed very different characteristics. The histology demonstrated normal bone and cell structure after the core preparation. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated antigen retention after preparation methods.

  15. A novel blood-brain barrier co-culture system for drug targeting of Alzheimer's disease: establishment by using acitretin as a model drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Freese

    Full Text Available In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP processing in the brain is impaired. The expression of the competing proteases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 and BACE-1 (beta site APP cleaving enzyme 1 is shifted in favor of the A-beta generating enzyme BACE-1. Acitretin--a synthetic retinoid-e.g., has been shown to increase ADAM10 gene expression, resulting in a decreased level of A-beta peptides within the brain of AD model mice and thus is of possible value for AD therapy. A striking challenge in evaluating novel therapeutically applicable drugs is the analysis of their potential to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB for central nervous system targeting. In this study, we established a novel cell-based bio-assay model to test ADAM10-inducing drugs for their ability to cross the BBB. We therefore used primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y transfected with an ADAM10-promoter luciferase reporter vector in an indirect co-culture system. Acitretin served as a model substance that crosses the BBB and induces ADAM10 expression. We ensured that ADAM10-dependent constitutive APP metabolism in the neuronal cells was unaffected under co-cultivation conditions. Barrier properties established by PBECs were augmented by co-cultivation with SH-SY5Y cells and they remained stable during the treatment with acitretin as demonstrated by electrical resistance measurement and permeability-coefficient determination. As a consequence of transcellular acitretin transport measured by HPLC, the activity of the ADAM10-promoter reporter gene was significantly increased in co-cultured neuronal cells as compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the present study, we provide a new bio-assay system relevant for the study of drug targeting of AD. This bio-assay can easily be adapted to analyze other Alzheimer- or CNS disease-relevant targets in neuronal cells

  16. A novel blood-brain barrier co-culture system for drug targeting of Alzheimer's disease: establishment by using acitretin as a model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Christian; Reinhardt, Sven; Hefner, Gudrun; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James; Endres, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in the brain is impaired. The expression of the competing proteases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE-1 (beta site APP cleaving enzyme 1) is shifted in favor of the A-beta generating enzyme BACE-1. Acitretin--a synthetic retinoid-e.g., has been shown to increase ADAM10 gene expression, resulting in a decreased level of A-beta peptides within the brain of AD model mice and thus is of possible value for AD therapy. A striking challenge in evaluating novel therapeutically applicable drugs is the analysis of their potential to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for central nervous system targeting. In this study, we established a novel cell-based bio-assay model to test ADAM10-inducing drugs for their ability to cross the BBB. We therefore used primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with an ADAM10-promoter luciferase reporter vector in an indirect co-culture system. Acitretin served as a model substance that crosses the BBB and induces ADAM10 expression. We ensured that ADAM10-dependent constitutive APP metabolism in the neuronal cells was unaffected under co-cultivation conditions. Barrier properties established by PBECs were augmented by co-cultivation with SH-SY5Y cells and they remained stable during the treatment with acitretin as demonstrated by electrical resistance measurement and permeability-coefficient determination. As a consequence of transcellular acitretin transport measured by HPLC, the activity of the ADAM10-promoter reporter gene was significantly increased in co-cultured neuronal cells as compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the present study, we provide a new bio-assay system relevant for the study of drug targeting of AD. This bio-assay can easily be adapted to analyze other Alzheimer- or CNS disease-relevant targets in neuronal cells, as their

  17. [Development of novel culture system using nano-biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Akiyoshi; Wada, Ken-ichi; Ohno, Maki

    2010-04-01

    We have developed two cell culture systems for use in pharmaceutical research using nano-biotechnology. First, we developed a double layered co-culture system using cell sheet technology, and showed that in a layered co-culture system with HepG2 and bovine endothelial cells, the expression levels of various cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes were significantly increased compared to monolayer cultured HepG2 cells. In the layered HepG2 co-culture, expression of the CYP2C and CYP3A family genes was induced by phenobarbital treatment. We also detected CYP3A4 enzyme induction using this co-culture system. Next, we developed sensor cells. Living cells maintain homeostasis by responding quickly and with great sensitivity to changes in the external environment. Consequently, sensors using cells as active elements are thought to be able to perform analyses faster and with more sensitivity than previous methods. We have modified mammalian cells using genetic engineering techniques to develop next-generation cell sensors that can visually represent specific reactions. We successfully produced devices using sensor cells that can process a variety of specimens using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS), Nano-Electro-Mechanical System (NEMS), and other nano/micro processing technologies. These systems may serve as a useful model for in vitro pharmacological studies on the coordinated regulation of metabolism and cytotoxicity. In this review, we introduce our research and describe recent trends in this field.

  18. Modeling the genealogy of a cultural trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elliot; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of individuals, a cultural common ancestor does not necessarily exist. We then introduce a related concept: the most recent unique ancestor (MRUA), i.e., the most recent single individual who is the earliest cultural ancestor of the sample. We show that, under neutral evolution, the time to the MRUA can be staggeringly larger than the time to MRCA in a single ancestor model, except when the average number of learning opportunities per individuals is small. Our results point out that the properties of cultural genealogies may be very different from those of genetic genealogies, with potential implications for reconstructing the histories of cultural traits.

  19. Biological responses of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs in an innovative co-culture model with Streptococcus mitis to thermosets coated with a silver polysaccharide antimicrobial system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sancilio

    Full Text Available This study sought to evaluate the in vitro biological response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs co-coltured with Streptococcus mitis to bisphenol A glycidylmethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA/TEGDMA thermosets coated with Chitlac-nAg, a nanocomposite system with antimicrobial properties. To avoid bacterial adhesion to dental devices and to reduce cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells, we coated BisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylic thermosets with a new material, Chitlac-nAg, formed by stabilizing silver nanoparticles, which have well-known antimicrobial properties, with a polyelectrolyte solution containing Chitlac. Cytotoxicity, cell morphology, cell migration and inflammatory interleukine-6 (IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 secretion were evaluated. Our results showed that the cytotoxicity exerted on HGFs by our nanocomposite material was absent in our co-culture model, where fibroblasts are able to adhere and migrate. After 24 h thermosets coated with Chitlac as well as those coated with Chitlac-nAg exerted a minimal cytotoxic effect on HGFs, while after 48 h LDH release rises up 20%. Moreover the presence of S. mitis reduced this release in a greater amount with Chitlac-nAg coated thermosets. The secretion of IL-6 was significant in both Chitlac and Chitlac-nAg coated thermosets, but PGE2 production was minimal, suggesting that the IL-6 production was not related to an inflammatory response. Co-culture and the addiction of saliva did not influence IL-6 and PGE2 secretion. Data obtained in the present work suggest that Chitlac n-Ag coated thermosets could significantly improve the success rates of restorative dentistry, since they limit bacterial adhesion and are not toxic to HGFs.

  20. Creating a culture for information systems success

    CERN Document Server

    Belkhamza, Zakariya

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely reported that issues related to organizational context appear frequently in discussions of information systems success. The statement that the information system did not fit the behavioral context in an organization is often part of the explanation of why particular information system encountered unanticipated resistance and never met expectation. While this context has been intensively studied, we still lack evidence on how this organizational context is affecting the success of information system from a managerial action perspective. This type of managerial involvement is often neglected to the extent that it became an essential obstacle to organizational performance. The objective of Creating a Culture for Information Systems Success is to assist CIOs and IT managers on how to use their managerial actions to create a suitable cultural environment in the organization, which leads to a successful implementation of information systems. This  book will also provide guidelines fo...

  1. What is culture in «cultural economy»? Defining culture to create measurable models in cultural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of culture is somewhat vague and ambiguous for the formal goals of economics. The aim of this paper is to define the notion of culture better so as to help build economic explanations based on culture and therefore to measure its impact in every activity or beliefs associated with culture. To define culture according to the canonical evolutionary definition, it is any kind of ritualised behaviour that becomes meaningful for a group and that remains more or less constant and is transmitted down through the generations. Economic institutions are founded, implicitly or explicitly, on a worldview of how humans function; culture is an essential part of understanding us as humans, making it necessary to describe what we understand by culture correctly. In this paper we review the literature on evolutionary anthropology and psychology dealing with the concept of culture to warn that economic modelling ignores intangible benefits of culture rendering economics unable to measure certain cultural items in the digital consumer society.

  2. The optimization of regeneration tissue culture system of three chilli peppers cultivars based on the uniform design and the mathematical model equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingzhang; Zeng, Hua; Chen, Zaigang; Huang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Yongwei; Wang, Guixue

    2012-09-01

    Using uniform random design optimization and the mathematical model equation we optimized the regeneration tissue culture system of the chilli pepper. An efficient and detailed plant reproducible protocol in vitro has been established using different explants and induction media for three chilli pepper cultivars. The result displayed that the seedlings at the curved hypocotyl stage were the best choice to prepare for explants, the genotype of explants affected shoot buds induction frequency and number of shoot buds per explant, and the cotyledon explant was more responsive than hypocotyl explant. The optimal media for maximum shoot initiation and regeneration and the optimal elongation medium were obtained. For Capsicum annuum var. annuum (cv. Xinsu), Capsicum annuum var. annuum (cv. Neimengchifeng) and Capsicum frutescens (cv. Xingfu), the induction rates were 99.17%, 97.50 and 96.11%, respectively; the elongation rates of shoot buds were 86.67%, 85.19% and 82.96%, respectively. The MS medium with 0.57 μM IAA and 0.69 μM NAA is the best choice for root induction. The frequency of their root emergence was 95.00-98.33%. Regenerated chilli peppers were successfully acclimatized and cultivated with 100% survival. This work will help to improve multiplication process and the genotype of chilli pepper, and may have commercial impact.

  3. Inferring cultural models from corpus data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    on three instantiations of the construction – namely, [too young to V], [too proud to V], and [too macho to V] – to see whether there are patterns in their ranges of coattracted verbs that are indicative of force-dynamic relations in cultural models of age, pride, and machismo respectively....

  4. Beyond 3D culture models of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor ecosystems present a challenge in evaluating drug efficacy. In this Perspective, we address the use of three-dimensional in vitro culture models to delineate the dynamic interplay between the tumor and the host microenvironment in an effort to attain realistic platforms for assessing pharmaceutical efficacy in patients. PMID:25877888

  5. Strengths and limitations of the neurosphere culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Josephine B; Parmar, Malin

    2006-12-01

    After the initial reports of free-floating cultures of neural stem cells termed neurospheres (1,2), a wide array of studies using this promising culture system emerged. In theory, this was a near-perfect system for large-scale production of neural cells for use in cell replacement therapies and to assay for and characterize neural stem cells. More than a decade later, after rigorous scrutiny and ample experimental testing of the neurosphere culture system, it has become apparent that the culture system suffers from several disadvantages, and its usefulness is limited for several applications. Nevertheless, the bulk of high-quality research produced over the last decade has also shown that under the right circumstances and for the appropriate purposes, neurospheres hold up to their initial promise. This article discusses the pros and cons of the neurosphere culture system regarding its three major applications: as an assay for neural stem cells, as a model system for neurogenesis and neural development, and for expansion of neural stem cells for transplantation purposes.

  6. Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez-Trelles

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Current efforts to study the biological effects of global change have focused on ecological responses, particularly shifts in species ranges. Mostly ignored are microevolutionary changes. Genetic changes may be at least as important as ecological ones in determining species' responses. In addition, such changes may be a sensitive indicator of global changes that will provide different information than that provided by range shifts. We discuss potential candidate systems to use in such monitoring programs. Studies of Drosophila subobscura suggest that its chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are responding to global warming. Drosophila inversion polymorphisms can be useful indicators of the effects of climate change on populations and ecosystems. Other species also hold the potential to become important indicators of global change. Such studies might significantly influence ecosystem conservation policies and research priorities.

  7. Microfluidic cardiac cell culture model (μCCCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Nguyen, Mai-Dung; Estrada, Rosendo; Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Hamid, Tariq; Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2010-09-15

    Physiological heart development and cardiac function rely on the response of cardiac cells to mechanical stress during hemodynamic loading and unloading. These stresses, especially if sustained, can induce changes in cell structure, contractile function, and gene expression. Current cell culture techniques commonly fail to adequately replicate physical loading observed in the native heart. Therefore, there is a need for physiologically relevant in vitro models that recreate mechanical loading conditions seen in both normal and pathological conditions. To fulfill this need, we have developed a microfluidic cardiac cell culture model (μCCCM) that for the first time allows in vitro hemodynamic stimulation of cardiomyocytes by directly coupling cell structure and function with fluid induced loading. Cells are cultured in a small (1 cm diameter) cell culture chamber on a thin flexible silicone membrane. Integrating the cell culture chamber with a pump, collapsible pulsatile valve and an adjustable resistance element (hemostatic valve) in series allow replication of various loading conditions experienced in the heart. This paper details the design, modeling, fabrication and characterization of fluid flow, pressure and stretch generated at various frequencies to mimic hemodynamic conditions associated with the normal and failing heart. Proof-of-concept studies demonstrate successful culture of an embryonic cardiomyoblast line (H9c2 cells) and establishment of an in vivo like phenotype within this system.

  8. Culture and the Immune System: Cultural Consonance in Social Support and C-reactive Protein in Urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we examine the distribution of a marker of immune system stimulation-C-reactive protein-in urban Brazil. Social relationships are associated with immunostimulation, and we argue that cultural dimensions of social support, assessed by cultural consonance, are important in this process. Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, approximate shared cultural models. A measure of cultural consonance in social support, based on a cultural consensus analysis regarding sources and patterns of social support in Brazil, was developed. In a survey of 258 persons, the association of cultural consonance in social support and C-reactive protein was examined, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, depressive symptoms, and a social network index. Lower cultural consonance in social support was associated with higher C-reactive protein. Implications of these results for future research are discussed.

  9. [Effect evaluation of three cell culture models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuemin

    2003-11-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using three kinds of models in vitro and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH in the medium decreased over time in the period of culture. However, on 5 days, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after 8 days LDH was not detected in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT in the medium did not change significantly over the investigated time. The basic CYP 1A activity gradually decreased with time in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A in rat hepatocytes was faster in MC than that in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducers such as omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than that in SC. Basic CYP 1A activity in bioreactor was keeped over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor, and next were SC and MC. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that there have some advantages and disadvantages in each of models in which can address different questions in metabolism of toxicants and drugs.

  10. Information Systems in Organisations --organisational culture affects information systems in organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, the application and construction of information systems became the central element of organizational development. Except the influence of information technology, the organisational culture plays a most important role in the implementation of information systems. This paper aimed at information producers, information users, information content and the information channels four parts of information elements to analysis the affects of organisational culture on information system in organisations. In particular, power distance, individualism and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as three main theory models of Hofstede’s culture theory were be applied in this paper.

  11. Cultural competence models and cultural competence assessment instruments in nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zuwang

    2015-05-01

    The author reviewed cultural competence models and cultural competence assessment instruments developed and published by nurse researchers since 1982. Both models and instruments were examined in terms of their components, theoretical backgrounds, empirical validation, and psychometric evaluation. Most models were not empirically tested; only a few models developed model-based instruments. About half of the instruments were tested with varying levels of psychometric properties. Other related issues were discussed, including the definition of cultural competence and its significance in model and instrument development, limitations of existing models and instruments, impact of cultural competence on health disparities, and further work in cultural competence research and practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. New salary system supports changing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquibel, O; Ning, J; Sugg, J

    1990-10-01

    Changing job classification, salary administration and benefits programs for the sake of change can create considerable problems in an organization. However, as the organizational culture changes, these HR systems need to adjust to help the process. Associate involvement requires considerable planning, time and effort, but the results often prove worthwhile. As the company moves into the future, this involvement process or something similar will help shape other human resource programs.

  13. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  14. The role of culture and leadership in lean transformation: a review and assessment model

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Najem, Mohamad; Dhakal, Hom; Bennett, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the organisational culture and leadership influence the implementation of lean system in organisations. In doing so, organisational culture, leadership and internal issues concerning human resources are incorporated and discussed. The study further explains how an organisation can benefit from assessment of their culture by adopting Lean Culture Assessment Model (LCAM). The Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for lean system and internal as well as external organisatio...

  15. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  16. Unlocking the black box: teaching mathematical modeling with popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Eric T

    2016-10-01

    Mathematical modeling is an important tool in biological research, allowing for the synthesis of results from many studies into an understanding of a system. Despite this, the need for extensive subject matter knowledge and complex mathematics often leaves modeling as an esoteric subspecialty. A 2-fold approach can be used to make modeling more approachable for students and those interested in obtaining a functional knowledge of modeling. The first is the use of a popular culture disease system-a zombie epidemic-to allow for exploration of the concepts of modeling using a flexible framework. The second is the use of available interactive and non-calculus-based tools to allow students to work with and implement models to cement their understanding. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Research on evaluation of enterprise project culture based on Denison model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Zeng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to build enterprise project culture evaluation model and search for the best evaluation method for Chinese enterprise project culture on the basis of studying and drawing lessons from enterprise culture evaluation theory and method at home and abroad. Design/methodology/approach: Referring to the Denison enterprise culture evaluation model, this paper optimizes it according to the difference of enterprise project culture, designs the enterprise project culture evaluation model and proves the practicability of the model through empirical. Finding: This paper finds that it`s more applicable to use the Denison model for enterprise project culture evaluation through the comparative analysis of domestic and foreign enterprise culture evaluation theory and method, the systematic project culture management framework of Chinese enterprises has not yet formed through empirical research, and four factors in enterprise project culture have important influence on project operation performance improvement. Research limitations/implications: The research on evaluation of enterprise project culture based on Denison model is a preliminary attempt, the design of evaluation index system, evaluation model and scale structure also need to be improved, but the thinking of this paper in this field provides a valuable reference for future research. Practical Implications: This paper provides the support of theory and practice for evaluating the present situation of enterprise project culture construction and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of project culture, which contributes to the "dialectical therapy" of enterprise project management, enterprise management and enterprise project culture construction. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of Denison enterprise culture model. Combining with the actual situation of enterprises, this paper also builds the evaluation model for

  18. Effect of amino acid supplementation on titer and glycosylation distribution in hybridoma cell cultures-Systems biology-based interpretation using genome-scale metabolic flux balance model and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimonn, Thomas M; Park, Seo-Young; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Brorson, Kurt A; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Genome-scale flux balance analysis (FBA) is a powerful systems biology tool to characterize intracellular reaction fluxes during cell cultures. FBA estimates intracellular reaction rates by optimizing an objective function, subject to the constraints of a metabolic model and media uptake/excretion rates. A dynamic extension to FBA, dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA), can calculate intracellular reaction fluxes as they change during cell cultures. In a previous study by Read et al. (2013), a series of informed amino acid supplementation experiments were performed on twelve parallel murine hybridoma cell cultures, and this data was leveraged for further analysis (Read et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2013;29:745-753). In order to understand the effects of media changes on the model murine hybridoma cell line, a systems biology approach is applied in the current study. Dynamic flux balance analysis was performed using a genome-scale mouse metabolic model, and multivariate data analysis was used for interpretation. The calculated reaction fluxes were examined using partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results indicate media supplementation increases product yield because it raises nutrient levels extending the growth phase, and the increased cell density allows for greater culture performance. At the same time, the directed supplementation does not change the overall metabolism of the cells. This supports the conclusion that product quality, as measured by glycoform assays, remains unchanged because the metabolism remains in a similar state. Additionally, the DFBA shows that metabolic state varies more at the beginning of the culture but less by the middle of the growth phase, possibly due to stress on the cells during inoculation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1163-1173, 2016.

  19. Analysis of organizational culture with social network models

    OpenAIRE

    Titov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Organizational culture is nowadays an object of numerous scientific papers. However, only marginal part of existing research attempts to use the formal models of organizational cultures. The lack of organizational culture models significantly limits the further research in this area and restricts the application of the theory to practice of organizational culture change projects. The article consists of general views on potential application of network models and social network analysis to th...

  20. Continuous system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  1. Challenges of culturing human norovirus in three-dimensional organoid intestinal cell culture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia Papafragkou

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, cell culture systems have been described using either human embryonic intestinal epithelial cells (Int-407 or human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 growing on collagen-I porous micro carrier beads in a rotating bioreactor under conditions of physiological fluid shear. Here, we describe the efforts from two independent laboratories to implement this three dimensional (3D cell culture system for the replication of norovirus. Int-407 and Caco-2 were grown in a rotating bioreactor for up to 28 days. Prior to infection, cells were screened for the presence of microvilli by electron microscopy and stained for junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and β-catenin. Differentiated 3D cells were transferred to 24-well plates and infected with bacteria-free filtrates of various norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, GI.8, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, and GII.8. At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h post inoculation, viral RNA from both cells and supernatants were collected and analyzed for norovirus RNA by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Despite observations of high expression of junction proteins and microvilli development in stained thin sections, our data suggest no significant increase in viral titer based on norovirus RNA copy number during the first 48 h after inoculation for the different samples and virus culture conditions tested. Our combined efforts demonstrate that 3D cell culture models using Int-407 or Caco-2 cells do not support norovirus replication and highlight the complexity and difficulty of developing a reproducible in vitro cell culture system for human norovirus.

  2. Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan HUYNH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

  3. Organisational culture matters for system integration in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Samina K; Kay, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates the importance of organisational culture for Clinical Information Systems (CIS) integration. The study is based on data collected in intensive care units in the UK and Denmark. Data were collected using qualitative methods, i.e., observations, interviews and shadowing of health care providers, together with a questionnaire at each site. The data are analysed to extract salient variables for CIS integration, and it is shown that these variables can be separated into two categories that describe the 'Actual Usefulness' of the system and the 'Organisational Culture'. This model is then extended to show that CIS integration directly affects the work processes of the organisation, forming an iterative process of change as a CIS is introduced and integrated.

  4. A Method, Computer Program and System for Inferring Relations Between Cultural Specific Concepts in Two Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method, computer program and system for inferring relations between cultural specific concepts (CSC) in two cultures at least comprising the steps of - extracting and listing said cultural specific concepts (CSCs) and features of said CSCs from at least a first...

  5. Keeping the Faith: A Model of Cultural Transmission in Formal Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J. Richard; Carroll, Glenn R.

    1991-01-01

    Develops a cultural transmission model with the following variables: worker entry and exit rate, organization growth rate, recruiting selectivity, socialization intensity, and the rate that socialization decays if not reinforced. A computer simulation of the model found that cultural systems in organizations are highly robust and reach equilibrium…

  6. Modular Approach to Designing Computer Cultural Systems: Culture as a Thermodynamic Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Leland Gilsen

    2015-01-01

    Culture is a complex non-linear system. In order to design computer simulations of cultural systems, it is necessary to break the system down into sub-systems. Human culture is modular. It consists of sets of people that belong to economic units. Access to, and control over matter, energy and information is postulated as the key to development of cultural simulations. Because resources in the real world are patchy, access to and control over resources is expressed in two related arenas: econo...

  7. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  8. AN EMBRYONIC CHICK PANCREAS ORGAN CULTURE MODEL: CHARACTERIZATION AND NEURAL CONTROL OF EXOCRINE RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An embryonic chick (Gallus domesticus) whole-organ pancreas culture system was developed for use as an in vitro model to study cholinergic regulation of exocrine pancreatic function. The culture system was examined for characteristic exocrine function and viability by measuring e...

  9. A Model of Culture in Trading Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2013-01-01

    Geert Hofstede’s five-dimensional framework is widely used in social sciences and management science to characterize cultures. It has been suggested to build culturally consistent agent characters based on his framework. This chapter stresses the relevance of culture and trust for trade, substantiat

  10. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  11. University - industry collaborations: models, drivers and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrismann, Dominic; Patel, Dhavalkumar

    2015-01-01

    The way academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies have been approaching collaborations has changed significantly in recent years. A multitude of interaction models were tested and critical factors that drive successful collaborations have been proposed. Based on this experience the current consensus in the pharmaceutical industry is to pursue one of two strategies: an open innovation approach to source discoveries wherever they occur, or investing selectively into scientific partnerships that churn out inventions that can be translated from bench to bedside internally. While these strategies may be intuitive, to form and build sustainable relationships between academia and large multinational healthcare enterprises is proving challenging. In this article we explore some of the more testing aspects of these collaborations, approaches that various industrial players have taken and provide our own views on the matter. We found that understanding and respecting each other's organisational culture and combining the intellectual and technological assets to answer big scientific questions accelerates and improves the quality of every collaboration. Upon discussing the prevailing cooperation models in the university - industry domain, we assert that science-driven collaborations where risks and rewards are shared equally without a commercial agenda in mind are the most impactful.

  12. C22-bronchial and T7-alveolar epithelial cell lines of the immortomouse are excellent murine cell culture model systems to study pulmonary peroxisome biology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnati, Srikanth; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Alam, Mohammad Rashedul; Oruqaj, Gani; Stamme, Cordula; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-03-01

    In pulmonary research, temperature-sensitive immortalized cell lines derived from the lung of the "immortomouse" (H-2k(b)-tsA58 transgenic mouse), such as C22 club cells and T7 alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECII), are frequently used cell culture models to study CC10 metabolism and surfactant synthesis. Even though peroxisomes are highly abundant in club cells and AECII and might fulfill important metabolic functions therein, these organelles have never been investigated in C22 and T7 cells. Therefore, we have characterized the peroxisomal compartment and its associated gene transcription in these cell lines. Our results show that peroxisomes are highly abundant in C22 and T7 cells, harboring a common set of enzymes, however, exhibiting specific differences in protein composition and gene expression patterns, similar to the ones observed in club cells and AECII in situ in the lung. C22 cells contain a lower number of larger peroxisomes, whereas T7 cells possess more numerous tubular peroxisomes, reflected also by higher levels of PEX11 proteins. Moreover, C22 cells harbor relatively higher amounts of catalase and antioxidative enzymes in distinct subcellular compartments, whereas T7 cells exhibit higher levels of ABCD3 and plasmalogen synthesizing enzymes as well as nuclear receptors of the PPAR family. This study suggest that the C22 and T7 cell lines of the immortomouse lung are useful models to study the regulation and metabolic function of the peroxisomal compartment and its alterations by paracrine factors in club cells and AECII.

  13. Assessment of pancreatic carcinoma cell chemosensitivity using a three-dimensional culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Quan; HU Ya; ZHAO Yu-pei; ZHOU Tao; ZHANG Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background Monolayer cell culture models are the traditional culture models used for in vitro research of pancreatic carcinoma chemosensitivity. However, these models neglect the interactions between tumor cells and the impact of the tumor microenvironment. Such tumor cell monolayers poorly mimic the solid tumor microenvironment. The present study aimed to investigate the chemosensitivity characteristics of pancreatic cancer cells in a three-dimensional culture system by analyzing the differences in drug sensitivity between a scattered cell culture model and a multicellular spheroid culture model.Methods Three pancreatic cancer cell lines (SW1990, ASPC-1 and PCT-3) were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels as well as in traditional two-dimensional monolayers. The chemosensitivities of the pancreatic carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin in vitro were detected by both the Cell Counting Kit-8 test and the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug-sensitivity test.Results In the two-dimensional culture model, differences in the chemosensitivities of the cloned pancreatic carcinoma cells and scattered cells existed for some concentrations of 5-FU, gemcitabine and oxaliplatin. In the three-dimensional culture model, there were significant differences in the chemosensitivities of the pancreatic cancer cells between the scattered cells and multicellular spheroids (P <0.05).Conclusion Pancreatic carcinoma cells exhibit multicellular resistance in three-dimensional cultures.

  14. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  15. Social Importance Dynamics: A Model for Culturally-Adaptive Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascarenhas, S.; Prada, R.; Paiva, A.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The unwritten rules of human cultures greatly affect social behaviour and as such should be considered in the development of socially intelligent agents. So far, there has been a large focus on modeling cultural aspects related to non-verbal behaviour such as gaze or body posture. However, culture a

  16. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  17. Residential segregation and cultural dissemination: An Axelrod-Schelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C.; Lafuerza, L. F.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2009-10-01

    In the Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination, we consider the mobility of cultural agents through the introduction of a density of empty sites and the possibility that agents in a dissimilar neighborhood can move to them if their mean cultural similarity with the neighborhood is below some threshold. While for low values of the density of empty sites, the mobility enhances the convergence to a global culture, for high enough values of it, the dynamics can lead to the coexistence of disconnected domains of different cultures. In this regime, the increase in initial cultural diversity paradoxically increases the convergence to a dominant culture. Further increase in diversity leads to the fragmentation of the dominant culture into domains, forever changing in shape and number, as an effect of the never ending eroding activity of cultural minorities.

  18. Cultural Resources as Sustainability Enablers: Towards a Community-Based Cultural Heritage Resources Management (COBACHREM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan O. Keitumetse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People inhabit and change environments using socio-cultural and psycho-social behaviors and processes. People use their socio-cultural understanding of phenomena to interact with the environment. People are carriers of cultural heritage. These characteristics make cultural values ubiquitous in all people-accessed and people-inhabited geographic spaces of the world, making people readily available assets through which environmental sustainability can be implemented. Yet, people’s conservation development is rarely planned using cultural resources. It is against this background that a Community-Based Cultural Heritage Resources Management (COBACHREM model is initiated as a new approach that outlines the symbiosis between cultural heritage, environment and various stakeholders, with a view to create awareness about neglected conservation indicators inherent in cultural resources and better placed to complement already existing natural resources conservation indicators. The model constitutes a two-phased process with four (04 levels of operation, namely: level I (production; level II (reproduction; level III (consumption that distinguish specific components of cultural heritage resources to be monitored at level IV for sustainability using identified cultural conservation indicators. Monitored indicators, which are limitless, constitute work in progress of the model and will be constantly reviewed, renewed and updated through time. Examples of monitoring provided in this article are the development of cultural competency-based training curriculum that will assist communities to transform cultural information into certifiable intellectual (educational and culture-economic (tourism assets. Another monitoring example is the mainstreaming of community cultural qualities into already existing environmental conservation frameworks such as eco-certification to infuse new layers of conservation indicators that enrich resource sustainability. The technical

  19. An analysis of the productivity of a CELSS continuous algal culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Arnett, K.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most attractive aspects of using algal cultures as plant components for a Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the efficiency with which they can be grown. Although algae are not necessarily intrinsically more efficient than higher plants, the ease which they can be handled and manipulated (more like chemical reagents than plants), and the culturing techniques available, result in much higher growth rates than are usually attainable with higher plants. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have demonstrated that algal growth and physiology is not detectable altered in a microgravity environment, (1) whereas the response of higher plants to zero gravity is unknown. In order to rationally design and operate culture systems, it is necessary to understand how the macroparameters of a culture system, e.g., productivity, are related to the physiological aspects of the algal culture. A first principles analysis of culture system is discussed, and a mathematical model that describes the relationship of culture productivity to the cell concentration of light-limited culture is derived. The predicted productivity vs cell concentration curve agrees well with the experimental data obtained to test this model, indicating that this model permits an accurate prediction of culture productivity given the growth parameters of the system.

  20. CULTURE ET MANAGEMENT: LE MODEL D’HOFSTEDE EN QUESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufyane BADRAOUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted looking at the links between culture and management. Studies have examined, among other components of the managerial activity captured by power distance, individualism, etc. However; these studies assume the existence of a national culture, something largely absent in most countries that are dominated by the cultures of their various ethnic communities. Different cultures perceive the benefits differently,found significant differences between cultures in perceptions and organizational/ Managerial practices. Our modest contribution is structured in two parts: the first part concerns the presentation of the Hofstede model and analysis through this model on some African societies, the second reserved for discussing expose in socio-cultural characters that influences the African Management and limitations of the model of cultural dimensions of Hofstede and conclusion.

  1. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model.

  2. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed.

  3. Modelling Trade and Trust Across Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Meijer, S.; Verwaart, D.

    2006-01-01

    Misunderstandings arise in international trade due to difference in cultural background of trade partners. Trust and the role it plays in trade are influenced by culture. Considering that trade always involves working on the relationship with the trade partner, understanding the behaviour of the oth

  4. Modeling cultural behavior for military virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.; Schram, J.; Bosch, K. van den

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and real

  5. Modeling Cultural Behavior for Military Virtual Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Schram, J.

    2012-01-01

    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and real

  6. Parents as Models in Children's Cultural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    1986-01-01

    Defines cross-cultural parent performance roles and discusses common goals. Outlines criteria among diverse parenting styles and lists areas of parental functioning for self-image determination status. Provides guidelines for assessing parent cultural competence and names three major tasks for educators in regard to educating parents for…

  7. Characterization of cellular uptake and toxicity of aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges in central nervous system-relevant cell culture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Z

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhizhi Sun,1 Vinith Yathindranath,2 Matthew Worden,3 James A Thliveris,4 Stephanie Chu,1 Fiona E Parkinson,1 Torsten Hegmann,1–3 Donald W Miller1 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA; 4Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada  Background: Aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (AmS-IONPs have been widely used in constructing complex and multifunctional drug delivery systems. However, the biocompatibility and uptake characteristics of AmS-IONPs in central nervous system (CNS-relevant cells are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of surface charge and magnetic field on toxicity and uptake of AmS-IONPs in CNS-relevant cell types. Methods: The toxicity and uptake profile of positively charged AmS-IONPs and negatively charged COOH-AmS-IONPs of similar size were examined using a mouse brain microvessel endothelial cell line (bEnd.3 and primary cultured mouse astrocytes and neurons. Cell accumulation of IONPs was examined using the ferrozine assay, and cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: No toxicity was observed in bEnd.3 cells at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL for either AmS-IONPs or COOH-AmS-IONPs. AmS-IONPs at concentrations above 200 µg/mL reduced neuron viability by 50% in the presence or absence of a magnetic field, while only 20% reductions in viability were observed with COOH-AmS-IONPs. Similar concentrations of AmS-IONPs in astrocyte cultures reduced viability to 75% but only in the presence of a magnetic field, while exposure to COOH-AmS-IONPs reduced viability to 65% and 35% in the absence and presence of a magnetic field, respectively. Cellular accumulation of AmS-IONPs was greater

  8. Models of cultural niche construction with selection and assortative mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Fogarty, Laurel; Feldman, Marcus W

    2012-01-01

    Niche construction is a process through which organisms modify their environment and, as a result, alter the selection pressures on themselves and other species. In cultural niche construction, one or more cultural traits can influence the evolution of other cultural or biological traits by affecting the social environment in which the latter traits may evolve. Cultural niche construction may include either gene-culture or culture-culture interactions. Here we develop a model of this process and suggest some applications of this model. We examine the interactions between cultural transmission, selection, and assorting, paying particular attention to the complexities that arise when selection and assorting are both present, in which case stable polymorphisms of all cultural phenotypes are possible. We compare our model to a recent model for the joint evolution of religion and fertility and discuss other potential applications of cultural niche construction theory, including the evolution and maintenance of large-scale human conflict and the relationship between sex ratio bias and marriage customs. The evolutionary framework we introduce begins to address complexities that arise in the quantitative analysis of multiple interacting cultural traits.

  9. Models of cultural niche construction with selection and assortative mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Creanza

    Full Text Available Niche construction is a process through which organisms modify their environment and, as a result, alter the selection pressures on themselves and other species. In cultural niche construction, one or more cultural traits can influence the evolution of other cultural or biological traits by affecting the social environment in which the latter traits may evolve. Cultural niche construction may include either gene-culture or culture-culture interactions. Here we develop a model of this process and suggest some applications of this model. We examine the interactions between cultural transmission, selection, and assorting, paying particular attention to the complexities that arise when selection and assorting are both present, in which case stable polymorphisms of all cultural phenotypes are possible. We compare our model to a recent model for the joint evolution of religion and fertility and discuss other potential applications of cultural niche construction theory, including the evolution and maintenance of large-scale human conflict and the relationship between sex ratio bias and marriage customs. The evolutionary framework we introduce begins to address complexities that arise in the quantitative analysis of multiple interacting cultural traits.

  10. Statistical Inference of Biometrical Genetic Model With Cultural Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Ji, Tian; Wang, Xueqin; Zhang, Heping; Zhong, Shouqiang

    2013-01-01

    Twin and family studies establish the foundation for studying the genetic, environmental and cultural transmission effects for phenotypes. In this work, we make use of the well established statistical methods and theory for mixed models to assess cultural transmission in twin and family studies. Specifically, we address two critical yet poorly understood issues: the model identifiability in assessing cultural transmission for twin and family data and the biases in the estimates when sub-models are used. We apply our models and theory to two real data sets. A simulation is conducted to verify the bias in the estimates of genetic effects when the working model is a sub-model.

  11. Organisational Culture as a Dominant in Enterprise Activity: System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serikov Anatoliy V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a “conceptual carcass” of the enterprise model, which is based on known results of studies in sociology, biology, system theory and mathematics. The article lists main features of growth of main indicators of economic activity and development of an enterprise. Dynamics of changes at an enterprise is described with a system of non-linear differential equations. One of the global and dominating factors in it is entrepreneurship of personnel, which is an integral part of its labour mentality or organisational culture. The article proves for the first time ever, using mathematical modelling, that namely entrepreneurship, innovation capability, is a comprehensive and dominant factor of enterprise growth and development.

  12. Suppression of BDNF-induced expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cortical cultures by oxygen-glucose deprivation: a model system to study ischemic mechanisms in the perinatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Ayalla; Roberts, Jodie

    2002-04-15

    The aim of this study was to establish a culture system that can serve as a model to study hypoxic-ischemic mechanisms regulating the functional expression of NPY neurons in the perinatal brain. Using an aggregate culture system derived from the rat fetal cortex, we defined the effects of oxygen and glucose deprivation on NPY expression, using BDNF-induced production of NPY as a functional criterion. NPY neurons exhibited a differential susceptibility to oxygen and glucose deprivation. Although the neurons could withstand oxygen deprivation for 16 hr, they were dramatically damaged by 8 hr of glucose deprivation and by 1-4 hr of deprivation of both oxygen and glucose (N+Glu-). One-hour exposure to N+Glu- led to a transient inhibition ( approximately 50%) of NPY production manifesting within 24 hr and recovering by 5 days thereafter, a 2-hr exposure to N+Glu- led to a sustained inhibition (50-75%) manifesting 1-5 days thereafter, and a 4-hr exposure to N+Glu- led to a total irreversible suppression of BDNF-induced production of NPY manifesting within 24 hr and lasting 8 days after re-supply of oxygen and glucose. Moreover, 1-hr exposure to N+Glu- led to a substantial and 4-hr exposure led to a total disappearance of immunostaining for MAP-2 and NPY but not for GFAP; indicating that neurons are the primary cell-type damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Analysis of cell viability (LDH, MTT) indicated that progressive changes in cell integrity take place during the 4-hr exposure to N+Glu- followed by massive cell death 24 hr thereafter. Thus, we defined a culture system that can serve as a model to study mechanisms by which ischemic insult leads to suppression and eventually death of NPY neurons. Importantly, changes in NPY neurons can be integrated into the overall scheme of ischemic injury in the perinatal brain.

  13. Reconstructing marginality: a new model of cultural diversity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Margaret; Polaschek, Nick

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a new model of cultural diversity in nursing that critically reconstructs the concept of marginality that underpins other models. Rather than viewing the marginal as "other," marginality is redefined as the space in between the dominant cultural reality and the cultural realities of minority groups located within a society. Members of a minority cultural group who become skilled in the difficult process of negotiating this in-between space open the possibility of transformation within nursing education and practice. This model has been applied in a study of the experience of nursing students of Pacific ethnicity in New Zealand. Subsequently, an undergraduate Pacific nursing program was developed, with greatly increased success rates in registration of Pacific nurses. This model of cultural diversity can also be used to understand nursing practice involving people from minority cultures or other socially excluded categories.

  14. Culture of Rights and Functional Pathologies of Contemporary Legal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sarlo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    It's observed critically the present course of legal culture, especially around the so-called culture of rights. The legal culture is concerned with symbolic functions, which may exhibit pathologies. The symbolic functions of legal systems are briefly reviewed, which, in my opinion, are hampered or annulled by the development of some that consider pathological tendencies in contemporary legal systems, leading to a deepening dysfunctionality of law. In all this, law schools plays a central role.

  15. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  16. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development of...

  17. Three-dimensional culture system can induce expression of casein in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, MingMei; Sui, YangNan; Babekir, Haitham Mohammed; Zhao, GuoQi

    2017-05-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are not ideal models for long-term studies of lactation mechanisms because these cells in a monolayer culture system cannot be polarized to simulate the physiological functions in vitro. We investigate the effects of different culture models and karyotypes on casein expression in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. The immortalized cells' karyotypes were analyzed at passages 10, 20, 30 and 40 to detect the effects of chromosome stability. Western blotting examined that whether or not the immortalized cells at passages 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 could induce expression of casein in a 3D culture system. The proper polarization of the acinar structures was monitored. BMECs were successfully immortalized. The cell karyotype at passage 30 remained at 60 chromosomes and the average value was 57.1 ± 0.40 after passage 40. The polarized protein's levels were up-regulated in 3D culture compared to 2D culture. Expression of αs1, β and κ-casein could be detectable in a passage range in 3D culture. Expression of αs2-casein was undetectable in all experimental groups. However, all casein expressions were barely detectable in traditional 2D culture system. Therefore, 3D culture system is an important tool for the long-term study of lactation mechanisms in vitro. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  19. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  20. Application of cell co-culture system to study fat and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Hwang, Inho

    2014-09-01

    Animal cell culture is a highly complex process, in which cells are grown under specific conditions. The growth and development of these cells is a highly unnatural process in vitro condition. Cells are removed from animal tissues and artificially cultured in various culture vessels. Vitamins, minerals, and serum growth factors are supplied to maintain cell viability. Obtaining result homogeneity of in vitro and in vivo experiments is rare, because their structure and function are different. Living tissues have highly ordered complex architecture and are three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The interaction between adjacent cell types is quite distinct from the in vitro cell culture, which is usually two-dimensional (2D). Co-culture systems are studied to analyze the interactions between the two different cell types. The muscle and fat co-culture system is useful in addressing several questions related to muscle modeling, muscle degeneration, apoptosis, and muscle regeneration. Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells could be a useful diagnostic tool to understand the muscle and fat formation in animals. Even though, co-culture systems have certain limitations, they provide a more realistic 3D view and information than the individual cell culture system. It is suggested that co-culture systems are useful in evaluating the intercellular communication and composition of two different cell types.

  1. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented. ...

  2. Usability and Applicability of Microfluidic Cell Culture Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette

    Microfluidic cell culture has been a research area with great attention the last decade due to its potential to mimic the in vivo cellular environment more closely compared to what is possible by conventional cell culture methods. Many exciting and complex devices have been presented providing...... possibilities for, for example, precise control of the chemical environment, 3D cultures, controlled co-culture of different cell types or automated, individual control of up to 96 cell culture chambers in one integrated system. Despite the great new opportunities to perform novel experimental designs......, these devices still lack general implementation into biological research laboratories. In this project, the usability and applicability of microfluidic cell culture systems have been investigated. The tested systems display good properties regarding optics and compatibility with standard laboratory equipment...

  3. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  4. Lean management systems: creating a culture of continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David M; Silvester, Kate; Knowles, Simon

    2013-08-01

    This is the first in a series of articles describing the application of Lean management systems to Laboratory Medicine. Lean is the term used to describe a principle-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) management system based on the Toyota production system (TPS) that has been evolving for over 70 years. Its origins go back much further and are heavily influenced by the work of W Edwards Deming and the scientific method that forms the basis of most quality management systems. Lean has two fundamental elements--a systematic approach to process improvement by removing waste in order to maximise value for the end-user of the service and a commitment to respect, challenge and develop the people who work within the service to create a culture of continuous improvement. Lean principles have been applied to a growing number of Healthcare systems throughout the world to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of services for patients and a number of laboratories from all the pathology disciplines have used Lean to shorten turnaround times, improve quality (reduce errors) and improve productivity. Increasingly, models used to plan and implement large scale change in healthcare systems, including the National Health Service (NHS) change model, have evidence-based improvement methodologies (such as Lean CQI) as a core component. Consequently, a working knowledge of improvement methodology will be a core skill for Pathologists involved in leadership and management.

  5. Collaborative reputation systems in a cultural heritage scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Salvatore; De Michele, Pasquale; Galletti, Ardelio; Ponti, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, algorithms for reputation systems are been widely developed in order to achieve correct ratings for products, services, companies, digital contents and people. We start from a comprehensive mathematical model for Collaborative Reputation Systems (CRSes), present in the literature and formally defined as a recurrence relation that generates a sequence of trust matrices, from which the reputation of the items and the raters can be derived. Even though this model can be applied to several scenarios, the focus of this work is related to its application in a real case, that is a cultural event scenario. More in detail, in cultural heritage environment, the data collected in an event represent the basic knowledge to be inferred. The main idea is to correctly use the available technology and data to give a reliable rate (reputation) for both visitors and artworks. These rates will be very useful to classify the visiting style of the visitors and to fix the artworks that have most attracted visitors.

  6. Cooperation and its evolution in growing systems with cultural reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio

    2012-12-01

    We explore the evolution of cooperation in the framework of the evolutionary game theory using the prisoner's dilemma as metaphor of the problem. We present a minimal model taking into account the growing process of the systems and individuals with imitation capacity. We consider the topological structure and the evolution of strategies decoupled instead of a coevolutionary dynamic. We show conditions to build up a cooperative system with real topological structures for any natural selection intensity. When the system starts to grow, cooperation is unstable but becomes stable as soon as the system reaches a small core of cooperators whose size increases when the intensity of natural selection decreases. Thus, we reduce the evolution of cooperative systems with cultural reproduction to justify a small initial cooperative structure that we call cooperative seed. Otherwise, given that the system grows principally as cooperator whose cooperators inhabit the most linked parts of the system, the benefit-cost ratio required for cooperation evolve is drastically reduced compared to the found in static networks. In this way, we show that in systems whose individuals have imitation capacity the growing process is essential for the evolution of cooperation.

  7. Validation of a Business Model for Cultural Heritage Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian CIUREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a business model for the efficiency optimization of the interaction between all actors involved in cultural heritage sector, such as galleries, libraries, archives and museums (GLAM. The validation of the business model is subject of analyses and implementations in a real environment made by different cultural institutions. The implementation of virtual exhibitions on mobile devices is described and analyzed as a key factor for increasing the cultural heritage visibility. New perspectives on the development of virtual exhibitions for mobile devices are considered. A study on the number of visitors of cultural institutions is carried out and ways to increase the number of visitors are described.

  8. Framing the impact of culture on health: a systematic review of the PEN-3 cultural model and its application in public health research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews available studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. We search electronic databases and conducted a thematic analysis of empirical studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. Studies were mapped to describe their methods, target population and the health behaviors or health outcomes studied. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies reviewed used the PEN-3 model as a theoretical framework to centralize culture in the study of health behaviors and to integrate culturally relevant factors in the development of interventions. The model was also used as an analysis tool, to sift through text and data in order to separate, define and delineate emerging themes. PEN-3 model was also significant with exploring not only how cultural context shapes health beliefs and practices, but also how family systems play a critical role in enabling or nurturing positive health behaviors and health outcomes. Finally, the studies reviewed highlighted the utility of the model with examining cultural practices that are critical to positive health behaviors, unique practices that have a neutral impact on health and the negative factors that are likely to have an adverse influence on health. The limitations of model and the role for future studies are discussed relative to the importance of using PEN-3 cultural model to explore the influence of culture in promoting positive health behaviors, eliminating health disparities and designing and implementing sustainable public health interventions.

  9. Sustained embryoid body formation and culture in a non-laborious three dimensional culture system for human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Johan; Elovsson, Maria; Strehl, Raimund; Kilmare, Eva; Hyllner, Johan; Lindahl, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are a promising model system in developmental and tissue regeneration research. Differentiation of hESCs towards the three germ layers and finally tissue specific cell types is often performed through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension or hanging droplet culture systems. However, these systems are inefficient regarding embryoid body (EB) formation, structural support to the EB and long term differentiation capacity. The present study investigates if agarose, as a semi solid matrix, can facilitate EB formation and support differentiation of hESC lines. The results showed that agarose culture is able to enhance EB formation efficiency with 10% and increase EB growth by 300%. The agarose culture system was able to maintain expression of the three germ layers over 8 weeks of culture. All of the four hESC lines tested developed EBs in the agarose system although with a histological heterogeneity between cell lines as well as within cell lines. In conclusion, a 3-D agarose culture of spherical hESC colonies improves EB formation and growth in a cost effective, stable and non-laborious technique.

  10. Information and Communication Technologies – and Culturally Sensitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Michail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.

  11. National Innovation System And Culture A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gogodze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the relationship between Hofstedes cultural dimensions and the constituents of a National Innovation System NIS. We consider an NIS as a special kind of intangible latent asset and identify its two constituents input and output capital. These are extracted through a modern NIS measurement model based on the Global Innovation Index. Using structural equation models we show that power distance and uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation and indulgence vs. restraint act through the latent constructs PDUA and LTIV respectively. Moreover individualism IDV and NIS constituents are directly and negatively affected by PDUA. IDV and LTIV directly and positively affect the NIS constituents. Further the results show that masculinity vs. femininity significantly and negatively affects the NIS input constituent and significantly affects the NIS output constituent but its impact is negative for high-income countries and positive for non-high income countries.

  12. Performance of Gram staining on blood cultures flagged negative by an automated blood culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, A; Isakovich, N; Pastukh, N; Koifman, A; Glyatman, T; Brodsky, D

    2015-08-01

    Blood is one of the most important specimens sent to a microbiology laboratory for culture. Most blood cultures are incubated for 5-7 days, except in cases where there is a suspicion of infection caused by microorganisms that proliferate slowly, or infections expressed by a small number of bacteria in the bloodstream. Therefore, at the end of incubation, misidentification of positive cultures and false-negative results are a real possibility. The aim of this work was to perform a confirmation by Gram staining of the lack of any microorganisms in blood cultures that were identified as negative by the BACTEC™ FX system at the end of incubation. All bottles defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system were Gram-stained using an automatic device and inoculated on solid growth media. In our work, 15 cultures that were defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system at the end of the incubation were found to contain microorganisms when Gram-stained. The main characteristic of most bacteria and fungi growing in the culture bottles that were defined as negative was slow growth. This finding raises a problematic issue concerning the need to perform Gram staining of all blood cultures, which could overload the routine laboratory work, especially laboratories serving large medical centers and receiving a large number of blood cultures.

  13. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  14. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  15. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  16. Latino Definitions of Success: A Cultural Model of Intercultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to examine Latino intercultural competence via two separate methodologies. Phase 1 entailed discovering and generating themes regarding the features of intercultural competence based on semistructured interviews of 15 Latino adults. Phase 2 included conducting a cultural consensus analysis from the quantitative responses of 46 Latino adults to determine the cultural model of intercultural competence. The major results indicated that the participants, despite variations in socioeconomic and generational statuses, shared a common knowledge base regarding the competencies needed for Latinos to successfully navigate different cultures. Overall, the cultural model of Latino intercultural competence includes a set of skills that integrates traditional cultural values along with attributes of self-efficacy. The findings are discussed within a competence-based conceptualization of cultural adaptation and potential advancements in acculturation research.

  17. Enhancing toxic protein expression in Escherichia coli fed-batch culture using kinetic parameters: Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasa, Yogender Pal; Khushoo, Amardeep; Mukherjee, Krishna Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) expression was studied under the strong T7 promoter in continuous culture of Escherichia coli using complex medium to design an optimum feeding strategy for high cell density cultivation. Continuous culture studies were done at different dilution rates and the growth and product formation profiles were monitored post-induction. Recombinant protein expression was in the form of inclusion bodies with a maximum specific product formation rate (q(p)) of 63.5 mg g(-1) DCW h(-1) at a dilution rate (D) of 0.3 h(-1). The maximum volumetric product concentration achieved at this dilution rate was 474 mg l(-1), which translated a ~1.4 and ~1.75 folds increase than the values obtained at dilution rates of 0.2 h(-1) and 0.4 h(-1) respectively. The specific product yield (Y(P/x)) peaked at 138 mg g(-1) DCW, demonstrating a ~1.6 folds increase in the values obtained at other dilution rates. A drop in q(p) was observed within 5-6 h of induction at all the dilution rates, possibly due to protein toxicity and metabolic stress associated with protein expression. The data from the continuous culture studies allowed us to design an optimal feeding strategy and induction time in fed-batch cultures which resulted in a maximum product concentration of 3.95 g l(-1) with a specific hGM-CSF yield (Y(P/x)) of 107 mg g(-1) DCW.

  18. Sustaining organizational culture change in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cameron David; Saul, Jessie; Bevan, Helen; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Best, Allan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Mannion, Russell; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Howland, David; Jenkins, Emily; Bitz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The questions addressed by this review are: first, what are the guiding principles underlying efforts to stimulate sustained cultural change; second, what are the mechanisms by which these principles operate; and, finally, what are the contextual factors that influence the likelihood of these principles being effective? The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors conducted a literature review informed by rapid realist review methodology that examined how interventions interact with contexts and mechanisms to influence the sustainability of cultural change. Reference and expert panelists assisted in refining the research questions, systematically searching published and grey literature, and helping to identify interactions between interventions, mechanisms and contexts. Six guiding principles were identified: align vision and action; make incremental changes within a comprehensive transformation strategy; foster distributed leadership; promote staff engagement; create collaborative relationships; and continuously assess and learn from change. These principles interact with contextual elements such as local power distributions, pre-existing values and beliefs and readiness to engage. Mechanisms influencing how these principles sustain cultural change include activation of a shared sense of urgency and fostering flexible levels of engagement. The principles identified in this review, along with the contexts and mechanisms that influence their effectiveness, are useful domains for policy and practice leaders to explore when grappling with cultural change. These principles are sufficiently broad to allow local flexibilities in adoption and application. This is the first study to adopt a realist approach for understanding how changes in organizational culture may be sustained. Through doing so, this review highlights the broad principles by which organizational action may be organized within enabling contextual settings.

  19. An In Vitro Nematic Model for Proliferating Cell Cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Pai, Sunil; Green, Morgaine; Cordeiro, Christine; Cabral, Elise; Chen, Bertha; Baer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Confluent populations of elongated cells give rise to ordered patterns seen in nematic phase liquid crystals. We correlate cell elongation and intercellular distance with intercellular alignment using an amorphous spin glass model. We compare in vitro time-lapse imaging with Monte Carlo simulation results by framing a novel hard ellipses model in terms of Boltzmann statistics. Furthermore, we find a statistically distinct alignment energy at quasi-steady state among fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and pluripotent cell populations when cultured in vitro. These findings have important implications in both non-invasive clinical screening of the stem cell differentiation process and in relating shape parameters to coupling in active crystal systems such as nematic cell monolayers.

  20. Metaphorical conceptualisation of culture in Geert Hofstede's model

    OpenAIRE

    Živanović, Dunja

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the metaphorical conceptualisation of national culture which is at the heart of Geert Hofstede's very influential culture model. In this paper Hofstede's study Culture's Consequences (2001) is analysed using the theoretical framework based on conceptual metaphor theory and its key concepts (mapping, domains, image schemas), with the aim of identifying metaphors and exploring their properties and roles in Hofstede's scientific discourse. The analysis of Hofstede's study sho...

  1. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  2. A conceptual model for culture change evaluation in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christine W; Snow, A Lynn; Allen, Rebecca S; Parmelee, Patricia A; Palmer, Jennifer A; Berlowitz, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and particulars of a new, comprehensive model of nursing home culture change, the Nursing Home Integrated Model for Producing and Assessing Cultural Transformation (Nursing Home IMPACT). This model is structured into four categories, "meta constructs," "care practices," "workplace practices," and "environment of care," with multiple domains under each. It includes detailed, triangulated assessment methods capturing various stakeholder perspectives for each of the model's domains. It is hoped that this model will serve two functions: first, to help practitioners guide improvements in resident care by identifying particular areas in which culture change is having positive effects, as well as areas that could benefit from modification; and second, to emphasize the importance in culture change of the innumerable perspectives of residents, family members, staff, management, and leadership. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Globalization, Class and Culture in Global Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Friedman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work of Immanuel Wallerstein has been criticized by certain anthropologists for not having taken culture into proper account. He has been accused of the sin of political economy, a not uncommon accusation, a re?ex of the 80’s and post-80’s anthropological jargon that might ?nally today be exhausted. Years earlier a number of social scientists were engaged in a critical assessment of the social sciences from a distinctively global perspective. Wallerstein, Frank and others were at the forefront of this critique which had a powerful impact on anthropology. The global perspective was not a mere addition to anthropological knowledge, not a mere of extension of the use of the culture concept, i.e. before it was local and now it is global, before culture stood still, but now in the global age, it ?ows around the world. It was a more fundamental critique, or at least it implied a more fundamental critique. This critique could only be attained from a perspective in which the very concept of society was re-conceived as something very different, as a locus constructed within a historical force ?eld which was very much broader than any particular politically de?ned unit.

  4. Dental Health Care Models of Southwest Cultures. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettibone, Timothy J.; Solis, Enrique, Jr.

    The major goal of this research was the development and validation of cultural models of dental health practices. The specific objectives were to determine if 3 cultural groups (American Indians, Mexican Americans, and Anglo Americans) differ in the dental health hygiene indices, characteristics, psychological factors, or social factors; to…

  5. A Model of Instruction for Integrating Culture and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    An integrated model of instruction in language and culture uses a sequential method of discovering sensation, perception, concept, and principle to develop self-analysis skills in students. When planning activities for learning a language and developing cultural understanding, teachers might follow a sequence such as the following: introduce…

  6. Formation and importance of corporate culture in the system of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogomolov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers corporate culture as a management tool in the economic model of the activity underlying the organization of management of all factors of production (labor, materials, capital and information. Companies with well developed corporate culture are developing successfully. Weak corporate culture can become a source of deep crisis of the entrepreneurial structure. It is emphasized that the set of factors influencing the development of entrepreneurial structures must be supplemented with a factor of effective corporate culture. Reforms aimed at changes in property relations require the creation of an adequate organizational and economic mechanism for the management of corporate enterprises, taking into account current trends in the concentration and specialization of agro-industrial production. A corporate culture is presented that includes the strategic objective of the firm; Standards of personnel behavior; Structural characteristics of personnel, nature, content, working conditions and methods of its organization; Incentive system; System of personnel training. The types of corporate culture and their features are singled out, namely the culture of power, the culture of roles, the culture of tasks and the culture of individuals. The unique essence of the corporate culture, the complexity of its assessment, create certain problems in the management of corporate culture. Corporate culture provides an opportunity to competently and effectively manage the organization. A strong and solid corporate culture is a necessary attribute of a successful company, as it unites employees who identify with their organization and strive to achieve a common goal by joint efforts. In such a company, key corporate values are shared by all members of the organization, the dominant culture strongly influences the behavior of employees, the need for high structuring and formalization of the company’s activity disappears, and the turnover of staff

  7. Evolution of culture-dependent discriminate sociality: a gene-culture coevolutionary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Yasuo

    2011-03-27

    Animals behave cooperatively towards certain conspecifics while being indifferent or even hostile to others. The distinction is made primarily according to kinship as predicted by the kin selection theory. With regards to humans, however, this is not always the case; in particular, humans sometimes exhibit a discriminate sociality on the basis of culturally transmitted traits, such as personal ornaments, languages, rituals, etc. This paper explores the possibility that the human faculty of cultural transmission and resultant cultural variation among individuals may have facilitated the evolution of discriminate sociality in humans. To this end, a gene-culture coevolutionary model is developed focusing on competition over control of resource as a context in which discriminate sociality may have evolved. Specifically, two types of culture-dependent discriminate sociality are considered: ingroup favouritism, with ingroup and outgroup being distinguished by the presence or absence of a cultural trait; and prestige hierarchies, with the prestige being conferred on the bearer of a cultural trait. The model specifies the conditions under which emergence and evolutionary stability of the two types of discriminate sociality are promoted by the presence of cultural variation among individuals.

  8. Agent-Based Modeling of Culture's Consequences for Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaart, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, culture is interpreted as a property of a group of people who share the meaning they attach to symbols, have a common way of expressing their opinions and feelings, and share value systems to judge what is good or bad. The unwritten rules of a culture govern the interpretation of

  9. Agent-Based Modeling of Culture's Consequences for Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaart, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, culture is interpreted as a property of a group of people who share the meaning they attach to symbols, have a common way of expressing their opinions and feelings, and share value systems to judge what is good or bad. The unwritten rules of a culture govern the interpretation of obs

  10. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  11. Selected System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, F.; Puñal, O.; Klagges, K.; Kirsche, M.

    Apart from the general issue of modeling the channel, the PHY and the MAC of wireless networks, there are specific modeling assumptions that are considered for different systems. In this chapter we consider three specific wireless standards and highlight modeling options for them. These are IEEE 802.11 (as example for wireless local area networks), IEEE 802.16 (as example for wireless metropolitan networks) and IEEE 802.15 (as example for body area networks). Each section on these three systems discusses also at the end a set of model implementations that are available today.

  12. Development of melanocye-keratinocyte co-culture model for controls and vitiligo to assess regulators of pigmentation and melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need to develop an in vitro skin models which can be used as alternative system for research and testing pharmacological products in place of laboratory animals. Therefore to study the biology and pathophysiology of pigmentation and vitiligo, reliable in vitro skin pigmentation models are required. Aim: In this study, we used primary cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes to prepare the skin co-culture model in control and vitiligo patients. Methods: The skin grafts were taken from control and patients of vitiligo. In vitro co-culture was prepared after culturing primary melanocytes and keratinocytes. Co- cultures were treated with melanogenic stimulators and inhibitors and after that tyrosinase assay, MTT assay and melanin content assay were performed. Results: Melanocytes and keratinocytes were successfully cultured from control and vitiligo patients and after that co-culture models were prepared. After treatment of co-culture model with melanogenic stimulator we found that tyrosinase activity, cell proliferation and melanin content increased whereas after treatment with melanogenic inhibitor, tyrosinase activity, cell proliferation and melanin content decreased. We also found some differences in the control co-culture model and vitiligo co-culture model. Conclusion: We successfully constructed in vitro co-culture pigmentation model for control and vitiligo patients using primary cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes. The use of primary melanocytes and keratinocytes is more appropriate over the use of transformed cells. The only limitation of these models is that these can be used for screening small numbers of compounds.

  13. Cultural Change, the Hybrid Administrative System and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-17

    Jan 17, 2013 ... crackdown on corruption, this article explores the view that it is the hybrid .... decentralization and public participation in governance creates new demands. ..... The Hybrid Administrative System and Corporate Culture.

  14. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  15. Organ culture system as a means to detect celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarelli, Antonio; Libanori, Valerio; De Nitto, Daniela; Saponara, Annarita; Di Tola, Marco; Donato, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies can be produced in vitro by the intestinal mucosa of celiac disease (CD) patients in clinical remission, when the culture is performed in the presence of gliadin peptides. Our aim was to use this organ culture system as a means to detect the pathognomonic antibodies of celiac disease (CD) in the culture supernatants. Organ culture was performed in the presence of three different activators to evaluate which one induced the strongest antibody response in intestinal mucosa from patients in clinical remission of CD. Our data confirm the high efficiency of synthetic peptide 31-43 as a specific immunological activator in CD and demonstrate its capability to stimulate production/secretion of CD-specific antibodies. We envision that this organ culture system may prove to be useful as a new technique for CD diagnosis.

  16. Organ culture-cell culture system for studying multistage carcinogenesis in respiratory epithelium. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Vernon E.; Marchok, Ann C.; Nettesheim, Paul

    1977-01-01

    An organ culture-cell culture system was used to demonstrate carcinogen dose-dependent transformation of tracheal epithelial cells in vitro. Tracheal explants were exposed to MNNG (N-methyl-N/sup 1/-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) in organ culture. Outgrowths from these explants provided epithelial cell cultures. The numbers of long term epithelial cell cultures and cell lines that were established per explant increased as MNNG exposure concentration increased. At the present time, more cell lines derived from explants exposed to the highest MNNG concentration have produced palpable tumors than cell lines derived from explants exposed to lower MNNG concentrations. No cell lines were established from primaries derived from control explants. TPA (12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate), stimulates DNA synthesis in tracheal epithelium in organ culture in a manner simular to that described for mouse skin. Short exposures to TPA not only stimulated DNA synthesis earlier, but the stimulation was greater than that obtained with continuous exposure. At the present time, exposure of tracheal organ cultures to MNNG followed by TPA has resulted in an enhanced production of morphologically altered cells in primary epithelial cell cultures, than exposure to either agent alone.

  17. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  18. Multiscale Cloud System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

    2009-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

  19. Looks of Love and Loathing: Cultural Models of Vision and Emotion in Ancient Greek Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Cairns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the intersection of cultural models of emotion, specifically love and envy, with folk and scientific models of vision in Greek antiquity. Though the role of the eyes in the expression of these emotions can intersect with widespread beliefs in vision as a 'haptic', material process, analogous to touch, none the less the emotional concepts resist absorption into a single over-arching theory of the physical effects of seeing and being seen. The specific cultural models of vision ('active', 'passive', and 'interactive' are enlisted in support of cultural models of emotion where they fit, modified where they fit less well, and ignored when they do not fit at all.

  20. Procedural Modeling for Digital Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of computer graphics and imaging provides the modern archeologist with several tools to realistically model and visualize archeological sites in 3D. This, however, creates a tension between veridical and realistic modeling. Visually compelling models may lead people to falsely believe that there exists very precise knowledge about the past appearance of a site. In order to make the underlying uncertainty visible, it has been proposed to encode this uncertainty with different levels of transparency in the rendering, or of decoloration of the textures. We argue that procedural modeling technology based on shape grammars provides an interesting alternative to such measures, as they tend to spoil the experience for the observer. Both its efficiency and compactness make procedural modeling a tool to produce multiple models, which together sample the space of possibilities. Variations between the different models express levels of uncertainty implicitly, while letting each individual model keeping its realistic appearance. The underlying, structural description makes the uncertainty explicit. Additionally, procedural modeling also yields the flexibility to incorporate changes as knowledge of an archeological site gets refined. Annotations explaining modeling decisions can be included. We demonstrate our procedural modeling implementation with several recent examples.

  1. Dynamic Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available System Dynamics was introduced by Jay W. Forrester in the 1960s. Since then the methodology was adopted in many areas of natural or social sciences. This article tries to present briefly how this methodology works, both as Systems Thinking and as Modelling with Vensim computer software.

  2. Political Culture and Covalent Bonding. A Conceptual Model of Political Culture Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our class of models aims at explaining the dynamics of political attitude change by means of the dynamic changes in values, beliefs, norms and knowledge with which it is associated. The model constructs a political culture perspective over the relationship between macro and micro levels of a society and polity. The model defines the bonding mechanism as a basic mechanism of the political culture change by taking inspiration from the valence bonding theory in Chemistry, which has inspired the elaboration of the mechanisms and processes underlying the political culture emergence and the political culture control over the relationship between macro-level political entities and the micro-level individual agents. The model introduces operational definitions of the individual agent in political culture terms. The simulation model is used for the study of emergent political culture change phenomena based on individual interactions (emergent or upward causation as well as the ways in which the macro entities and emergent phenomena influence in turn the behaviors of individual agents (downward causation. The model is used in the ongoing research concerning the quality of democracy and political participation of the citizens in the Eastern European societies after the Fall of Berlin Wall. It is particularly aimed at explaining the long-term effect of the communist legacy and of the communist polity concept and organization onto the political mentalities and behaviors of the citizens with respect to democratic institutions and political power. The model has major implications in political socialization, political involvement, political behavior, corruption and polity modeling.

  3. A Neuronal Culture System to Detect Prion Synaptotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic pathology is an early feature of prion as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. Although the self-templating process by which prions propagate is well established, the mechanisms by which prions cause synaptotoxicity are poorly understood, due largely to the absence of experimentally tractable cell culture models. Here, we report that exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to PrPSc, the infectious isoform of the prion protein, results in rapid retraction of dendritic spines. This effect is entirely dependent on expression of the cellular prion protein, PrPC, by target neurons, and on the presence of a nine-amino acid, polybasic region at the N-terminus of the PrPC molecule. Both protease-resistant and protease-sensitive forms of PrPSc cause dendritic loss. This system provides new insights into the mechanisms responsible for prion neurotoxicity, and it provides a platform for characterizing different pathogenic forms of PrPSc and testing potential therapeutic agents.

  4. Modeling, dependence, classification, united statistical science, many cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Breiman (2001) proposed to statisticians awareness of two cultures: 1. Parametric modeling culture, pioneered by R.A.Fisher and Jerzy Neyman; 2. Algorithmic predictive culture, pioneered by machine learning research. Parzen (2001), as a part of discussing Breiman (2001), proposed that researchers be aware of many cultures, including the focus of our research: 3. Nonparametric, quantile based, information theoretic modeling. Our research seeks to unify statistical problem solving in terms of comparison density, copula density, measure of dependence, correlation, information, new measures (called LP score comoments) that apply to long tailed distributions with out finite second order moments. A very important goal is to unify methods for discrete and continuous random variables. We are actively developing these ideas, which have a history of many decades, since Parzen (1979, 1983) and Eubank et al. (1987). Our research extends these methods to modern high dimensional data modeling.

  5. Microfluidics co-culture systems for studying tooth innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco ePagella

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innervation plays a key role in the development and homeostasis of organs and tissues of the orofacial complex. Among these structures, teeth are peculiar organs as they are not innervated until later stages of development. Furthermore, the implication of neurons in tooth initiation, morphogenesis and differentiation is still controversial. Co-cultures constitute a valuable method to investigate and manipulate the interactions of nerve fibres with their target organs in a controlled and isolated environment. Conventional co-cultures between neurons and their target tissues have already been performed, but these cultures do not offer optimal conditions that are closely mimicking the in vivo situation. Indeed, specific cell populations require different culture media in order to preserve their physiological properties. In this study we evaluate the usefulness of a microfluidics system for co-culturing mouse trigeminal ganglia and developing teeth. This device allows the application of specific media for the appropriate development of both neuronal and dental tissues. The results show that mouse trigeminal ganglia and teeth survive for long culture periods in this microfluidics system, and that teeth maintain the attractive or repulsive effect on trigeminal neurites that has been observed in vivo. Neurites are repealed when co-cultured with embryonic tooth germs, while postnatal teeth exert an attractive effect to trigeminal ganglia-derived neurons.In conclusion, microfluidics system devices provide a valuable tool for studying the behaviour of neurons during the development of orofacial tissues and organs, faithfully imitating the in vivo situation.

  6. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Popova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

  7. Experimental and theoretical models of human cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Marius; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The modern field of cultural evolution is now over 30 years old, and an extensive body of theory and data has been amassed. This article reviews models of cultural evolution, both experimental and theoretical, and surveys what they can tell us about cultural evolutionary processes. The models are grouped according to which of four broad questions they address: (1) How are cultural traits changed during transmission? (2) How and why do cultural traits accumulate over time? (3) What social learning biases do people use? and (4) What are the population-level consequences of different social learning biases? We conclude by highlighting gaps in the literature and promising future research directions, including the further integration of theoretical models and experimental data, the identification of the factors underlying cumulative cultural evolution, and the explanation of individual and cultural variation in social learning biases. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Media Economics and Cultural Policy in Iran: Reconstruction of Public Supporting System and Transformation of Newspaper Industry towards Online Journalism and New Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis; Hadavinia, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    on the government for sustenance, papers were forced to adapt to the changing market or go out of business. This paper explores that change in indirect aids to funds that forced many newspapers out of the market and allowed new, agile ones to emerge. New business models appeared that made better use...

  9. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  10. From Mental Game to Cultural Praxis: A Cultural Studies Model's Implications for the Future of Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba, Tatiana V.; Wright, Handel Kashope

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of a cultural studies as praxis heuristic "model: for transforming sport psychology". It provides a brief introduction to both cultural studies and sport psychology and discusses a cultural studies intersection with sport studies and sport psychology. Cultural studies, it asserts, provides one of several…

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Building Information Modelling for Cultural Heritage: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, S.; Delinasiou, A.; Stylianidis, E.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the field of culture heritage documentation. BIM is a hot theme involving different characteristics including principles, technology, even privacy rights for the cultural heritage objects. Modern documentation needs identified the potential of BIM in the recent years. Many architects, archaeologists, conservationists, engineers regard BIM as a disruptive force, changing the way professionals can document and manage a cultural heritage structure. The latest years, there are many developments in the BIM field while the developed technology and methods challenged the cultural heritage community in the documentation framework. In this review article, following a brief historic background for the BIM, we review the recent developments focusing in the cultural heritage documentation perspective.

  13. Bioengineered 3D Glial Cell Culture Systems and Applications for Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P Marc D; Kavanagh, Edel; Allenby, Gary; Vassey, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are key features in a range of chronic central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as acute conditions like stroke and traumatic brain injury, for which there remains significant unmet clinical need. It is now well recognized that current cell culture methodologies are limited in their ability to recapitulate the cellular environment that is present in vivo, and there is a growing body of evidence to show that three-dimensional (3D) culture systems represent a more physiologically accurate model than traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Given the complexity of the environment from which cells originate, and their various cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, it is important to develop models that can be controlled and reproducible for drug discovery. 3D cell models have now been developed for almost all CNS cell types, including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocyte cells. This review will highlight a number of current and emerging techniques for the culture of astrocytes and microglia, glial cell types with a critical role in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions. We describe recent advances in glial cell culture using electrospun polymers and hydrogel macromolecules, and highlight how these novel culture environments influence astrocyte and microglial phenotypes in vitro, as compared to traditional 2D systems. These models will be explored to illuminate current trends in the techniques used to create 3D environments for application in research and drug discovery focused on astrocytes and microglial cells.

  14. Modelling the Spatial Dynamics of Culture Spreading in the Presence of Cultural Strongholds

    CERN Document Server

    Lizana, Ludvig; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Sneppen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Cultural competition has throughout our history shaped and reshaped the geography of boundaries between humans. Language and culture are intimately connected and linguists often use distinctive keywords to quantify the dynamics of information spreading in societies harbouring strong culture centres. One prominent example, which is addressed here, is Kyoto's historical impact on Japanese culture. We construct a first minimal model, based on shared properties of linguistic maps, to address the interplay between information flow and geography. In particular, we show that spreading of information over Japan in the pre-modern time can be described as a Eden growth process, with noise levels corresponding to coherent spatial patches of sizes given by a single days walk, and with patch-to-patch communication time comparable to the time between human generations.

  15. Modeling the spatial dynamics of culture spreading in the presence of cultural strongholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Ludvig; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2011-06-01

    Cultural competition has throughout our history shaped and reshaped the geography of boundaries between humans. Language and culture are intimately connected and linguists often use distinctive keywords to quantify the dynamics of information spreading in societies harboring strong culture centers. One prominent example, which is addressed here, is Kyoto's historical impact on Japanese culture. We construct a minimal model, based on shared properties of linguistic maps, to address the interplay between information flow and geography. We show that spreading of information over Japan in the premodern time can be described by an Eden growth process with noise levels corresponding to coherent spatial patches of sizes given by a single day's walk (~15 km), and that new words appear in Kyoto at times comparable to the time between human generations (~30 yr).

  16. Cultural Factors in Systems Design Decision Making and Action

    CERN Document Server

    Proctor, Robert W; Yih, Yuehwern

    2011-01-01

    This book brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts to provide increased understanding of the ways in which cultural differences may influence decision making and action. It brings together current knowledge about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines and organizational processes culled from a wide variety of sources and puts them into one comprehensive resource. It examines how to design systems used by individuals from different cultures and accommodate the varied backgrounds that affect the users' decisio

  17. THE NEED OF CONNECTING THE TECHNOLOGY, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Merdzhanovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the need of connecting the technology, political and cultural system in the right way to achieve the companies’ goals in terms of globalization and changes. The leaders have the main role in realizing the company’s strategy. They must be strategy focused and they are responsible for connecting the employees, processes and technologies. In the beginning of the paper, the characteristics of strategy focused leadership are analyzed. The available tools of strategy focused leadership through the model are presented. The matrix of strategy management can be used like a manual which helps the management in connecting systems with managerial instruments: mission and strategy, organization structure and management of human resources. The goal of the paper is to show that with professional approach, the strategy focused leaders play the main role in connecting and changing the existing systems in companies. This is the way of reaching the best performance of companies and surviving at the global world market.

  18. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Ryba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes’ psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers’ adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing.

  19. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  20. 云南企业文化测评体系构建研究--基于文化特质模型的优化及实证%EmpiricalAnalysis and Optimization ofYunnan Corporate Culture Evaluation System Based on Theoretical model of Culture Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小菲; 肖冬平; 程颂

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Organizational Effectiveness Theoretical model of Culture Traits, the study formed a questionnaire including 28 items by dimension hypothesis and model optimization. The study identified ten dimensionalities through the means of PCA and Varimax of factor analysis in SPSS software, then testify the reliability of the ten dimensionalities by employing Cronbach’s αcoefficient. The construction of this system provides a base for quantitative management of corporation culture in Yunnan.%该研究以组织有效性文化特质模型为基础,通过维度假设和模型优化,形成了由28个题项组成的量表。利用SPSS统计软件因子分析中的主成分分析法和最大方差正交旋转法识别出十个维度,并通过Cronbach’s α值检验出这十个维度具有较高的信度。该体系的构建为云南企业文化量化管理提供了依据。

  1. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems and three-dimensional cell cultures in cancer treatments and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a great threat to human health, with no permanent cure yet, better treatment and further research in cancer are inevitable. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems (NDDSs, especially pH-sensitive NDDSs, such as lipid-based, polymeric, and mesoporous silica nanoparticles have played a significant role in cancer treatments. Further, three-dimensional (3D cell cultures models, which include tumor spheroid models, microfluidic systems, and matrix/scaffolds-based 3D tumor, better mimic the tumor microenvironment than the conventional two-dimensional cultures, making it possible to better understand the disease while serving as a useful in vitro model for future research. The present review mainly focuses on such 3D cell cultures and drug delivery systems that are applied in cancer research and treatments.

  2. Developing a structural brand equity model for cultural destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Kladou, Stella; Kehagias, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – This paper aims to investigate the structural relationships between the brand equity (BE) dimensions, when the fifth dimension of cultural brand assets is incorporated. The paper seeks to establish and validate a five-dimensional BE measure for cultural urban destination, by comparing findings in two destinations.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – The structural model was tested from the perspective of 399 international tourists visiting Athens. Confirmatory factor analysis...

  3. Distributed generation systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  4. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  5. A Situated Cultural Festival Learning System Based on Motion Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te

    2017-01-01

    A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…

  6. A Situated Cultural Festival Learning System Based on Motion Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te

    2017-01-01

    A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…

  7. Therapeutically important proteins from in vitro plant tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Pauline M

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells cultured in liquid medium in bioreactors are now being used commercially to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. The emergence of in vitro plant cell culture as a production vehicle reflects the importance of key biosafety and biocontainment concerns affecting the competitiveness of alternative systems such as mammalian cell culture and agriculture. Food plant species are particularly attractive as hosts for in vitro protein production: the risk of transgene escape and food chain contamination is eliminated using containment facilities, while regulatory approval for oral delivery of drugs may be easier than if non-edible species were used. As in whole plants, proteolysis in cultured plant cells can lead to significant degradation of foreign proteins after synthesis; however, substantial progress has been made to counter the destructive effects of proteases in plant systems. Although protein secretion into the culture medium is advantageous for product recovery and purification, measures are often required to minimise extracellular protease activity and product losses due to irreversible surface adsorption. Disposable plastic bioreactors, which are being used increasingly in mammalian cell bioprocessing, are also being adopted for plant cell culture to allow rapid scale-up and generation of saleable product. This review examines a range of technical and regulatory issues affecting the choice of industrial production platform for foreign proteins, and assesses progress in the development of in vitro plant systems for biopharmaceutical production.

  8. A second inheritance system: the extension of biology through culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2017-10-06

    By the mid-twentieth century (thus following the 'Modern Synthesis' in evolutionary biology), the behavioural sciences offered only the sketchy beginnings of a scientific literature documenting evidence for cultural inheritance in animals-the transmission of traditional behaviours via learning from others (social learning). By contrast, recent decades have seen a massive growth in the documentation of such cultural phenomena, driven by long-term field studies and complementary laboratory experiments. Here, I review the burgeoning scope of discoveries in this field, which increasingly suggest that this 'second inheritance system', built on the shoulders of the primary genetic inheritance system, occurs widely among vertebrates and possibly in invertebrates too. Its novel characteristics suggest significant implications for our understanding of evolutionary biology. I assess the extent to which this second system extends the scope of evolution, both by echoing principal properties of the primary, organic evolutionary system, and going beyond it in significant ways. This is well established in human cultural evolution; here, I address animal cultures more generally. The further major, and related, question concerns the extent to which the consequences of widespread animal cultural transmission interact with the primary, genetically based inheritance systems, shaping organic evolution.

  9. Culture Systems for Regenerative Kidney Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    regenerative medicine field, two key advances have demonstrated the feasibility of a cell -based therapy approach for renal replacement: i) Functional...kidney tissue from embryonic stem cells . This will allow us to generate patient- specific models of polycystic kidney disease, which affects many...the propagation of nephron progenitor cells derived either from embryonic mouse kidneys or human embryonic stem cells . We have used a combinatorial

  10. Cultural Models of Bodily Images of Women Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Mallozzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultural models are simplified images and storylines that encapsulated what is regarded as typical for a social group. Cultural models of teachers include body images of dress, adornment, and comportment, and are useful in examining society’s standards and values. Two participants, Erin and Gabbie (pseudonyms, shared stories about their tattoos, which in the U.S. have historically been seen as a mode of resistance. These tattoos that reflected the teachers’ personal lives were regarded in light of the cultural model of the U.S. teacher, a typically conservatively dressed and coiffed female. According to discourse analysis of the participants’ stories, each teacher’s students did not interpret these tattoos in the same ways. Erin’s students were surprised at the tattoo and interpreted it as a sign she no longer fit the typical teacher mold. Gabbie’s students were not surprised at the tattoo but noted it as confirmatory evidence that she fit the needs of the alternative, nonmainstream school context where the cultural model would be ill suited. This analysis makes a case for more complex interpretations of teachers’ bodies that do not fit the mainstream cultural models of teachers.

  11. Modeling human disease using organotypic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Pawel J; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    Reliable disease models are needed in order to improve quality of healthcare. This includes gaining better understanding of disease mechanisms, developing new therapeutic interventions and personalizing treatment. Up-to-date, the majority of our knowledge about disease states comes from in vivo...

  12. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ito

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and citrate synthase (CS, which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1 and aggrecan (ACAN, was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9, which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and

  13. Rates of cultural change and patterns of cultural accumulation in stochastic models of social transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Lehmann, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-06-01

    Cultural variation in a population is affected by the rate of occurrence of cultural innovations, whether such innovations are preferred or eschewed, how they are transmitted between individuals in the population, and the size of the population. An innovation, such as a modification in an attribute of a handaxe, may be lost or may become a property of all handaxes, which we call "fixation of the innovation." Alternatively, several innovations may attain appreciable frequencies, in which case properties of the frequency distribution-for example, of handaxe measurements-is important. Here we apply the Moran model from the stochastic theory of population genetics to study the evolution of cultural innovations. We obtain the probability that an initially rare innovation becomes fixed, and the expected time this takes. When variation in cultural traits is due to recurrent innovation, copy error, and sampling from generation to generation, we describe properties of this variation, such as the level of heterogeneity expected in the population. For all of these, we determine the effect of the mode of social transmission: conformist, where there is a tendency for each naïve newborn to copy the most popular variant; pro-novelty bias, where the newborn prefers a specific variant if it exists among those it samples; one-to-many transmission, where the variant one individual carries is copied by all newborns while that individual remains alive. We compare our findings with those predicted by prevailing theories for rates of cultural change and the distribution of cultural variation.

  14. Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems: selected aspects of a cross-cultural system engineering; Interkulturelle Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: ausgewaehlte Aspekte einer interkulturellen Systemgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roese, K. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). AG Nutzergerechte Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    Cross-cultural Human-Machine-Systems are one key factor for success in the global market era. Nowadays the machine producer have to offer their products worldwide. With the export to other nations they have to consider on the user behaviour in these other cultures. The analysis of cross-cultural user requirements and their integration into the product development process is a real chance to cape with these challenge. This paper describe two aspects of cross-cultural user aspects. It gives an impression of the complex and sometimes unknown cultural influencing factors and their impact on Human-Machine-System-Engineering. (orig.)

  15. Evolutionary Model to Traditional Culture and Program Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xiao; JIN Wei-xing; YANG De-qin

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship between the evolutions of Chinese Traditional Culture (CTC) and program organization, an outline of the CTC is generalized by reviewing literature, and which is also compartmentalized into two aspects according to economic philosophy views: traditional philosophy aspect and value judgment. Based on three dimensions, which are the philosophy aspect (P), program organization model (P), and value judgment from economic philosophy views (V), and this evolution sequence, the CTC's influence on the program organization model in the evolution is discussed; then the cultural spatial evolution model for program organization based on the three dimensions (PPV) is constructed. From analyzing the plane matrix of P-P and empirical investigating on the organizational model of construction enterprises, it is found that the ancient Chinese government organizational model still has prevailing influence on the modern program organizational model in China.

  16. Horizontally rotated cell culture system with a coaxial tubular oxygenator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a horizontally rotating bioreactor useful for carrying out cell and tissue culture. For processing of mammalian cells, the system is sterilized and fresh fluid medium, microcarrier beads, and cells are admitted to completely fill the cell culture vessel. An oxygen containing gas is admitted to the interior of the permeable membrane which prevents air bubbles from being introduced into the medium. The cylinder is rotated at a low speed within an incubator so that the circular motion of the fluid medium uniformly suspends the microbeads throughout the cylinder during the cell growth period. The unique design of this cell and tissue culture device was initially driven by two requirements imposed by its intended use for feasibility studies for three dimensional culture of living cells and tissues in space by JSC. They were compatible with microgravity and simulation of microgravity in one G. The vessels are designed to approximate the extremely quiescent low shear environment obtainable in space.

  17. Modelling of Mammalian cells and cell culture processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, F R; Mantalaris, A; Asprey, S P

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cell cultures represent the major source for a number of very high-value biopharmaceutical products, including monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), viral vaccines, and hormones. These products are produced in relatively small quantities due to the highly specialised culture conditions and their susceptibility to either reduced productivity or cell death as a result of slight deviations in the culture conditions. The use of mathematical relationships to characterise distinct parts of the physiological behaviour of mammalian cells and the systematic integration of this information into a coherent, predictive model, which can be used for simulation, optimisation, and control purposes would contribute to efforts to increase productivity and control product quality. Models can also aid in the understanding and elucidation of underlying mechanisms and highlight the lack of accuracy or descriptive ability in parts of the model where experimental and simulated data cannot be reconciled. This paper reviews developments in the modelling of mammalian cell cultures in the last decade and proposes a future direction - the incorporation of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data, taking advantage of recent developments in these disciplines and thus improving model fidelity. Furthermore, with mammalian cell technology dependent on experiments for information, model-based experiment design is formally introduced, which when applied can result in the acquisition of more informative data from fewer experiments. This represents only part of a broader framework for model building and validation, which consists of three distinct stages: theoretical model assessment, model discrimination, and model precision, which provides a systematic strategy from assessing the identifiability and distinguishability of a set of competing models to improving the parameter precision of a final validated model.

  18. A Cross Cultural Model for FlexibleMotivation in Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiela Dana BOCA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of world business has created a demand for managers sophisticated in global management skills and working with people from other countries. Organizational behavior from different countries and cultures compares organizational behavior across countries and cultures and seeks to understand how to improve the interaction of co workers, manager’s executives, client’s suppliers and alliance partners from around the world. The economic world shows us that all the elements that we consider static have a pulsation around an equilibrium position. The present study concerning the organization’s culture the motivational factors of the employees an outlet in this field. The flexibility in a global economy is an important element on which people can communicate and the manager can exercise his leading task thus is an imperfect world that imposed the necessity of adaptation to a cross cultural model.

  19. Eating Disorders: Cultural Model and Consensus Regarding Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manochio-Pina, Marina; Dos Santos, José Ernesto; Dressler, William W; Pessa Ribeiro, Rosane Pilot

    2015-01-01

    The cultural model of food was applied to 112 adult patients with eating disorders (PG) and 36 healthy adult women (CG) of similar age. The Free List and Ranking of Foods was used to group foods and verify consensus and cultural aspects. Calories, health, and taste were the dimensions used by the participants to group the foods, and strong consensus was achieved in regard to calories and health. There were, however, inter- and intra-group divergences in regard to these ideas, especially in the PG. The CG used distinct criteria, showing a more complex model.

  20. Enriching the Student Experience Through a Collaborative Cultural Learning Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInally, Wendy; Metcalfe, Sharon; Garner, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a knowledge and understanding of an international, collaborative, cultural learning model for students from the United States and Scotland. Internationalizing the student experience has been instrumental for student learning for the past eight years. Both countries have developed programs that have enriched and enhanced the overall student learning experience, mainly through the sharing of evidence-based care in both hospital and community settings. Student learning is at the heart of this international model, and through practice learning, leadership, and reflective practice, student immersion in global health care and practice is immense. Moving forward, we are seeking new opportunities to explore learning partnerships to provide this collaborative cultural learning experience.

  1. Cultural consultation as a model for training multidisciplinary mental healthcare professionals in cultural competence skills: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, J A; Ajaz, A; Ascoli, M; de Jongh, B; Palinski, A; Bhui, K S

    2014-01-01

    Lack of cultural competence in care contributes to poor experiences and outcomes from care for migrants and racial and ethnic minorities. As a result, health and social care organizations currently promote cultural competence of their workforce as a means of addressing persistent poor experiences and outcomes. At present, there are unsystematic and diverse ways of promoting cultural competence, and their impact on clinician skills and patient outcomes is unknown. We developed and implemented an innovative model, cultural consultation service (CCS), to promote cultural competence of clinicians and directly improve on patient experiences and outcomes from care. CCS model is an adaptation of the McGill model, which uses ethnographic methodology and medical anthropological knowledge. The method and approach not only contributes both to a broader conceptual and dynamic understanding of culture, but also to learning of cultural competence skills by healthcare professionals. The CCS model demonstrates that multidisciplinary workforce can acquire cultural competence skills better through the clinical encounter, as this promotes integration of learning into day-to-day practice. Results indicate that clinicians developed a broader and patient-centred understanding of culture, and gained skills in narrative-based assessment method, management of complexity of care, competing assumptions and expectations, and clinical cultural formulation. Cultural competence is defined as a set of skills, attitudes and practices that enable the healthcare professionals to deliver high-quality interventions to patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Improving on the cultural competence skills of the workforce has been promoted as a way of reducing ethnic and racial inequalities in service outcomes. Currently, diverse models for training in cultural competence exist, mostly with no evidence of effect. We established an innovative narrative-based cultural consultation service in an inner

  2. Progress towards understanding heterotypic interactions in multi-culture models of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Mary C; Alarid, Elaine T; Beebe, David J

    2016-06-13

    Microenvironments in primary tumors and metastases include multiple cell types whose dynamic and reciprocal interactions are central to progression of the disease. However, the literature involving breast cancer studied in vitro is dominated by cancer cells in mono-culture or co-cultured with one other cell type. For in vitro studies of breast cancer the inclusion of multiple cell types has led to models that are more representative of in vivo behaviors and functions as compared to more traditional monoculture. Here, we review foundational co-culture techniques and their adaptation to multi-culture (including three or more cell types). Additionally, while macroscale methods involving conditioned media, direct contact, and indirect interactions have been informative, we examined many advances that have been made more recently using microscale systems with increased control over cellular and structural complexity. Throughout this discussion we consider the benefits and limitations of current multi-culture methods and the significant results they have produced.

  3. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  4. NEP systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    A new nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems analysis code is discussed. The new code is modular and consists of a driver code and various subsystem models. The code models five different subsystems: (1) reactor/shield; (2) power conversion; (3) heat rejection; (4) power management and distribution (PMAD); and (5) thrusters. The code optimizes for the following design criteria: minimum mass; minimum radiator area; and low mass/low area. The code also optimizes the following parameters: separation distance; temperature ratio; pressure ratio; and transmission frequency. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  5. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P vannamei.

  6. IMAGO Visualization System: An Interactive Web-Based 3D Visualization System for Cultural Heritage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Mendes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the evolution of technologies and methods for realistic 3D reconstruction of objects, in many projects it can be found efficient ways to make research results in digital preservation available on the Internet. 3D visualization of cultural heritage is highlighted in this scenario, helping to expand research activities in this field by providing proper tools to allow for example, remote access to historical artifacts. Thus, visualization systems must be able to handle important aspects in the context of digital preservation, such as user profiles, security and ease access to 3D models. This paper presents the development of an effective web-based 3D visualization system whose architecture offers an easy and fast interactivity with 3D models even when limited computer resources are available. The system has been successfully adopted in developing of 3D Virtual Museums in the Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR in Brazil, providing an important tool to promote research, educational, social and cultural activities.

  7. A novel method for toxicology: in vitro culture system of a rat preantral follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Xuying; Zhu Jiangbo; Zhu Yuping; Xili, Ma; Liu Zhen; Wang Fei; Xu Guifeng; Zhang Tianbao

    2011-08-01

    Preantral follicle in vitro culture systems have been successfully or nearly successfully established for sheep, pig and mouse, and applied on follicle development and regulation research on reproductive biology and physiology. However, there have been few studies concerning rat preantral follicle in vitro development. The objective is to establish an in vitro culture system for rat preantral follicles which can be used for reproductive biology and toxicology research. Rat preantral follicles are mechanically separated, cultured in vitro in single follicle mode for continuous 12 days using 96-well plates, and then administrated ovulation induction. The observation on follicle development, hormone level, and ovum formation are recorded and assessed. Taking in vivo growth and in vitro maturation of oocytes group as control group, in vitro growth and maturation of oocytes group is assessed to see whether this in vitro culture method is successful. The conditions for rat follicle culture are determined based on the mouse pre-antral follicle culture. The in vitro culture system for rat preantral follicles established in this study is feasible and successful, and can serve as model for reproductive biology and toxicology research.

  8. National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.W. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration is developing a new National Energy Modeling System to provide annual forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices on a regional basis in the United States and, to a limited extent, in the rest of the world. The design for the system was based on a requirements analysis, a comparison of requirements with existing modeling capabilities, and a series of widely circulated issue papers defining the choices and tradeoffs for 13 key design decisions. An initial prototpye of the new NEMS was implemented in late 1992, with a more complete, operational version in 1993. NEMS is expected to provide EIA and other users with a greatly enhanced ability to illustrate quickly and effectively the effects of a wide range of energy policy proposals.

  9. Modeling Novo Nordisk Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'.......This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'....

  10. World Culture in the Capitalist World-System in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Arnove, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    World culture theory (WCT) offers an explanatory framework for macro-level comparative analyses of systems of mass education, including their structures, accompanying policies and their curricular and pedagogical practices. WCT has contributed to broader efforts to overcome methodological nationalism in comparative research. In this paper, we…

  11. World Culture in the Capitalist World-System in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Arnove, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    World culture theory (WCT) offers an explanatory framework for macro-level comparative analyses of systems of mass education, including their structures, accompanying policies and their curricular and pedagogical practices. WCT has contributed to broader efforts to overcome methodological nationalism in comparative research. In this paper, we…

  12. Culturally Responsive Evaluation Meets Systems-Oriented Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Parsons, Beverly A.

    2017-01-01

    The authors of this article each bring a different theoretical background to their evaluation practice. The first author has a background of attention to culturally responsive evaluation (CRE), while the second author has a background of attention to systems theories and their application to evaluation. Both have had their own evolution of…

  13. Pedagogical System of Future Teachers' Professional Thinking Culture Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildina, Saltanat K.; Sarsekeyeva, Zhanar Y.; Aidarbekova, Kulzhan A.; Asetova, Zhannur B.; Adanov, Kuanysbek B.

    2016-01-01

    Research objective is to theoretically justify and to develop a pedagogical system of development of future teachers' professional thinking culture. In the research there are used a set of theoretical methods: systematic analysis of the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature on the researched topic; compilation and classification…

  14. Disease suppressive soilless culture systems; characterisation of its microflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Willemsen-de Klein, M.J.E.I.M.; Rattink, H.; Os, van E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The trend in glasshouse horticulture has always been to start culture systems as aseptic as possible. However, several root diseases still cause problems under these conditions. The present paper shows the importance of the microflora to suppress Pythium aphanidermatum, a fungal root pathogen which

  15. Planning Smalltalk Behavior with Cultural Influences for Multiagent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    in the literature as well as on a video corpus that was recorded in Germany and Japan. In a validation study, we provide initial evidence that our simulation of culture-specific Small Talk with virtual agents is perceived differently by human observers. We thus implemented a system that automatically generates...

  16. The Effect of Three Culture Methods on Intensive Culture System of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhen; WAN Rong; SONG Xiefa; GAO Lei

    2013-01-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance.This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84d.The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks,i.e.,outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C),greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M).Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C (P <0.05).In contrast to the other two treatments,mode-M had stable pH after 50d cultivation of shrimps.In the mid-late period,the average concentrations of TAN,NO2-N,DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C (P <0.05).Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments (P >0.05),mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield,survival rate and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05) than other modes.There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments (P<0.05).These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system ofL.vannamei.

  17. Projected Statewide Impact of "Opportunity Culture" School Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Christen; Dean, Stephanie; Hassel, Emily Ayscue; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2014-01-01

    This brief estimates the impact of a statewide implementation of Opportunity Culture models, using North Carolina as an example. Impacts estimated include student learning outcomes, gross state product, teacher pay, and other career characteristics, and state income tax revenue. Estimates indicate the potential for a statewide transition to…

  18. Analysing the Organizational Culture of Universities: Two Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Marina Tomas; Ion, Georgeta

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the findings of two research projects, examining organizational culture by means of two different models of analysis--one at university level and one at department level--which were carried out over the last four years at Catalonian public universities (Spain). Theoretical and methodological approaches for the two…

  19. Beyond Cultural Relativism: An Ecological Model for Rhetorical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Jim

    A model intended to overcome the cultural relativism of determining what is an ethical act draws an analogy to environmental studies. Beginning with the concepts of "telos" (final purpose) and "archai" (priority), the notion of an ecosystem of ethics avoids limitation to a particular historical definition of good. Since the…

  20. Culturally Sensitive Dementia Caregiving Models and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Mitcham-Smith, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Family caregiving for individuals with dementia is an increasingly complex issue that affects the caregivers' and care recipients' physical, mental, and emotional health. This article presents 3 key culturally sensitive caregiver models along with clinical interventions relevant for mental health counseling professionals.

  1. Metabolic modelling of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers production by mixed microbial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Maria AM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a metabolic model describing the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA copolymers in mixed microbial cultures, using mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as carbon source material. Material and energetic balances were established on the basis of previously elucidated metabolic pathways. Equations were derived for the theoretical yields for cell growth and PHA production on mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as functions of the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, P/O ratio. The oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was estimated from rate measurements, which in turn allowed the estimation of the theoretical yield coefficients. Results The model was validated with experimental data collected in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR operated under varying feeding conditions: feeding of acetic and propionic acid separately (control experiments, and the feeding of acetic and propionic acid simultaneously. Two different feast and famine culture enrichment strategies were studied: (i either with acetate or (ii with propionate as carbon source material. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was performed for the different feeding conditions and culture enrichment strategies. Flux balance analysis (FBA was used to calculate optimal feeding scenarios for high quality PHA polymers production, where it was found that a suitable polymer would be obtained when acetate is fed in excess and the feeding rate of propionate is limited to ~0.17 C-mol/(C-mol.h. The results were compared with published pure culture metabolic studies. Conclusion Acetate was more conducive toward the enrichment of a microbial culture with higher PHA storage fluxes and yields as compared to propionate. The P/O ratio was not only influenced by the selected microbial culture, but also by the carbon substrate fed to each culture, where higher P/O ratio values were consistently observed for acetate than propionate. MFA studies suggest that when mixtures of

  2. An ovine tracheal explant culture model for allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeynaike Latasha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The airway epithelium is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthmatic disease. However, much of our understanding of airway epithelial cell function in asthma has been derived from in vitro studies that may not accurately reflect the interactive cellular and molecular pathways active between different tissue constituents in vivo. Methods Using a sheep model of allergic asthma, tracheal explants from normal sheep and allergic sheep exposed to house dust mite (HDM allergen were established to investigate airway mucosal responses ex vivo. Explants were cultured for up to 48 h and tissues were stained to identify apoptotic cells, goblet cells, mast cells and eosinophils. The release of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α by cultured tracheal explants, was assessed by ELISA. Results The general morphology and epithelial structure of the tracheal explants was well maintained in culture although evidence of advanced apoptosis within the mucosal layer was noted after culture for 48 h. The number of alcian blue/PAS positive mucus-secreting cells within the epithelial layer was reduced in all cultured explants compared with pre-cultured (0 h explants, but the loss of staining was most evident in allergic tissues. Mast cell and eosinophil numbers were elevated in the allergic tracheal tissues compared to naïve controls, and in the allergic tissues there was a significant decline in mast cells after 24 h culture in the presence or absence of HDM allergen. IL-6 was released by allergic tracheal explants in culture but was undetected in cultured control explants. Conclusions Sheep tracheal explants maintain characteristics of the airway mucosa that may not be replicated when studying isolated cell populations in vitro. There were key differences identified in explants from allergic compared to control airways and in their responses in culture for 24 h. Importantly, this study establishes the potential for the

  3. Cultural Models of Teaching and Learning in Math and Science: Exploring the Intersections of Culture, Cognition, and Pedagogical Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Hora, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined how disciplinary and departmental cultures influence instructional practices in higher education, there has yet to be an examination of this relationship at the embodied level of culture. In this article we utilize cultural models theory to examine the theories of student learning and teaching practice espoused and…

  4. Development of Quality Assurance System in Culture and Nation Character Education in Primary Education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilana, Rudi; Asra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a system of quality assurance in culture and character education in primary education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…

  5. An Optically Controlled 3D Cell Culturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S. Ishii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel 3D cell culture system was developed and tested. The cell culture device consists of a microfluidic chamber on an optically absorbing substrate. Cells are suspended in a thermoresponsive hydrogel solution, and optical patterns are utilized to heat the solution, producing localized hydrogel formation around cells of interest. The hydrogel traps only the desired cells in place while also serving as a biocompatible scaffold for supporting the cultivation of cells in 3D. This is demonstrated with the trapping of MDCK II and HeLa cells. The light intensity from the optically induced hydrogel formation does not significantly affect cell viability.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test and MiniBESTest in the elderly and individuals with Parkinson's disease: application of the Rasch model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Older adults and individuals with neurological problems such as Parkinson's disease (PD exhibit balance deficits that might impair their mobility and independence. The assessment of balance must be useful in identifying the presence of instability and orient interventions. OBJECTIVE: To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest and MiniBESTest to Brazilian Portuguese and analyze its psychometric properties. METHOD: The tests were translated and adapted to Portuguese according to a standard method and then subjected to a test-retest reliability assessment (10 older adults; 10 individuals with PD. The psychometric properties were assessed by the Rasch model (35 older adults; 35 individuals with PD. RESULTS: The reliability coefficient of the tests relative to the items and subjects varied from 0.91 and 0.98, which is indicative of the stability and reproducibility of the measures. In the BESTest, the person (4.19 and item (5.36 separation index established six balance ability levels and seven levels of difficulty, respectively. In the MiniBESTest, the person (3.16 and item (6.41 separation index established four balance ability levels and nine levels of difficulty, respectively. Two items in the BESTest did not fit with the model expectations, but the construct validity was not compromised. No item in the MiniBESTest was erratic. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the diagnostic and screening functions of the BESTest and MiniBESTest, respectively, and indicate that the Brazilian versions exhibit adequate reliability, construct validity, response stability, and capacity to distinguish among various balance ability levels in older adults and individuals with PD.

  7. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  8. Cell culture systems for the hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gilles Duverlie; Czeslaw Wychowski

    2007-01-01

    Since the discovery of HCV in 1989, the lack of a cell culture system has hampered research progress on this important human pathogen. No robust system has been obtained by empiric approaches, and HCV cell culture remained hypothetical until 2005. The construction of functional molecular clones has served as a starting point to reconstitute a consensus infectious cDNA that was able to transcribe infectious HCV RNAs as shown by intrahepatic inoculation in a chimpanzee. Other consensus clones have been selected and established in a human hepatoma cell line as replicons, i.e. self-replicating subgenomic or genomic viral RNAs. However, these replicons did not support production of infectious virus. Interestingly, some full-length replicons could be established without adaptive mutations and one of them was able to replicate at very high levels and to release virus particles that are infectious in cell culture and in vivo. This new cell culture system represents a major breakthrough in the HCV field and should enable a broad range of basic and applied studies to be achieved.

  9. System of systems modeling and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, James E.; Anderson, Dennis James; Longsine, Dennis E. (Intera, Inc., Austin, TX); Shirah, Donald N.

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of an LDRD program entitled 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' that was conducted during FY 2003 and FY 2004. Systems that themselves consist of multiple systems (referred to here as System of Systems or SoS) introduce a level of complexity to systems performance analysis and optimization that is not readily addressable by existing capabilities. The objective of the 'System of Systems Modeling and Analysis' project was to develop an integrated modeling and simulation environment that addresses the complex SoS modeling and analysis needs. The approach to meeting this objective involved two key efforts. First, a static analysis approach, called state modeling, has been developed that is useful for analyzing the average performance of systems over defined use conditions. The state modeling capability supports analysis and optimization of multiple systems and multiple performance measures or measures of effectiveness. The second effort involves time simulation which represents every system in the simulation using an encapsulated state model (State Model Object or SMO). The time simulation can analyze any number of systems including cross-platform dependencies and a detailed treatment of the logistics required to support the systems in a defined mission.

  10. Viral hepatitis: A new HCV cell culture model for the next clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Che C; Baumert, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    Despite advances in hepatitis C treatment, substantial clinical hurdles remain to achieve universal cure and global control of infection. Saeed et al. identified SEC14L2 as a host factor permitting replication of clinical HCV isolates in cell culture, providing a novel system to model infection of patient-derived viruses.

  11. [Application of the cultural competence model in the experience of care in nursing professionals Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Estevan, María Dolores; Solano Ruíz, María Del Carmen

    2017-06-10

    To know the experiences and perceptions of nurses in providing care and health promotion, women belonging to groups at risk of social vulnerability, applying the model of cultural competence Purnell. Phenomenological qualitative study. Department of Health Elda. A total of 22 primary care professional volunteers. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with recording and content analysis, according to the theory model of cultural competence. Socio-cultural factors influence the relationship between professionals and users of the system. The subtle racism and historical prejudices create uncomfortable situations and mistrust. The language barrier makes it difficult not only communication, but also the monitoring and control of the health-disease process. The physical appearance and stereotypes are determining factors for primary care professionals. Although perceived misuse of health services are also talking about changes. The spiritual aspects of religious beliefs alone are taken into account in the case of Muslim women, not being considered as important in the case of Gypsy women and Romanian women. To provide quality care, consistent and culturally competent, it is necessary to develop training programs for professionals in cultural competence, to know the culture of other, and work without preconceived ideas, and ethnocentric; since the greater the knowledge of the cultural group being served, the better the quality of care provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Regenerative material for aneurysm embolization A 3-dimensional culture system of fibroblasts and calcium alginate gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingdong Zhang; Kan Xu; Jinlu Yu; Jun Wang; Qi Luo

    2011-01-01

    Calcium alginate gel (CAG) has been shown to successfully model aneurysm embolization within a short period of time. However, gradually degrading CAG potentially results in aneurysm recanalization.In the present study, a regenerative embolic material was designed by seeding rat fibroblasts in a CAG. The study investigated the feasibility of constructing a 3-dimensional culture system. The fibroblasts grew well and firmly attached to the CAG. CAG was conducive for fibroblast growth, and resulted in a 3-dimensional culture system. Results show that CAG can be used theoretically as a vascular, regenerative, embolic material.

  13. A case for systemic environmental analysis of cultured meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carolyn S Mattick; Amy E Landis; Braden R Allenby

    2015-01-01

    The environmental implications of cultured meat are profound. An anticipatory life cycle assessment of cultured meat published in 2011 suggested it could have a smal er impact than agricultural meat in al categories except energy consumption. As with most technologies, cultured meat wil almost certainly be accompanied by unintended consequences as wel as unforeseen costs and beneifts that accrue disproportionately to different stakeholders. Uncertainty associated with new engineered products cannot be completely eliminated prior to introduction, but ongoing environmental assessments of the technologies as they advance can serve to reduce unforeseen risks. Given the pace at which tissue engineering is advancing, systemic assessments of the technology wil be pivotal in mitigating unintended environmental consequences.

  14. Applications of agent-based simulation for human socio-cultural behavior modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) has gained wide attention over the past few years. ABMS is a powerful simulation modeling technique that has a number of applications, including applications to real-world business problems [1]. This modeling technique has been used by scientists to analyze complex system-level behavior by simulating the system from the bottom up. The major application of ABMS includes social, political, biology, and economic sciences. This paper provides an overview of ABMS applications with the emphasis on modeling human socio-cultural behavior (HSCB).

  15. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  16. A multiplex culture system for the long-term growth of fission yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Céline; Coelho, Nelson C; Miller, Aaron W; Sananes, Maria Rosa Domingo; Dunham, Maitreya J; Denoual, Matthieu; Coudreuse, Damien

    2017-08-01

    Maintenance of long-term cultures of yeast cells is central to a broad range of investigations, from metabolic studies to laboratory evolution assays. However, repeated dilutions of batch cultures lead to variations in medium composition, with implications for cell physiology. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, powerful miniaturized chemostat setups, or ministat arrays, have been shown to allow for constant dilution of multiple independent cultures. Here we set out to adapt these arrays for continuous culture of a morphologically and physiologically distinct yeast, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, with the goal of maintaining constant population density over time. First, we demonstrated that the original ministats are incompatible with growing fission yeast for more than a few generations, prompting us to modify different aspects of the system design. Next, we identified critical parameters for sustaining unbiased vegetative growth in these conditions. This requires deletion of the gsf2 flocculin-encoding gene, along with addition of galactose to the medium and lowering of the culture temperature. Importantly, we improved the flexibility of the ministats by developing a piezo-pump module for the independent regulation of the dilution rate of each culture. This made it possible to easily grow strains that have different generation times in the same assay. Our system therefore allows for maintaining multiple fission yeast cultures in exponential growth, adapting the dilution of each culture over time to keep constant population density for hundreds of generations. These multiplex culture systems open the door to a new range of long-term experiments using this model organism. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A biopsychosocial model of metaphor therapy with holistic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, M

    1997-11-01

    For centuries western cultures have adopted a dualistic perspective toward people's health. The "self" has emerged as an independent entity from others as well from the body. Human distress has been psychologized and depression and anxiety have been attributed to intrapsychic structures and processes. Nevertheless, many nonwestern cultures still adopt holistic perspectives. Within these cultures, distress is manifested through physical rather than psychological complains. Therefore, psychological approaches, based on the independence of the self, may not be fitting for these societies. Instead, based on the assumption that nonwestern cultures are holistic and less psychologized and their problems are social rather than intrapsychic, a biopsychosocial approach is suggested. In addition, nonwesterners have a different concept of reality. For instance, within some communities fantasies and delusions are appreciated, constitute part of a normal life, and are considered to be the "real reality." Furthermore, complains are often described in metaphoric language. Accordingly, a biopsychosocial model of metaphoric therapy is proposed in which therapists would incorporate their clients' metaphoric imaginative culture. Metaphoric intervention also allow for changes in the biological, psychological, and sociocultural reality of the client.

  18. Complexity in models of cultural niche construction with selection and homophily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Feldman, Marcus W

    2014-07-22

    Niche construction is the process by which organisms can alter the ecological environment for themselves, their descendants, and other species. As a result of niche construction, differences in selection pressures may be inherited across generations. Homophily, the tendency of like phenotypes to mate or preferentially associate, influences the evolutionary dynamics of these systems. Here we develop a model that includes selection and homophily as independent culturally transmitted traits that influence the fitness and mate choice determined by another focal cultural trait. We study the joint dynamics of a focal set of beliefs, a behavior that can differentially influence the fitness of those with certain beliefs, and a preference for partnering based on similar beliefs. Cultural transmission, selection, and homophily interact to produce complex evolutionary dynamics, including oscillations, stable polymorphisms of all cultural phenotypes, and simultaneous stability of oscillation and fixation, which have not previously been observed in models of cultural evolution or gene-culture interactions. We discuss applications of this model to the interaction of beliefs and behaviors regarding education, contraception, and animal domestication.

  19. Gender and cultural issues in psychiatric nosological classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Tanya; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Much has changed since the two dominant mental health nosological systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), were first published in 1900 and 1952, respectively. Despite numerous modifications to stay up to date with scientific and cultural changes (eg, exclusion of homosexuality as a disorder) and to improve the cultural sensitivity of psychiatric diagnoses, the ICD and DSM have only recently renewed attempts at harmonization. Previous nosological iterations demonstrate the oscillation in the importance placed on the biological focus, highlighting the tension between a gender- and culture-free nosology (solely biological) and a contextually relevant understanding of mental illness. In light of the release of the DSM 5, future nosological systems, such as the ICD 11, scheduled for release in 2017, and the Research Development Criteria (RDoC), can learn from history and apply critiques. This article aims to critically consider gender and culture in previous editions of the ICD and DSM to inform forthcoming classifications.

  20. The Kawa model: the power of culturally responsive occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Michael K; Thomson, Nicole A; Macdonald, Rona M

    2009-01-01

    The Kawa (Japanese for river) model, developed by Japanese and Canadian rehabilitation professionals, presents an important and novel alternative to contemporary 'Western' models of rehabilitation. Rather than focussing primarily on the individual client, the Kawa model focusses on 'contexts' that shape and influence the realities and challenges of peoples' dayto-day lives. The first substantial model of rehabilitation practice developed outside of the West illuminates the transactional quality of human-environment dynamics and the importance of inter-relations of self and others through the metaphor of a river's flow. The model's reflection of Eastern thought and views of nature presents a useful point of comparison to familiar rational and mechanical explanations of occupation and well-being. In this article, the rationale for an alternative model in rehabilitation is presented, followed by an explanation of the structure and concepts of the Kawa model. Implications for culturally responsive practice as well as the model's significance to the advancement of culturally safe rehabilitation worldwide are discussed.

  1. Developing a New Dynamic Model for Cultural Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Aftab Azari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As it stands, there is a dramatic increase on cultural management studies, although majorities of them are related to ecology, sociology, anthropology. In this case, the present study examined the most important factors in cultural development via cause-effect method. Consequently, the aim of this study is presenting a comprehensive model for cultural development management based on elite opinions. In order to build a community which has been developed based upon the perspective document "developed, moral-based, focused on religious democracy, social justice, legitimate freedoms, human rights and generosity, advance knowledge included, health, activity, responsibility, inspirational, a human being is selected who is the origin of all positive behavioral developments. In this respect, as it is almost impossible to predict the complex, ambiguous and somehow paradoxical behavior of a human being with linear planning, who is capable of playing many different roles in the chronological process, in this survey Vensim DSS is considered as the research software according to its dynamic features. The results focused on the first theory of order in Chaos entitled as Butterfly Effect, proves that it is possible to predict the effects of changes in the cultural development variable until 2025. In addition, according to the simulated model, cultural development is more sensitive than the production process as compared to distribution and consumption processes. However, it shouldn't be ignored the fact that the effect of creativity is institutionalized in the essence of model and according to theories of natural order and order in Chaos; the core of its changes is based on dynamism, development and innovation.

  2. Culture system for embryos of blue-breasted quail from the blastoderm stage to hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Tamao; Nakane, Yoshifumi; Wadayama, Takahiro; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Arisawa, Kenjiro; Ninomiya, Shoko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Makoto; Kagami, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis), the smallest species in the order Galliforms, is a candidate model animal for avian developmental engineering because it is precocious and prolific. This species requires 17 days to hatch and 8 to 9 weeks to mature to an adult body weight of about 50 g, whereas the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) requires 16 days to hatch and 6 to 8 weeks to mature to an adult body weight of 100 to 150 g. The early embryo is the most challenging embryonic stage in terms of culture and manipulation for avian biotechnology. We have evaluated various conditions for the culture of blue-breasted quail embryos from the blastoderm stage to hatching. A hatchability rate of 26% (10/39) is among the best of the various culture conditions examined in the present study and the embryo culture system should facilitate advances in avian biotechnology.

  3. Fibroblasts Influence Survival and Therapeutic Response in a 3D Co-Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majety, Meher; Pradel, Leon P; Gies, Manuela; Ries, Carola H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has indicated that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a significant role in tumor progression. Fibroblasts represent an abundant cell population in the TME and produce several growth factors and cytokines. Fibroblasts generate a suitable niche for tumor cell survival and metastasis under the influence of interactions between fibroblasts and tumor cells. Investigating these interactions requires suitable experimental systems to understand the cross-talk involved. Most in vitro experimental systems use 2D cell culture and trans-well assays to study these interactions even though these paradigms poorly represent the tumor, in which direct cell-cell contacts in 3D spaces naturally occur. Investigating these interactions in vivo is of limited value due to problems regarding the challenges caused by the species-specificity of many molecules. Thus, it is essential to use in vitro models in which human fibroblasts are co-cultured with tumor cells to understand their interactions. Here, we developed a 3D co-culture model that enables direct cell-cell contacts between pancreatic, breast and or lung tumor cells and human fibroblasts/ or tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). We found that co-culturing with fibroblasts/TAFs increases the proliferation in of several types of cancer cells. We also observed that co-culture induces differential expression of soluble factors in a cancer type-specific manner. Treatment with blocking antibodies against selected factors or their receptors resulted in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in the co-cultures. Using our co-culture model, we further revealed that TAFs can influence the response to therapeutic agents in vitro. We suggest that this model can be reliably used as a tool to investigate the interactions between a tumor and the TME.

  4. Development of melanocye-keratinocyte co-culture model for controls and vitiligo to assess regulators of pigmentation and melanocytes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need to develop an in vitro skin models which can be used as alternative system for research and testing pharmacological products in place of laboratory animals. Therefore to study the biology and pathophysiology of pigmentation and vitiligo, reliable in vitro skin pigmentation models are required. Aim: In this study, we used primary cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes to prepare the skin co-culture model in control and vitiligo patients. Methods: The skin grafts wer...

  5. Adapting Axelrod's cultural dissemination model for simulating peer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Christian; Lechner, Gernot; Brudermann, Thomas; Füllsack, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We present a generic method for considering incomplete but gradually expandable sociological data in agent-based modeling based on the classic model of cultural dissemination by Axelrod. Our method extension was inspired by research on the diffusion of citizen photovoltaic initiatives, i.e. by initiatives in which citizens collectively invest in photovoltaic plants and share the profits. Owing to the absence of empirical interaction parameters, the Axelrod model was used as basis for considering peer effects with contrived interaction data that can be updated from empirical surveys later on. The Axelrod model was extended to cover the following additional features: •Consideration of empirical social science data for concrete social interaction.•Development of a variable and fine-tunable interaction function for agents.•Deployment of a generic procedure for modeling peer effects in agent-based models.

  6. The Role of Cultural Compatibility in Effective Management The Application of Cultural Four-dimensional Model in Transnational Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成哲

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural management is often regarded as a discipline of international management focusing on cultural encounters between the organization and the nation-state, and providing tools to tackle cultural difl'erences seen as sources of conflict, friction or misunderstanding. Based on Greet Hofstede' s Cultural Model, this paper attempts to shed some light on effective corporation management through cultural analysis of the difl'erences between China and western countries. The paper puts more emphasis on the impact of cultural compatibility on effective corporation man- agement through the case study of China, Japan, Germany and America. The author argues that managers and employ- ees involved in companies with diverse cultural backgrounds should be integrated and developed into a specific local context through interlocking their cultural identifications and the organizational practices.

  7. Multiplying steady-state culture in multi-reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erm, Sten; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-11-01

    Cultivation of microorganisms in batch experiments is fast and economical but the conditions therein change constantly, rendering quantitative data interpretation difficult. By using chemostat with controlled environmental conditions the physiological state of microorganisms is fixed; however, the unavoidable stabilization phase makes continuous methods resource consuming. Material can be spared by using micro scale devices, which however have limited analysis and process control capabilities. Described herein are a method and a system combining the high throughput of batch with the controlled environment of continuous cultivations. Microorganisms were prepared in one bioreactor followed by culture distribution into a network of bioreactors and continuation of independent steady state experiments therein. Accelerostat cultivation with statistical analysis of growth parameters demonstrated non-compromised physiological state following distribution, thus the method effectively multiplied steady state culture of microorganisms. The theoretical efficiency of the system was evaluated in inhibitory compound analysis using repeated chemostat to chemostat transfers.

  8. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  9. Micro fluidic System for Culturing and Monitoring of Neuronal Cells and Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Waagepetersen, Helle S.

    . Tests show that the function of neurons cultured on PNWs lies closer to neurons in vivo than neurons cultured on conventional plastic substrates. The second part of the thesis describes a fluidic system for culturing of brain slices. It describes the fabrication and use of the system as well as results...... for culturing of brain tissue. The second goal was to develop a sensor system with the potential for incorporation into both conventional culture systems and fluidic culturing systems. The third and final goal of this project was to develop a system for culturing of neuronal cells with the possibility...... neuronal cells on a Peptide Nano Wires (PNW) modified substrate aiming to bring conventional neuronal cultures closer to mimic the in vivo situation. The work describes both the fabrication of the culture substrates and results comparing the performance of PNWcultured neurons and conventional cultures...

  10. ECO-BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Burak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology for computer modeling of complex eco-biological models is presented in this paper. It is based on system approach of J. Forrester. Developed methodology is universal for complex ecological and biological systems. Modeling algorithm considers specialties of eco-biological systems and shows adequate and accurate results in practice. 

  11. Usage Analysis for the Identification of Research Trends in Digital Libraries; Keepers of the Crumbling Culture: What Digital Preservation Can Learn from Library History; Patterns of Journal Use by Scientists through Three Evolutionary Phases; Developing a Content Management System-Based Web Site; Exploring Charging Models for Digital Cultural Heritage in Europe; Visions: The Academic Library in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Johan; Vemulapalli, Soma Sekara; Xu, Weining; Luce, Rick; Marcum, Deanna; Friedlander, Amy; Tenopir, Carol; Grayson, Matt; Zhang, Yan; Ebuen, Mercy; King, Donald W.; Boyce, Peter; Rogers, Clare; Kirriemuir, John; Tanner, Simon; Deegan, Marilyn; Marcum, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Includes six articles that discuss use analysis and research trends in digital libraries; library history and digital preservation; journal use by scientists; a content management system-based Web site for higher education in the United Kingdom; cost studies for transitioning to digitized collections in European cultural institutions; and the…

  12. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Coyne G; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    epithelium lining the gastrointestinal tract early in infection. The lack of suitable in vivo and in vitro models to study CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium has limited our understanding of the events that surround infection of these specialized cells. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of human intestinal epithelial cells that better models the gastrointestinal epithelium in vivo. By applying this 3-D model, which recapitulates many aspects of the gastrointestinal epithelium in vivo, to the study of CVB infection, our work provides a new cell system to model the mechanisms by which CVB infects the intestinal epithelium, which may have a profound impact on CVB pathogenesis. Podcast: A podcast concerning this article is available.

  13. Psychometric model for safety culture assessment in nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, D.A., E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN – SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A psychometric model to evaluate ‘safety climate’ at nuclear research facilities. • The model presented evidences of good psychometric qualities. • The model was applied to nuclear research facilities in Brazil. • Some ‘safety culture’ weaknesses were detected in the assessed organization. • A potential tool to develop safety management programs in nuclear facilities. - Abstract: A safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants depends not only on technical performance, but also on the people and on the organization. Organizational factors have been recognized as the main causal mechanisms of accidents by research organizations through USA, Europe and Japan. Deficiencies related with these factors reveal weaknesses in the organization’s safety culture. A significant number of instruments to assess the safety culture based on psychometric models that evaluate safety climate through questionnaires, and which are based on reliability and validity evidences, have been published in health and ‘safety at work’ areas. However, there are few safety culture assessment instruments with these characteristics (reliability and validity) available on nuclear literature. Therefore, this work proposes an instrument to evaluate, with valid and reliable measures, the safety climate of nuclear research facilities. The instrument was developed based on methodological principles applied to research modeling and its psychometric properties were evaluated by a reliability analysis and validation of content, face and construct. The instrument was applied to an important nuclear research organization in Brazil. This organization comprises 4 research reactors and many nuclear laboratories. The survey results made possible a demographic characterization and the identification of some possible safety culture weaknesses and pointing out potential areas to be improved in the assessed organization. Good evidence of reliability with Cronbach's alpha

  14. Promoting collaboration and cultural competence for physician assistant and physical therapist students: a cross-cultural decentralized interprofessional education model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen De Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As the United States health care model progresses towards medical teams and the country’s population continues to diversify, the need for health professional education programs to develop and implement culturally specific interprofessional education (IPE becomes increasingly imperative. A wide range of models exists for delivering and implementing IPE in health education, but none have included the cultural components that are vital in educating the health professional. Methods: A cross-cultural decentralized IPE model for physician assistant (PA and physical therapy (PT students was developed. This three-part IPE series was created using an established cultural curricular model and began with the exploration of self, continued with the examination of various dimensions of culture, and concluded with the exploration of the intersection between health and culture. We assessed student satisfaction of the IPE experiences and students’ engagement and attitudes towards IPE using a three-item open-ended questionnaire administered after each cross-cultural activity and the Interprofessional Education Series Survey (IESS upon the completion of the series. Results: IESS responses showed that PA and PT students reported benefits in interprofessional collaboration and cultural awareness and expressed overall satisfaction with the series. Qualitative analysis revealed growth in student response depth consistent with the scaffolded focus of each IPE module in the series. Conclusion: The trends in this three-part series suggest that institutions looking to develop culturally inclusive IPE educational initiatives may have success through a decentralized model mirroring the effective cultural progression focused on addressing exploration of self, examination of various dimensions of culture, and exploration of the intersection between health and culture.

  15. Differential oligonucleotide activity in cell culture versus mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, E; Tyson, F L

    1997-01-01

    The usual course of drug discovery begins with the demonstration of compound activity in cells and, usually, a lower level of activity in animals. Successive rounds of drug design may result in a compound with sufficient activity in animals to justify clinical trials. The basic endpoints of therapeutic oligonucleotide experiments include target antigen reduction, target messenger reduction and inhibition of transformed cell proliferation or viral replication. However, one should expect oligonucleotides to exhibit pleiotropic behaviour, as do all other drugs. In an animal oligonucleotides will necessarily bind to and dissociate from all macromolecules encountered in the blood, in tissues, on cell surfaces and within cellular compartments. Contrary to expectations, oligonucleotides designed to be complementary to certain transcripts have sometimes been found moderately effective in cell-free extracts, more effective in cell culture and most effective in animal models. If greater potency against standard endpoints is reported in mouse models than was observed in cell culture, critical examination must consider alternate modes of action in animals that may not apply in cell culture. This counterintuitive paradox will be examined, based on studies of Ha-ras expression in bladder cancer, Ki-ras expression in pancreatic cancer, erbB2 expression in ovarian cancer and c-myc expression in B cell lymphoma.

  16. Leaders of neuronal cultures in a quorum percolation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical framework using quorum-percolation for describing the initiation of activity in a neural culture. The cultures are modeled as random graphs, whose nodes are neurons with $kin$ inputs and $kout$ outputs, and whose input degrees $kin=k$ obey given distribution functions $p_k$. We examine the firing activity of the population of neurons according to their input degree ($k$ classes and calculate for each class its firing probability $Phi_k(t$ as a function of $t$. The probability of a node to fire is found to be determined by its in-degree $k$, and the first-to-fire neurons are those that have a high $k$. A small minority of high-$k$ classes may be called ``Leaders,'' as they form an inter-connected subnetwork that consistently fires much before the rest of the culture. Once initiated, the activity spreads from the Leaders to the less connected majority of the culture. We then use the distribution of in-degree of the Leaders to study the growth rate of the number of neurons active in a burst, which was experimentally measured to be initially exponential. We find that this kind of growth rate is best described by a population that has an in-degree distribution that is a Gaussian centered around $k=75$ with width $sigma=31$ for the majority of the neurons, but also has a power law tail with exponent $-2$ for ten percent of the population. Neurons in the tail may have as many as $k=4,700$ inputs. We explore and discuss the correspondence between the degree distribution and a dynamic neuronal threshold, showing that from the functional point of view, structure and elementary dynamics are interchangeable. We discuss possible geometric origins of this distribution, and comment on the importance of size, or of having a large number of neurons, in the culture.

  17. Development of the Continued Improvement System for Nuclear Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. C.; Park, H. G.; Park, Y. W.; Park, J. Y. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It has been found that almost 80 % of the incidents and accidents occurred recently, such as the Fukushima Daiichi disaster and Domestic SBO accident etc. were analyzed to be caused from human errors. (IAEA NES NG-G-2.1) Which strongly claims the importance of the safety culture system. Accordingly, it should be away from a cursory approach like one-off field survey or Snap shop which were being conducted at present for the continued improvement of safety culture. This study introduces an analytical methodology which approaches the generic form of the safety both consciously and unconsciously expressed with behavior, thoughts, and attitude etc. This study was implemented only for open materials such as Inspection report, incidents and accidents reports, QA documents because of the limitation in accessibility to data. More effective use with securing operational data will be possible in future.

  18. An Information System for European culture collections: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible

  19. Mathematical System Theory and System Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Choosing models related effectively to the questions to be addressed is a central issue in the craft of systems analysis. Since the mathematical description the analyst chooses constrains the types of issues he candeal with, it is important for these models to be selected so as to yield limitations that are acceptable in view of the questions the systems analysis seeks to answer. In this paper, the author gives an overview of the central issues affecting the question of model choice. To ...

  20. Assessment of long-term effects of nanoparticles in a microcarrier cell culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mrakovcic

    Full Text Available Nano-sized materials could find multiple applications in medical diagnosis and therapy. One main concern is that engineered nanoparticles, similar to combustion-derived nanoparticles, may cause adverse effects on human health by accumulation of entire particles or their degradation products. Chronic cytotoxicity must therefore be evaluated. In order to perform chronic cytotoxicity testing of plain polystyrene nanoparticles on the endothelial cell line EAhy 926, we established a microcarrier cell culture system for anchorage-dependent cells (BioLevitator(TM. Cells were cultured for four weeks and exposed to doses, which were not cytotoxic upon 24 hours of exposure. For comparison, these particles were also studied in regularly sub-cultured cells, a method that has traditionally been used to assess chronic cellular effects. Culturing on basal membrane coated microcarriers produced very high cell densities. Fluorescent particles were mainly localized in the lysosomes of the exposed cells. After four weeks of exposure, the number of cells exposed to 20 nm polystyrene particles decreased by 60% as compared to untreated controls. When tested in sub-cultured cells, the same particles decreased cell numbers to 80% of the untreated controls. Dose-dependent decreases in cell numbers were also noted after exposure of microcarrier cultured cells to 50 nm short multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Our findings support that necrosis, but not apoptosis, contributed to cell death of the exposed cells in the microcarrier culture system. In conclusion, the established microcarrier model appears to be more sensitive for the identification of cellular effects upon prolonged and repeated exposure to nanoparticles than traditional sub-culturing.

  1. An Air-Liquid Interface Culture System for 3D Organoid Culture of Diverse Primary Gastrointestinal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingnan; Ootani, Akifumi; Kuo, Calvin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional in vitro analysis of gastrointestinal epithelium usually relies on two-dimensional (2D) culture of epithelial cell lines as monolayer on impermeable surfaces. However, the lack of context of differentiation and tissue architecture in 2D culture can hinder the faithful recapitulation of the phenotypic and morphological characteristics of native epithelium. Here, we describe a robust long-term three-dimensional (3D) culture methodology for gastrointestinal culture, which incorporates both epithelial and mesenchymal/stromal components into a collagen-based air-liquid interface 3D culture system. This system allows vigorously expansion of primary gastrointestinal epithelium for over 60 days as organoids with both proliferation and multilineage differentiation, indicating successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the stem cell niche.

  2. Efficiency of neural network-based combinatorial model predicting optimal culture conditions for maximum biomass yields in hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Prakash, O; Khan, Feroz; Kukreja, A K

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : ANN-based combinatorial model is proposed and its efficiency is assessed for the prediction of optimal culture conditions to achieve maximum productivity in a bioprocess in terms of high biomass. A neural network approach is utilized in combination with Hidden Markov concept to assess the optimal values of different environmental factors that result in maximum biomass productivity of cultured tissues after definite culture duration. Five hidden Markov models (HMMs) were derived for five test culture conditions, i.e. pH of liquid growth medium, volume of medium per culture vessel, sucrose concentration (%w/v) in growth medium, nitrate concentration (g/l) in the medium and finally the density of initial inoculum (g fresh weight) per culture vessel and their corresponding fresh weight biomass. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was represented as the function of these five Markov models, and the overall simulation of fresh weight biomass was done with this combinatorial ANN-HMM. The empirical results of Rauwolfia serpentina hairy roots were taken as model and compared with simulated results obtained from pure ANN and ANN-HMMs. The stochastic testing and Cronbach's α-value of pure and combinatorial model revealed more internal consistency and skewed character (0.4635) in histogram of ANN-HMM compared to pure ANN (0.3804). The simulated results for optimal conditions of maximum fresh weight production obtained from ANN-HMM and ANN model closely resemble the experimentally optimized culture conditions based on which highest fresh weight was obtained. However, only 2.99 % deviation from the experimental values could be observed in the values obtained from combinatorial model when compared to the pure ANN model (5.44 %). This comparison showed 45 % better potential of combinatorial model for the prediction of optimal culture conditions for the best growth of hairy root cultures.

  3. Organizational Culture: Applying a Hybrid Model to the U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    techniques to change military culture. Turning to the literature of organizational behavior, organizational culture appears to be a context-free version of...the context-specific military culture. The advantage of using the construct of organizational culture , however, is that there is a rich literature...providing models for assessing, diagnosing, and aligning the organizational culture to environmental demands. Organizational culture refers to the taken

  4. Illness and morality in the Mombasa Swahili community: a metaphorical model in an Islamic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M J

    1997-03-01

    The Swahili of Mombasa are Muslims, part of an ethnic group whose forebears founded East Africa's pre-colonial cities. Their cosmopolitan culture, in common with the cultures of some other, mainly Muslim, groups elsewhere includes a system of beliefs concerning the body's functioning and illness as the result of relations among the body's four humours. The Swahili version of this system and its use in curing is described and briefly compared to several others. Despite the availability of a variety of other systems, including the biomedical employed in the much patronized cost free treatment at government hospitals, the humoural system of beliefs is almost universally held. An hypothesis seeking to explain this suggests that because the Swahili schema is conceptualized by what Lakoff calls a "metaphorical model" emphasizing balance which is also used to conceptualize the values applying to key social relationships, the two schemata support one another, presumably by making the knowledge and emotions applying to one available in the other.

  5. Safety sans Frontières: An International Safety Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Tom W; Noort, Mark C; Shorrock, Steven; Kirwan, Barry

    2015-05-01

    The management of safety culture in international and culturally diverse organizations is a concern for many high-risk industries. Yet, research has primarily developed models of safety culture within Western countries, and there is a need to extend investigations of safety culture to global environments. We examined (i) whether safety culture can be reliably measured within a single industry operating across different cultural environments, and (ii) if there is an association between safety culture and national culture. The psychometric properties of a safety culture model developed for the air traffic management (ATM) industry were examined in 17 European countries from four culturally distinct regions of Europe (North, East, South, West). Participants were ATM operational staff (n = 5,176) and management staff (n = 1,230). Through employing multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, good psychometric properties of the model were established. This demonstrates, for the first time, that when safety culture models are tailored to a specific industry, they can operate consistently across national boundaries and occupational groups. Additionally, safety culture scores at both regional and national levels were associated with country-level data on Hofstede's five national culture dimensions (collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation). MANOVAs indicated safety culture to be most positive in Northern Europe, less so in Western and Eastern Europe, and least positive in Southern Europe. This indicates that national cultural traits may influence the development of organizational safety culture, with significant implications for safety culture theory and practice.

  6. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    systems are derived in this thesis. The results are used for output feedback control of switched nonlinear systems. Model reduction of piecewise affine systems is also studied in this thesis. The proposed method is based on the reduction of linear subsystems inside the polytopes. The methods which......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  7. Modelling on fuzzy control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Hongxing(李洪兴); WANG; Jiayin(王加银); MIAO; Zhihong(苗志宏)

    2002-01-01

    A kind of modelling method for fuzzy control systems is first proposed here, which is calledmodelling method based on fuzzy inference (MMFI). It should be regarded as the third modelling method thatis different from two well-known modelling methods, that is, the first modelling method, mechanism modellingmethod (MMM), and the second modelling method, system identification modelling method (SlMM). Thismethod can, based on the interpolation mechanism on fuzzy logic system, transfer a group of fuzzy inferencerules describing a practice system into a kind of nonlinear differential equation with variable coefficients, calledHX equations, so that the mathematical model of the system can be obtained. This means that we solve thedifficult problem of how to get a model represented as differential equations on a complicated or fuzzy controlsystem.

  8. Energy System Modeling with REopt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, Travis; Anderson, Kate; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; Elgqvist, Emma; DiOrio, Nick; Walker, Andy

    2016-07-15

    This poster details how REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - can help to model energy systems. Some benefits of modeling with REopt include optimizing behind the meter storage for cost and resiliency, optimizing lab testing, optimizing dispatch of utility scale storage, and quantifying renewable energy impact on outage survivability.

  9. Organizational transformation: a model for joint optimization of culture change and evidence-based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D Kirk; Orr, Robin Diane; Raboin, W Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare organizations face continuous and accelerating external change and thus must be prepared to manage their own change initiatives proactively. Given that many believe that the U.S. healthcare system is broken and most healthcare organizations are dealing with pervasive problems, some organizations may choose to seek transformational change to achieve the six aims identified by the Institute of Medicine: healthcare that is safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Transformational change will almost certainly involve organizational culture. Culture change may be most effective when linked to other organizational change initiatives such as organizational strategy, structure, policies, procedures, and recruiting. Significant organizational change often requires accompanying facility change. There is an interdependent relationship between facility design and organizational culture. They affect each other and both impact organizational performance. Sociotechnical theory promotes joint optimization of the social (culture) and technical (facilities) aspects of an organization to achieve sustained positive change. To achieve organizational transformation and to sustain positive change, organizations must be prepared to adopt collaborative efforts in culture change and facility design. The authors propose a model for accomplishing joint optimization of culture change and evidence-based facility design.

  10. Promoting a Culture of Tailoring for Systems Engineering Policy Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Van A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed an integrated systems engineering approach to promote a culture of tailoring for program and project policy requirements. MSFC's culture encourages and supports tailoring, with an emphasis on risk-based decision making, for enhanced affordability and efficiency. MSFC's policy structure integrates the various Agency requirements into a single, streamlined implementation approach which serves as a "one-stop-shop" for our programs and projects to follow. The engineers gain an enhanced understanding of policy and technical expectations, as well as lesson's learned from MSFC's history of spaceflight and science missions, to enable them to make appropriate, risk-based tailoring recommendations. The tailoring approach utilizes a standard methodology to classify projects into predefined levels using selected mission and programmatic scaling factors related to risk tolerance. Policy requirements are then selectively applied and tailored, with appropriate rationale, and approved by the governing authorities, to support risk-informed decisions to achieve the desired cost and schedule efficiencies. The policy is further augmented by implementation tools and lifecycle planning aids which help promote and support the cultural shift toward more tailoring. The MSFC Customization Tool is an integrated spreadsheet that ties together everything that projects need to understand, navigate, and tailor the policy. It helps them classify their project, understand the intent of the requirements, determine their tailoring approach, and document the necessary governance approvals. It also helps them plan for and conduct technical reviews throughout the lifecycle. Policy tailoring is thus established as a normal part of project execution, with the tools provided to facilitate and enable the tailoring process. MSFC's approach to changing the culture emphasizes risk-based tailoring of policy to achieve increased flexibility, efficiency

  11. Microfluidic culture models to study the hydrodynamics of tumor progression and therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Cara; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-08-01

    The integration of tissue engineering strategies with microfluidic technologies has enabled the design of in vitro microfluidic culture models that better adapt to morphological changes in tissue structure and function over time. These biomimetic microfluidic scaffolds accurately mimic native 3D microenvironments, as well as permit precise and simultaneous control of chemical gradients, hydrodynamic stresses, and cellular niches within the system. The recent application of microfluidic in vitro culture models to cancer research offers enormous potential to aid in the development of improved therapeutic strategies by supporting the investigation of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis under physiologically relevant flow conditions. The intrinsic material properties and fluid mechanics of microfluidic culture models enable high-throughput anti-cancer drug screening, permit well-defined and controllable input parameters to monitor tumor cell response to various hydrodynamic conditions or treatment modalities, as well as provide a platform for elucidating fundamental mechanisms of tumor physiology. This review highlights recent developments and future applications of microfluidic culture models to study tumor progression and therapeutic targeting under conditions of hydrodynamic stress relevant to the complex tumor microenvironment.

  12. Community workshops for social appropriation of cultural heritage in the Coffee Region Cultural Landscape, as a strategy for an eco-efficient design model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gómez Alzate

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to implement a project in the Coffee Growing Region’s Cultural Landscape has been identified. This would have a unifying effect and pro- mote the inhabitants’ greater participation by them recognising their own cultural heritage in order for the public to be able to effectively communicate through community workshops, the purpose of which is to structure an eco-efficient design model. The model proposed is the result of research made up of a collaborative system of work (concept maps, photographs and videos, short stories, and testimonies. It was experimentally implemented in the municipalities of Neira, Salamina, and Aguadas, in which, through community pedagogical workshops, information was collected that was validated by the inhabitants. The details of the model were then spread through an alternative communication channel, which promotes spaces for exchanges, participation, and reflection with respect to local cultural values, their potential, and their vulnerability.

  13. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  14. Tumor cell culture on collagen–chitosan scaffolds as three-dimensional tumor model: A suitable model for tumor studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Mahmoudzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells naturally live in three-dimensional (3D microenvironments, while common laboratory tests and evaluations are done in two-dimensional (2D plates. This study examined the impact of cultured 4T1 cancer cells in a 3D collagen–chitosan scaffold compared with 2D plate cultures. Collagen–chitosan scaffolds were provided and passed confirmatory tests. 4T1 tumor cells were cultured on scaffolds and then tumor cells growth rate, resistance to X-ray radiation, and cyclophosphamide as a chemotherapy drug were analyzed. Furthermore, 4T1 cells were extracted from the scaffold model and were injected into the mice. Tumor growth rate, survival rate, and systemic immune responses were evaluated. Our results showed that 4T1 cells infiltrated the scaffolds pores and constructed a 3D microenvironment. Furthermore, 3D cultured tumor cells showed a slower proliferation rate, increased levels of survival to the X-ray irradiation, and enhanced resistance to chemotherapy drugs in comparison with 2D plate cultures. Transfer of extracted cells to the mice caused enhanced tumor volume and decreased life span. This study indicated that collagen–chitosan nanoscaffolds provide a suitable model of tumor that would be appropriate for tumor studies.

  15. Using a System Model for Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Leonardo; de Miranda, Eu; Sánchez-Román, Rodrigo; Orellana-González, Alba

    2014-05-01

    When using Systems Thinking variables involved in any process have a dynamic behavior, according to nonstatic relationships with the environment. In this paper it is presented a system dynamics model developed to be used as an irrigation management tool. The model involves several parameters related to irrigation such as: soil characteristics, climate data and culture's physiological parameters. The water availability for plants in the soil is defined as a stock in the model, and this soil water content will define the right moment to irrigate and the water depth required to be applied. The crop water consumption will reduce soil water content; it is defined by the potential evapotranspiration (ET) that acts as an outflow from the stock (soil water content). ET can be estimated by three methods: a) FAO Penman-Monteith (ETPM), b) Hargreaves-Samani (ETHS) method, based on air temperature data and c) Class A pan (ETTCA) method. To validate the model were used data from the States of Ceará and Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the culture was bean. Keyword: System Dynamics, soil moisture content, agricultural water balance, irrigation scheduling.

  16. Forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases--part 1: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C; Geffner, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This article introduces the first in a two-part special issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. The five articles contained in this issue include a diversity of perspectives on approaches to extended interviews and evaluations of child sexual abuse suspicions, an exploration of the ways culture affects child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, considerations relevant to the management of a child's mental health needs while forensic process are ongoing, and the use of anatomical dolls in forensic interviews. We call for attention to several practice areas, including (a) prioritizing a child's mental health needs while minimizing disruption of forensic processes, (b) developing best practices and models of child sexual abuse assessment and evaluation when a one-session forensic interview is insufficient, (c) appropriately evaluating child sexual abuse concerns when they occur without a disclosure and/or in children with communication limitations, and (d) the integration of cultural sensitivity into interviews and evaluations.

  17. Cosmic emergy based ecological systems modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chen, G. Q.; Ji, X.

    2010-09-01

    Ecological systems modelling based on the unified biophysical measure of cosmic emergy in terms of embodied cosmic exergy is illustrated in this paper with ecological accounting, simulation and scenario analysis, by a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem associated with the municipality of Beijing. An urbanized regional ecosystem model with eight subsystems of natural support, agriculture, urban production, population, finance, land area, potential environmental impact, and culture is representatively presented in exergy circuit language with 12 state variables governing by corresponding ecodynamic equations, and 60 flows and auxiliary variables. To characterize the regional socio-economy as an ecosystem, a series of ecological indicators based on cosmic emergy are devised. For a systematic ecological account, cosmic exergy transformities are provided for various dimensions including climate flows, natural resources, industrial products, cultural products, population with educational hierarchy, and environmental emissions. For the urban ecosystem of Beijing in the period from 1990 to 2005, ecological accounting is carried out and characterized in full details. Taking 2000 as the starting point, systems modelling is realized to predict the urban evolution in a one hundred time horizon. For systems regulation, scenario analyses with essential policy-making implications are made to illustrate the long term systems effects of the expected water diversion and rise in energy price.

  18. Autocatalytic closure in a cognitive system A tentative scenario for the origin of culture

    CERN Document Server

    Gabora, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a speculative model of the cognitive mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to mimetic (or memetic) culture with the arrival of Homo erectus, which Donald [1991] claims paved the way for the unique features of human culture. The model draws on Kauffman's [1993] theory of how an information-evolving system emerges through the formation of an autocatalytic network. Though originally formulated to explain the origin of life, this theory also provides a plausible account of how discrete episodic memories become woven into an internal model of the world, or worldview, that both structures, and is structured by, self-triggered streams of thought. Social interaction plays a role in (and may be critical to) this process. Implications for cognitive development are explored.

  19. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  20. Validation of systems biology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasdemir, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm shift from qualitative to quantitative analysis of biological systems brought a substantial number of modeling approaches to the stage of molecular biology research. These include but certainly are not limited to nonlinear kinetic models, static network models and models obtained by the

  1. An organisational culture model to promote creativity and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Martins

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine what type of organisational culture would support creativity and innovation in an organisation. A new model was developed and compared with the theoretical model. Similarities, differences and new perspectives emerged. The factors trust relationship, working environment, management support and customer orientation on an operational level presented shifts in emphasis in the new model. The trust relationship in particular indicated that trust manifests in openness and sincerity. Trust influences both employee support for change and the probability of successful change, which influence the degree to which creativity and innovation are stimulated and promoted. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal watter tipe organisasiekultuur kreatiwiteit en innovasie in ‘n organisasie sal stimuleer. ‘n Nuwe model is ontwikkel en met die teoretiese model vergelyk. Ooreenkomste, verskille en nuwe perspektiewe het aan die lig gekom. Die faktore vertrouensverhouding, werkomgewing, bestuursondersteuning en kliëntegeoriënteerdheid op ‘n operasionele vlak was klemverskuiwings in die nuwe model. Spesifiek die vertrouensverhouding het daarop gedui dat vertroue manifesteer in openlikheid en opregtheid. Vertroue beïnvloed beide werknemers se steun vir verandering en die waarskynlikheid van suksesvolle verandering, wat die mate waarin kreatiwiteit en innovasie gestimuleer en bevorder word, sal beïnvloed.

  2. Analysis of single hyphal growth and fragmentation in submerged cultures using a population model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabben, Preben; Nielsen, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    1997-01-01

    Carlo method is shown to be superior with respect to versatility. With measurements of 100 hyphal elements to represent a steady state and using the Monte Carlo method and a statistical test it is shown that one can discriminate between four models of hyphal fragmentation in submerged cultures. (C) 1997......Descriptions of population dynamics in submerged cultures are important when studying the mechanisms of growth and fragmentation of filamentous microorganisms. Population models are traditionally formulated as population balance equations. Population models of filamentous morphology are difficult...... to solve because of random fragmentation, which introduces an integral term into the population balance equations. Balances for the systemic properties, e.g. concentration of hyphal elements, substrate concentration, average total hyphal length, and average number of growing tips, are set up. Based...

  3. Modeling of deterministic chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Mathematics, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Grebogi, C. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Grebogi, C.; Kurths, J. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Universitaet Potsdam, Postfach 601553, D-14415 Potsdam (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The success of deterministic modeling of a physical system relies on whether the solution of the model would approximate the dynamics of the actual system. When the system is chaotic, situations can arise where periodic orbits embedded in the chaotic set have distinct number of unstable directions and, as a consequence, no model of the system produces reasonably long trajectories that are realized by nature. We argue and present physical examples indicating that, in such a case, though the model is deterministic and low dimensional, statistical quantities can still be reliably computed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Culturally Competent School Leaders: The Individual and the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansuvadha, Nat; Slater, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Cultural competence is the knowledge, behaviors, and dispositions necessary to effectively interact with other cultural groups. Two case studies are presented which illustrate the cultural competence of administrators in urban settings. Theories are reviewed to investigate the themes of cultural competence that emerged from the professional…

  5. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...

  6. Modelling Epistemic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Andre C R

    2012-01-01

    In this Chapter, I will explore the use of modeling in order to understand how Science works. I will discuss the modeling of scientific communities, providing a general, non-comprehensive overview of existing models, with a focus on the use of the tools of Agent-Based Modeling and Opinion Dynamics. A special attention will be paid to models inspired by a Bayesian formalism of Opinion Dynamics. The objective of this exploration is to better understand the effect that different conditions might have on the reliability of the opinions of a scientific community. We will see that, by using artificial worlds as exploring grounds, we can prevent some epistemological problems with the definition of truth and obtain insights on the conditions that might cause the quest for more reliable knowledge to fail.

  7. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  8. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Saliba, Kathryn; Thomson-Luque, Richard; Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H M; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Adams, John H; Pasini, Erica M

    2016-07-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  9. "零排放"复合生物净化模式用于循环水养鲍系统的试验研究%"Zero-discharge" model of combined biofilters in recirculating abalone culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀辰; 张国琛; 张敏

    2007-01-01

    Combined biofilters consisting of an ulva biofilter(UB), a polishing ulva biofilter(PUB) and a sand biofilter(SB) were developed for purification of the rearing water and effluent water in recirculating abalone culture system. UB exhibited intensive uptake to total ammonia-nitrogen(TAN) in the rearing water, thereby reduced the nitrification loadings of SB and lowered accumulation of TAN, NO-2-N, NO-3-N and COD in the system. During the experiment, the concentration of TAN, NO-2-N, NO-3-N and COD in the rearing water was kept below 0.19, 0.01, 1.75 and 1.20 mg/L, respectively. Due to the uptake of UB to PO3-4 and the nitrification of SB, the concentration of PO3-4 in the rearing water retained to 0.30 mg/L during the operation period. The combined biofilters also had good capability of pH value buffering in the rearing water and were able to maintain the pH value between 8.11~8.14 during the whole experiment. The concentration of PO3-4 in the effluent water dropt to 0.22 mg/L and NO-3-N level even dropt to 0.10 mg/L after further uptake by PUB. The inorganic nitrogen cycling models were established for estimating the changes of TAN, NO-2-N and NO-3-N in the rearing water.%采用水生植物滤池(UB和PUB)和固定膜生物滤池(SB)的复合净化模式,对鲍鱼养殖水体和系统排放水体进行净化,实现了循环水养鲍系统的清洁生产.试验结果表明,植物滤池UB对养殖水体中总氨氮(TAN)具有很高的吸收效率,从而降低了SB的硝化负荷,大大减少了TAN、NO-2-N、NO-3-N和COD的积累,在整个试验过程中,养殖水体中TAN、NO-2-N、NO-3-N和COD的浓度分别低于0.19、0.01、1.75和1.20 mg/L.由于UB滤池的吸收作用和SB的硝化作用,养殖水体中PO3-4的浓度一直保持在0.30 mg/L以下.另外,这种复合净化模式具有调节水体pH值的作用,在试验期间,养殖水体中的pH值一直保持在8.11~8.14的良好水质范围,对鲍鱼的养殖十分有利.系统排放水经另一

  10. Cultural competence: a literature review and conceptual model for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mario; Nesman, Teresa; Mowery, Debra; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Callejas, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of organizational cultural competence for use in mental health services that resulted from a comprehensive review of the research literature. The model identifies four factors associated with cultural competence in mental health services (community context, cultural characteristics of local populations, organizational infrastructure, and direct service support) and redefines cultural competence as the degree of compatibility among these factors. A strength of this model of organizational cultural competence is that it facilitates future research and practice in psychiatric services settings and links culturally competent practices to service parity.

  11. Exact Solutions for Models of Cultural Transmission and Network Rewiring

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, T S

    2006-01-01

    We look at the evolution through rewiring of the degree distribution of a network so the number edges is constant. This is exactly equivalent to the evolution of probability distributions in models of cultural transmission with drift and innovation, or models of homogeneity in genes in the presence of mutation. We show that the mean field equations in the literature are incomplete and provide the full equations. We then give an exact solution for both their long time solution and for their approach to equilibrium. Numerical results show these are excellent approximations and confirm the characteristic simple inverse power law distributions with a large scale cutoff under certain conditions. The alternative is that we reach a completely homogeneous solution. We consider how such processes may arise in practice, using a recent Minority Game study as an example.

  12. Pluralistic Modeling of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of complex systems such as ecological or socio-economic systems can be very challenging. Although various modeling approaches exist, they are generally not compatible and mutually consistent, and empirical data often do not allow one to decide what model is the right one, the best one, or most appropriate one. Moreover, as the recent financial and economic crisis shows, relying on a single, idealized model can be very costly. This contribution tries to shed new light on problems that arise when complex systems are modeled. While the arguments can be transferred to many different systems, the related scientific challenges are illustrated for social, economic, and traffic systems. The contribution discusses issues that are sometimes overlooked and tries to overcome some frequent misunderstandings and controversies of the past. At the same time, it is highlighted how some long-standing scientific puzzles may be solved by considering non-linear models of heterogeneous agents with spatio-temporal inte...

  13. Culturing and applications of rotating wall vessel bioreactor derived 3D epithelial cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2012-04-03

    Cells and tissues in the body experience environmental conditions that influence their architecture, intercellular communications, and overall functions. For in vitro cell culture models to accurately mimic the tissue of interest, the growth environment of the culture is a critical aspect to consider. Commonly used conventional cell culture systems propagate epithelial cells on flat two-dimensional (2-D) impermeable surfaces. Although much has been learned from conventional cell culture systems, many findings are not reproducible in human clinical trials or tissue explants, potentially as a result of the lack of a physiologically relevant microenvironment. Here, we describe a culture system that overcomes many of the culture condition boundaries of 2-D cell cultures, by using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. We and others have shown that organotypic RWV-derived models can recapitulate structure, function, and authentic human responses to external stimuli similarly to human explant tissues (1-6). The RWV bioreactor is a suspension culture system that allows for the growth of epithelial cells under low physiological fluid shear conditions. The bioreactors come in two different formats, a high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) or a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV), in which they differ by their aeration source. Epithelial cells are added to the bioreactor of choice in combination with porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads (Figure 1A). The cells utilize the beads as a growth scaffold during the constant free fall in the bioreactor (Figure 1B). The microenvironment provided by the bioreactor allows the cells to form three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates displaying in vivo-like characteristics often not observed under standard 2-D culture conditions (Figure 1D). These characteristics include tight junctions, mucus production, apical/basal orientation, in vivo protein localization, and additional epithelial cell-type specific properties

  14. An aeroponic culture system for the study of root herbivory on Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant defense against herbivory has been studied primarily in aerial tissues. However, complex defense mechanisms have evolved in all parts of the plant to combat herbivore attack and these mechanisms are likely to differ in the aerial and subterranean environment. Research investigating defense responses belowground has been hindered by experimental difficulties associated with the accessibility and quality of root tissue and the lack of bioassays using model plants with altered defense profiles. Results We have developed an aeroponic culture system based on a calcined clay substrate that allows insect herbivores to feed on plant roots while providing easy recovery of the root tissue. The culture method was validated by a root-herbivore system developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and the herbivore Bradysia spp. (fungus gnat). Arabidopsis root mass obtained from aeroponically grown plants was comparable to that from other culture systems, and the plants were morphologically normal. Bradysia larvae caused considerable root damage resulting in reduced root biomass and water absorption. After feeding on the aeroponically grown root tissue, the larvae pupated and emerged as adults. Root damage of mature plants cultivated in aeroponic substrate was compared to that of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in potting mix. Seedlings were notably more susceptible to Bradysia feeding than mature plants and showed decreased overall growth and survival rates. Conclusions A root-herbivore system consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana and larvae of the opportunistic herbivore Bradysia spp. has been established that mimics herbivory in the rhizosphere. Bradysia infestation of Arabidopsis grown in this culture system significantly affects plant performance. The culture method will allow simple profiling and in vivo functional analysis of root defenses such as chemical defense metabolites that are released in response to belowground insect attack. PMID:21392399

  15. A Socio-Cultural Model Based on Empirical Data of Cultural and Social Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    in different social relationship. So, first, we introduce the theories of social and cultural characteristics. Then, we did corpus analysis of human interaction of two cultures in two different social situations and extracted empirical data and finally, by integrating socio-cultural characteristics...

  16. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Exploring Intercultural Learning: A Critique of Hofstede's Cultural Difference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Paola; Wiesemes, Rolf; Murphy, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Hofstede's model of cultural difference has been used widely for exploring aspects of culture in educational settings. In this paper, we review Hofstede's model and explore some of its limitations, particularly in relation to the field of higher education. These limitations include an oversimplification of cultural differences, inconsistencies…

  17. The Relationship between National Culture and the Usability of an E-Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Steve; Wentling, Rose Mary; Wentling, Tim; Wadsworth, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to measure the relationship between national culture and the usability of an e-Learning system by using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Nielson's usability attributes. The study revealed that high uncertainty avoidance cultures found the system more frustrating to use. The study also revealed that individuals from cultures…

  18. METHYLCELLULOSE CELL-CULTURE AS A NEW CYTOTOXICITY TEST SYSTEM FOR BIOMATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; NIEUWENHUIS, P; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    1991-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of biomaterials can be tested in vitro using various culture systems. Liquid culture systems may detect cytotoxicity of a material either by culture of cells with extracts or with the material itself. In the latter instance, renewing the medium will remove possible released cytotoxi

  19. In vivo bone regeneration using tubular perfusion system bioreactor cultured nanofibrous scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeatts, A.B.; Both, S.K.; Yang, W.; Alghamdi, H.S.A.; Yang, F.; Fisher, J.P.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bioreactors for the in vitro culture of constructs for bone tissue engineering has become prevalent as these systems may improve the growth and differentiation of a cultured cell population. Here we utilize a tubular perfusion system (TPS) bioreactor for the in vitro culture of human

  20. The Changeable Nervous System: Studies On Neuroplasticity In Cerebellar Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seil, Fredrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Circuit reorganization after injury was studied in a cerebellar culture model. When cerebellar cultures derived from newborn mice were exposed at explantation to a preparation of cytosine arabinoside that destroyed granule cells and oligodendrocytes and compromised astrocytes, Purkinje cells surviving in greater than usual numbers were unensheathed by astrocytic processes and received twice the control number of inhibitory axosomatic synapses. Purkinje cell axon collaterals sprouted and many of their terminals formed heterotypical synapses with other Purkinje cell dendritic spines. The resulting circuit reorganization preserved inhibition in the cerebellar cortex. Following this reorganization, replacement of the missing granule cells and glia was followed by a restitution of the normal circuitry. Most of these developmental and reconstructive changes were not dependent on neuronal activity, the major exception being inhibitory synaptogenesis. The full complement of inhibitory synapses did not develop in the absence of neuronal activity, which could be mitigated by application of exogenous TrkB receptor ligands. Inhibitory synaptogenesis could also be promoted by activity-induced release of endogenous TrkB receptor ligands or by antibody activation of the TrkB receptor. PMID:24933693

  1. Methods: Using Three-Dimensional Culture (Spheroids) as an In Vitro Model of Tumour Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Russell; Grimes, David Robert; Harris, Adrian L; McIntyre, Alan

    Regions of hypoxia in tumours can be modelled in vitro in 2D cell cultures with a hypoxic chamber or incubator in which oxygen levels can be regulated. Although this system is useful in many respects, it disregards the additional physiological gradients of the hypoxic microenvironment, which result in reduced nutrients and more acidic pH. Another approach to hypoxia modelling is to use three-dimensional spheroid cultures. In spheroids, the physiological gradients of the hypoxic tumour microenvironment can be inexpensively modelled and explored. In addition, spheroids offer the advantage of more representative modelling of tumour therapy responses compared with 2D culture. Here, we review the use of spheroids in hypoxia tumour biology research and highlight the different methodologies for spheroid formation and how to obtain uniformity. We explore the challenge of spheroid analyses and how to determine the effect on the hypoxic versus normoxic components of spheroids. We discuss the use of high-throughput analyses in hypoxia screening of spheroids. Furthermore, we examine the use of mathematical modelling of spheroids to understand more fully the hypoxic tumour microenvironment.

  2. Microfluidic cell culture systems with integrated sensors for drug screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, Samantha; Yu, Linfen; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2012-03-01

    Cell-based testing is a key step in drug screening for cancer treatments. A microfluidic platform can permit more precise control of the cell culture microenvironment, such as gradients in soluble factors. These small-scale devices also permit tracking of low cell numbers. As a new screening paradigm, a microscale system for integrated cell culture and drug screening promises to provide a simple, scalable tool to apply standardized protocols used in cellular response assays. With the ability to dynamically control the microenvironment, we can create temporally varying drug profiles to mimic physiologically measured profiles. In addition, low levels of oxygen in cancerous tumors have been linked with drug resistance and decreased likelihood of successful treatment and patient survival. Our work also integrates a thin-film oxygen sensor with a microfluidic oxygen gradient generator which will in future allow us to create spatial oxygen gradients and study effects of hypoxia on cell response to drug treatment. In future, this technology promises to improve cell-based validation in the drug discovery process, decreasing the cost and increasing the speed in screening large numbers of compounds.

  3. Integrated Modeling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    American Economic Review , 71:1 (March 1981). 181 J.M. Jones and F. Zufryden. "Adding Explanatory Variables to a Consumer Purchase Behavior Model: An...McCall. "An Operational Measure of Liquidity," The American Economic Review , 761 (March 1986). WMSI Working Paper 329. 212 Nelson, R., R. Sarin, and R

  4. Mechanical Stimulus Inhibits the Growth of a Bone Tissue Model Cultured In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-ming Wan; Lu Liu; Jian-yu Li; Rui-xin Li; Yong Guo; Hao Li; Jian-ming Zhang; Xi-zheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To construct the cancellous bone explant model and a method of culturing these bone tissues in vitro, and to investigate the effect of mechanical load on growth of cancellous bone tissue in vitro. Methods Cancellous bone were extracted from rabbit femoral head and cut into 1-mm-thick and 8-mm-diameter slices under sterile conditions. HE staining and scanning electron microscopy were employed to identify the histomorphology of the model after being cultured with a new dynamic load and circulating perfusion bioreactor system for 0, 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively. We built a three-dimensional model using microCT and analyzed the loading effects using finite element analysis. The model was subjected to mechanical load of 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000μεrespectively for 30 minutes per day. After 5 days of continuous stimuli, the activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were detected. Apoptosis was analyzed by DNA ladder detection and caspase-3/8/9 activity detection. Results After being cultured for 3, 5, and 7 days, the bone explant model grew well. HE staining showed the apparent nucleus in cells at the each indicated time, and electron microscope revealed the living cells in the bone tissue. The activities of AKP and TRAP in the bone explant model under mechanical load of 3000 and 4000μεwere significantly lower than those in the unstressed bone tissues (all P Conclusions The cancellous bone explant model extracted from the rabbit femoral head could be alive at least for 7 days in the dynamic load and circulating perfusion bioreactor system, however, pathological mechanical load could affect the bone tissue growth by apoptosis in vitro. The differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts might be inhibited after the model is stimulated by mechanical load of 3000 and 4000με.

  5. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  6. Modeling of cell culture damage and recovery leads to increased antibody and biomass productivity in CHO cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Saeideh; Nikdel, Ali; Meshram, Mukesh; McConkey, Brendan; Ingalls, Brian; Budman, Hector; Scharer, Jeno

    2014-09-01

    The development of an efficient and productive cell-culture process requires a deep understanding of intracellular mechanisms and extracellular conditions for optimal product synthesis. Mathematical modeling provides an effective strategy to predict, control, and optimize cell performance under a range of culture conditions. In this study, a mathematical model is proposed for the investigation of cell damage of a Chinese hamster ovary cell culture secreting recombinant anti-RhD monoclonal antibody (mAb). Irreversible cell damage was found to be correlated with a reduction in pH. This irreversible damage to cellular function is described mathematically by a Tessier-based model, in which the actively growing fraction of cells is dependent on an intracellular metabolic product acting as a growth inhibitor. To further verify the model, an offline model-based optimization of mAb production in the cell culture was carried out, with the goal of minimizing cell damage and thereby enhancing productivity through intermittent refreshment of the culture medium. An experimental implementation of this model-based strategy resulted in a doubling of the yield as compared to the batch operation and the resulting biomass and productivity profiles agreed with the model predictions.

  7. Rethinking historical and cultural source of spontaneous mental models of water cycle: in the perspective of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong

    2012-06-01

    This review explores Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Eshach, Orion, and Alamour's paper titled "Cultural Differences and Students' Spontaneous Models of the Water Cycle: A Case Study of Jewish and Bedouin Children in Israel" by examining how the authors use the concept of spontaneous mental models to explain cultural knowledge source of Bedouin children's mental model of water compared to Jewish children's mental model of water in nature. My response to Ben-Zvi Assaraf et al.'s work expands upon their explanations of the Bedouin children's cultural knowledge source. Bedouin children's mental model is based on their culture, religion, place of living and everyday life practices related to water. I suggest a different knowledge source for spontaneous mental model of water in nature based on unique history and traditions of South Korea where people think of water in nature in different ways. This forum also addresses how western science dominates South Korean science curriculum and ways of assessing students' conceptual understanding of scientific concepts. Additionally I argue that western science curriculum models could diminish Korean students' understanding of natural world which are based on Korean cultural ways of thinking about the natural world. Finally, I also suggest two different ways of considering this unique knowledge source for a more culturally relevant teaching Earth system education.

  8. Effects of Business Model Development Projects on Organizational Culture: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulla Santti; Tuomo Eskelinen; Mervi Rajahonka; Kaija Villman; Ari Happonen

    2017-01-01

    ...” that helps a company develop organizational culture as a competitive advantage. In this study of three case companies, the organizational culture change due business model development projects is studied using the Competing Values Framework (CVF...

  9. Technological aspects of teacher training in culture of information products criation in further education system

    OpenAIRE

    Кондратьева, И. П.

    2013-01-01

    Submission is devoted to urgent educational problem of teacher training in culture of information products criation. Theses include the concept of the culture, describe the educational technology stages of teacher training in further education system.

  10. Royal Jelly Prevents Osteoporosis in Rats: Beneficial Effects in Ovariectomy Model and in Bone Tissue Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Hidaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ has been used worldwide for many years as medical products, health foods and cosmetics. Since RJ contains testosterone and has steroid hormone-type activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. We used both an ovariectomized rat model and a tissue culture model. Rats were divided into eight groups as follows: sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized (OVX, OVX given 0.5% (w/w raw RJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w RJ, OVX given 0.5% (w/w protease-treated RJ (pRJ, OVX given 2.0% (w/w pRJ, OVX given 17β-estradiol and OVX given its vehicle, respectively. The Ovariectomy decreased tibial bone mineral density (BMD by 24%. Administration of 17β-estradiol to OVX rats recovered the tibial BMD decrease by 100%. Administration of 2.0% (w/w RJ and 0.5–2.0% (w/w pRJ to OVX rats recovered it by 85% or more. These results indicate that both RJ and pRJ are almost as effective as 17β-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. In tissue culture models, both RJ and pRJ increased calcium contents in femoral-diaphyseal and femoral-metaphyseal tissue cultures obtained from normal male rats. However, in a mouse marrow culture model, they neither inhibited the parathyroid hormone (PTH-induced calcium loss nor affected the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by PTH in mouse marrow culture system. Therefore, our results suggest that both RJ and pRJ may prevent osteoporosis by enhancing intestinal calcium absorption, but not by directly antagonizing the action of PTH.

  11. Culture Models to Define Key Mediators of Cancer Matrix Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Suzanne Fuller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HG-SOC is one of the most devastating gynecological cancers affecting women worldwide, with a poor survival rate despite clinical treatment advances. HG-SOC commonly metastasizes within the peritoneal cavity, primarily to the mesothelial cells of the omentum which regulate an extracellular matrix (ECM rich in collagens type I, III and IV along with laminin, vitronectin and fibronectin. Cancer cells depend on their ability to penetrate and invade secondary tissue sites to spread, however a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain largely unknown. Given the high metastatic potential of HG-SOC and the associated poor clinical outcome, it is extremely important to identify the pathways and the components of which that are responsible for the progression of this disease. In-vitro methods of recapitulating human disease processes are the critical first step in such investigations. In this context, establishment of an in-vitro ‘tumor-like’ microenvironment, such as 3D culture, to study early disease and metastasis of human HG-SOC is an important and highly insightful method. In recent years many such methods have been established to investigate the adhesion and invasion of human ovarian cancer cell lines. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in ovarian cancer culture systems and their use to investigate clinically relevant findings concerning the key players in driving human HG-SOC.

  12. Intangible Knowledge. The Culture of Knowledge within Organisations from the Perspective of the Sociological Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilia Stingl de Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge can get lost when workers leave the company, or it may be missed when new challenges emerge. Specific knowledge may be important for the value-added chain of an organization, and its inaccessibility could be a problem. The work on this paper seeks to juxtapose this problem with the concept of intangible knowledge. This concept is developed as an observation model for particular situations within organisations, in which specific, useful, knowledge is no longer available and is being missed. This paper considers a potentially useful way to deal with absence of such knowledge by using the social science approach. In addition to social systems theory, the communication and cultural science view was selected here to propose a new understanding of the function of knowledge as a communicational or cultural parameter within structures and meanings of a social system. This should facilitate a better perception of the actions and dynamics inside organizations regarding knowledge or the lack thereof.

  13. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2007-01-01

    All phenomena in nature are characterized by motion; this is an essential property of matter, having infinitely many aspects. Motion can be mechanical, physical, chemical or biological, leading to various sciences of nature, mechanics being one of them. Mechanics deals with the objective laws of mechanical motion of bodies, the simplest form of motion. In the study of a science of nature mathematics plays an important role. Mechanics is the first science of nature which was expressed in terms of mathematics by considering various mathematical models, associated to phenomena of the surrounding nature. Thus, its development was influenced by the use of a strong mathematical tool; on the other hand, we must observe that mechanics also influenced the introduction and the development of many mathematical notions. In this respect, the guideline of the present book is precisely the mathematical model of mechanics. A special accent is put on the solving methodology as well as on the mathematical tools used; vectors, ...

  14. Safety Culture in Modern Aviation Systems – Civil and Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin-Marian IORDACHE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding important aspects of the safety culture should be the main objective for identifying hazards, mitigate and manage risk and find solutions to problems before accidents and incidents occur. The two defining elements of aeronautical decision-making are hazard and risk; risk management is an important component of decisional process and by understanding some issues regarding risk and safety, we will be able to realize the feasible solutions that we may have to apply in flight or ground operations. As aviation is in continous development and worldwide expansion, in order to better understand the associated risks and mitigate them, proper control methods which can give a thoroughly comprehension of the aeronautical system must be used.

  15. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, J.; Nielsen, L.S.; Lueg, Rainer;

    2014-01-01

    Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498.......Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498....

  16. A model for cross-cultural reciprocal interactions through mass media

    CERN Document Server

    González-Avella, J C; Miguel, M San

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of cross-cultural interactions through mass media in a model where two populations of social agents, each with its own internal dynamics, get information about each other through reciprocal global interactions. As the agent dynamics, we employ Axelrod's model for social influence. The global interaction fields correspond to the statistical mode of the states of the agents and represent mass media messages on the cultural trend originating in each population. Several phases are found in the collective behavior of either population depending on parameter values: two homogeneous phases, one having the state of the global field acting on that population, and the other consisting of a state different from that reached by the applied global field; and a disordered phase. In addition, the system displays nontrivial effects: (i) the emergence of a largest minority group of appreciable size sharing a state different from that of the applied global field; (ii) the appearance of localized orde...

  17. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miessen Katrin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  18. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    The overall topic of this thesis is within the field of catalysis, were model systems of different complexity have been studied utilizing a multipurpose Ultra High Vacuum chamber (UHV). The thesis falls in two different parts. First a simple model system in the form of a ruthenium single crystal...... is investigated. Second the development of a complex Cu/ZnO nanoparticle model system is described and gas-induced dynamical changes in the model system is investigated. The ruthenium crystal serves as an extremely simple model for studying CO dissociation which is the rate limiting step of the methanation...... process. The Ru(0 1 54) surface is studied by means of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Temperature Programmed Desoprtion (TPD), and Oxygen Titration (OT) experiments. Real space evidence of periodic features on every second monatomic step is observed via STM when the a clean ruthenium surface...

  19. Hetero-cellular prototyping by synchronized multi-material bioprinting for rotary cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica; Son, Ae Rin; Hamid, Qudus; Wu, Honglu; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-13

    Bottom-up tissue engineering requires methodological progress of biofabrication to capture key design facets of anatomical arrangements across micro, meso and macro-scales. The diffusive mass transfer properties necessary to elicit stability and functionality require hetero-typic contact, cell-to-cell signaling and uniform nutrient diffusion. Bioprinting techniques successfully build mathematically defined porous architecture to diminish resistance to mass transfer. Current limitations of bioprinted cell assemblies include poor micro-scale formability of cell-laden soft gels and asymmetrical macro-scale diffusion through 3D volumes. The objective of this work is to engineer a synchronized multi-material bioprinter (SMMB) system which improves the resolution and expands the capability of existing bioprinting systems by packaging multiple cell types in heterotypic arrays prior to deposition. This unit cell approach to arranging multiple cell-laden solutions is integrated with a motion system to print heterogeneous filaments as tissue engineered scaffolds and nanoliter droplets. The set of SMMB process parameters control the geometric arrangement of the combined flow's internal features and constituent material's volume fractions. SMMB printed hepatocyte-endothelial laden 200 nl droplets are cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to study the effect of microgravity on an in vitro model of the human hepatic lobule. RCCS conditioning for 48 h increased hepatocyte cytoplasm diameter 2 μm, increased metabolic rate, and decreased drug half-life. SMMB hetero-cellular models present a 10-fold increase in metabolic rate, compared to SMMB mono-culture models. Improved bioprinting resolution due to process control of cell-laden matrix packaging as well as nanoliter droplet printing capability identify SMMB as a viable technique to improve in vitro model efficacy.

  20. Organizational culture focused on quality management and benefits derived from an ERP system implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. Bustinza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Organizational culture focused on quality management aims to meet customer needs and enhance teamwork, being oriented toward a dynamic process of continuous improvement. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether, indeed, the quality-oriented culture has an effect on the management of business processes. In doing so, we analyze their relationship with the benefits of a resource management system or ERP.Design/methodology/approach: A survey is used to collect data, with valid questionnaires obtained for 200 Spain based respondents. Empirical analysis utilises Structural Equation Modelling (SEM.Findings: The results confirm that firm's commitment with quality management, customer focus, and confidence of workers has a positive effect on the results of operational, strategic and managerial benefits derived from an ERP system implementation. However, there is not relationship between customer focus and organizational benefits, neither to increase system capacity.Originality/value: The present study analyzes the relationship between quality-oriented culture and the resource management systems of the firm clarifying their strengths and limitations. In this sense, the customer orientation may limit the flexibility of business as require a lot of resources, and generate dissatisfaction among workers resulting from the attention to customer complaints.

  1. Relocatable Coastal Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    These relationships are stored on a variable-resolution grid (illustrated in figure 1b below) with sampling of 1 degree in deep water (and in data...version is referred to as MODAS2.1, which is now operational at NAVO. The NOMADS interface is being replaced by a system-independent, web -based version...inside the user’s web browser plus Perl CGI scripts which ran on a webserver. This permitted the user to run MODAS (and POM and other modules as they are

  2. Modelling studies of fish production in integrated agriculture - aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van A.A.

    1995-01-01


    The general objective of this thesis is to formulate a general model for fish production in integrated ponds and ricefields as a means of obtaining a better understanding of these production systems. Integrated culture systems produce fish without large industrial energy inputs and have

  3. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  4. Individual and culture-level components of survey response styles: A multi-level analysis using cultural models of selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter B; Vignoles, Vivian L; Becker, Maja; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Bourguignon, David; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Cendales Ayala, Boris; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L; Gavreliuc, Alin; Baguma, Peter; Bond, Michael Harris; Martin, Mariana; Gausel, Nicolay; Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Tatarko, Alexander; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Lay, Siugmin; Nizharadze, George; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Koller, Silvia H; Herman, Ginette; Courtois, Marie; Fritsche, Immo; Espinosa, Agustín; Villamar, Juan A; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Zinkeng, Martina; Jalal, Baland; Kusdil, Ersin; Amponsah, Benjamin; Çağlar, Selinay; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Möller, Bettina; Zhang, Xiao; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Prieto Gil, Paula; Lorente Clemares, Raquel; Campara, Gabriella; Aldhafri, Said; Fülöp, Márta; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Harb, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz's (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive styles of response, it remains important to estimate and control for style effects to ensure valid comparisons. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Model Errors in the Cross Cultural Use of the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ronald D.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that efforts are being made to validate the Rorschach with minority cultures and that preliminary psychometric review of Rorschach data tends to confirm its usefulness in cross-cultural work, and the legitimacy of the concept of modal personality. Reviews several significant issues in cross-cultural use of Rorschach, including norms,…

  6. Silk film culture system for in vitro analysis and biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian D; Pan, Zhi; Weber, Michael D; Kaplan, David L; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2012-04-24

    Silk films are promising protein-based biomaterials that can be fabricated with high fidelity and economically within a research laboratory environment (1,2). These materials are desirable because they possess highly controllable dimensional and material characteristics, are biocompatible and promote cell adhesion, can be modified through topographic patterning or by chemically altering the surface, and can be used as a depot for biologically active molecules for drug delivery related applications (3-8). In addition, silk films are relatively straightforward to custom design, can be designed to dissolve within minutes or degrade over years in vitro or in vivo, and are produce with the added benefit of being transparent in nature and therefore highly suitable for imaging applications (9-13). The culture system methodology presented here represents a scalable approach for rapid assessments of cell-silk film surface interactions. Of particular interest is the use of surface patterned silk films to study differences in cell proliferation and responses of cells for alignment (12,14). The seeded cultures were cultured on both micro-patterned and flat silk film substrates, and then assessed through time-lapse phase-contrast imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and biochemical assessment of metabolic activity and nucleic acid content. In summary, the silk film in vitro culture system offers a customizable experimental setup suitable to the study of cell-surface interactions on a biomaterial substrate, which can then be optimized and then translated to in vivo models. Observations using the culture system presented here are currently being used to aid in applications ranging from basic cell interactions to medical device design, and thus are relevant to a broad range of biomedical fields.

  7. Three-dimensional in vitro co-culture model of breast tumor using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Hamsa; Gage, Jacob; Leonard, Fransisca; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Souza, Glauco R; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Godin, Biana

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigate a novel in vitro model to mimic heterogeneous breast tumors without the use of a scaffold while allowing for cell-cell and tumor-fibroblast interactions. Previous studies have shown that magnetic levitation system under conventional culturing conditions results in the formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures, closely resembling in vivo tissues (fat tissue, vasculature, etc.). Three-dimensional heterogeneous tumor models for breast cancer were designed to effectively model the influences of the tumor microenvironment on drug efficiency. Various breast cancer cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts and then magnetically levitated. Size and cell density of the resulting tumors were measured. The model was phenotypically compared to in vivo tumors and examined for the presence of ECM proteins. Lastly, the effects of tumor stroma in the 3D in vitro model on drug transport and efficiency were assessed. Our data suggest that the proposed 3D in vitro breast tumor is advantageous due to the ability to: (1) form large-sized (millimeter in diameter) breast tumor models within 24 h; (2) control tumor cell composition and density; (3) accurately mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment; and (4) test drug efficiency in an in vitro model that is comparable to in vivo tumors.

  8. Hydronic distribution system computer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Strasser, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    A computer model of a hot-water boiler and its associated hydronic thermal distribution loop has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). It is intended to be incorporated as a submodel in a comprehensive model of residential-scale thermal distribution systems developed at Lawrence Berkeley. This will give the combined model the capability of modeling forced-air and hydronic distribution systems in the same house using the same supporting software. This report describes the development of the BNL hydronics model, initial results and internal consistency checks, and its intended relationship to the LBL model. A method of interacting with the LBL model that does not require physical integration of the two codes is described. This will provide capability now, with reduced up-front cost, as long as the number of runs required is not large.

  9. Data management system performance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Larry M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical techniques that have been used to gain a better understanding of the Space Station Freedom's (SSF's) Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is a complex, distributed, real-time computer system that has been redesigned numerous times. The implications of these redesigns have not been fully analyzed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages for static analytical techniques such as Rate Monotonic Analysis (RMA) and also provides a rationale for dynamic modeling. Factors such as system architecture, processor utilization, bus architecture, queuing, etc. are well suited for analysis with a dynamic model. The significance of performance measures for a real-time system are discussed.

  10. Cultural Tourism – a Model for Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a complex activity whose development is manifested in a fast pace, which in the last period determined it to become one of the most spectacular phenomena of recent decades, with important economic effects and particularly, social and human effects. This form of cultural tourism is identified as an engine for development and promotion of local cultural identities, offering neighboring communities an opportunity to preservation of cultural heritage as a resource for socio-economic local development. Thus, cultural tourism is the boundary between culture and tourism industry, its development influencing each other. Cultural tourism is a form of economic development based on cultural resources, contributing to national economic development.

  11. Characterization of rat or human hepatocytes cultured in microphysiological systems (MPS) to identify hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Yu; Voellinger, Jenna L; Van Ness, Kirk P; Chapron, Brian; Shaffer, Rachel M; Neumann, Thomas; White, Collin C; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Kelly, Edward J; Eaton, David L

    2017-04-01

    The liver is the main site for drug and xenobiotics metabolism, including inactivation or bioactivation. In order to improve the predictability of drug safety and efficacy in clinical development, and to facilitate the evaluation of the potential human health effects from exposure to environmental contaminants, there is a critical need to accurately model human organ systems such as the liver in vitro. We are developing a microphysiological system (MPS) based on a new commercial microfluidic platform (Nortis, Inc.) that can utilize primary liver cells from multiple species (e.g., rat and human). Compared to conventional monolayer cell culture, which typically survives for 5-7days or less, primary rat or human hepatocytes in an MPS exhibited higher viability and improved hepatic functions, such as albumin production, expression of hepatocyte marker HNF4α and canaliculi structure, for up to 14days. Additionally, induction of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and 3A4 in cryopreserved human hepatocytes was observed in the MPS. The acute cytotoxicity of the potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1, was evaluated in human hepatocytes cultured in an MPS, demonstrating the utility of this model for acute hepatotoxicity assessment. These results indicate that MPS-cultured hepatocytes provide a promising approach for evaluating chemical toxicity in vitro. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Attitude toward the Patient Safety Culture in healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Laal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient Safety Culture (PSC involves a harmonious pattern of individual and organization behaviors based on common beliefs and values. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of healthcare providers toward PSC in the hospitals and clinics of Zabol city, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Sample population consisted of the physicians, nurses, and paraclinical staff (radiologists and laboratory experts engaged in different healthcare centers of Zabol city, Iran. Data were collected using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.22 at the significance level of 0.05. Results: In total, 231 healthcare practitioners were enrolled in this study. Participants were divided into three groups of physicians, nurses, and paraclinical staff (n=77, 33.33%. Mean of age and clinical experience was 29.94 and 6.23 years, respectively. Among the main aspects of PSC, “general understanding of patient safety” had the highest mean score (13.53, and the lowest mean score was achieved in “non-punitive response to error” (8.89. In the aspect of “manager expectations and actions promoting safety”, a significant difference was observed in the mean scores of the study groups (P=0.030. Moreover, our results showed a significant difference between the mean scores of physicians and nurses in the aspect of “openness and honesty in communication” (P=0.023. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, improvement of PSC is necessary for the efficient management of hospitals and clinics. This is attainable through collaborative and instructive workshops, developing educational programs, and designing incident reporting systems.

  13. Development of a vessel organ culture system: characterisation of the method and implications for the reduction of animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2013-09-01

    In the field of cardiovascular research, the pig is considered to be an excellent animal model of human diseases. It is well-known that primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) are a powerful tool for the study of vascular physiology and pathology, and, according to the principles of the Three Rs, their use results in a substantial reduction in the numbers of experimental animals required. However, a limitation of EC culture is that the cells are not in their physiological context. Here, we describe and characterise a method for the culture of porcine vessels that overcomes the limitation of EC cultures, with the advantage of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes. The organ cultures were set-up by using an aortic cylinder obtained from the arteries of control pigs sacrificed for other experimental purposes. In order to characterise the method, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and the vessel's structural features were evaluated during organ culture. These analyses confirm that the culture of aortic cylinder lumen, in a medium specific for ECs, results in a stable system in terms of VEGF and MMP secretion. The ECs do not undergo cell division during the organ culture, which is also the case in vivo, if no stimulation occurs. Overall, we show that this novel system closely resembles the in vivo context. Importantly, porcine aortas can be collected from either veterinary surgeries or slaughterhouses, without having to sacrifice animals specifically for the purposes of this type of research.

  14. Development of an advanced intestinal in vitro triple culture permeability model to study transport of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpel, Christa; Teubl, Birgit; Absenger, Markus; Meindl, Claudia; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Leitinger, Gerd; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2014-03-03

    Intestinal epithelial cell culture models, such as Caco-2 cells, are commonly used to assess absorption of drug molecules and transcytosis of nanoparticles across the intestinal mucosa. However, it is known that mucus strongly impacts nanoparticle mobility and that specialized M cells are involved in particulate uptake. Thus, to get a clear understanding of how nanoparticles interact with the intestinal mucosa, in vitro models are necessary that integrate the main cell types. This work aimed at developing an alternative in vitro permeability model based on a triple culture: Caco-2 cells, mucus-secreting goblet cells and M cells. Therefore, Caco-2 cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells were cocultured on Transwells and Raji B cells were added to stimulate differentiation of M cells. The in vitro triple culture model was characterized regarding confluence, integrity, differentiation/expression of M cells and cell surface architecture. Permeability of model drugs and of 50 and 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles was studied. Data from the in vitro model were compared with ex vivo permeability results (Ussing chambers and porcine intestine) and correlated well. Nanoparticle uptake was size-dependent and strongly impacted by the mucus layer. Moreover, nanoparticle permeability studies clearly demonstrated that particles were capable of penetrating the intestinal barrier mainly via specialized M cells. It can be concluded that goblet cells and M cells strongly impact nanoparticle uptake in the intestine and should thus be integrated in an in vitro permeability model. The presented model will be an efficient tool to study intestinal transcellular uptake of particulate systems.

  15. Improving models for urban soundscape systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Harvey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale urban soundscape systems offer novel environments for electroacoustic composers, sound artists and sound designers to extend their practice beyond concert halls, art galleries and screen-based digital media. One such system with 156 loudspeakers was installed in 1991 on the Southgate Arts and Leisure Precinct in central Melbourne. Over the next 15 years another three large multichannel soundscape systems were installed on other sites close to the first. A fifth system was established for a single work of art in 2006. Despite this private and public investment in sound art estimated at over one million Australian dollars, several systems are no longer in operation while some remaining systems require technical and curatorial development to ensure their continued cultural presence. To investigate why some systems had failed, interviews were conducted with key players in the development and operation of the five systems. A report from the interviews was produced and is the basis of this paper framing critical issues for improving models of urban soundscape practice. Following a brief overview of related studies in urban sound practices, and descriptions of the system and original study, key themes that emerged from the interviews are examined.

  16. Understanding and modeling alternating tangential flow filtration for perfusion cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William; Scully, Jennifer; Zhang, Di; Feng, Gang; Lavengood, Mathew; Condon, Jason; Knighton, John; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Alternating tangential flow (ATF) filtration has been used with success in the Biopharmaceutical industry as a lower shear technology for cell retention with perfusion cultures. The ATF system is different than tangential flow filtration; however, in that reverse flow is used once per cycle as a means to minimize fouling. Few studies have been reported in the literature that evaluates ATF and how key system variables affect the rate at which ATF filters foul. In this study, an experimental setup was devised that allowed for determination of the time it took for fouling to occur for given mammalian (PER.C6) cell culture cell densities and viabilities as permeate flow rate and antifoam concentration was varied. The experimental results indicate, in accordance with D'Arcy's law, that the average resistance to permeate flow (across a cycle of operation) increases as biological material deposits on the membrane. Scanning electron microscope images of the post-run filtration surface indicated that both cells and antifoam micelles deposit on the membrane. A unique mathematical model, based on the assumption that fouling was due to pore blockage from the cells and micelles in combination, was devised that allowed for estimation of sticking factors for the cells and the micelles on the membrane. This model was then used to accurately predict the increase in transmembane pressure during constant flux operation for an ATF cartridge used for perfusion cell culture.

  17. 3-D nasal cultures: Systems toxicological assessment of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Anita R; Mathis, Carole; Martin, Florian; Leroy, Patrice; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Trivedi, Keyur; Grandolfo, Davide; Cabanski, Maciej; Guedj, Emmanuel; Merg, Celine; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In vitro toxicology approaches have evolved from a focus on molecular changes within a cell to understanding of toxicity-related mechanisms in systems that can mimic the in vivo environment. The recent development of three dimensional (3-D) organotypic nasal epithelial culture models offers a physiologically robust system for studying the effects of exposure through inhalation. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with nasal inflammation; thus, the nasal epithelium is relevant for evaluating the pathophysiological impact of CS exposure. The present study investigated further the application of in vitro human 3-D nasal epithelial culture models for toxicological assessment of inhalation exposure. Aligned with 3Rs strategy, this study aimed to explore the relevance of a human 3-D nasal culture model to assess the toxicological impact of aerosols generated from a candidate modified risk tobacco product (cMRTP), the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, as compared with smoke generated from reference cigarette 3R4F. A series of experimental repetitions, where multiple concentrations of THS2.2 aerosol and 3R4F smoke were applied, were conducted to obtain reproducible measurements to understand the cellular/molecular changes that occur following exposure. In agreement with "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century - a Vision and a Strategy", this study implemented a systems toxicology approach and found that for all tested concentrations the impact of 3R4F smoke was substantially greater than that of THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity levels, alterations in tissue morphology, secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, impaired ciliary function, and increased perturbed transcriptomes and miRNA expression profiles.

  18. Human embryonic stem cell cultivation: historical perspective and evolution of xeno-free culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nina; Rambhia, Pooja; Gishto, Arsela

    2015-02-22

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have emerged as attractive candidates for cell-based therapies that are capable of restoring lost cell and tissue function. These unique cells are able to self-renew indefinitely and have the capacity to differentiate in to all three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm). Harnessing the power of these pluripotent stem cells could potentially offer new therapeutic treatment options for a variety of medical conditions. Since the initial derivation of hESC lines in 1998, tremendous headway has been made in better understanding stem cell biology and culture requirements for maintenance of pluripotency. The approval of the first clinical trials of hESC cells for treatment of spinal cord injury and macular degeneration in 2010 marked the beginning of a new era in regenerative medicine. Yet it was clearly recognized that the clinical utility of hESC transplantation was still limited by several challenges. One of the most immediate issues has been the exposure of stem cells to animal pathogens, during hESC derivation and during in vitro propagation. Initial culture protocols used co-culture with inactivated mouse fibroblast feeder (MEF) or human feeder layers with fetal bovine serum or alternatively serum replacement proteins to support stem cell proliferation. Most hESC lines currently in use have been exposed to animal products, thus carrying the risk of xeno-transmitted infections and immune reaction. This mini review provides a historic perspective on human embryonic stem cell culture and the evolution of new culture models. We highlight the challenges and advances being made towards the development of xeno-free culture systems suitable for therapeutic applications.

  19. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  20. National Energy Outlook Modelling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    For over 20 years, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) for Energy projections and policy evaluations. NEOMS enables 12 energy models of ECN to exchange data and produce consistent and detailed results.

  1. A NEW METHOD FOR SAFETY CULTURE EVALUATION IN PROCESS SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; VIDAL, Mario Cesar Rodríguez; GRECCO, Cláudio Henrique dos Santos; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The culture of any organization that deals with safe-critical processes should be centered on safety. Safety culture reflects human awareness of the significant destructive capability of process plants when control is lost, and the recognition that strict attention to safety is essential to achieve the expected benefits. Safety culture appeared as paradigmatic change in the safety approach for process plants in the aftermath of the Chernobyl and Bhopal accidents. The Internati...

  2. ABSTRACT MODELS FOR SYSTEM VIRTUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Koveshnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to issues of system objects securing (system files and user system or application configuration files against unauthorized access including denial of service attacks. We have suggested the method and developed abstract system virtualization models, which are used toresearch attack scenarios for different virtualization modes. Estimation for system tools virtualization technology effectiveness is given. Suggested technology is based on redirection of access requests to system objects shared among access subjects. Whole and partial system virtualization modes have been modeled. The difference between them is the following: in the whole virtualization mode all copies of access system objects are created whereon subjects’ requests are redirected including corresponding application objects;in the partial virtualization mode corresponding copies are created only for part of a system, for example, only system objects for applications. Alternative solutions effectiveness is valued relating to different attack scenarios. We consider proprietary and approved technical solution which implements system virtualization method for Microsoft Windows OS family. Administrative simplicity and capabilities of correspondingly designed system objects security tools are illustrated on this example. Practical significance of the suggested security method has been confirmed.

  3. A cross-cultural study of how usability professionals experience the usability of everyday systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yun; Sun, Xianghong; Li, Huiyang

    2009-01-01

    Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly's notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of How Usability Professionals Experience the Usability of Everyday Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y.; Sun, X.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly’s notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...

  5. pH measurement and a rational and practical pH control strategy for high throughput cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiying; Purdie, Jennifer; Wang, Tongtong; Ouyang, Anli

    2010-01-01

    The number of therapeutic proteins produced by cell culture in the pharmaceutical industry continues to increase. During the early stages of manufacturing process development, hundreds of clones and various cell culture conditions are evaluated to develop a robust process to identify and select cell lines with high productivity. It is highly desirable to establish a high throughput system to accelerate process development and reduce cost. Multiwell plates and shake flasks are widely used in the industry as the scale down model for large-scale bioreactors. However, one of the limitations of these two systems is the inability to measure and control pH in a high throughput manner. As pH is an important process parameter for cell culture, this could limit the applications of these scale down model vessels. An economical, rapid, and robust pH measurement method was developed at Eli Lilly and Company by employing SNARF-4F 5-(-and 6)-carboxylic acid. The method demonstrated the ability to measure the pH values of cell culture samples in a high throughput manner. Based upon the chemical equilibrium of CO(2), HCO(3)(-), and the buffer system, i.e., HEPES, we established a mathematical model to regulate pH in multiwell plates and shake flasks. The model calculates the required %CO(2) from the incubator and the amount of sodium bicarbonate to be added to adjust pH to a preset value. The model was validated by experimental data, and pH was accurately regulated by this method. The feasibility of studying the pH effect on cell culture in 96-well plates and shake flasks was also demonstrated in this study. This work shed light on mini-bioreactor scale down model construction and paved the way for cell culture process development to improve productivity or product quality using high throughput systems.

  6. A Conceptual/Cross-cultural Model for Teaching Anthropology in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    A conceptual/cross-cultural model, developed to help elementary teachers cope with the problems of initiating cultural, ethnic, or anthropology studies, is presented in five sections. (1) A brief description of the structure and methodology of anthropology defines in outline form the fields of cultural and social anthropology, physical…

  7. Aerodynamic and Mechanical System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix

    This thesis deals with mechanical multibody-systems applied to the drivetrain of a 500 kW wind turbine. Particular focus has been on gearbox modelling of wind turbines. The main part of the present project involved programming multibody systems to investigate the connection between forces, moments...

  8. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  9. Moving from Victim to Survivor of Cultural Violence: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Carmen F.; Casto, Challon

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the Moving From Victim to Survivor of Cultural Violence model, using the stages of D. W. Sue and D. Sue's (1999) Racial/Cultural Identity Development model. This conceptual model describes the process of first overcoming internalized sexism, domestic abuse, sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of oppression and then healing…

  10. The Models of Relationship between Training and Psyche development in Cultural-historical and Activity Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogozhina I.N.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of referring of the psychological theories studying interrelation of training and mental development processes to this or that stage of scientific knowledge formation on the basis of studied objects types and corresponded determination systems as a basic criterion distinguishing the ideals of scientific rationality is justified. General characteristics of classical, non-classical and post-non-classical models, determination of the mechanisms of dissipative systems, requirements for learning and development model building in the context of post-non-classic science paradigm on the criterion of the system features of the object of cognition are described. Domestic psychological school models are compared with associanism, behaviorism, gestalt psychology and Piaget determination models on the number of options allocated to these determinants, types of causal chains and types of links between causal chains. It is shown that cultural-historical approach is situated intermediately between post-non-classical and non-classical models, while activity approach corresponds to post-non-classical understanding of the object of study as complicated self-developing "man-size" system. Determination relationships models developed by L.V.Vygotskii, S.L. Rubinstein, A.N. Leont’ev continue to play the heuristic role at the present stage of scientific development.

  11. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Microbial Growth Kinetics of Mixed Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, Ada; Looper, Jessica K; Mota, Linda C; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-11-01

    Microbial growth kinetics is often used to optimize environmental processes owing to its relation to the breakdown of substrate (contaminants). However, the quantification of bacterial populations in the environment is difficult owing to the challenges of monitoring a specific bacterial population within a diverse microbial community. Conventional methods are unable to detect and quantify the growth of individual strains separately in the mixed culture reactor. This work describes a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based genomic approach to quantify each species in mixed culture and interpret its growth kinetics in the mixed system. Batch experiments were performed for both single and dual cultures of Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli K12 to obtain Monod kinetic parameters (μmax and Ks). The growth curves and kinetics obtained by conventional methods (i.e., dry weight measurement and absorbance reading) were compared with that obtained by qPCR assay. We anticipate that the adoption of this qPCR-based genomic assay can contribute significantly to traditional microbial kinetics, modeling practice, and the operation of bioreactors, where handling of complex mixed cultures is required.

  12. Characteristics of human dendritic cells generated in a microgravity analog culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, C. A.; Grazziuti, M. L.; Przepiorka, D.; Tomasovic, S. P.; McIntyre, B. W.; Woodside, D. G.; Pellis, N. R.; Pierson, D. L.; Rex, J. H.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Generation of an effective immune response requires that antigens be processed and presented to T lymphocytes by antigen-presenting cells, the most efficient of which are dendritic cells (DC). Because of their influence on both the innate and the acquired arms of immunity, a defect in DC would be expected to result in a broad impairment of immune function, not unlike that observed in astronauts during or after space flight. In the study reported here, we investigated whether DC generation and function are altered in a culture environment that models microgravity, i.e., the rotary-cell culture system (RCCS). We observed that RCCS supported the generation of DC identified by morphology, phenotype (HLA-DR+ and lacking lineage-associated markers), and function (high allostimulatory activity). However, the yield of DC from RCCS was significantly lower than that from static cultures. RCCS-generated DC were less able to phagocytose Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and expressed a lower density of surface HLA-DR. The proportion of DC expressing CD80 was also significantly reduced in RCCS compared to static cultures. When exposed to fungal antigens, RCCS-generated DC produced lower levels of interleukin-12 and failed to upregulate some costimulatory/adhesion molecules involved in antigen presentation. These data suggest that DC generation, and some functions needed to mount an effective immune response to pathogens, may be disturbed in the microgravity environment of space.

  13. How people organise cultural attitudes: cultural belief systems and the populist radical right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.B.L. Daenekindt (Stijn); W. de Koster (Willem); J. van der Waal (Jeroen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPolitical scientists generally agree that all individuals structure their cultural attitudes in the same unidimensional fashion. However, various populist radical right parties remarkably combine moral progressiveness with conservatism regarding immigration-related issues. This suggests

  14. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    , this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security...... allows for easy development of analyses for the abstracted systems. We briefly present one application of our approach, namely the analysis of systems for potential insider threats....

  15. Evolutionary responses to a constructed niche: ancient Mesoamericans as a model of gene-culture coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábita Hünemeier

    Full Text Available Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905 to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the F(ST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele.

  16. Subretinal Pigment Epithelial Deposition of Drusen Components Including Hydroxyapatite in a Primary Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Matthew G.; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Read, Russell W.; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Methods Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Results Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. Conclusions The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss. PMID:28146236

  17. Evolutionary Responses to a Constructed Niche: Ancient Mesoamericans as a Model of Gene-Culture Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünemeier, Tábita; Amorim, Carlos Eduardo Guerra; Azevedo, Soledad; Contini, Veronica; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Mazières, Stephane; Barrantes, Ramiro; Villarreal-Molina, María Teresa; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Salzano, Francisco M.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2012-01-01

    Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905) to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the FST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele. PMID:22768049

  18. Modeling the competition between antenna size mutant and wild type microalgae in outdoor mass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mooij, Tim; Schediwy, Kira; Wijffels, René H; Janssen, Marcel

    2016-12-20

    Under high light conditions, microalgae are oversaturated with light which significantly reduces the light use efficiency. Microalgae with a reduced pigment content, antenna size mutants, have been proposed as a potential solution to increase the light use efficiency. The goal of this study was to investigate the competition between antenna size mutants and wild type microalgae in mass cultures. Using a kinetic model and literature-derived experimental data from wild type Chlorella sorokiniana, the productivity and competition of wild type cells and antenna size mutants were simulated. Cultivation was simulated in an outdoor microalgal raceway pond production system which was assumed to be limited by light only. Light conditions were based on a Mediterranean location (Tunisia) and a more temperate location (the Netherlands). Several wild type contamination levels were simulated in each mutant culture separately to predict the effect on the productivity over the cultivation time of a hypothetical summer season of 100days. The simulations demonstrate a good potential of antenna size reduction to increase the biomass productivity of microalgal cultures. However, it was also found that after a contamination with wild type cells the mutant cultures will be rapidly overgrown resulting in productivity loss.

  19. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  20. Multispectral light metering system for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Matteo; Melis, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    In the world of Cultural Heritage the first concern is all about Conservation of the works of art. A piece of art in bad shape is meant to deteriorate to an irreversible stage. To avoid this, quite often it's needed to go through one or more cycles of restoration to clean and consolidate the various elements of the piece. The very second concern, once the work of art is restored and in good and stable shape, is its fruition. At the end of the day why one should do all that restoration work if nobody then can access and view? Yet viewing and enjoying an artwork means that a visitor would be able to see it at its best, and this means, almost always, to have a good lighting system. Today, both restoration and fruition can greatly benefit of all the available technologies, and achieve very high level quality. The goal of this paper is the development of an exposimetric system suitable to be extremely useful as a tool for the the non invasive analysis, as well as for the lighting design and lighting systems monitoring. Many diagnosis techniques that are used before the restoration stage, require a suitable lighting system to allow to extract from the painting the maximum amount of information through the acquisition of images in the range of visible as well as UV and IR light. A standard exposimeter is for its own nature, sensitive only to the visible light, constrained by the standard photometric sensitivity curve V(lambda). A wide band exposimeter would be, on the other hand, an invaluable tool to get higher precision and to speed up multispectral wide band images acquisition, avoiding time wasting fail and try cycles to record the subject under wide spectrum conditions. The same equipment can be used to monitor the quality of the light in a expo lighting system at, for example, a museum or a gallery. The light hitting a piece of art has to allow the visitor to see and appreciate all the color shades, and to appreciate the contrast of dark and bright areas due only to

  1. A Cusp Catastrophe Model for Team Learning, Team Potency and Team Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Teresa; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Lourenco, Paulo Renato; Dimas, Isabel; Pinheiro, Margarida

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines team learning behaviors within a nonlinear dynamical system (NDS) perspective. The present research is based on a sample of 36 project workgroups, where data were collected at two moments of their life cycle, with visual analogue scales. Using both the least squares method and maximum likelihood, it proposes a cusp catastrophe model for explaining team learning. The cusp model is superior to its linear alternatives and implements team culture as the asymmetry variable and team potency as bifurcation. The findings of cusp structure in the data support the existence of discontinuous shifts in learning behavior and furthermore a proposition that the punctuated equilibrium model (PEM) might be a reasonable model for describing group functioning, since it encompasses such sudden changes between distinct stages (attractors). A discussion on small group research is also provided by highlighting the nonlinear dynamics of team processes, along with further implications for research and practice.

  2. Selective advantage of tolerant cultural traits in the Axelrod-Schelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The Axelrod-Schelling model incorporates into the original Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination the possibility that cultural agents placed in culturally dissimilar environments move to other places, the strength of this mobility being controlled by an intolerance parameter. By allowing heterogeneity in the intolerance of cultural agents, and considering it as a cultural feature, i.e., susceptible of cultural transmission (thus breaking the original symmetry of Axelrod-Schelling dynamics), we address here the question of whether tolerant or intolerant traits are more likely to become dominant in the long-term cultural dynamics. Our results show that tolerant traits possess a clear selective advantage in the framework of the Axelrod-Schelling model. We show that the reason for this selective advantage is the development, as time evolves, of a positive correlation between the number of neighbors that an agent has in its environment and its tolerant character.

  3. Human cultures as niche constructions within the solar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2016-01-01

    This commentary seeks to refine Kashima’s (2016) timely and topical but too-general call for embedding culture within the planetary ecosystem. My starting point is that cultures are to an underestimated extent ongoing niche constructions within the merry-go-round of the Sun’s radiation, the Earth’s

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Bacteria Communication in Continuous Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Barbarossa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication mechanism and is based on gene regulatory networks, which control and regulate the production of signaling molecules in the environment. In the past years, mathematical modeling of quorum sensing has provided an understanding of key components of such networks, including several feedback loops involved. This paper presents a simple system of delay differential equations (DDEs for quorum sensing of Pseudomonas putida with one positive feedback plus one (delayed negative feedback mechanism. Results are shown concerning fundamental properties of solutions, such as existence, uniqueness, and non-negativity; the last feature is crucial for mathematical models in biology and is often violated when working with DDEs. The qualitative behavior of solutions is investigated, especially the stationary states and their stability. It is shown that for a certain choice of parameter values, the system presents stability switches with respect to the delay. On the other hand, when the delay is set to zero, a Hopf bifurcation might occur with respect to one of the negative feedback parameters. Model parameters are fitted to experimental data, indicating that the delay system is sufficient to explain and predict the biological observations.

  5. A three-dimensional culture system using alginate hydrogel prolongs hatched cattle embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Gao, Hui; Wu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Ming-Jie; Bai, Jia-Hua; Liu, Yan; Evans, Alexander; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2015-07-15

    No successful method exists to maintain the three-dimensional architecture of hatched embryos in vitro. Alginate, a linear polysaccharide derived from brown algae, has characteristics that make it an ideal material as a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix for in vitro cell, tissue, or embryo culture. In this study, alginate hydrogel was used for IVC of posthatched bovine embryos to observe their development under the 3D system. In vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetically activated posthatched bovine blastocysts were cultured in an alginate encapsulation culture system (AECS), an alginate overlay culture system (AOCS), or control culture system. After 18 days of culture, the survival rate of embryos cultured in AECS was higher than that in the control group (P cultured in the normal culture system, 9.09% of them attached to the bottoms of the plastic wells and grew rapidly, with the largest area of an attached embryo being 66.00 mm(2) on Day 32. The embryos cultured in AOCS developed monovesicular or multivesicular morphologies. Total cell number of the embryos cultured in AECS on Day 19 was significantly higher than that of embryos on Day 8. Additionally, AECS and AOCS supported differentiation of the embryonic cells. Binuclear cells were visible in Day-26 adherent embryos, and the messenger RNA expression patterns of Cdx2 and Oct4 in AOCS-cultured embryos were similar to those in vivo embryos, whereas IFNT and ISG15 messenger RNA were still expressed in Day-26 and Day-32 prolong-cultured embryos. In conclusion, AECS and AOCS did support cell proliferation, elongation, and differentiation of hatched bovine embryos during prolonged IVC. The culture system will be useful to further investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling ruminant embryo elongation and implantation.

  6. Clinical exchange: one model to achieve culturally sensitive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, J; Moore, D

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports on a clinical exchange programme that formed part of a pre-registration European nursing degree run by three collaborating institutions in England, Holland and Spain. The course included: common and shared learning including two summer schools; and the development of a second language before the students went on a three-month clinical placement in one of the other base institutions' clinical environments. The aim of the course was to enable students to become culturally sensitive carers. This was achieved by developing a programme based on transcultural nursing principles in theory and practice. Data were gathered by interview, focus groups, and questionnaires from 79 exchange students, fostering the strategies of illuminative evaluation. The paper examines: how the aims of the course were met; the factors that inhibited the attainment of certain goals; and how the acquisition of a second language influenced the students' learning about nursing. A model is presented to illustrate the process of transformative learning from the exchange experience.

  7. PHYSICAL EDUCATION - PHYSICAL CULTURE. TWO MODELS, TWO DIDACTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vizuete Carrizosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical Education is currently facing a number of problems that are rooted in the identity crisis prompted by the spread of the professional group, the confrontation of ideas from the scientific community and the competing interests of different political and social areas, compared to which physical education has failed, or unable, to react in time. The political and ideological confrontation that characterized the twentieth century gave us two forms, each with a consistent ideological position, in which the body as a subject of education was understood from two different positions: one set from the left and communism and another, from Western democratic societies.The survival of these conflicting positions and their interests and different views on education, in a lengthy space of time, as a consequence threw two teaching approaches and two different educational models, in which the objectives and content of education differ , and with them the forms and methods of teaching. The need to define the cultural and educational approach, in every time and place, is now a pressing need and challenge the processes of teacher training, as responsible for shaping an advanced physical education, adjusted to the time and place, the interests and needs of citizens and the democratic values of modern society.

  8. Analyzing Cultural Models in Adolescent Accounts of Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Constance; Ohlson, Brightstar; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on academic achievement has led the way in demonstrating how culturally constructed meanings shape adolescent scholastic behavior. The aim of this research is to move this standpoint of analysis more centrally into the area of adolescent dating and sexuality by focusing on the cultural components of adolescent romantic relationships. This…

  9. Modes and Models for Transcending Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as transcultural tools for international educators. The study employed mixed qualitative…

  10. Viewpoints: Cultures, Text Models, and the Activity of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.; Purves, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Raises three issues concerning the activity of writing and its relation to texts and cultures: (1) knowledge as the basis for the activity of writing, (2) the varying nature of the activity itself and how that activity is shaped by context, and (3) the perceived nature of the written work in a given culture. (HOD)

  11. Irish International Cultural and Educational Exchange: Two Models for Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy.......An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy....

  12. Distribution system modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, William H

    2002-01-01

    For decades, distribution engineers did not have the sophisticated tools developed for analyzing transmission systems-often they had only their instincts. Things have changed, and we now have computer programs that allow engineers to simulate, analyze, and optimize distribution systems. Powerful as these programs are, however, without a real understanding of the operating characteristics of a distribution system, engineers using the programs can easily make serious errors in their designs and operating procedures.Distribution System Modeling and Analysis helps prevent those errors. It gives re

  13. Cultural adaptation of visual attention: calibration of the oculomotor control system in accordance with cultural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Komiya, Asuka

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention), whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention). Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park) as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.

  14. Cultural adaptation of visual attention: calibration of the oculomotor control system in accordance with cultural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ueda

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention, whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention. Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.

  15. A three-dimensional human neural cell culture model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Young Hye; Hebisch, Matthias; Sliwinski, Christopher; Lee, Seungkyu; D'Avanzo, Carla; Chen, Hechao; Hooli, Basavaraj; Asselin, Caroline; Muffat, Julien; Klee, Justin B; Zhang, Can; Wainger, Brian J; Peitz, Michael; Kovacs, Dora M; Woolf, Clifford J; Wagner, Steven L; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Kim, Doo Yeon

    2014-11-13

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, characterized by two pathological hallmarks: amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease posits that the excessive accumulation of amyloid-β peptide leads to neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau. However, to date, no single disease model has serially linked these two pathological events using human neuronal cells. Mouse models with familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations exhibit amyloid-β-induced synaptic and memory deficits but they do not fully recapitulate other key pathological events of Alzheimer's disease, including distinct neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Human neurons derived from Alzheimer's disease patients have shown elevated levels of toxic amyloid-β species and phosphorylated tau but did not demonstrate amyloid-β plaques or neurofibrillary tangles. Here we report that FAD mutations in β-amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 are able to induce robust extracellular deposition of amyloid-β, including amyloid-β plaques, in a human neural stem-cell-derived three-dimensional (3D) culture system. More importantly, the 3D-differentiated neuronal cells expressing FAD mutations exhibited high levels of detergent-resistant, silver-positive aggregates of phosphorylated tau in the soma and neurites, as well as filamentous tau, as detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Inhibition of amyloid-β generation with β- or γ-secretase inhibitors not only decreased amyloid-β pathology, but also attenuated tauopathy. We also found that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) regulated amyloid-β-mediated tau phosphorylation. We have successfully recapitulated amyloid-β and tau pathology in a single 3D human neural cell culture system. Our unique strategy for recapitulating Alzheimer's disease pathology in a 3D neural cell culture model should also serve to facilitate the development of more precise human neural cell

  16. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  17. Towards a systemic culture in global manufacturing virtual networks; Hacia una cultura sistemica en las redes virtuales de fabricacion global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Monroy, C.; Vilana-Arto, J. R.

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyzes the most relevant factors of organizational culture that appear in Global Manufacturing Virtual Networks (GMVNs). These organizations are formed by very dynamic companies that manufacture all types of products or services and establish horizontal and vertical relations among themselves, and may even be competitors: within these organizations, it is not necessary maintaining large internal manufacturing resources but managing and sharing efficiently them with the network. The study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as the similarity of cultural practices among its actors, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the impertinence of trust in the network. They are ultimately the soft factors of GMVNs and are one of the key aspects for their efficient operation. By applying the proposed theoretical model, all the relevant cultural factors within inter-firm collaborations will be analyzed, as well as the possible existence of an organizational culture at the network level. The presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous cultural values and practices, where actor scan be identified, would strengthen the group membership and would facilitate the establishment of a social network that underlies the awn GMVN and increases interactions among its members. The feasibility of this approach would facilitate the formation of new GMVNs by establishing, ex ante, a cultural perspectives model at the network level. (Author) 23 refs.

  18. Framing a socio-indexical basis for the emergence and cultural transmission of phonological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Andrew R.; Beckman, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Moulin-Frier et al. (2016) proffer a conceptual framework and computational modeling architecture for the investigation of the emergence of phonological universals for spoken languages. They validate the framework and architecture by testing to see whether universals such as the prevalence of triangular vowel systems that show adequate dispersion in the F1-F2-F3 space can fall out of simulations of referential communication between social agents, without building principles such as dispersion directly into the model. In this paper, we examine the assumptions underlying the framework, beginning with the assumption that it is such substantive universals that are in need of explanation rather than the rich diversity of phonological systems observed across human cultures and the compositional (“prosodic”) structure that characterizes signed as well as spoken languages. Also, when emergence is construed at the time-scales of the biological evolution of the species and of the cultural evolution of distinct speech communities, it is the affiliative or affective rather than the referential function that has the greater significance for our understanding of how phonological systems can emerge de novo in ontogeny. PMID:26834297

  19. Evapotranspiration Model Analysis of Crop Water Use in Plant Factory System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PAMUNGKAS, Agung Putra; HATOU, Kenji; MORIMOTO, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    ...) rates that occur inside a plant factory system was made using the Stanghellini model. The Stanghellini model is considered more appropriate for estimating the rate of ET inside the soilless culture of greenhouse tomatoes...

  20. Kinetic Modeling of Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resat, Haluk; Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.

    2009-04-21

    The dynamics of how its constituent components interact define the spatio-temporal response of a natural system to stimuli. Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic kinetic simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing kinetic simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available kinetic simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided.

  1. Cultural divergence and performance evaluation systems: A comparative study of three Serbian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogićević-Milikić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have argued that human resource systems are the business practices most likely to be affected by the cultural context within which they are applied. Among other HRM practices cultural differences significantly affect performance evaluation, causing various difficulties and inefficiencies in the implementation of performance evaluation systems (PES. In order to provide for a deeper understanding of difficulties in the implementation of PES within specific cultural contexts, this paper therefore intends to explore the design and implementation of performance evaluation systems in three Serbian companies. The research findings point out the importance of building more culturally sensitive PES, calling attention to some possible directions, particularly in Serbia.

  2. Executive Information Systems' Multidimensional Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Information Systems are design to improve the quality of strategic level of management in organization through a new type of technology and several techniques for extracting, transforming, processing, integrating and presenting data in such a way that the organizational knowledge filters can easily associate with this data and turn it into information for the organization. These technologies are known as Business Intelligence Tools. But in order to build analytic reports for Executive Information Systems (EIS in an organization we need to design a multidimensional model based on the business model from the organization. This paper presents some multidimensional models that can be used in EIS development and propose a new model that is suitable for strategic business requests.

  3. Growth of Mixed-Sex and Monosex Nile Tilapia in Different Culture Systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Suman Bhusan; , Debasis Mazumdar; , Urmi Chatterji; , Samir Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Growth of 17α-methyltestosterone treated monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus was compared with hormone untreated mixed-sex fish in four different culture systems. The experiment had 2 X 4 factorial design: the first factor was presence or absence of hormone treatment (monosex and mixed-sex fish), the second factor was related to culture system (cistern, flow-through, pen and pond). Fish were cultured under similar feeding regime and stock...

  4. Numerical Modeling of Microelectrochemical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adesokan, Bolaji James

    for the reactants in the bulk electrolyte that are traveling waves. The first paper presents the mathematical model which describes an electrochemical system and simulates an electroanalytical technique called cyclic voltammetry. The model is governed by a system of advection–diffusion equations with a nonlinear...... reaction term at the boundary. We investigate the effect of flow rates, scan rates, and concentration on the cyclic voltammetry. We establish that high flow rates lead to the reduced hysteresis in the cyclic voltammetry curves and increasing scan rates lead to more pronounced current peaks. The final part...... of the paper shows that the response current in a cyclic voltammetry increases proportionally to the electrolyte concentration. In the second paper we present an experiment of an electrochemical system in a microfluidc system and compare the result to the numerical solutions. We investigate how the position...

  5. Robust Parameter Design for Agent-Based Simulation Models With Application in a Cultural Geography Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Ajzen , I. (2006). Theory of planned behavior . Retrieved May 24, 2010, from http://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html Alt, J. K., Jackson, L. A., Hudak...Cultural Geography, Agent-Based Model (ABM), Irregular Warfare (IW), Theory of planned Behavior (TpB), Baysian Belief Nets (BBN), Counterinsurgency...Strategic Multi-layered Assessment SSTR Security, Stability, Transition and Reconstruction Operations TPB Theory of Planned Behavior TRAC-MTRY

  6. Bayesian radiocarbon models for the cultural transition during the Allerød in southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Edinborough, Kevan

    2012-01-01

    by a restricted territorial range, loss of bow-arrow technology, and a general reduction in material culture complexity. Different hypotheses for the origin of the Bromme culture have been put forward, variously stressing local continuity or discontinuity. Different environmental and cultural factors have been...... suggested to force the observed changes, but crucially their precise timing remains elusive. Here, we review competing hypotheses for this cultural transition, and evaluate them using an audited regional database of the available 14C dates. We construct a series of Bayesian calibration models using...... the IntCal09 calibration curve to clarify timings of cultural continuity/discontinuity, probable duration of different techno-complexes, and relationships between environmental changes and material culture transitions. Our models suggest that the Bromme culture emerged late in the Aller...

  7. A novel xylogenic suspension culture model for exploring lignification in Phyllostachys bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogita Shinjiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some prominent cultured plant cell lines, such as the BY-2 cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. ‘Bright Yellow 2’ and the T87 cell line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh., ecotype Columbia are used as model plant cells. These suspension cell culture systems are highly applicable for investigating various aspects of plant cell biology. However, no such prominent cultured cell lines exist in bamboo species. Results We standardized a novel xylogenic suspension culture model in order to unveil the process of lignification in living bamboo cells. Initial signs of lignin deposition were able to be observed by a positive phloroglucinol-HCl reaction at day 3 to 5 under lignification conditions (LG, i.e., modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (m1/2MS containing 10 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA and 3% sucrose. Two types of xylogenic differentiation, both fiber-like elements (FLEs with cell wall thickening and tracheary elements (TEs with formation of perforations in the cell wall, were observed under these conditions. The suspension cells rapidly formed secondary cell wall components that were highly lignified, making up approximately 25% of the cells on a dry weight basis within 2 weeks. Detailed features involved in cell growth, differentiation and death during lignification were characterized by laser scanning microscopic imaging. Changes in transcript levels of xylogenesis-related genes were assessed by RT-PCR, which showed that the transcription of key genes like PAL1, C4H, CCoAOMT, and CCR was induced at day 4 under LG conditions. Furthermore, interunit linkage of lignins was compared between mature bamboo culms and xylogenic suspension cells by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC NMR spectroscopy. The presence of the most common interunit linkages, including β-aryl ether (β-O-4, phenylcoumaran (β-5 and resinol (β-β structures was identified in the bamboo cultured cell lignin (BCCL

  8. Developing management systems with cross-cultural fit: assessing international differences in operational systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy; Roelofs, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Experiences in the Yunnan Maternal and Child Health Project, a 6-year CAN 6 million dollars bilateral initiative implemented in 10 counties (population 2.4 million) in Yunnan, China, are used to illustrate management approaches that successfully bridge cross-cultural differences in operational systems between donor and recipient countries. Donor institutions, local implementing agencies, and partner executing organizations each operate within specific assumptions about how governance structures, financial and administrative systems, human resource infrastructure, communications systems, and monitoring and reporting mechanisms function. These 'system domains' vary across cultures and countries, and become more evident as projects deal with capacity constraints, concerns about accountability, and rapid socioeconomic and political change during implementation. Management teams must be able to identify areas of poor fit among operational systems and respond appropriately. An assessment tool is offered, which management partners can use, as a basis for joint reflections on potential risks, identification of mitigation strategies, and establishing operational systems that are a fit for the funder as well as for partner agencies responsible for executing the project.

  9. Documentation of Cultural Heritages Using a GIS Based Information and Management System; Case Study of Safranbolu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Alkan, M.; Kutoglu, S. S.; Akcin, H.

    2010-12-01

    Documentation of the cultural heritage sites is extremely important for monitoring and preserves them from natural disasters and human made activities. Due to its very rich historical background from the first human settlements in Catalhoyuk and Alacahoyuk and civilizations such as Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman, there are lots of cultural heritage sites in Turkey. 3D modeling and recording of historical buildings using modern tools and techniques in several locations of Turkey have been conducted and still continuing. The nine cultural sites in Turkey are included in the protection list of UNESCO as cultural heritage and one of them is the township of Safranbolu, which is the one of the most outstanding example of the traditional Turkish Architecture and also unique itself in terms of conservation of the human settlement in their authentic environmental motif up till now. In this study outcomes and further studies of a research project related to study area which is supported by the Turkish National Research Center (TUBITAK) with the project number 106Y157, will be presented in details. The basic aim of the study is development a GIS based information and management system for the city of Safranbolu. All historical buildings which are registered are assigned with the database. 3D modeling some of the selected building among the buildings which are registered as historical monuments using different data comes from different sources similar to their original constructions were realized and then it will be distributed via internet by a web-based information system designed during the project. Also some of the buildings were evaluated using close range photogrammetric technique to obtain their façade reliefs, were also assigned with the database. Designed database consists of 3D models, locations, historical information, cadastral and land register data of the selected buildings together with the other data collected during the project related to buildings. Using this

  10. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  11. Maori Cultural Efficacy and Subjective Wellbeing: A Psychological Model and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houkamau, Carla A.; Sibley, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Maori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, experience a range of negative outcomes. Psychological models and interventions aiming to improve outcomes for Maori tend to be founded on a "culture-as-cure" model. This view promotes cultural efficacy as a critical resilience factor that should improve outcomes for Maori. This is a founding…

  12. Maori Cultural Efficacy and Subjective Wellbeing: A Psychological Model and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houkamau, Carla A.; Sibley, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Maori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, experience a range of negative outcomes. Psychological models and interventions aiming to improve outcomes for Maori tend to be founded on a "culture-as-cure" model. This view promotes cultural efficacy as a critical resilience factor that should improve outcomes for Maori. This is a founding premise…

  13. Cultured cells of the nervous system, including human neurones, in the study of the neuro-degenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, U

    1985-01-01

    Human nervous-system cells in culture are a suitable model for the study of the degenerative changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer-diseased brain contains a factor which induces the formation of paired helical filaments (PHF) in cultured cells, similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease. The excitotoxic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, induce similar PHE formation in cultured cells. The neurotoxic element aluminium is present in high concentrations in the brain in several human neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. In cultured-cell systems, aluminium interacts with acidic nuclear proteins, decreases steroid binding, produces a form of neurofibrillary degeneration and alters nucleoside metabolism.

  14. Prediction of microbial growth in mixed culture with a competition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi; Sakha, Mohammad Z

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of microbial growth in mixed culture was studied with a competition model that we had developed recently. The model, which is composed of the new logistic model and the Lotka-Volterra model, is shown to successfully describe the microbial growth of two species in mixed culture using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. With the parameter values of the model obtained from the experimental data on monoculture and mixed culture with two species, it then succeeded in predicting the simultaneous growth of the three species in mixed culture inoculated with various cell concentrations. To our knowledge, it is the first time for a prediction model for multiple (three) microbial species to be reported. The model, which is not built on any premise for specific microorganisms, may become a basic competition model for microorganisms in food and food materials.

  15. Quark Model and multiquark system

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Cristiane Oldoni

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of many particles, especially in the 50's, when the firsts accelerators appeared, caused the searching for a model that would describe in a simple form the whole of known particles. The Quark Model, based in the mathematical structures of group theory, provided in the beginning of the 60's a simplified description of hadronic matter already known, proposing that three particles, called quarks, would originate all the observed hadrons. This model was able to preview the existence of particles that were later detected, confirming its consistency. Extensions of the Quark Model were made in the beginning of the 70's, focusing in describing observed particles that were excited states of the fundamental particles and others that presented new quantum numbers (flavors). Recently, exotic states as tetraquarks and pentaquarks types, also called multiquarks systems, previewed by the model, were observed, what renewed the interest in the way as quarks are confined inside the hadrons. In this article we pre...

  16. Organizational Culture and the Deployment of Agile Methods: The Competing Values Model View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivari, Juhani; Iivari, Netta

    A number of researchers have identified organizational culture as a factor that potentially affects the deployment of agile systems development methods. Inspired by the study of Iivari and Huisman (2007), which focused on the deployment of traditional systems development methods, the present paper proposes a number of hypotheses about the influence of organizational culture on the deployment of agile methods.

  17. Co-culture of oligodendrocytes and neurons can be used to assess drugs for axon regeneration in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Lin; Yao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Ying-Fu; Li, Yi-Peng; Yang, Kai; Lu, Lei; Cheng, Yuan-Chi; Chen, Xu-Yi; Tu, Yue

    2015-10-01

    We present a novel in vitro model in which to investigate the efficacy of experimental drugs for the promotion of axon regeneration in the central nervous system. We co-cultured rat hippocampal neurons and cerebral cortical oligodendrocytes, and tested the co-culture system using a Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide (NEP1-40), which promotes axonal growth. Primary cultured oligodendrocytes suppressed axonal growth in the rat hippocampus, but NEP1-40 stimulated axonal growth in the co-culture system. Our results confirm the validity of the neuron-oligodendrocyte co-culture system as an assay for the evaluation of drugs for axon regeneration in the central nervous system.

  18. Co-culture of oligodendrocytes and neurons can be used to assess drugs for axon regeneration in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel in vitro model in which to investigate the efficacy of experimental drugs for the promotion of axon regeneration in the central nervous system. We co-cultured rat hippocampal neurons and cerebral cortical oligodendrocytes, and tested the co-culture system using a Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide (NEP1-40, which promotes axonal growth. Primary cultured oligodendrocytes suppressed axonal growth in the rat hippocampus, but NEP1-40 stimulated axonal growth in the co-culture system. Our results confirm the validity of the neuron-oligodendrocyte co-culture system as an assay for the evaluation of drugs for axon regeneration in the central nervous system.

  19. GENERIC model for multiphase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    GENERIC is a nonequilibrium thermodynamic formalism in which the dynamic behavior of a system is described by a single compact equation involving two types of brackets: a Poisson bracket and a dissipative bracket. This formalism has proved to be a very powerful instrument to model the dynamic behavi

  20. D Reconstruction of Cultural Tourism Attractions from Indoor to Outdoor Based on Portable Four-Camera Stereo Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z.; Li, C.; Zhong, S.; Liu, B.; Jiang, H.; Wen, X.

    2015-05-01

    Building the fine 3D model from outdoor to indoor is becoming a necessity for protecting the cultural tourism resources. However, the existing 3D modelling technologies mainly focus on outdoor areas. Actually, a 3D model should contain detailed descriptions of both its appearance and its internal structure, including architectural components. In this paper, a portable four-camera stereo photographic measurement system is developed, which can provide a professional solution for fast 3D data acquisition, processing, integration, reconstruction and visualization. Given a specific scene or object, it can directly collect physical geometric information such as positions, sizes and shapes of an object or a scene, as well as physical property information such as the materials and textures. On the basis of the information, 3D model can be automatically constructed. The system has been applied to the indooroutdoor seamless modelling of distinctive architecture existing in two typical cultural tourism zones, that is, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minority villages in Sichuan Jiuzhaigou Scenic Area and Tujia ethnic minority villages in Hubei Shennongjia Nature Reserve, providing a new method and platform for protection of minority cultural characteristics, 3D reconstruction and cultural tourism.

  1. An alternative to evaluate the efficiency of in vitro culture medium using a logistic regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Furtado Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of a culture medium for the in vitro culture of a species is performed using its physical and/or chemical properties. However, the analysis of the experimental results makes it possible to evaluate its quality. In this sense, this work presents an alternative using a logistic model to evaluate the culture medium to be used in vitro. The probabilities provided by this model will be used as a medium evaluator index. The importance of this index is based on the formalization of a statistical criterion for the selection of the adequate culture medium to be used on in vitro culture without excluding its physical and/or chemical properties. To demonstrate this procedure, an experiment determining the ideal medium for the in vitro culture of primary explants of Ipeca [Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stokes] was evaluated. The differentiation of the culture medium was based on the presence and absence of the growth regulator BAP (6-benzilaminopurine. A logistic model was adjusted as a function of the weight of fresh and dry matter. Minimum, medium and maximum probabilities obtained with this model showed that the culture medium containing BAP was the most adequate for the explant growth. Due to the high discriminative power of these mediums, detected by the model, their use is recommended as an alternative to select culture medium for similar experiments.

  2. Induction of adipogenic differentiation in three-dimensional culture model on a novel microfabricated scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Okita, Hajime; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    The development of a three-dimensional (3D) culture system is very important for regenerative medicine and drug discovery applications of stem cell technology because the 3D culture condition could mimic the stem cell environment in vivo and support accurate differentiation. This chapter describes a novel 3D culture technique for efficient induction of adipogenic differentiation. This 3D culture system provides an easy way to allow cells to form a 3D spheroid structure without any matrix derived from animal and chemical substances. We firstly describe the details of the 3D culture technique using human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MPCs) and its optimization. Then we elaborate on the protocol of efficient induction for adipogenic differentiation and adipocyte-specific gene expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, with our culture system in human MPCs.

  3. Customization of ¹³C-MFA strategy according to cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Lake-Ee; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-01-01

    (13)C-MFA is far from being a simple assay for quantifying metabolic activity. It requires considerable up-front experimental planning and familiarity with the cell culture system in question, as well as optimized analytics and adequate computation frameworks. The success of a (13)C-MFA experiment is ultimately rated by the ability to accurately quantify the flux of one or more reactions of interest. In this chapter, we describe the different (13)C-MFA strategies that have been developed for the various fermentation or cell culture systems, as well as the limitations of the respective strategies. The strategies are affected by many factors and the (13)C-MFA modeling and experimental strategy must be tailored to conditions. The prevailing philosophy in the computation process is that any metabolic processes that produce significant systematic bias in the labeling pattern of the metabolites being measured must be described in the model. It is equally important to plan a labeling strategy by analytical screening or by heuristics.

  4. Adipose tissue engineering in three-dimensional levitation tissue culture system based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daquinag, Alexes C; Souza, Glauco R; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is becoming widely used in regenerative medicine/cell therapy applications, and its physiological and pathological importance is increasingly appreciated. WAT is a complex organ composed of differentiated adipocytes, stromal mesenchymal progenitors known as adipose stromal cells (ASC), as well as endothelial vascular cells and infiltrating leukocytes. Two-dimensional (2D) culture that has been typically used for studying adipose cells does not adequately recapitulate WAT complexity. Improved methods for reconstruction of functional WAT ex vivo are instrumental for understanding of physiological interactions between the composing cell populations. Here, we used a three-dimensional (3D) levitation tissue culture system based on magnetic nanoparticle assembly to model WAT development and growth in organoids termed adipospheres. We show that 3T3-L1 preadipocytes remain viable in spheroids for a long period of time, while in 2D culture, they lose adherence and die after reaching confluence. Upon adipogenesis induction in 3T3-L1 adipospheres, cells efficiently formed large lipid droplets typical of white adipocytes in vivo, while only smaller lipid droplet formation is achievable in 2D. Adiposphere-based coculture of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with murine endothelial bEND.3 cells led to a vascular-like network assembly concomitantly with lipogenesis in perivascular cells. Adipocyte-depleted stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of mouse WAT cultured in 3D underwent assembly into organoids with vascular-like structures containing luminal endothelial and perivascular stromal cell layers. Adipospheres made from primary WAT cells displayed robust proliferation and complex hierarchical organization reflected by a matricellular gradient incorporating ASC, endothelial cells, and leukocytes, while ASC quickly outgrew other cell types in adherent culture. Upon adipogenesis induction, adipospheres derived from the SVF displayed more efficient lipid droplet

  5. Cotangent Models for Integrable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda, Eva

    2017-03-01

    We associate cotangent models to a neighbourhood of a Liouville torus in symplectic and Poisson manifolds focusing on b-Poisson/ b-symplectic manifolds. The semilocal equivalence with such models uses the corresponding action-angle theorems in these settings: the theorem of Liouville-Mineur-Arnold for symplectic manifolds and an action-angle theorem for regular Liouville tori in Poisson manifolds (Laurent- Gengoux et al., IntMath Res Notices IMRN 8: 1839-1869, 2011). Our models comprise regular Liouville tori of Poisson manifolds but also consider the Liouville tori on the singular locus of a b-Poisson manifold. For this latter class of Poisson structures we define a twisted cotangent model. The equivalence with this twisted cotangent model is given by an action-angle theorem recently proved by the authors and Scott (Math. Pures Appl. (9) 105(1):66-85, 2016). This viewpoint of cotangent models provides a new machinery to construct examples of integrable systems, which are especially valuable in the b-symplectic case where not many sources of examples are known. At the end of the paper we introduce non-degenerate singularities as lifted cotangent models on b-symplectic manifolds and discuss some generalizations of these models to general Poisson manifolds.

  6. Communicating in Collectivistic Culture: Relationship between Interdependent Self-Construal and Cooperative Communication in Cross-Cultural Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo Pin Lick Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper proposes that when companies have expanded their business and operation throughout the Asian countries, the success or failure of a company abroad depends on how effectively its business negotiators can apply their cross-cultural communication skills in a new cultural environment. At the forefront of this change is interdependent self-construal, which stands as communication medium on interaction goals (international business negotiation outcome in collectivistic culture. The international trade may bring about a lot in terms of cross-cultural communication and international business negotiation, but adopting cooperative communication in the international business negotiations will create more integrative agreements between the international business negotiators. Many scholars believe that if both parties have similarities in communication styles, it will lead to positive interaction (cooperative communication that contributes to cooperation and influences the interaction goals (negotiation outcome. This paper offers critical insight into the theoretical link between interdependent selfconstrual and interaction goals. The proposed cross-cultural communication model uses interdependent self-construal and cooperative communication to understand when collectivistic business negotiators develop relationships that promotes positive interaction goals (negotiation outcome.

  7. In vivo bone regeneration using tubular perfusion system bioreactor cultured nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Andrew B; Both, Sanne K; Yang, Wanxun; Alghamdi, Hamdan S; Yang, Fang; Fisher, John P; Jansen, John A

    2014-01-01

    The use of bioreactors for the in vitro culture of constructs for bone tissue engineering has become prevalent as these systems may improve the growth and differentiation of a cultured cell population. Here we utilize a tubular perfusion system (TPS) bioreactor for the in vitro culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and implant the cultured constructs into rat femoral condyle defects. Using nanofibrous electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds, hMSCs were cultured for 10 days in vitro in the TPS bioreactor with cellular and acellular scaffolds cultured statically for 10 days as a control. After 3 and 6 weeks of in vivo culture, explants were removed and subjected to histomorphometric analysis. Results indicated more rapid bone regeneration in defects implanted with bioreactor cultured scaffolds with a new bone area of 1.23 ± 0.35 mm(2) at 21 days compared to 0.99 ± 0.43 mm(2) and 0.50 ± 0.29 mm(2) in defects implanted with statically cultured scaffolds and acellular scaffolds, respectively. At the 21 day timepoint, statistical differences (pbioreactor to improve bone tissue regeneration and highlights the benefits of utilizing perfusion bioreactor systems to culture MSCs for bone tissue engineering.

  8. In Vivo Bone Regeneration Using Tubular Perfusion System Bioreactor Cultured Nanofibrous Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Andrew B.; Both, Sanne K.; Yang, Wanxun; Alghamdi, Hamdan S.; Yang, Fang; Jansen, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bioreactors for the in vitro culture of constructs for bone tissue engineering has become prevalent as these systems may improve the growth and differentiation of a cultured cell population. Here we utilize a tubular perfusion system (TPS) bioreactor for the in vitro culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and implant the cultured constructs into rat femoral condyle defects. Using nanofibrous electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds, hMSCs were cultured for 10 days in vitro in the TPS bioreactor with cellular and acellular scaffolds cultured statically for 10 days as a control. After 3 and 6 weeks of in vivo culture, explants were removed and subjected to histomorphometric analysis. Results indicated more rapid bone regeneration in defects implanted with bioreactor cultured scaffolds with a new bone area of 1.23±0.35 mm2 at 21 days compared to 0.99±0.43 mm2 and 0.50±0.29 mm2 in defects implanted with statically cultured scaffolds and acellular scaffolds, respectively. At the 21 day timepoint, statistical differences (pbioreactor to improve bone tissue regeneration and highlights the benefits of utilizing perfusion bioreactor systems to culture MSCs for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23865551

  9. Organ culture of C57BL/6 mouse arteries with LPS as an in vitro model of vascular inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Emilie Middelbo; Mehryar, Rahila; Boonen, Harrie C.M.

    an in vitro model for studying vascular inflammation and function in cultured arteries from C57BL/6 mice. Methods: Segments of abdominal aorta and mesenteric arteries (MA) were incubated for 24 hours at 37̊C and 95% O2/5% CO2 in DMEM ± 100 ng/mL LPS. Aorta segments were frozen for molecular studies....... The in vitro model allows further assessment of relevant vasoactive systems and studies of possible protective mediators....

  10. Growth detection failures by the nonradiometric Bactec MGIT 960 mycobacterial culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jeremy A; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hoffman, Colleen G; Branda, John A

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterial growth in liquid culture can go undetected by automated, nonradiometric growth detection systems. In our laboratory, instrument-negative tubes from the Bactec MGIT 960 system are inspected visually for clumps suggestive of mycobacterial growth, which (if present) are examined by acid-fast smear analysis. A 3-year review demonstrated that ∼1% of instrument-negative MGIT cultures contained mycobacterial growth and that 10% of all cultures yielding mycobacteria were instrument negative. Isolates from instrument-negative MGIT cultures included both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria.

  11. INTEGRATED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride

  12. Multifunctional encoding system for assessment of movable cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornari, V.; Bernikola, E.; Osten, W.; Groves, R. M.; Marc, G.; Hustinx, G. M.; Kouloumpi, E.; Hackney, S.

    2007-07-01

    This is an introductory paper of a recent EC project dealing with research in cultural heritage and aiming to communicate new fields of application for optical metrology techniques. The project is in its initial state and more conclusive information is expected to be available at the time of the perspective conference. Nowadays safety, ethical, economical and security issues as well as the increase demand for loaning of art objects for exhibitions in transit, are forcing the Conservation Community to undertake strong initiatives and actions against various types of mistreatment, damage or fraud, during transportation of movable Cultural Heritage. Therefore the interest directs to the development of innovative methodologies and instrumentation to respond to critical aspects of increased importance in cultural heritage preservation, among which of prior consideration are: to secure proper treatment, assess probable damage, fight fraud actions in transportation.

  13. Evaluation of the rat embryo culture system as a predictive test for human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, I; Buttar, H S; Smith, S; Varma, D R

    1994-01-01

    Ingestion of the anticonvulsant drug valproic acid and of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril during pregnancy has been associated with abnormal fetal outcome in humans. In contrast, the use of the antiinflammatory drug ibuprofen and the antihistamine diphenhydramine has not been documented to be embryotoxic in humans. We evaluated the rat embryo culture system as a predictive model of teratogenesis, using these four drugs as test agents. Valproic acid, ibuprofen, and diphenhydramine were embryotoxic, inducing concentration-dependent decreases in growth and a significant increase in anomalies. Valproic acid caused an increase in neural tube defects, ibuprofen increased the incidence of abnormal maxillary processes, and diphenhydramine increased the number of embryos with distorted body morphology. These abnormalities were induced at concentrations of valproic acid and diphenhydramine that are used clinically, but ibuprofen only induced toxicity at concentrations greatly exceeding the therapeutic range. Captopril was not embryotoxic up to 5 mM, the highest concentration tested. These results suggest that the rat embryo culture system produces both false positive and false negative data on the teratogenic potential of drugs. Although such an in vitro assay may be suitable to determine the mechanism of teratogenesis, it is not a sensitive indicator of potential human teratogens on its own. These data support the view that in vitro systems can only supplement clinical and epidemiological observations in humans, possibly as a method to determine mechanisms of actions of teratogens.

  14. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-17

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  15. An empirical investigation to analysis the dimensions of cultural security: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Nouraei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of cultural security and its practical implications in a case study of educational system. There are several definitions of culture, which describe different aspects of cultural security. In fact, cultural security tends to show various behaviors, thinking, beliefs and other people’s perspectives in a society, which represents the overall circumstances. Cultural security and its issues make it possible to have a clear image of a society or community. This paper aims to identify the important dimensions of cultural security in terms of basic components of cultural security identified in a framework. Therefore, after identifying the components, using a questionnaire, required data are gathered from the universities of the city of Ilam, Iran and they are analyzed by SPSS18.0 software and its appropriate statistical tests.

  16. Probabilistic models for feedback systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Boggs, Paul T.

    2011-02-01

    In previous work, we developed a Bayesian-based methodology to analyze the reliability of hierarchical systems. The output of the procedure is a statistical distribution of the reliability, thus allowing many questions to be answered. The principal advantage of the approach is that along with an estimate of the reliability, we also can provide statements of confidence in the results. The model is quite general in that it allows general representations of all of the distributions involved, it incorporates prior knowledge into the models, it allows errors in the 'engineered' nodes of a system to be determined by the data, and leads to the ability to determine optimal testing strategies. In this report, we provide the preliminary steps necessary to extend this approach to systems with feedback. Feedback is an essential component of 'complexity' and provides interesting challenges in modeling the time-dependent action of a feedback loop. We provide a mechanism for doing this and analyze a simple case. We then consider some extensions to more interesting examples with local control affecting the entire system. Finally, a discussion of the status of the research is also included.

  17. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  18. Minisuperspace models of discrete systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baytaş, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    A discrete quantum spin system is presented in which several modern methods of canonical quantum gravity can be tested with promising results. In particular, features of interacting dynamics are analyzed with an emphasis on homogeneous configurations and the dynamical building-up and stability of long-range correlations. Different types of homogeneous minisuperspace models are introduced for the system, including one based on condensate states, and shown to capture different aspects of the discrete system. They are evaluated with effective methods and by means of continuum limits, showing good agreement with operator calculations whenever the latter are available. As a possibly quite general result, it is concluded that an analysis of the building-up of long-range correlations in discrete systems requires non-perturbative solutions of the dynamical equations. Some questions related to stability can be analyzed perturbatively, but suggest that matter couplings may be relevant for this question in the context o...

  19. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  20. Cardiac cell culture model as a left ventricle mimic for cardiac tissue generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai-Dung; Tinney, Joseph P; Yuan, Fangping; Roussel, Thomas J; El-Baz, Ayman; Giridharan, Guruprasad; Keller, Bradley B; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2013-09-17

    A major challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the delivery of hemodynamic mechanical cues that play a critical role in the early development and maturation of cardiomyocytes. Generation of functional cardiac tissue capable of replacing or augmenting cardiac function therefore requires physiologically relevant environments that can deliver complex mechanical cues for cardiomyocyte functional maturation. The goal of this work is the development and validation of a cardiac cell culture model (CCCM) microenvironment that accurately mimics pressure-volume changes seen in the left ventricle and to use this system to achieve cardiac cell maturation under conditions where mechanical loads such as pressure and stretch are gradually increased from the unloaded state to conditions seen in vivo. The CCCM platform, consisting of a cell culture chamber integrated within a flow loop was created to accomplish culture of 10 day chick embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes subject to 4 days of stimulation (10 mmHg, ∼13% stretch at a frequency of 2 Hz). Results clearly show that CCCM conditioned cardiomyocytes accelerate cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation in comparison to static unloaded controls as evidenced by increased proliferation, alignment of actin cytoskeleton, bundle-like sarcomeric α-actinin expression, higher pacing beat rate at lower threshold voltages, and increased shortening. These results confirm the CCCM microenvironment can accelerate immature cardiac cell structural and functional maturation for potential cardiac regenerative applications.

  1. A single-cell and feeder-free culture system for monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kato, Yosuke; Fujita, Risako; Araki, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Tomoko; Kato, Hidemasa; Torii, Ryuzo; Sato, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Primate pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hold great potential for research and application in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. To maximize primate PSC potential, a practical system is required for generating desired functional cells and reproducible differentiation techniques. Much progress regarding their culture systems has been reported to date; however, better methods would still be required for their practical use, particularly in industrial and clinical fields. Here we report a new single-cell and feeder-free culture system for primate PSCs, the key feature of which is an originally formulated serum-free medium containing FGF and activin. In this culture system, cynomolgus monkey ESCs can be passaged many times by single-cell dissociation with traditional trypsin treatment and can be propagated with a high proliferation rate as a monolayer without any feeder cells; further, typical PSC properties and genomic stability can be retained. In addition, it has been demonstrated that monkey ESCs maintained in the culture system can be used for various experiments such as in vitro differentiation and gene manipulation. Thus, compared with the conventional culture system, monkey ESCs grown in the aforementioned culture system can serve as a cell source with the following practical advantages: simple, stable, and easy cell maintenance; gene manipulation; cryopreservation; and desired differentiation. We propose that this culture system can serve as a reliable platform to prepare primate PSCs useful for future research and application.

  2. Culture in the mind's mirror: how anthropology and neuroscience can inform a model of the neural substrate for cultural imitative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.

  3. The knowledge instinct, cognitive algorithms, modeling of language and cultural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.

    2008-04-01

    The talk discusses mechanisms of the mind and their engineering applications. The past attempts at designing "intelligent systems" encountered mathematical difficulties related to algorithmic complexity. The culprit turned out to be logic, which in one way or another was used not only in logic rule systems, but also in statistical, neural, and fuzzy systems. Algorithmic complexity is related to Godel's theory, a most fundamental mathematical result. These difficulties were overcome by replacing logic with a dynamic process "from vague to crisp," dynamic logic. It leads to algorithms overcoming combinatorial complexity, and resulting in orders of magnitude improvement in classical problems of detection, tracking, fusion, and prediction in noise. I present engineering applications to pattern recognition, detection, tracking, fusion, financial predictions, and Internet search engines. Mathematical and engineering efficiency of dynamic logic can also be understood as cognitive algorithm, which describes fundamental property of the mind, the knowledge instinct responsible for all our higher cognitive functions: concepts, perception, cognition, instincts, imaginations, intuitions, emotions, including emotions of the beautiful. I present our latest results in modeling evolution of languages and cultures, their interactions in these processes, and role of music in cultural evolution. Experimental data is presented that support the theory. Future directions are outlined.

  4. Influence Organizational Culture On The Quality Of Accounting Information System Indonesian Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zeina Maya Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quality Information yielded by Information System Accountancy will affect at storey ability management level to bring action against and decision which related to company operational and also prepare effective financial statement. Azhar Susanto 2013 65 states that the accounting information is the output of the accounting process. In general the accounting information presented in the financial statements Kieso et al 2012 5. With use accounting information internal parties will obtain accounting information relating to past and future such as prediction forecasting which includes annual plans strategic and decision alternatives Azhar Susanto 2013. The message contained in an accounting information as a guide for anyone when carrying out the activity Azhar Susanto 2009 2. Accounting information is a strategic organizational resource Mitchell et al. 2000. Accountancy Information System of vital importance in growth Process business On duty Original earnings Indonesian specially Bandung Area. The Organizational culture through its assumptions values norms and symbols determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization as well as the way they behave in that reality Janisijevic2012. This Technique regarding System Accountancy Information data model affecting earnings to original earnings area PAD at Indonesian Goverment . Database System have function to earnings responsiblity which consist of Iease receivable not yet been billed for Iease receivable billed and total receivable. Accountancy information system have different model to process business and evaluation to governmental accounting information..

  5. Changing the system by changing the workforce: employing consumers to increase access, cultural diversity, and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Irsfeld, Toni DuBrino; Twomey, Tammy; Perez, Ana; Thompson, Judith; Wally, Martha; Colleton, Barbara; Kroell, Christine; McKeown, Steven K; Metz, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Services to families have traditionally been delivered in a medical model. This presents challenges including workforce shortages, lack of cultural diversity, lack of training in strength-based work, and difficulty in successfully engaging and retaining families in the therapy process. The system of care (SOC) effort has worked to establish formal roles for caregivers in SOC to improve services. This paper provides an example of one community's efforts to change the SOC by expanding the roles available to caregivers in creating systems change. It describes the model developed by Communities of Care (CoC), a SOC in Central Massachusetts, and its evolution over a 10 year period. First person accounts by system partners, caregivers hired into professional roles as well as a family receiving services, demonstrate how hiring caregivers at all levels can change systems and change lives, not only for those being served but for the caregiver/professionals doing the work. It also demonstrates, however, that change at the system level is incremental, takes time, and can be fleeting unless an ongoing effort is made to support and sustain those changes.

  6. Educational Policy vs. Culturally Sensitive Programs in Turkish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of elementary school teachers about the sensitiveness of principals, teachers, and curriculum on multicultural education. Education provides the transmission and the advancement of its culture while it is developing and enhancing the common values, the integrity and the progress of…

  7. Animal-cell culture in aqueous two-phase systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    In current industrial biotechnology, animal-cell culture is an important source of therapeutic protein products. The conventional animal-cell production processes, however, include many unit operations as part of the fermentation and downstream processing strategy. The research described in this the

  8. Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Cultural Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Stagl, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural competency, and the underlying communication and affective skills required to develop such expertise, is becoming increasingly important for a wide variety of domains. To address this need, we developed a blended learning platform which combines virtual role-play with tutorials, assessment and feedback. A Middle-Eastern Curriculum (MEC) exemplar for cross-cultural training U.S. military personnel was developed to guide the refinement of an existing game-based training platform. To complement this curriculum, we developed scenario authoring tools to enable end-users to define training objectives, link performance measures and feedback/remediation to these objectives, and deploy experiential scenarios within a game-based virtual environment (VE). Lessons learned from the design and development of this exemplar cross-cultural competency curriculum, as well as formative evaluation results, are discussed. Initial findings suggest that the underlying training technology promotes deep levels of semantic processing of the key information of relevant cultural and communication skills.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Poliovirus in Cell Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Bruce R; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of enteroviruses by cell culture was accepted as the "gold standard" by clinical virology laboratories. Methods for the direct detection of all enteroviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, targeting a conserved region of the genome, have largely supplanted cell culture as the principal diagnostic procedure. However, the World Health Organization's Global Polio Eradication Initiative continues to rely upon cell culture to isolate poliovirus due to the lack of a reliable sensitive genetic test for direct typing of enteroviruses from clinical specimens. Poliovirus is able to infect a wide range of mammalian cell lines, with CD155 identified as the primary human receptor for all three seroytpes, and virus replication leads to an observable cytopathic effect. Inoculation of cell lines with extracts of clinical specimens and subsequent passaging of the cells leads to an increased virus titre. Cultured isolates of poliovirus are suitable for testing by a variety of methods and remain viable for years when stored at low temperature.This chapter describes general procedures for establishing a cell bank and routine passaging of cell lines. While the sections on specimen preparation and virus isolation focus on poliovirus, the protocols are suitable for other enteroviruses.

  10. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material cont

  11. Animal-cell culture in aqueous two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    In current industrial biotechnology, animal-cell culture is an important source of therapeutic protein products. The conventional animal-cell production processes, however, include many unit operations as part of the fermentation and downstream processing strategy. The research described in

  12. How Theaters Remember: Cultures of Memory in Institutionalized Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Dragićević Šešić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore organizational policies and strategies regarding the institutional memory of Belgrade’s repertoire theaters. The concept of institutional (organizational memory has not been developed within the culture of memory theory. The role of theater in the culture of memory has been researched mostly through studies of its repertoire, corresponding to how theaters deal with issues of glory, guilt, or shame. This study explores how theaters rethink their own past and organizational culture, how they use their capacity for re-imagining themselves, for clarifying their role and function in different historical moments. The objective of this research is to identify the main institutional policies and types of strategies used for preserving institutional memory through key narratives of remembering, and key methods of inter-generational transfer. The sample comprises of four Belgrade-based public repertoire theaters: the Yugoslav Dramatic Theater (JDP, the Belgrade Dramatic Theater (BDP, Atelje 212, and Bitef Theater. Specific attention is given to the means of transmission, of individual (episodic memories into the collective consciousness, influencing organizational cultures and shaping a theater’s identity (semantic memory. Research has shown that there are important differences in active policies of preserving institutional memory among Belgrade’s theaters. Different organizational and programming strategies were implemented in order to safeguard institutional identity and memory, particularly in theaters with a permanent ensemble. The major difference is between theaters whose culture of memory might be called “non-existent” (Bitef, or “in storage” (BDP, and those succeeding in creating a functional memory (JDP, Atelje 212.

  13. Development of 3-D Hydrogel Culture Systems With On-Demand Cell Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Sharon K.; Bloodworth, Nathaniel C.; Massad, Christopher S.; Hammoudi, Taymour M.; Suri, Shalu; Yang, Peter J.; Lu, Hang; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in the effects of paracrine signaling between groups of cells, particularly in the context of better understanding how stem cells contribute to tissue repair. Most current 3-D co-culture methods lack the ability to effectively separate 2 cell populations after the culture period, which is important for simultaneously analyzing the reciprocal effects of each cell type on the other. Here, we detail the development of a 3-D hydrogel co-culture system...

  14. Teratological research using in vitro systems. III. Embryonic organs in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitby, K E

    1987-01-01

    A search of literature published through the spring of 1986 yielded approximately 95 citations for the following embryonic organs in culture: kidney, pancreas, skin, palate, craniofacial tissue, tooth, lens, bones, digits, and liver. However, only the in vitro organ culture of the palate and tooth are reviewed in this paper. The other organ culture systems were not reported as teratogenic screens. Although some organs may have the potential for such use, many are currently used for evaluation...

  15. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  16. Fabrication of a Novel Cell Culture System Using DNA-Grafted Substrates and DNase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitomo, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Asumi; Suzuki, Yasunobu; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Niikura, Kenichi; Nakazawa, Kohji; Ijiro, Kuniharu

    2016-02-01

    In conventional cell culture systems, trypsin is generally used for cell harvesting. However, trypsin damages the cells due to the nonselective degradation of proteins on the cell surface. This is a critical issue for cell culture systems. Therefore, an alternative cell culture system with the lowest possible impact on cells is desired. In this paper, we have focused on DNA as a sacrificial layer and DNase as an alternate enzyme instead of trypsin. DNase ought not to result in damage to or stress on cells as it only hydrolyzes DNAs while the plasma membrane and extracellular matrices are basically composed of lipids, proteins, and glycosides. Therefore, we fabricated DNA-grafted substrates as cell culture dishes and evaluated this novel cell culture system. As a result, we were able to culture several types of mammalian cells on the DNA-grafted substrates, with the cells harvested using DNase with only little damage to the cells. This cell culture system could provide a breakthrough in cell culturing technology.

  17. Effects of Business Model Development Projects on Organizational Culture: A Multiple Case Study of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Santti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that links between organizational culture and innovativeness/performance may act as a “social glue” that helps a company develop organizational culture as a competitive advantage. In this study of three case companies, the organizational culture change due business model development projects is studied using the Competing Values Framework (CVF tool and interviews with respondents about discovered changes. To reveal intervention and implied effects between business model development project and organizational culture changes, we used CIMO logic (context, intervention, mechanism, and outcome to bridge practice and theory by explanatory, backward-looking research. Our case studies of companies in relatively short-duration business model development projects indicate that organizational culture may have some dynamic characteristics, for example, an increase of the adhocracy organizational type in all case companies or an increase in the hierarchical leadership type in one case company. Thus, the development of an organizational culture type can be partly controlled. Our results also indicated business model development projects do have a minor effect on organizational culture, even when development activities have not been put fully into practice. However, the more comprehensively business model development project activities have been put into practice, the larger the effect on organizational culture.

  18. A S.M.A.R.T. system for the seismic vulnerability mitigation of Cultural Heritages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, Antonio; Costanzo, Antonio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vecchio, Antonio; Minasi, Mario; Falcone, Sergio; La Piana, Carmelo; Stramondo, Salvatore; Casula, Giuseppe; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Musacchio, Massimo; Doumaz, Fawzi; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Both assessment and mitigation of seismic vulnerability connected to cultural heritages monitoring are non-trivial issues, based on the knowledge of structural and environmental factors potential impacting the cultural heritage. A holistic approach could be suitable to provide an effective monitoring of cultural heritages within their surroundings at different spatial and temporal scales. On the one hand, the analysis about geometrical and structural properties of monuments is important to assess their state of conservation, their response to external stresses as well as anomalies related to natural and/or anthropogenic phenomena (e.g. the aging of materials, seismic stresses, vibrational modes). On the other hand, the investigation of the surrounding area is relevant to assess environmental properties and natural phenomena (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, subsidence, seismic response) as well as their related impacts on the monuments. Within such a framework, a multi-disciplinary system has been developed and here presented for the monitoring of cultural heritages for seismic vulnerability assessment and mitigation purposes*. It merges geophysical investigations and modeling, in situ measurements and multi-platforms remote sensing sensors for the non-destructive and non-invasive multi-scales monitoring of historic buildings in a seismic-prone area. In detail, the system provides: a) the long-term and the regional-scale analysis of buildings' environment through the integration of seismogenic analysis, airborne magnetic surveys, space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and multi-spectral sensors. They allow describing the sub-surface fault systems, the surface deformation processes and the land use mapping of the regional-scale area on an annual temporal span; b) the short-term and the basin-scale analysis of building's neighborhood through geological setting and geotechnical surveys, airborne Light Detection And Radar (LiDAR) and ground-based SAR sensors. They

  19. Sample Preparation Strategies for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of 3D Cell Culture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlf Wheatcraft, Dorothy R.; Liu, Xin; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional cell cultures are attractive models for biological research. They combine the flexibility and cost-effectiveness of cell culture with some of the spatial and molecular complexity of tissue. For example, many cell lines form 3D structures given appropriate in vitro conditions. Colon cancer cell lines form 3D cell culture spheroids, in vitro mimics of avascular tumor nodules. While immunohistochemistry and other classical imaging methods are popular for monitoring the distribu...

  20. The Control System Modeling Language

    CERN Document Server

    Zagar, K; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Vodovnik, A; Zagar, Klemen; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Tkacik, Gasper; Vodovnik, Anze

    2001-01-01

    The well-known Unified Modeling Language (UML) describes software entities, such as interfaces, classes, operations and attributes, as well as relationships among them, e.g. inheritance, containment and dependency. The power of UML lies in Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools such as Rational Rose, which are also capable of generating software structures from visual object definitions and relations. UML also allows add-ons that define specific structures and patterns in order to steer and automate the design process. We have developed an add-on called Control System Modeling Language (CSML). It introduces entities and relationships that we know from control systems, such as "property" representing a single controllable point/channel, or an "event" specifying that a device is capable of notifying its clients through events. Entities can also possess CSML-specific characteristics, such as physical units and valid ranges for input parameters. CSML is independent of any specific language or technology...

  1. Contextual Modelling of Collaboration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa DACHRY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Faced with new environmental constraints, firms decide to collaborate in collective entities and adopt new patterns of behavior. So, this firms’ collaboration becomes an unavoidable approach. Indeed, our aim interest in our study is to propose a collaborative information system for supply chain. Our proposed platform ensures cooperation and information sharing between partners in real time. In fact, several questions have to be asked: What is the information nature may be shared between partners? What processes are implemented between actors? What functional services are supported by the platform? In order to answer these questions, we present, in this article, our methodological approach of modelling, called CMCS (Contextual Modelling of Collaborative System

  2. Cultural Technology Acceptance Model for Consumers’ Acceptance of Arabic E-Commerce Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Omar (Mohammad Ali) Al-Qudah; Kamsuriah Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites and to propose a cultural technology acceptance model for consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites. The proposed model was built based on, technology acceptance model, trust, perceived risk and Hofstede’s cultural values as moderators between trust and perceived risk and purchase intention. In addition, Arabic language from literature review was added. Based on these theor...

  3. Help seeking in older Asian people with dementia in Melbourne: using the Cultural Exchange Model to explore barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Betty; Dow, Briony; Tinney, Jean; Lin, Xiaoping; Blackberry, Irene; Rayner, Victoria; Lee, Sook-Meng; Vrantsidis, Freda; Lautenschlager, Nicola; Logiudice, Dina

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing in Australia. Limited research is available on access to Cognitive Dementia and Memory Services (CDAMS) for people with dementia from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) communities. This study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to accessing CDAMS for people with dementia and their families of Chinese and Vietnamese backgrounds. Consultations with community members, community workers and health professionals were conducted using the "Cultural Exchange Model" framework. For carers, barriers to accessing services included the complexity of the health system, lack of time, travel required to get to services, language barriers, interpreters and lack of knowledge of services. Similarly, community workers and health professionals identified language, interpreters, and community perceptions as key barriers to service access. Strategies to increase knowledge included providing information via radio, printed material and education in community group settings. The "Cultural Exchange Model" enabled engagement with and modification of the approaches to meet the needs of the targeted CALD communities.

  4. Assessing Drug Efficacy in a Miniaturized Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro 3D Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelper, Todd B; Lovitt, Carrie J; Avery, Vicky M

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer continues to have one of the poorest prognoses among all cancers. The drug discovery efforts for this disease have largely failed, with no significant improvement in survival outcomes for advanced pancreatic cancer patients over the past 20 years. Traditional in vitro cell culture techniques have been used extensively in both basic and early drug discovery; however, these systems offer poor models to assess emerging therapeutics. More predictive cell-based models, which better capture the cellular heterogeneity and complexities of solid pancreatic tumors, are urgently needed not only to improve drug discovery success but also to provide insight into the tumor biology. Pancreatic tumors are characterized by a unique micro-environment that is surrounded by a dense stroma. A complex network of interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) components and the effects of cell-to-cell contacts may enhance survival pathways within in vivo tumors. This biological and physical complexity is lost in traditional cell monolayer models. To explore the predictive potential of a more complex cellular system, a three-dimensional (3D) micro-tumor assay was evaluated. Efficacy of six current chemotherapeutics was determined against a panel of primary and metastatic pancreatic tumor cell lines in a miniaturized ECM-based 3D cell culture system. Suitability for potential use in high-throughput screening applications was assessed, including ascertaining the effects that miniaturization and automation had on assay robustness. Cellular health was determined by utilizing an indirect population-based metabolic activity assay and a direct imaging-based cell viability assay.

  5. Latino Definitions of Success: A Cultural Model of Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to examine Latino intercultural competence via two separate methodologies. Phase 1 entailed discovering and generating themes regarding the features of intercultural competence based on semistructured interviews of 15 Latino adults. Phase 2 included conducting a cultural consensus analysis from the quantitative responses…

  6. Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    field limit of a dynamical model for polymer systems, Science China Mathematics , (11 2012): 0. doi: TOTAL: 1 Number of Non Peer-Reviewed Conference...4.0 (4.0 max scale): Number of graduating undergraduates funded by a DoD funded Center of Excellence grant for Education , Research and Engineering...undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and will receive scholarships or fellowships for further studies in science

  7. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) culture water recirculating system

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Sánchez O; Wilmer Sanguino O.; Ariel Gómez C.; Roberto García C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss) fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tu...

  8. Effective enrichment of cholangiocarcinoma secretomes using the hollow fiber bioreactor culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraphan, Churat; Diskul-Na-Ayudthaya, Penchatr; Chiablaem, Khajeelak; Khongmanee, Amnart; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Subhasitanont, Pantipa; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan

    2012-09-15

    The Northeastern region of Thailand is well known to have high incidence of bile duct cancer known as cholangiocarcinoma. So there is a continued need to improve diagnosis and treatment, and discovery of biomarkers for early detection of bile duct cancer should greatly improve treatment outcome for these patients. The secretome, a collection of proteins secreted from cells, is a useful source for identifying circulating biomarkers in blood secreted from cancer cells. Here a Hollow Fiber Bioreactor culture system was used for enrichment of cholangiocarcinoma secretomes, since this culture system mimics the dense three-dimensional microenvironment of the tumor found in vivo. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis using a sensitive Fluor saturation dye staining, followed by LC/MS/MS, was used to compare protein expression in the secretomes of cells cultured in the Hollow Fiber system and cells cultured in the monolayer culture system. For the first time, the 2D-patterns of cholangiocarcinoma secretomes from the two culture systems could be compared. The Hollow Fiber system improved the quality and quantity of cholangiocarcinoma secreted proteins compared to conventional monolayer system, showing less interference by cytoplasmic proteins and yielding more secreted proteins. Overall, 75 spots were analyzed by LC/MS/MS and 106 secreted proteins were identified. Two novel secreted proteins (C19orf10 and cystatin B) were found only in the Hollow Fiber system and were absent from the traditional monolayer culture system. Among the highly expressed proteins, 22 secreted soluble proteins were enriched by 5 fold in Hollow Fiber system compared to monolayer culture system. The Hollow Fiber system is therefore useful for preparing a wide range of proteins from low-abundance cell secretomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing a bioremediation strategy in a shallow coastal system affected by a fish farm culture--application of GIS and shellfish dynamic models in the Rio San Pedro, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; DelValls, T A

    2012-04-01

    An integrated multi-trophic aquaculture assessment for Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture as a bioremediation strategy in areas impacted by fish farm effluents in Rio San Pedro was assessed by combining geographic information system with carrying capacity models. Sites of 0.44 km(2) were evaluated considering constraints; physical factors, growth and survival factors, environmental quality factors, water and sediment quality criteria, factor suitability ranges, and Multi-Criteria Evaluation. Isleta and Flamenco are promising sites for oyster production, and Dorada is of marginal interest. Carbon and nitrogen removal from the water by algae and through detritus filtration was estimated. The biodeposition of organic material from longline leases was found to have little negative impact on sediment. The eutrophication results indicate that phytoplankton removal had a positive impact on water quality at the Dorada. This case study quantified the direct profitability and bioremediative environmental service advantages that fish-shellfish farms can have relative to fish monocultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new model for developing and executing culturally appropriate behavior modification clinical trials for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Svetkey, Laura P

    2003-01-01

    Past clinical trials addressing behavior modification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention have not been culturally appropriate for African Americans. This supposition is borne out by the continued challenges researchers face not only in recruiting and retaining African Americans in clinical trials, but also in achieving the desired outcomes among this population. Investigators have limited resources to develop culturally appropriate CVD prevention trials. The scientific literature reveals 2 models for implementing culturally appropriate interventions applicable to CVD prevention among African Americans; however, these models are not easily applied to the clinical trial setting. We propose a new model for developing a culturally appropriate clinical trial. The clinical trial is a function of the investigator's cultural framework, meaning that an investigator will have more difficulty designing clinical trials appropriate for use with cultures other than his or her own, a definite limitation when attempting to effectively reach diverse populations. Differences between the cultural frameworks of most clinical trials and African Americans' cultural frameworks lead to intrinsic biases, limiting the ability of African Americans to achieve the desired outcomes for any particular trial. An African-American participant's degree of immersion in traditional African-American culture, or acculturation, influences the magnitude of these biases. Investigators must be aware of, and attempt to mitigate, such biases so that the trial's potential for success is equitable across ethnic groups. In addition, investigators must understand how to effectively address relevant biases of African Americans without challenging their ethnic identity. Steps to decrease biases are described.

  11. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  12. Computational models of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Computational and mathematical models provide us with the opportunities to investigate the complexities of real world problems. They allow us to apply our best analytical methods to define problems in a clearly mathematical manner and exhaustively test our solutions before committing expensive resources. This is made possible by assuming parameter(s) in a bounded environment, allowing for controllable experimentation, not always possible in live scenarios. For example, simulation of computational models allows the testing of theories in a manner that is both fundamentally deductive and experimental in nature. The main ingredients for such research ideas come from multiple disciplines and the importance of interdisciplinary research is well recognized by the scientific community. This book provides a window to the novel endeavours of the research communities to present their works by highlighting the value of computational modelling as a research tool when investigating complex systems. We hope that the reader...

  13. Microglia replenished OHSC : A culture system to study in vivo like adult microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuch, Annette; van der Pijl, Rianne; Füner, Lisa; Wolf, Yochai; Eggen, Bart; Boddeke, Erik; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Recent data suggest that ramified microglia fulfil various tasks in the brain. However, to investigate this unique cell type cultured primary microglia are only a poor model. We here describe a method to deplete and repopulate organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) with ramified microglia iso

  14. Cross Cultural Analysis of the Use and Perceptions of Web-Based Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gaitan, Jorge; Ramirez-Correa, Patricio E.; Rondan-Cataluna, F. Javier

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine cultural differences and technology acceptances from students of two universities, one is from a European country: Spain, and the other is in Latin America: Chile. Both of them provide their students with e-learning platforms. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions…

  15. Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, J.L.; Bissell, Mina

    2010-01-21

    Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

  16. Organotypic brain slice cultures of adult transgenic P301S mice--a model for tauopathy studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Mewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid β deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1 and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO(2 concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study

  17. Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Christian; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan; Brender, Jytte

    The report " Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems" discusses a case study method which is an extension of work orginallly done in Babel, a 5th framework EU project. The report contributes to the discussion identifying operational cultural...

  18. The Relationship between National Culture and the Usability of an E-Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Blessing; Wentling, Rose Mary

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between national culture and the usability of an e-learning system. The theoretical frameworks that were used to guide this study were Hofstede's (1980) cultural dimensions, and Nielson's (1993) usability attributes. The sample for this study was composed of 24 international…

  19. Traveller: An Interactive Cultural Training System Controlled by User-Defined Body Gestures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, F.; André, E.; Mascarenhas, S.; Silva, A.; Paiva, A.; Degens, D.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Krumhuber, E.; Kappas, A.; Aylett, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cultural training system based on an interactive storytelling approach and a culturally-adaptive agent architecture, for which a user-defined gesture set was created. 251 full body gestures by 22 users were analyzed to find intuitive gestures for the in-game actions in

  20. Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Christian; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan; Brender, Jytte

    The report " Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems" discusses a case study method which is an extension of work orginallly done in Babel, a 5th framework EU project. The report contributes to the discussion identifying operational cultural...