WorldWideScience

Sample records for culture medlineplus medical

  1. Medical Encyclopedia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  2. Bacteria Culture Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bacteriaculturetest.html Bacteria Culture Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Bacteria Culture Test? Bacteria are a large group of ...

  3. NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine: Health, Medical & Wellness Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Web site for NIH MedlinePlus, the magazine. Our purpose is to present you with the ... sponsorship and other charitable donations for NIH MedlinePlus magazine's publication and distribution, many more thousands of Americans ...

  4. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents MLA ... From You We want your feedback on the magazine and ideas for future issues, as well as ...

  5. Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Mobile MedlinePlus Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the ...

  6. Mobile MedlinePlus | NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Mobile MedlinePlus Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Trusted medical information on your mobile phone http://m.medlineplus.gov Wondering what the ...

  7. A Leader in Clinical Trials, Medical Data, & Electronic Health Information | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of C. Everett Koop, the former Surgeon General; Charles Drew, the “father of the blood bank”; Rosalind ... MedlinePlus information resources about prescriptions. Soon, such information will be available through one click on the name ...

  8. Pneumocystis Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pneumocystis Infections updates ... GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia Related Health Topics HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS and Infections Pneumonia National ...

  9. Psoriatic Arthritis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Psoriatic arthritis (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Psoriatic Arthritis updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Psoriatic arthritis Related Health Topics Arthritis Psoriasis National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  10. Cardiac Arrest: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Cardiac arrest (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cardiac Arrest updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Cardiac arrest Related Health Topics Arrhythmia CPR Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators National Institutes ...

  11. Kawasaki Disease: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Kawasaki disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Kawasaki Disease updates ... GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Electrocardiogram Kawasaki disease Related Health Topics Vasculitis National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  12. Hearing Aids: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for hearing loss (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hearing Aids updates ... MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Devices for hearing loss Related Health Topics Cochlear Implants Hearing Disorders and Deafness National Institutes ...

  13. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Postural drainage (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pulmonary Rehabilitation updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Postural drainage Related Health Topics Lung Diseases National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  14. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the information in this issue of NIH MedlinePlus magazine helps you and your loved ones stay healthier! ... From You! We want your feedback on the magazine, ideas for future issues, as well as questions ...

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Chronic subdural hematoma (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish EEG (Medical Encyclopedia) ... Intracranial pressure monitoring (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Subdural hematoma (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus ...

  16. Female Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolactin blood test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Female Infertility updates ... Serum progesterone Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Infertility Male Infertility National Institutes ...

  17. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid in diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Folic Acid updates ... acid - test Folic acid in diet Related Health Topics Vitamins National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  18. Chiropractic: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for back pain (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Chiropractic updates by ... ENCYCLOPEDIA Chiropractic care for back pain Related Health Topics Back Pain Complementary and Integrative Medicine National Institutes ...

  19. Wilms' Tumor: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Wilms tumor (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Wilms Tumor updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA After chemotherapy - discharge Wilms tumor Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  20. Child Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injuries in children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Safety updates ... safety Preventing head injuries in children Related Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Internet Safety Motor Vehicle ...

  1. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Mediterranean diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diets updates by ... foods Diet-busting foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition ...

  2. Colonoscopy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Virtual colonoscopy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Colonoscopy updates by ... Colonoscopy Colonoscopy discharge Sigmoidoscopy Virtual colonoscopy Related Health Topics Colonic Diseases Colonic Polyps Colorectal Cancer National Institutes ...

  3. Collapsed Lung: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Pneumothorax - infants (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Collapsed Lung updates ... Lung surgery Pneumothorax - slideshow Pneumothorax - infants Related Health Topics Chest Injuries and Disorders Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders ...

  4. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Testicular biopsy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Male Infertility updates ... analysis Sperm release pathway Testicular biopsy Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Female Infertility Infertility National Institutes ...

  5. Hip Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive hip replacement (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hip Replacement updates ... replacement - precautions Minimally invasive hip replacement Related Health Topics Hip Injuries and Disorders National Institutes of Health ...

  6. Diabetes: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood sugar (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diabetes updates by ... ketones test Show More Show Less Related Health Topics A1C Blood Sugar Diabetes and Pregnancy Diabetes Complications ...

  7. Platelet Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromobocytopenia - drug-induced (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Platelet Disorders updates ... Willebrand disease Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Clots Blood Count Tests Blood ...

  8. Cardiac Rehabilitation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Spanish Electrocardiogram (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cardiac Rehabilitation updates ... How to take your pulse Pulse Related Health Topics Heart Attack Heart Diseases How to Prevent Heart ...

  9. Dialysis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... access for hemodialysis (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Dialysis updates by ... for hemodialysis Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Creatinine Kidney Cysts Kidney Failure Peritoneal Disorders National ...

  10. Diabetic Diet: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sweeteners - sugar substitutes (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diabetic Diet updates ... you have diabetes Sweeteners - sugar substitutes Related Health Topics Blood Sugar Diabetes Diabetes in Children and Teens ...

  11. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Infection Control updates ... infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS MRSA National Institutes of Health ...

  12. Vaginitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Vulvovaginitis - overview (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginitis updates by ... Vaginitis test - wet mount Vulvovaginitis - overview Related Health Topics Trichomoniasis Vaginal Diseases Yeast Infections Other Languages Find ...

  13. Kidney Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Total protein (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Kidney Tests updates ... hour volume Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health ...

  14. Ischemic Stroke: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Thrombolytic therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Ischemic Stroke updates ... cardiogenic embolism Stroke - slideshow Thrombolytic therapy Related Health Topics Hemorrhagic Stroke Stroke Stroke Rehabilitation National Institutes of ...

  15. FNLM 2013 Events & Programs Announced | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study in their field of expertise. Annual Awards Dinner In 2013, the Awards Dinner to celebrate advances ... Mobile MedlinePlus! Trusted medical information on your mobile phone. http://m.medlineplus.gov and in Spanish at ...

  16. Cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    the survey, and 199 responded. The response rate is 14%. Data were analysed through descriptive calculations, and answers to open-ended questions were coded using content analysis. Results: Results showed that 82.4% of the informants agreed or strongly agreed that the medical education programme should...... in receiving training on cultural competence. Conclusions: Generally, there is interest in and acknowledgement of the importance of cultural competence in Danish medical education among teachers at the University of Copenhagen. This creates an opportunity to implement cultural competence in the medical...

  17. Cultural initiation of medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre

    2013-12-01

    Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process.

  18. "Bionic Man" Showcases Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Bionic Man Meet the Bionic Man Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents The ... medical imaging, visit www.nibib.nih.gov "Bionic Man" Showcases Medical Research The National Institute of Biomedical ...

  19. [Medical globalization and local culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    Biomedical globalization is a reality in the presence of local worlds with growing human sufferance and inequalities. In this structural and cultural context, characterised by the new communication by Internet and social media, polarisation of medical and scientific debate is enhancing. Based on episodes related to public health issues like vaccines, the quest for better access of Italian professionals and public opinion to an open scientific debate on health research and practice is discussed.

  20. Articles about MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus → Articles about MedlinePlus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/bibliography.html Articles about MedlinePlus To ... Dec 29]; 3(5):256-60. Available from: http://ecp.acponline.org/sepoct00/nlm.htm . Marill JL, ...

  1. MedlinePlus Connect in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect in Use URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/users.html MedlinePlus Connect in ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  2. Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus, the magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the world's largest medical library, NIH's National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus has extensive information from the NIH and other trusted sources on more than 700 diseases and conditions. There ...

  3. Mentoring in Medicine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... front is Andrew Morrison, MIM vice president of marketing. Giving Students a Vision of Healthcare Careers Research ... federal tax purposes. Web site: www.fnlm.org Mobile MedlinePlus! Trusted medical information on your mobile phone. ...

  4. Sexual Problems in Men: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Retrograde ejaculation (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Sexual Problems in ... Premature ejaculation Reifenstein syndrome Retrograde ejaculation Related Health Topics Erectile Dysfunction Penis Disorders Prostate Diseases Testicular Disorders ...

  5. Baby Health Checkup: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Baby Health Checkup ... GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Well-child visits Related Health Topics Childhood Immunization Common Infant and Newborn Problems Infant ...

  6. Cancer--Living with Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cancer--Living with ... care plan Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Cancer Cancer Chemotherapy Palliative Care National Institutes of ...

  7. How to Prevent Heart Disease: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your heart (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get How to Prevent ... your heart Stress and your heart Related Health Topics Blood Thinners Cholesterol Heart Diseases Heart Health Tests ...

  8. Laser Eye Surgery: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corneal surgery - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Laser Eye Surgery ... surgery - what to ask your doctor Related Health Topics Refractive Errors National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  9. Child Mental Health: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... events and children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Mental Health ... in childhood Traumatic events and children Related Health Topics Bullying Child Behavior Disorders Mental Disorders Mental Health ...

  10. Bone Marrow Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... marrow transplant - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Bone Marrow Transplantation ... transplant - slideshow Graft-versus-host disease Related Health Topics Bone Marrow Diseases Stem Cells National Institutes of ...

  11. Blood Count Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish WBC count (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Blood Count Tests ... WBC count Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Laboratory Tests National Institutes of ...

  12. Hormone Replacement Therapy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hormone therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hormone Replacement Therapy ... Estrogen overdose Types of hormone therapy Related Health Topics Menopause National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  13. MedlinePlus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MedlinePlus is the National Institutes of Health's Web site for patients and their families and friends. Produced by the National Library of Medicine, the world’s...

  14. MedlinePlus Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Video player keyboard shortcuts Transcript Welcome to MedlinePlus, the consumer health information website from the National Library of ...

  15. Search Tips: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/searchtips.html Search Tips To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. How do I search MedlinePlus? The search box appears at the top ...

  16. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... M. encyclopedia. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  17. Linking to MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... want to link patients or healthcare providers from electronic health record (EHR) systems to relevant MedlinePlus information, use MedlinePlus ... updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for ...

  18. Friends of the National Library of Medicine, Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus, the magazine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contents Dear Readers, WELCOME to NIH MedlinePlus , the magazine. The purpose of NIH MedlinePlus , the magazine, is to provide you with a FREE , trusted ... medical information. Published four times a year, the magazine showcases the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) latest ...

  19. Enhancing cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Janne; Norredam, Marie; Dogra, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    the project Culturally Competent in Medical Education involving 13 partners from 11 countries.4 The project aimed to support the implementation of CC in medical curricula. First, a Delphi Study involving 34 experts was conducted to develop a framework of core cultural competencies for medical school teachers...... stage of the project was a survey conducted to identify the strengths, gaps, and limitations of CC in the programmes of the 13 medical school project partners. Based on the Delphi study and survey findings, we created guidelines for the development and delivery of CC training at medical schools.4...... The proposed guidelines were presented in September 2015 in Amsterdam at a workshop entitled: “How to integrate cultural competence in medical education”. A range of participants attended the workshop, including the project partners, deans and faculty members of Dutch medical schools, physicians, and students...

  20. MedlinePlus FAQ: What's the difference between MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus Connect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect is a free service that allows electronic health record (EHR) systems to easily link users to MedlinePlus, ... updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for ...

  1. MedlinePlus Connect: How it Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect → How it Works URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/howitworks.html MedlinePlus Connect: How ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  2. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  3. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  4. Medical humanities as expressive of Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Claire; Noonan, Estelle

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we articulate a growing awareness within the field of the ways in which medical humanities could be deemed expressive of Western cultural values. The authors suggest that medical humanities is culturally limited by a pedagogical and scholarly emphasis on Western cultural artefacts, as well as a tendency to enact an uncritical reliance upon foundational concepts (such as 'patient' and 'experience') within Western medicine. Both these tendencies within the field, we suggest, are underpinned by a humanistic emphasis on appreciative or receptive encounters with 'difference' among patients that may unwittingly contribute to the marginalisation of some patients and healthcare workers. While cultural difference should be acknowledged as a central preoccupation of medical humanities, we argue that the discipline must continue to expand its scholarly and critical engagements with processes of Othering in biomedicine. We suggest that such improvements are necessary in order to reflect the cultural diversification of medical humanities students, and the geographical expansion of the discipline within non-Western and/or non-Anglophone locations.

  5. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Web Service URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/service.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  6. MedlinePlus Connect: Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Web Application URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/application.html MedlinePlus Connect: Web ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  7. MedlinePlus Connect: Technical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Technical Information URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/technical.html MedlinePlus Connect: Technical ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  8. MedlinePlus Connect: Email List

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Connect → Email List URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/emaillist.html MedlinePlus Connect: Email ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  9. Health Videos: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  10. Antibiotic Resistance: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Health Topics → Antibiotic Resistance URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/antibioticresistance. ...

  11. MedlinePlus Milestones: 1998-present

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect , a service linking patients or providers in electronic health record (EHR) systems to related MedlinePlus information on conditions ... updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for ...

  12. MedlinePlus XML Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on MedlinePlus health topic pages. With the Web service, software developers can build applications that leverage the authoritative, reliable health information in MedlinePlus. The MedlinePlus Web service is free of charge and does not require ...

  13. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  14. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  15. Components of Culture in Health for Medical Students' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervalon, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    Describes key themes and components of culture in health care for incorporation into undergraduate medical education. These include teaching the rationale for learning about culture in health care; "culture basics"; data on and concepts of health status; tools and skills for productive cross-cultural clinical encounters; characteristics and…

  16. NIH Institutes and MLN MedlinePlus Advisory Board | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  17. Conceptualizing the Research Culture in Postgraduate Medical Education: Implications for Leading Culture Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    By recognizing symbols of research culture in postgraduate medical education, educators and trainees can gain a deeper understanding of the existing culture and mechanisms for its transformation. First, I identify symbolic manifestations of the research culture through a case narrative of a single anesthesia residency program, and I offer a visual conceptualization of the research culture. In the second part, I theorize the application of Senge's (1994) disciplines of a learning organization and discuss leverage for enhancing research culture. This narrative account is offered to inform the work of enhancing the broader research culture in postgraduate medical education.

  18. Cultural context in medical ethics: lessons from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Tia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines two topics in Japanese medical ethics: non-disclosure of medical information by Japanese physicians, and the history of human rights abuses by Japanese physicians during World War II. These contrasting issues show how culture shapes our view of ethically appropriate behavior in medicine. An understanding of cultural context reveals that certain practices, such as withholding diagnostic information from patients, may represent ethical behavior in that context. In contrast, nonconsensual human experimentation designed to harm the patient is inherently unethical irrespective of cultural context. Attempts to define moral consensus in bioethics, and to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable variation across different cultural contexts, remain central challenges in articulating international, culturally sensitive norms in medical ethics.

  19. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on culture as a dynamic process situated in a social context, and has been valued in diverse fields for yielding rich understandings of complex issues and key factors involved. This paper explains how activity theory can be used in (cross-)cultural medical education research. We discuss activity theory's theoretical background and principles, and we show how these can be applied to the cultural research practice by discussing the steps involved in a cross-cultural study that we conducted, from formulating research questions to drawing conclusions. We describe how the activity system, the unit of analysis in activity theory, can serve as an organizing principle to grasp cultural complexity. We end with reflections on the theoretical and practical use of activity theory for cultural research and note that it is not a shortcut to capture cultural complexity: it is a challenge for researchers to determine the boundaries of their study and to analyze and interpret the dynamics of the activity system.

  20. Chinese Confucian culture and the medical ethical tradition.

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Z

    1995-01-01

    The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and...

  1. Organizational Culture, Values, and Routines in Iranian Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Zavareh, Davoud Khorasani; Masiello, Italo

    2009-01-01

    In Iran, restructuring of medical education and the health care delivery system in 1985 resulted in a rapid shift from elite to mass education, ultimately leading to an increase in the number of medical schools, faculties, and programs and as well as some complications. This study aimed to investigate views on academic culture, values, and…

  2. Cultural Literacy of Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of fourth-year students in obstetrics at one medical school confirmed the absence of a liberal undergraduate education and indicated their failure to acquire cultural knowledge during their premedical and medical education. Knowledge deficits extended beyond the humanities to nonmedical sciences and the history and philosophy of medicine.…

  3. The Culture of General Palliative Nursing Care in Medical Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbæk, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    in medical departments. Methods: An ethnographic study, using Spradley's 12-step method, with observational field studies and interviews with nurses from three medical departments in a Danish regional hospital. Findings: Three cultural themes emerged from the analysis, focusing on the setting, the practice...... and the nurses' reflections on GPNC: (1) GPNC provided in a treatment setting, (2) transition to loving care and the licence to perform palliative care (PC) and (3) potential for team improvement. Conclusions: GPNC as a culture in medical departments seemed to be embedded in a setting not suited for dying...

  4. Toward "harder" medical humanities: moving beyond the "two cultures" dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polianski, Igor J; Fangerau, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Using the current international debate surrounding the incorporation of medical humanities into medical curricula as a starting point, the authors address both the legitimacy and didactics of teaching medical humanities to medical students. They highlight the paradox of the increasing prevalence of medical humanities in medical curricula and the often critical reception humanities courses receive. The alleged lack of empirical evidence linking such courses with improved patient care cannot alone explain the criticism they engender. After a short overview of the debate surrounding medical humanities and their inclusion in outcomes-based education, the authors outline the medical humanities block, "The History, Theory, and Ethics of Medicine," which is part of the German medical curriculum. A model developed at Ulm University exemplifies the integrated inclusion of the heterogeneous aspects of medical culture into medical education. This model emphasizes a reflexive approach (i.e., understanding how the humanities are manifested in medicine) as an alternative to the currently dominant narrative approach (i.e., liberal arts, moral development, and/or mental retreat), which has gradually been limited to a quasi-"secular religion" for doctors. This model uses established concepts from science and cultural studies as the "instruments" for seminars and courses; paradigms, discourses, social systems, and cosmologies constitute the tools for teaching and learning about the historical, theoretical, and ethical dimensions of medicine. The authors argue that this approach both precludes the need to justify the medical humanities and overcomes the dichotomy that has heretofore existed between the two cultures of science and the humanities in medicine.

  5. Do language fluency and other socioeconomic factors influence the use of PubMed and MedlinePlus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, L; Gavino, A; Callaghan, F; Fontelo, P

    2013-01-01

    Increased usage of MedlinePlus by Spanish-speakers was observed after introduction of MedlinePlus in Spanish. This probably reflects increased usage of MEDLINE and PubMed by those with greater fluency in the language in which it is presented; but this has never been demonstrated in English speakers. Evidence that lack of English fluency deters international healthcare personnel from using PubMed could support the use of multi-language search tools like Babel-MeSH. This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. We retrospectively reviewed server pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus from various periods of time, and analyzed them against country statistics on language fluency, GDP, literacy rate, Internet usage, medical schools, and physicians per capita, to determine whether they were associated. We found fluency in English to be positively associated with pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus in countries with high literacy rates. Spanish was generally found to be positively associated with pageviews of MedlinePlus en Español. The other parameters also showed varying degrees of association with pageviews. After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. This study may support the need for multi-language search tools and may increase access of health information resources from non-English speaking countries.

  6. Why change habits? Early modern medical innovation between medicalisation and medical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetz, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Based on a discussion of the concept of medicalisation and medical culture in Anglo-American, French-, and German-speaking historiography the paper argues that medical innovation in Europe from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century should be approached in a different way. Instead of asking from the perspective of a too narrow concept of medicalisation why medical innovations were rejected by the population, (medical) historians should analyse medical culture and ask why people should have changed their health and illness behaviour. This conceptual argument is deduced from four empirical examples: the introduction of smallpox vaccination, "medical police," the problem of medical professionalization, and the questions arising around the relations between the healthy/sick and their practitioners.

  7. Mismatch of Cultural Dimensions in an Urban Medical Educational Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Malone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify cultural dimensions and their potential mismatches between attending physicians and their residents and medical students. Methods. We surveyed faculty and students, both undergraduates and postgraduate resident physicians, at the SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, using Hofstede’s VSM-08 questionnaire, and calculated cultural dimensions, including the Power-Distance Index (PDI, Individualism (IDV, Masculinity (MAS, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI, and Long-term Outlook (LTO. Correlations between faculty and student demographic data and cultural dimensions were calculated (SPSS. Results. There were 237 student and resident respondents and 96 faculty respondents. Comparing all faculty and student respondents, significant differences were found in four of five cultural dimensions, with faculty scoring higher in MAS, and lower in PDI, IDV, UAI, and LTO. Conclusions. These differences may be important in the design and implementation of a medical educational curriculum, and, particularly, in the measurement and evaluation of educational outcomes.

  8. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio

    2002-03-01

    The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.

  9. Chinese Confucian culture and the medical ethical tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z

    1995-08-01

    The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and on character cultivation were all inherited by the medical workers and thus became prominent in Chinese traditional medical ethics. Hence, it is clear that the medical profession and Confucianism have long shared common goals in terms of ethics. Influenced by the excellent Confucian thinking and culture, a rather highly-developed system of Chinese traditional medical ethics emerged with a well-defined basic content, and the system has been followed and amended by medical professionals of all generations throughout Chinese history. This system, just to mention briefly, contains concepts such as the need: to attach great importance to the value of life; to do one's best to rescue the dying and to heal the wounded; to show concern to those who suffer from diseases; to practise medicine with honesty; to study medical skills painstakingly; to oppose a careless style of work; to comfort oneself in a dignified manner; to respect local customs and to be polite; to treat patients, noble or humble, equally, and to respect the academic achievements of others, etc. Of course, at the same time, Confucian culture has its own historical and class limitations, which exerted negative influences on traditional medical ethics. Now, if we are to keep up with the development of modern medicine, a serious topic must be addressed. That is how to retain the essence of our traditional medical ethics so as to maintain historic continuity and yet, at the same time, add on the new contents of medical

  10. Newborn Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more articles Reference Desk Glossary (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Find an Expert Eunice Kennedy Shriver National ... other than English on Newborn Screening NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns Screening Newborns' Hearing Now ...

  11. MedlinePlus: Awards and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... winner of the 2005 World Summit on the Information Society Awards for e-health. Winner of the Thomas Reuters/Frank Bradway Rogers Information Advancement Award in 2014 for MedlinePlus Connect and ...

  12. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  13. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  14. Mobility Aids: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mobility Problems (AGS Foundation for Health in Aging) Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Mobility Aids updates ... standing and walking Using a cane Related Health Topics Assistive Devices Other Languages Find health information in ...

  15. Genetic Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Family's Health (National Institutes of Health) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Genetic Testing updates ... testing and your cancer risk Karyotyping Related Health Topics Birth Defects Genetic Counseling Genetic Disorders Newborn Screening ...

  16. Pneumococcal Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention, Immunization Action Coalition) - PDF Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pneumococcal Infections updates ... ray Meningitis - pneumococcal Sputum gram stain Related Health Topics Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Sinusitis Streptococcal Infections National Institutes ...

  17. Healthy Aging: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aging National Institute on Aging Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Healthy Aging updates ... 65 Health screening - women - over 65 Related Health Topics Exercise for Seniors Nutrition for Seniors Seniors' Health ...

  18. Eye Wear: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When You Exercise (National Institute on Aging) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Eye Wear updates by email What's this? GO Related Health Topics Refractive Errors National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  19. Menopause: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish What is Menopause? (National Institute on Aging) Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Menopause updates by ... test Menopause Types of hormone therapy Related Health Topics Hormone Replacement Therapy Menstruation Premature Ovarian Failure National ...

  20. Dry Mouth: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Transcription profiling of peripheral B cells in antibody-positive primary ... our quality guidelines . About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  1. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  2. The consequences of Ireland's culture of medical migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Niamh; Crowe, Sophie; McDermott, Cian; McAleese, Sara; Brugha, Ruairi

    2017-12-28

    In recent years, Ireland has experienced a large-scale, outward migration of doctors. This presents a challenge for national policy makers and workforce planners seeking to build a self-sufficient medical workforce that trains and retains enough doctors to meet demand. Although, traditionally, medical migration has been considered beneficial to the Irish health system, austerity has brought a greater level of uncertainty to the health system and, with it, a need to reappraise the professional culture of migration and its impact on the Irish health system. This paper illustrates how a culture of migration informs career and migration plans. It draws on quantitative data-registration and migration data from source and destination countries-and qualitative data-in-depth interviews with 50 doctors who had undertaken postgraduate medical training in Ireland. Of 50 respondents, 42 highlighted the importance of migration. The culture of medical migration rests on two assumptions-that international training/experience is beneficial to all doctors and that those who emigrate will return to Ireland with additional skills and experience. This assumption of return is challenged by a new generation of doctors whose professional lives have been shaped by globalisation and by austerity. Global comparisons reveal the comparatively poor working conditions, training and career opportunities in Ireland and the relative attractiveness of a permanent career abroad. In light of these changes, there is a need to critically appraise the culture of medical migration to determine if and in what circumstances migration is appropriate to the needs of the Irish health system. The paper considers the need to reappraise the culture of medical migration and the widespread emigration that it promotes.

  3. Cultural Awareness Among Nursing Staff at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jennifer; Smith-Miller, Cheryl A; Madigan, Catherine K; Li, Yin

    2016-03-01

    The goal is to identify areas for targeted improvement in regard to cultural awareness and competence among nursing staff and in the work environment. Many facilities have initiated programs to facilitate cultural competence development among nursing staff; however, there has been little examination of the effect of these initiatives, assessment of experienced nurses' cultural awareness, or investigation of nurse leader's role in promoting cultural competence in the literature. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a cultural awareness survey was modified and electronically distributed to all registered nurses and assistive personnel at an academic medical center. The modified survey instrument showed good reliability and validity among the study population. Most nursing staff exhibited a moderate to high level of cultural awareness and held positive opinions about nursing leadership and the work environment with regard to cultural issues. In increasingly diverse work environments, assessing the cultural awareness of nursing staff enables nurse leaders to evaluate efforts in promoting cultural competence and to identify specific areas in which to target staff development efforts and leadership training.

  4. Combating HIV/AIDS | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  5. Helping others hear better | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  6. Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. Among those attending the NIH MedlinePlus magazine launch on Capitol Hill were (l-r) NIH ...

  7. Recovery and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  8. Racing Against Lung Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  9. Exploring Graphic Medicine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  10. The Opioid Crisis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  11. The ABCs of GERD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  12. A Lifelong Asthma Struggle | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  13. NIH on the web | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  14. Hope for Aphasia Patients | NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  15. Surgery of the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  16. 10 NIH Research Highlights | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  17. Expanding Hearing Healthcare | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  18. NIH on the web | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  19. MedlinePlus FAQ: Disease or Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Health Topics button on the MedlinePlus homepage. You can also find the Health Topics button ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  20. Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Subscribe to NIH MedlinePlus the magazine NIH MedlinePlus the magazine is published quarterly, in print and on the ... up for a free subscription to NIH MedlinePlus Magazine. Librarians may order this magazine in bulk . Please ...

  1. Cultural crossings of care: An appeal to the medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, Julia; Moro, Marie Rose; Ødemark, John; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2018-03-01

    Modern medicine is confronted with cultural crossings in various forms. In facing these challenges, it is not enough to simply increase our insight into the cultural dimensions of health and well-being. We must, more radically, question the conventional distinction between the 'objectivity of science' and the 'subjectivity of culture'. This obligation creates an urgent call for the medical humanities but also for a fundamental rethinking of their grounding assumptions.Julia Kristeva (JK) has problematised the biomedical concept of health through her reading of the anthropogony of Cura (Care), who according to the Roman myth created man out of a piece of clay. JK uses this fable as an allegory for the cultural distinction between health construed as a 'definitive state', which belongs to biological life ( bios ), and healing as a durative 'process with twists and turns in time' that characterises human living ( zoe ). A consequence of this demarcation is that biomedicine is in constant need of 'repairing' and bridging the gap between bios and zoe, nature and culture. Even in radical versions, the medical humanities are mostly reduced to such an instrument of repairment, seeing them as what we refer to as a soft, 'subjective' and cultural supplement to a stable body of 'objective', biomedical and scientific knowledge. In this article, we present a prolegomenon to a more radical programme for the medical humanities, which calls the conventional distinctions between the humanities and the natural sciences into question, acknowledges the pathological and healing powers of culture, and sees the body as a complex biocultural fact. A key element in such a project is the rethinking of the concept of 'evidence' in healthcare. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper

  3. FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CULTURE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Snisar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important problem of searching and introducing innovative forms and methods of ecological upbringing and environmental education in the educational process of the medical educational establishment. Medical workers first face the negative impact of environmental problems on human health, therefore formation of high level of their environmental awareness and culture, ability to apply knowledge of medical ecology while performing their professional duties is an important condition for their qualitative vocational training. The aim of the article is to analyze the benefits of creating an environmental squad in the medical educational establishment with a purpose to create a high level of the studets’ environmental awareness, environmental culture and expositive behavior. The experience of the environmental squad Cherkasy medical academy to attract students to the ecological and elucidative and environmental protection, scientific research ecologically oriented. Effective methods and forms of environmental squad’s work in spreading ecological knowledge are characterized, the main topics of scientific research work are presented. Stages of forming ecological awareness and ecological culture of future doctors have been analyzed, while working in the environmental squad, from expanding and systematization of ecological knowledge to the development of ecological style of thinking and environmentally safe behavior. The results of the study led to the conclusion that activity of such structure as an ecological squad in the medical educational establishment provides improved ecological upbringing and environmental education and allows training of medical specialists, who understand the danger of a complicated ecological situation for human health, will promote healthy lifestyle, help reduce the negative impact of harmful factors on the health of patients, as well as a conscious citizen, which is a patriot of his country, take

  4. Organizational safety culture and medical error reporting by Israeli nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ilya; Barnoy, Sivia

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between patient safety culture (PSC) and the incidence and reporting rate of medical errors by Israeli nurses. Self-administered structured questionnaires were distributed to a convenience sample of 247 registered nurses enrolled in training programs at Tel Aviv University (response rate = 91%). The questionnaire's three sections examined the incidence of medication mistakes in clinical practice, the reporting rate for these errors, and the participants' views and perceptions of the safety culture in their workplace at three levels (organizational, departmental, and individual performance). Pearson correlation coefficients, t tests, and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Most nurses encountered medical errors from a daily to a weekly basis. Six percent of the sample never reported their own errors, while half reported their own errors "rarely or sometimes." The level of PSC was positively and significantly correlated with the error reporting rate. PSC, place of birth, error incidence, and not having an academic nursing degree were significant predictors of error reporting, together explaining 28% of variance. This study confirms the influence of an organizational safety climate on readiness to report errors. Senior healthcare executives and managers can make a major impact on safety culture development by creating and promoting a vision and strategy for quality and safety and fostering their employees' motivation to implement improvement programs at the departmental and individual level. A positive, carefully designed organizational safety culture can encourage error reporting by staff and so improve patient safety. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Publications in academic medical centers: technology-facilitated culture clash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Eta S

    2014-05-01

    Academic culture has a set of norms, expectations, and values that are sometimes tacit and sometimes very explicit. In medical school and other health professions educational settings, probably the most common norm includes placing a high value on peer-reviewed research publications, which are seen as the major evidence of scholarly productivity. Other features of academic culture include encouraging junior faculty and graduate students to share their research results at professional conferences and lecturing with slides as a major way to convey information. Major values that faculty share with journal editors include responsible conduct of research and proper attribution of others' words and ideas. Medical school faculty also value technology and are often quick to embrace technological advances that can assist them in their teaching and research. This article addresses the effects of technology on three aspects of academic culture: education, presentations at professional meetings, and research publications.The technologies discussed include online instruction, dissemination of conference proceedings on the Internet, plagiarism-detection software, and new technologies deployed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, the home of PubMed. The author describes how the ease of deploying new technologies without faculty changing their norms and behavior in the areas of teaching and research can lead to conflicts of values among key stakeholders in the academic medical community, including faculty, journal editors, and professional associations. The implications of these conflicts and strategies for managing them are discussed.

  6. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan

    2008-08-01

    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  7. Ethno-Cultural Considerations in Cardiac Patients' Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Shier, K M; Singh, S; Khan, N A; LeBlanc, P; Lowe, J C; Mather, C M; Chong, E; Quan, H

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop an in-depth understanding about factors that influence cardiac medication adherence among South Asian, Chinese, and European White cardiac patients. Sixty-four patients were purposively sampled from an ongoing study cohort. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for analyses. Physicians' culturally sensitive communication and patients' motivation to live a symptom-free and longer life enhanced adherence. European Whites were motivated to enhance personal well-being and enjoy family life. South Asians' medication adherence was influenced by the desire to fulfill the will of God and family responsibilities. The Chinese were motivated to avoid pain, illness, and death, and to obey a health care provider. The South Asians and Chinese wanted to ultimately reduce medication use. Previous positive experiences, family support, and establishing a routine also influenced medication adherence. Deterrents to adherence were essentially the reverse of the motivators/facilitators. This analysis represents an essential first step forward in developing ethno-culturally tailored interventions to optimize adherence.

  8. Educating medical students for work in culturally diverse societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, R F; Anderson, P M; Gill, P S; Greenfield, S M

    1999-09-01

    Recent attention has focused on whether government health service institutions, particularly in the United Kingdom, reflect cultural sensitivity and competence and whether medical students receive proper guidance in this area. To systematically identify educational programs for medical students on cultural diversity, in particular, racial and ethnic diversity. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (1963-August 1998); Bath International Data Service (BIDS) Institute for Scientific Information science and social science citation indexes (1981-August 1998); BIDS International Bibliography for the Social Sciences (1981-August 1998); and the Educational Resources Information Centre (1981-August 1998). In addition, the following online data sets were searched: Kings Fund; Centre for Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick; Health Education Authority; European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, University of Utrecht; International Centre for Intercultural Studies, University of London; the Refugee Studies Programme, University of Oxford. Medical education and academic medicine journals (1994-1998) were searched manually and experts in medical education were contacted. Studies included in the analysis were articles published in English before August 1998 that described specific programs for medical students on racial and ethnic diversity. Of 1456 studies identified by the literature search, 17 met the criteria. Two of the authors performed the study selection independently. The following data were extracted: publication year, program setting, student year, whether a program was required or optional, the teaching staff and involvement of minority racial and ethnic communities, program length, content and teaching methods, student assessment, and nature of program evaluation. Of the 17 selected programs, 13 were conducted in North America. Eleven programs were exclusively for students in years 1 or 2. Fewer than half (n = 7) the programs were part of

  9. The medical mission and modern cultural competency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alex; Sullivan, Maura; Sherman, Randy; Magee, William P

    2011-01-01

    Culture has increasingly appreciated clinical consequences on the patient-physician relationship, and governing bodies of medical education are widely expanding educational programs to train providers in culturally competent care. A recent study demonstrated the value an international surgical mission in modern surgical training, while fulfilling the mandate of educational growth through six core competencies. This report further examines the impact of international volunteerism on surgical residents, and demonstrates that such experiences are particularly suited to education in cultural competency. Twenty-one resident physicians who participated in the inaugural Operation Smile Regan Fellowship were surveyed one year after their experiences. One hundred percent strongly agreed that participation in an international surgical mission was a quality educational experience and 94.7% deemed the experience a valuable part of their residency training. In additional to education in each of the ACGME core competencies, results demonstrate valuable training in cultural competence. A properly structured and proctored experience for surgical residents in international volunteerism is an effective instruction tool in the modern competency-based residency curriculum. These endeavors provide a unique understanding of the global burden of surgical disease, a deeper appreciation for global public health issues, and increased cultural sensitivity. A surgical mission experience should be widely available to surgery residents. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NLM MedlinePlus Magazine Team | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current issue contents Magazine Team Follow us Magazine Team National Library of Medicine at the National ... MLS, MA TREASURER Dennis Cryer, MD NIH MedlinePlus magazine is published by Friends of the NLM in ...

  11. MedlinePlus FAQ: Can you tell me how to cite MedlinePlus pages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine recommends the citation style below, based upon Citing Medicine . This style, like many other citation styles, requires that for online references you include the ...

  12. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the difference between MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed? To use the sharing features on this page, ... latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is ...

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mobile.html Question: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device? To use the sharing features on this page, ... Some video content might not play on your mobile device. See our FAQ on playing videos on phones ...

  14. NLM MedlinePlus Magazine Team | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Robert George DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS Carolyn Medeiros DIRECTOR, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Michele Tezduyar MANAGING EDITOR Emily Poe SENIOR ... MD 20814 CONNECT WITH US Follow us on Facebook Facebook MedlinePlus www.facebook.com/mplus.gov Facebook ...

  15. Culture-bound syndrome and a culturally sensitive approach: from a viewpoint of medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, A; Miyakawa, T

    2000-08-01

    Some aspects of the culture-bound syndrome are presented for discussion. From the psychiatric and medical anthropological viewpoints, kamidaari is described as an initiatory illness for seeing a shaman, and focus on clinical realities developing between different therapeutic subcultures in the same culture and the complementary practices of two epistemological ones, namely, the shamanistic and modern psychiatric system in the shamanistic climate. It is suggested that the culture-bound syndrome that reflects cultural influences on disease patterns and renders them difficult to place in a universal classificatory system should be seen as a vernacular bricolage or as tactics used by people within the web of their own local culture of origin. Therapists who treat patients in a cross-epistemological milieu should be aware of the subcultural-epistemological issues that may affect the clinical process. It should be recognized that, depending on the nature of a particular psychiatric crisis, the clinical encounter is straddling the boundaries of multiple clinical realities. At every stage in the clinical field, there is an intersection, consonance, or interruption of rejoinders in the open dialog by all those engaged in the clinical time. Aspects of climatic, culturally sensitive psychotherapy will be described, and the concept of the culture-bound syndrome will be reconsidered. Our approach could be seen as 'situation- and fudo-bound'.

  16. Biodesign process and culture to enable pediatric medical technology innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, James; Wynne, Elizabeth; Krummel, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Innovation is the process through which new scientific discoveries are developed and promoted from bench to bedside. In an effort to encourage young entrepreneurs in this area, Stanford Biodesign developed a medical device innovation training program focused on need-based innovation. The program focuses on teaching systematic evaluation of healthcare needs, invention, and concept development. This process can be applied to any field of medicine, including Pediatric Surgery. Similar training programs have gained traction throughout the United States and beyond. Equally important to process in the success of these programs is an institutional culture that supports transformative thinking. Key components of this culture include risk tolerance, patience, encouragement of creativity, management of conflict, and networking effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ideal Positions: 3D Sonography, Medical Visuality, Popular Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, Tim

    2016-03-01

    As digital technologies are integrated into medical environments, they continue to transform the experience of contemporary health care. Importantly, medicine is increasingly visual. In the history of sonography, visibility has played an important role in accessing fetal bodies for diagnostic and entertainment purposes. With the advent of three-dimensional (3D) rendering, sonography presents the fetus visually as already a child. The aesthetics of this process and the resulting imagery, made possible in digital networks, discloses important changes in the relationship between technology and biology, reproductive health and political debates, and biotechnology and culture.

  18. Welcome to NIH MedlinePlus magazine!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... companion Web site medlineplus.gov are the best sources of health information for you and yours. Try them. You'll come to rely on what they can do for your good health. Sincerely, Donald West King, M.D., Chairman Friends of the National Library of Medicine Winter 2009 Issue: Volume 4 Number ...

  19. Heart Surgery: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Related Issues Specifics See, Play and Learn Videos and Tutorials Research Clinical Trials Journal Articles Resources ... Also in Spanish Videos and Tutorials MedlinePlus: Surgery Videos ... strategy is better to reduce postoperative stroke... Article: Ferumoxtyol-enhanced MR ...

  20. Changing the culture of medical training: An important step toward the implementation of competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Peter C; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Nousiainen, Markku T; Snell, Linda

    2017-06-01

    The current medical education system is steeped in tradition and has been shaped by many long-held beliefs and convictions about the essential components of training. The objective of this article is to propose initiatives to overcome biases against competency-based medical education (CBME) in the culture of medical education. At a retreat of the International Competency Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators group, an intensive brainstorming session was held to determine potential barriers to adoption of CBME in the culture of medical education. This was supplemented with a review of the literature on the topic. There continues to exist significant key barriers to the widespread adoption of CBME. Change in educational culture must be embraced by all components of the medical education hierarchy. Research is essential to provide convincing evidence of the benefit of CBME. The widespread adoption of CBME will require a change in the professional, institutional, and organizational culture surrounding the training of medical professionals.

  1. [Patients' letters and pre-modern medical lay-culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Consulting by letter was fairly common practice among the educated, upper classes of early modern Europe. Surviving letters of consultation written by patients, relatives or friends count among the most valuable source for the analysis of pre-modern experiences of disease and the body. This essay gives a brief overview of the various types of consultation letters and related documents which resulted from this practice before tracing the historical development of epistolary consultations from the late Middle Ages through the heyday medical correspondence in the 18th c. before its decline in the 19th c. It presents "experience", "self-fashioning" and "discourse" as three particularly fruitful levels of analysis on which patients' letters can be used within the wider framework of a cultural history of medicine. These three levels of analysis, or three distinct approaches, enable historians to access a greater awareness of the ways in which the experience of illness and the body is culturally framed with an analysis of the performative effects of patients' narratives and the influence of medical discourse among the wider society.

  2. Western medical ethics taught to junior medical students can cross cultural and linguistic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Stephen A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9 and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7 There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third

  3. Medical Culture and its Developments in Medival Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolgahan Karaimamoğlu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to start with the demolition of civilization, which had an unrivaled institutionalization during the period of Roman Empire, XV. Many changes and transformations took place in Europe during the middle ages, including the time period until the end of the century. One of the most obvious changes has been experienced in European medical developments during this period. The papal institution was greatly influenced by the medical field, while under the pressure of every field to evaluate the void that occurred after Rome. The medieval medical mentality compared with the ancienty did not survive the entrance of the church on a single occasion, while this institution faced the danger of losing its gains due to its structure which suppressed the thought and perceived the secular foci as a threat. The medical world, which the church has oppressed and brought back to the state of horticulture, is XI. Up to hundredths of all dogma and superstition. However, after this date, the study of the works and progress of the ancient and Islamic civilizations, whether in secret or in secret, by a group of physicians consisting of minority - secular societies, has started a new era for European medicine. Especially the schooling that started with Salerno provided European medicine in this new period to take over the flag from the Islamic civilization and to be saved from church domination. This study assesses and concludes by combining the cultural values and thoughtfulness of western society with how it has progressed in the medieval period after reversing the reasons for decline in European medicine.

  4. Challenges Experienced by Korean Medical Students and Tutors during Problem-Based Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong

    2016-01-01

    How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…

  5. An Examination of Cultural Competence Training in US Medical Education Guided by the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Hearod, Jordan B; Tran, Kim; Norris, Keith C; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, medical students must demonstrate a standard level of "cultural competence," upon graduation. Cultural competence is most often defined as a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, organization, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. The Association of American Medical Colleges developed the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) to assist schools in developing and evaluating cultural competence curricula to meet these requirements. This review uses the TACCT as a guideline to describe and assess pedagogical approaches to cultural competence training in US medical education and identify content gaps and opportunities for curriculum improvement. A total of 18 programs are assessed. Findings support previous research that cultural competence training can improve the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of medical trainees. However, wide variation in the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of cultural competence training programs exists, leading to differences in training quality and outcomes. More research is needed to establish optimal approaches to implementing and evaluating cultural competence training that incorporate cultural humility, the social determinants of health, and broader structural competency within the medical system.

  6. An Examination of Cultural Competence Training in US Medical Education Guided by the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Hearod, Jordan B.; Tran, Kim; Norris, Keith C.; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, medical students must demonstrate a standard level of “cultural competence,” upon graduation. Cultural competence is most often defined as a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, organization, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. The Association of American Medical Colleges developed the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) to assist schools in developing and evaluating cultural competence curricula to meet these requirements. This review uses the TACCT as a guideline to describe and assess pedagogical approaches to cultural competence training in US medical education and identify content gaps and opportunities for curriculum improvement. A total of 18 programs are assessed. Findings support previous research that cultural competence training can improve the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of medical trainees. However, wide variation in the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of cultural competence training programs exists, leading to differences in training quality and outcomes. More research is needed to establish optimal approaches to implementing and evaluating cultural competence training that incorporate cultural humility, the social determinants of health, and broader structural competency within the medical system. PMID:27818848

  7. MedlinePlus Connect: Linking Patient Portals and Electronic Health Records to Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → MedlinePlus Connect URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/connect/overview.html MedlinePlus Connect Linking ... will change.) Old URLs New URLs Web Application https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/services/mpconnect.cfm? ...

  8. Physical Culture as an integral part of general culture of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of education of the individuality through the culture with the help of development of value potential in physical culture is discussed in the article. Improving the efficiency of education of medical students is becoming the leading aim of high school, which is connected with the development of culture of thinking, imagination, feelings and human creativity. Development of human motor capabilities is inseparable from the development of his personal qualities in physical education. One of the most important tasks of the educational process at high school is providing the motivation of a healthy lifestyle, motivation for physical culture and sports. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle should go through the activation of incentive mechanisms and a number of other phenomena of the individual's inner world. Efficiency of this approach is that it provides activity of a person in questions connected with preservation of individual and public health. The article tells us about the need to develop programs that can promote future professionals to form healthy and productive lifestyle, sustained motivation to permanent physical self-improvement. The problem can be successfully solved in the process of learning such course as «Physical education».

  9. How are we 'doing' cultural diversity? A look across English Canadian undergraduate medical school programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.

  10. NIH Institutes and MLN MedlinePlus Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] ... nih.gov (301) 496-7301 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) www.nimh.nih.gov 1-866- ...

  11. MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus is a selected list of authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web ... ensure that the information we link to is authoritative, accurate, up-to-date, educational and available at ...

  12. Cultural Complementarity : Reshaping Professional and Organizational Logics in Developing Frontline Medical Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, Mirko; Schneider, Magriet; Boselie, Paul; van Rensen, E.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of clinical management, new skills of medical doctors stand out, including leadership skills. Medical doctors organize medical work and improve patient care. The training of frontline leadership skills, however, is weakly developed in residency programmes. Medical professional cultures

  13. Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America: theoretical concepts and educational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2011-04-01

    Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America lacks conceptual clarity. Consequently, school curricula are unsystematic, nonuniform, and fragmented. This article provides a literature review about available conceptual models of cross-cultural medical education. The clarification of these models may inform the development of effective educational programs to enable students to provide better quality care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. The approaches to cross-cultural health education can be organized under the rubric of two specific conceptual models: cultural competence and critical culturalism. The variation in the conception of culture adopted in these two models results in differences in all curricular components: learning outcomes, content, educational strategies, teaching methods, student assessment, and program evaluation. Medical schools could benefit from more theoretical guidance on the learning outcomes, content, and educational strategies provided to them by governing and licensing bodies. More student assessments and program evaluations are needed in order to appraise the effectiveness of cross-cultural undergraduate medical education.

  14. Transcript for Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/medicalwordstranscript.html Transcript for Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial To use the sharing features on ... get to what those mean in a minute. Word Roots Word Roots. Let's begin with body parts. ...

  15. A students? survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper describes the outcomes of an assessment of knowledge, reflection ability and self-reported culturally competent consultation behaviour, the relation between these assessments and self-percei...

  16. Culture and ethics in medical education: The Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad Shahid; Baig, Lubna; Torda, Adrienne; Balasooriya, Chinthaka

    2018-03-01

    The world is geographically divided into hemispheres, continents and countries, with varying cultures in different regions. Asia, the largest of continents, has a variety of philosophically distinctive cultures and lifestyles, informing the norms of societies that are much different from cultures in other continents. These complexities in the societal norms in Asian cultures have created unique issues in development of ethics education in the region. This paper looks in to the distinctions in what is generally referred to as the "non-western" Asian culture, the importance of cultural context and how it influences the ethics curriculum in the region.

  17. Culture and medical decision making : Patient perspectives in Japan and the U.S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alden, D.; Friend, J.; Lee, A.Y.; de Vries, Marieke; Osawa, R.; Chen, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Two studies identified core value influences on medical decision-making processes across and within cultures. Methods: In Study 1, Japanese and American adults reported desired levels of medical decision-making influence across conditions that varied in seriousness. Cultural antecedents

  18. Beyond homogenization discourse: Reconsidering the cultural consequences of globalized medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, K; Norris, J L; Ho, M-J

    2016-07-01

    Global medical education standards, largely designed in the West, have been promoted across national boundaries with limited regard for cultural differences. This review aims to identify discourses on cultural globalization in medical education literature from non-Western countries. To explore the diversity of discourses related to globalization and culture in the field of medical education, the authors conducted a critical review of medical education research from non-Western countries published in Academic Medicine, Medical Education and Medical Teacher from 2006 to 2014. Key discourses about globalization and culture emerged from a preliminary analysis of this body of literature. A secondary analysis identified inductive sub-themes. Homogenization, polarization and hybridization emerged as key themes in the literature. These findings demonstrate the existence of discourses beyond Western-led homogenization and the co-existence of globalization discourses ranging from homogenization to syncretism to resistance. This review calls attention to the existence of manifold discourses about globalization and culture in non-Western medical education contexts. In refocusing global medical education processes to avoid Western cultural imperialism, it will also be necessary to avoid the pitfalls of other globalization discourses. Moving beyond existing discourses, researchers and educators should work towards equitable, context-sensitive and locally-driven approaches to global medical education.

  19. High theory/mass markets: Newsweek magazine and the circuits of medical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Medicine is driven by much more than science and reason (ethics); it is also driven by the circuits of culture within which it operates. This article examines how postmodern theory deconstructs standard ideals of science and reason and allows medical humanities scholars to better contextualize the world of medicine. As such, postmodern theory provides an invaluable tool for understanding the circuits of popular culture and medicine's place within these circuits. Using a recent issue of Newsweek magazine devoted to health and technology to illustrate the main points, this essay argues that contemporary popular influences on medicine are deeply problematic, and that through an appreciation of the dynamics of culture, medical humanities scholars can join the struggle over medical culture. This perspective allows medical humanities to make important contributions toward alternative circuits of medical representation, consumption, and identification.

  20. Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter: a review and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L

    2009-02-01

    Increasing the cultural competence of physicians is one means of responding to demographic changes in the USA, as well as reducing health disparities. However, in spite of the development and implementation of cultural competence training programs, little is known about the ways cultural competence manifests itself in medical encounters. This paper will present a model of culturally competent communication that offers a framework of studying cultural competence 'in action.' First, we describe four critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter--communication repertoire, situational awareness, adaptability, and knowledge about core cultural issues. We present a model of culturally competent physician communication that integrates existing frameworks for cultural competence in patient care with models of effective patient-centered communication. The culturally competent communication model includes five communication skills that are depicted as elements of a set in which acquisition of more skills corresponds to increasing complexity and culturally competent communication. The culturally competent communication model utilizes each of the four critical elements to fully develop each skill and apply increasingly sophisticated, contextually appropriate communication behaviors to engage with culturally different patients in complex interactions. It is designed to foster maximum physician sensitivity to cultural variation in patients as the foundation of physician-communication competence in interacting with patients.

  1. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Loon, Karsten A; van Dulmen, Sandra; Scheele, Fedde

    2014-08-22

    Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is included in these documents, especially if these have been recently updated. The aim of this study was to assess the current formal status of cultural diversity training in the Netherlands, which is a multi-ethnic country with recently updated medical curriculum documents. In February and March 2013, a document analysis was performed of strategic curriculum documents for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the Netherlands. All text phrases that referred to cultural diversity were extracted from these documents. Subsequently, these phrases were sorted into objectives, training methods or evaluation tools to assess how they contributed to adequate curriculum design. Of a total of 52 documents, 33 documents contained phrases with information about cultural diversity training. Cultural diversity aspects were more prominently described in the curriculum documents for undergraduate education than in those for postgraduate education. The most specific information about cultural diversity was found in the blueprint for undergraduate medical education. In the postgraduate curriculum documents, attention to cultural diversity differed among specialties and was mainly superficial. Cultural diversity is an underrepresented topic in the Dutch documents that form the basis for actual medical training, although the documents have been updated recently. Attention to the topic is thus unwarranted. This situation does not fit the demand of a multi-ethnic society for doctors with cultural diversity competences. Multi-ethnic countries should be critical on the content of the bases for their medical educational curricula.

  2. Cross-cultural medical education: Using narratives to reflect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Educating students in a multi-cultural society is a challenge as teachers, students and the community they serve all tend to represent various social groups. Skills alone are not adequate for competency in understanding cultural aspects of consultations. A combination of knowledge, skills and attitude is the most ...

  3. Partnership for Diversity: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Nurturing Cultural Competence at an Emerging Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Stephanie M; Abuelroos, Dena; Dabaja, Emman; Jurva, Stephanie; Martin, Kimberly; McCarron, Joshua; Reed-Hendon, Caryn; Yeow, Raymond Y; Harriott, Melphine M

    2015-01-01

    Fostering cultural competence in higher education institutions is essential, particularly in training future health care workers to care for diverse populations. The opportunity to explore techniques to address diversity and cultural competence at a new medical school was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team of librarians, faculty, staff, and medical students. From 2011 to 2015, the team sponsored a voluntary programming series to promote cultural competence and raise awareness of health care disparities for the medical school. Thirteen events were hosted with 562 participants across all. This approach to diversity proved effective and could be adapted in any higher education setting.

  4. HIV Viral Load: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hivviralload.html HIV Viral Load To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an HIV Viral Load? An HIV viral load is a ...

  5. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bunbloodureanitrogen.html BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test? A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen ...

  6. Protein in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/proteininurine.html Protein in Urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Protein in Urine Test? A protein in urine test ...

  7. Treating Cataracts | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claudine Klose, 63, lives on a farm in New York's Hudson Valley. She had successful cataract surgery in 2013 and shared her experience recently with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What did you notice about your vision that ...

  8. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  9. Bilirubin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bilirubinbloodtest.html Bilirubin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Bilirubin Blood Test? A bilirubin blood test measures the ...

  10. Anion Gap Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/aniongapbloodtest.html Anion Gap Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Anion Gap Blood Test? An anion gap blood test is a way ...

  11. Hepatitis Panel: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hepatitispanel.html Hepatitis Panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hepatitis Panel? Hepatitis is a type of liver disease. ...

  12. AST Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/asttest.html AST Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an AST Test? AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme that is ...

  13. Chlamydia Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chlamydiatest.html Chlamydia Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chlamydia Test? Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually ...

  14. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobintest.html Hemoglobin Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hemoglobin Test? A hemoglobin test measures the levels of hemoglobin ...

  15. Amylase Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/amylasetest.html Amylase Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Amylase Test? An amylase test measures the amount of amylase ...

  16. Lipase Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/lipasetest.html Lipase Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a lipase test? Lipase is a type of protein made by ...

  17. Cortisol Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cortisoltest.html Cortisol Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cortisol Test? Cortisol is a hormone that affects almost every ...

  18. Hematocrit Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hematocrittest.html Hematocrit Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hematocrit Test? A hematocrit test is a type of blood ...

  19. Procalcitonin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/procalcitonintest.html Procalcitonin Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Procalcitonin Test? A procalcitonin test measures the level of procalcitonin ...

  20. MedlinePlus Connect: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic data in XML format. Using the Web service, software developers can build applications that utilize MedlinePlus health topic information. The service accepts keyword searches as requests and returns relevant ...

  1. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the ...

  2. Heavy Metal Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/heavymetalbloodtest.html Heavy Metal Blood Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Heavy Metal Blood Test? A heavy metal blood test ...

  3. Flu (Influenza) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fluinfluenzatest.html Flu (Influenza) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Flu (Influenza) Test? Influenza, known as the flu , is ...

  4. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) - PDF Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Tetanus, Diphtheria, and ... updates by email What's this? GO Related Health Topics Childhood Immunization Diphtheria Immunization Tetanus Whooping Cough National ...

  5. Nutrition for Seniors: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... America) National Institute on Aging Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Nutrition for Seniors updates by email What's this? GO Related Health Topics Nutrition Seniors' Health National Institutes of Health The ...

  6. Allergy Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/allergybloodtest.html Allergy Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Allergy Blood Test? Allergies are a common and chronic ...

  7. Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/lipoproteinabloodtest.html Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test? A lipoprotein (a) test measures ...

  8. Is psychotropic medication use related to organisational and treatment culture in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Moyes, Simon; Scahill, Shane; Chen, Charlotte; Hong, Jae Beom; Hughes, Carmel M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between organisational culture and psychotropic medication use in residential care. Cross-sectional analyses of staff and resident's record survey in residential aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). The competing values framework categorised organisational culture as clan, hierarchical, market driven or adhocracy and was completed by all staff. The treatment culture tool categorised facilities as having resident centred or traditional culture and was completed by registered nursing staff and general practitioners (GP). Functional and behavioural characteristics of residents were established by staff report and health characteristics and medications used were ascertained from the health record. Multiple regression was used to test for associations between measures of culture with psychotropic medication use (anxiolytics, sedatives, major tranquillisers). In total 199 staff, 27 GP and 527 residents participated from 14 facilities. On average 8.5 medications per resident were prescribed and 42 per cent of residents received psychotropic medication. Having a diagnosis of anxiety or depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.71, 5.91), followed by persistent wandering (OR 2.53, 95 per cent CI 1.59, 4.01) and being in a dementia unit (OR 2.45, 95 per cent CI 1.17, 5.12) were most strongly associated with psychotropic use. Controlling for resident- and facility-level factors, health care assistants' assignation of hierarchical organisational culture type was independently associated with psychotropic medication use, (OR 1.29, CI 1.08, 1.53) and a higher treatment culture score from the GP was associated with lower use of psychotropic medication (OR 0.95, CI 0.92, 0.98). Psychotropic medication use remains prevalent in residential care facilities in NZ. Interventions aimed at changing organisational culture towards a less hierarchical and more resident-centred culture

  9. We’re All in This Together | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  10. Achoo! Cold, Flu, or Something Else? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  11. Psoriasis: On the Road to Discovery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  12. Nick Jonas on Type 1 Diabetes | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  13. Asthma: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  14. Preventing Pregnancy with a Gel for Men? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  15. Caregiving: It Takes a Village | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  16. Breathtaking: Managing a COPD Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  17. Understanding and preventing tick bites | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.9 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  18. Battling C. Difficile: Don’t Delay | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  19. From the lab - Exercise Key to Keeping Weight Off | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  20. From the lab - Can Potassium Help Your Heart? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  1. Sickle Cell Disease: What You Should Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  2. A Journey with Mid-life Hearing Loss | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  3. Joint Replacement Surgery: What you Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  4. The Future of Asthma Monitoring | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  5. Too ‘Stubborn’ to Give in to COPD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  6. Cholesterol: The Good, the Bad, and the Unhealthy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  7. Palliative Care: A Spectrum of Support | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  8. Confronting 9/11 Trauma from Childhood into Adulthood | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  9. Solving the Undiagnosed Disease Puzzle at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  10. Love and Life without Gluten | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  11. A Couple’s Caregiving Journey | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  12. Surgeon General Outlines Opioid Plan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  13. From the lab - Testing Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  14. A Path to Hope for Sickle Cell Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  15. Step Inside NIH’s Sickle Cell Branch | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  16. From the lab - Progress Against Zika | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  17. A Closer Look at Cancer Imaging Tools | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  18. Exploring the Celiac Disease Mystery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  19. Beyond Pain Relief: Total Knee Replacement Surgery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  20. TV Star Jim Parsons Shines Light on NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  1. Advance Care Plan: A Checklist for the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  2. Understanding Asthma from the Inside Out | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  3. Keys to Recovery after Knee Replacement Surgery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  4. Fighting the Flu with a Universal Vaccine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  5. Cultural Biases in Current Medical Practices with a Specific Attention to Orthopedic Surgery: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Gracia; Pierce, Todd P; Khlopas, Anton; Chughtai, Morad; Lavernia, Carlos J; Vogelstein, Teva Y; Thomas, Craig M; Modlin, Charles S; Mont, Michael A

    2017-07-17

    Due to the increasing diversity within the United States population, there is an ever-increasing need for increased education on cultural literacy and tolerance in medical schools and residency programs. The purpose of this article was to review how a person's culture can play a substantive role in effecting and influencing (1) medical diagnosis, (2) patient and health provider medical decision-making, (3) the patient's perception of disease, and (4) the doctor-patient relationships. Many of the decisions we make as orthopedic surgeons must account for the patient's cultural needs, as much of our work impacts patients' daily activities and function. When considering the patient's perception of disease, validated tools have been developed, such as the Patient-Specific Index, which can be used to assess the feelings, goals, and expectations of patients. Cultural competency should be a part of curricula at every level of medical education.

  6. Cross-cultural medical education: conceptual approaches and frameworks for evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2003-06-01

    Given that understanding the sociocultural dimensions underlying a patient's health values, beliefs, and behaviors is critical to a successful clinical encounter, cross-cultural curricula have been incorporated into undergraduate medical education. The goal of these curricula is to prepare students to care for patients from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and to recognize and appropriately address racial, cultural, and gender biases in health care delivery. Despite progress in the field of cross-cultural medical education, several challenges exist. Foremost among these is the need to develop strategies to evaluate the impact of these curricular interventions. This article provides conceptual approaches for cross-cultural medical education, and describes a framework for student evaluation that focuses on strategies to assess attitudes, knowledge, and skills, and the impact of curricular interventions on health outcomes.

  7. Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/medicalwords.html Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine ... enable JavaScript. This tutorial teaches you about medical words. You'll learn about how to put together ...

  8. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States: key principles and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Cervantes, Marina C

    2009-09-01

    The field of cross-cultural care focuses on the ability to communicate effectively and provide quality health care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. In recent years, medical schools in the United States have increasingly recognized the growing importance of incorporating cross-cultural curricula into medical education. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States has emerged for four reasons: (1) the need for providers to have the skills to care for a diverse patient population; (2) the link between effective communication and health outcomes; (3) the presence of racial/ethnic disparities that are, in part, due to poor communication across cultures; and (4) medical school accreditation requirements. There are three major approaches to cross-cultural education: (1) the cultural sensitivity/awareness approach that focuses on attitudes; (2) the multicultural/categorical approach that focuses on knowledge; and (3) the cross-cultural approach that focuses on skills. The patient-based approach to cross-cultural care combines these three concepts into a framework that can be used to care for any patient, anytime, anywhere. Ultimately, if cross-cultural medical education is to evolve, students must believe it is important and understand that the categorical approach can lead to stereotyping; it should be taught using patient cases and highlighting clinical applications; it should be embedded in a longitudinal, developmentally appropriate fashion; and it should be integrated into the larger curriculum whenever possible. At the Harvard Medical School, we have tried to apply all of these lessons to our work, and we have started to develop a strategic integration process where we try to raise awareness, impart knowledge, and teach cross-cultural skills over the 4 years of schooling.

  9. Cultural Disparities in the Use of Prescription and Nonprescription Medications Among Midlife Women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner-Geva, Liat; Blumstein, Tzvia; Boyko, Valentina; Farhi, Adel; Benyamini, Yael

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to examine differences in medication use among midlife women from different cultural origins and to identify socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics associated with prescribed and non-prescribed medication use. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union after 1989, and Arab women. The survey instrument included current use of medications and way of purchasing (with/without prescription). The level of prescribed and non-prescribed medication use was categorized as taking none, taking 1-2, and taking 3 or more medications. The rates of medication use were 59.5% for prescribed medication and 47% for non-prescribed medications. Differences between the minority groups and LTJR were observed mainly for cardiovascular, vitamins, supplements, and hormonal medications. The analyses showed significantly lower use of prescribed medications among immigrants and of non-prescribed medications among Arab women after taking into account health and socioeconomic indicators. Increased use of prescribed and non-prescribed medications was associated with worse health status and older age. Education was associated with increased use of non-prescribed medications. The disparities in pharmaceutical care may be linked to barriers in access to health care and to cultural preferences among minorities.

  10. Creating a Learning Culture for Medical Consortia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guozhong; Chen, Zimin

    In China's recent health care reforms, both individuals and organizations have shown an ever-growing desire and demand for new knowledge and skills. A health care delivery system (HCDS) should explore new ways for creating a learning organization (LO) and should organically combine HCDS culture construction with the LO construction to build a cultural atmosphere that is conducive to the development of the LO. This article describes the implementation phase, characteristics, and realization strategy of an HCDS construction for the ultimate purpose of enhancing HCDS cohesion, solidarity, and sustainable development.

  11. Taiwanese Medical Students' Narratives of Intercultural Professionalism Dilemmas: Exploring Tensions between Western Medicine and Taiwanese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between…

  12. Cross-cultural medical education: can patient-centered cultural competency training be effective in non-Western countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Yao, Grace; Lee, Keng-Lin; Beach, Mary Catherine; Green, Alexander R

    2008-01-01

    No evidence addresses the effectiveness of patient-centered cultural competence training in non-Western settings. To examine whether a patient-centered cultural competency curriculum improves medical students' skills in eliciting the patients' perspective and exploring illness-related social factors. Fifty-seven medical students in Taiwan were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 27) or one of two intervention groups: basic (n = 15) and extensive (n = 15). Both intervention groups received two 2-hour patient-centered cultural competency workshops. In addition, the extensive intervention group received a 2-hour practice session. The control group received no training. At the end of the clerkship, all students were evaluated with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students in the extensive intervention group scored significantly higher than the basic intervention and control groups in eliciting the patient's perspective (F = 18.38, p social factors (F = 6.66, p = 0.003, eta(2) = 0.20). Patient-centered cultural competency training can produce improvement in medical students' cross-cultural communication skills in non-Western settings, especially when adequate practice is provided.

  13. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoebert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 20–30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. Methods This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. IMS Health’s MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Results Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho

  14. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-11-06

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the effects of cultural diversity on the use of new medications entering the market. As national cultures relate deeply to held values regarding, for example, what is seen as effective versus ineffective or safe versus dangerous, (cultural) diversity in decision making around the role of new medications in clinical practice may already be expected from the first day after market authorization. This study examined the relation between cultural diversity, described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Indulgence and Long-Term Orientation) and utilization of three new psychotropic medications, namely aripiprazole, duloxetine and pregabalin in Europe. Country level sales data of the case study medications were correlated to country-specific scores of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. IMS Health's MIDAS database has been used for sales data (converted to Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants/day) for the case study medications from the market authorization date in 2004 until December 2009 for 23 EU member states. Consumption of the case study medications was seen in all countries. In general, pregabalin was used more often than aripiprazole and duloxetine. In 2 years after market authorization, approximately 80% of all countries have reported use of all three molecules. Correlations between Hofstede dimensions individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence and total use of the case study medications tended to become stronger over time, but they were only statistically significant for indulgence at two years after market authorization (rho = 0.51, p = 0.014) and three years after market

  15. Cultural Differences between American and Israeli Medical Students Regarding Their Perceptions of the Medical Profession and Satisfaction with Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Lotan

    2010-07-01

    Conclusions:  Cultural differences affect students' perception of their studies, mentors and future careers. Medical educators should be sensitive to the effects of students' background which influence academic and professional attitudes and find ways to strengthen their commitment to the profession.

  16. THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE CULTURE OF THE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of formation and development of corporate culture as the main factor of the successful functioning of medical organization in terms of optimization of activity of the health system. Discusses the importance and main directions of development of corporate culture for personal and organizational development. The authors identified features of the corporate culture of healthcare organizations, the approaches, showing the sequence and contents of the main practical activities on the formation, maintenance and development of corporate culture. Emphasized the need for further research and introduction of corporate culture and cultural values in health care organizations. Purpose/ objectives: to Study and evaluate the corporate culture of healthcare organizations to improve institutional management and increase of efficiency activity of medical organizations. Materials and methods: For data collection methods were used: direct observation, interviews, questionnaires. In conducting this study used data from official sources, a literature review, a systematic approach, comparative analysis, historical, sociological, statistical research methods. The results of the study indicate the need for concept development, tools implementation and development of corporate culture in the practice of the medical organizations.Conclusions/Significance: Corporate culture – the system of collectively shared values, symbols, beliefs, standards of behaviour employees of the organization that contributes to the originality and uniqueness of the activities of medical organizations that promote the identification of employees with the organization; Corporate culture is formed with the influence of factors external and internal environment of the organization, solving problems, external adaptation  and internal integration in the environment; Generated and promoted by the corporate culture is an important management tool, creates

  17. The transformations of disease in expert and lay medical cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Every culture has rules for translating signs into symptoms, for linking symptomatologies to etiologies and interventions, and for using the evidence provided by interventions to confirm translations and legitimize outcomes. The path a person follows from translation to socially significant outcome constitutes his sickness (Allan Young 1982. p. 270.

  18. Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

  19. Serving an Indigenous community: Exploring the cultural competence of medical students in a rural setting

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chin Hoong; Chen, Lee Ping; Koh, Kwee Choy; Chua, Siew Houy; Jong, Darren Chee Hiung; Mohd Fauzi, Nurliyana Mardhiah; Lim, Sue Yin

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, medical students from the International Medical University (IMU) in Malaysia have been providing primary healthcare services, under the supervision of faculty members, to the indigenous people living in Kampung Sebir. The project has allowed the students to learn experientially within a rural setting. This study aims to examine the cultural competence of IMU medical students through an examination of their perspective of the indigenous people who they serve and the role of this co...

  20. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-10-11

    Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper describes the outcomes of an assessment of knowledge, reflection ability and self-reported culturally competent consultation behaviour, the relation between these assessments and self-perceived cultural competence, and the applicability of the results in the light of developing a cultural competence educational programme. 392 medical students, Youth Health Care (YHC) Physician Residents and their Physician Supervisors were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire that assessed three domains of cultural competence: 1) general knowledge of ethnic minority care provision and interpretation services; 2) reflection ability; and 3) culturally competent consultation behaviour. Additionally, respondents graded their overall self-perceived cultural competence on a 1-10 scale. 86 medical students, 56 YHC Residents and 35 YHC Supervisors completed the questionnaire (overall response rate 41%; n= 177). On average, respondents scored low on general knowledge (mean 46% of maximum score) and knowledge of interpretation services (mean 55%) and much higher on reflection ability (80%). The respondents' reports of their consultation behaviour reflected moderately adequate behaviour in exploring patients' perspectives (mean 64%) and in interaction with low health literate patients (mean 60%) while the score on exploring patients' social contexts was on average low (46%). YHC respondents scored higher than medical students on knowledge of interpretation services, exploring patients' perspectives and exploring social contexts. The associations between self-perceived cultural competence and assessed knowledge, reflection ability and consultation behaviour were weak. Assessing the cultural

  1. A culture of safety: a business strategy for medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, James W; Finkelstein, Maggie M; Marles, Adam F

    2012-01-01

    Physician practices can enhance their economics by taking patient safety to a new level within their practices. Patient safety has a lot to do with systems and processes that occur not only at the hospital but also within a physician's practice. Historically, patient safety measures have been hospital-focused and -driven, largely due to available resources; however, physician practices can impact patient safety, efficiently and effectively, with a methodical plan involving assessment, prioritization, and compliance. With the ever-increasing focus of reimbursement on quality and patient safety, physician practices that implement a true culture of safety now could see future economic benefits using this business strategy.

  2. Features of method of medical physical culture at insufficiency of aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kalmykov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic approaches are considered to application of facilities of medical physical education at aortic insufficiency on the stages of physical rehabilitation. An analysis is conducted more than 20 literary sources. The mechanisms of medical action of physical exercises are specified - restorative influence, forming of temporal indemnifications, trophic action, normalization of the broken functions. It is set that task, forms, facilities, the methods of medical physical culture depend on the degree of weight of disease, degree of cardio-vascular insufficiency and stage of physical rehabilitation. Engaged in a medical physical culture conducted in form morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, independent employments, dosed walks, walking on steps, mobile and sporting games. It is marked that sparing training and training the motive modes are instrumental in the gradual training of the cardio-vascular system. Recommended the dosed walking to lead to a to 5-8 km on the sparing training and to 8-12 km on training modes.

  3. Barriers to medication adherence in asthma: the importance of culture and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L

    2018-03-23

    Significant disparities exist in asthma outcomes. Racial and ethnic minorities have lower controller medication adherence, which may contribute to differences in asthma morbidity between minority and non-minority groups. The objective of this review is to identify individual, patient-provider communication, and systems issues that contribute to this pattern of medication underuse and to discuss potential strategies for intervention. Data were gathered from numerous sources, including reports of pharmacy and medical records, observational studies, and trials. Studies analyzed factors contributing to patterns of asthma medication adherence that differ by race and ethnicity. There is clear evidence of underuse of asthma controller medications among racial and ethnic minorities in prescription receipt, prescription initiation, and medication use once obtained. Individual factors such as medication beliefs and depressive symptoms play a role. Provider communication is also relevant, including limited discussion of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use, difficulties communicating with patients and caregivers with limited English proficiency (LEP), and implicit biases regarding cultural differences. Systems issues (e.g., insurance status, cost) and social context factors (e.g. exposure to violence) also present challenges. Culturally-informed strategies that capitalize on patient strengths and training providers in culturally-informed communication strategies hold promise as intervention approaches. Disparities in controller medication use are pervasive. Identifying the sources of these disparities is a critical step toward generating intervention approaches to enhance disease management among the groups that bear the greatest asthma burden. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, K; Al-Dubai, S A R

    2014-01-01

    The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%). Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  5. Survey of Attitudes towards Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachersin Different Socio-economic and Cultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum reforms in medical schools require cultural and conceptual changes from the faculty. We assessed attitudes towards curriculum reforms in different academic, economic, and social environments among 776 teachers from 2 Western European medical schools (Belgium and Denmark) and 7 medical...... schools in 3 countries in post-communist transition (Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina). The survey included a 5-point Likert-type scale on attitudes towards reforms in general and towards reforms of medical curriculum (10 items each). Teaching staff from medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina...... had more positive attitude towards reforms of medical curriculum (mean score 36.8 out of maximum 50 [95% CI 36.1 to 37.3]) than those from medical schools in Croatia or Slovenia (30.7 [29.8 to 31.6]) or Western Europe (27.7 [27.1 to 28.3]) (Pattitudes...

  6. A Survey of Cultural Infrastructure and Performance in Medical Sciences Universities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives: Recently, the role of universities in developing and education of culture is considered increasingly but Iranian universities have great distance in achieving the desired objectives in this context. So, this study aimed to survey the cultural infrastructure and performance in medical sciences universities of Iran. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was done using researcher-made checklist which its face and content validity were approved by the cultural experts' opinion via statistical indicators. The study was conducted in census method by responses of 25 managers of cultural affairs in medical sciences universities of Iran. The obtained data were analyzed descriptively and results were reported as frequency (percentages for qualitative and mean (standard deviation for quantitative variable. Results: The study results were presented in four areas: “the general status of universities in cultural affairs”, “cultural facilities of the universities”, “the activity of cultural organizations and publications in universities” and “performance of cultural deputies”. The results showed that although there are considerable strengths, the significant weaknesses are evident in all areas. The results of the present study were focused solely on the quantity of functions, and quality evaluation of each activity requires special attention and further investigations and interventions. Conclusion: Researchers hope that the authorities and planners use the results of this study and similar studies especially in quality of cultural practices of universities and move towards improving the status of culture in medical sciences universities in developing Iranian-Islamic culture.

  7. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. 25 tips for working through language and cultural barriers in your medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2009-01-01

    The language and cultural barriers facing medical patients with limited English language proficiency pose tremendous challenges and risks. Moreover, medical practices today are more likely than ever to employ individuals whose first language is not English or who do not possess native-like knowledge of American culture. Knowing how to work through the language and cultural barriers you are likely to encounter in your medical practice has become increasingly more important. This article is written by a practice management consultant who has graduate-level linguistics training and second-language teaching credentials and experience. It offers 25 practical tips to help you communicate more effectively with individuals who are outside of your native culture and language. These include easy-to-implement tips about English language pronunciation, grammar, and word choice. This article also suggests what you can do personally to bridge the cultural divide with your patients and co-workers. Finally, this article includes a case study of one Virginia practice in which cultural differences interfered with the practice's smooth operation. It explains how the practice eventually worked through and overcame this cultural obstacle.

  9. Investigation of radiation safety and safety culture of medical sanitation vocation in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bo; Tu Yu; Zhang Yin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the construction of radiation safety and safety culture of medical sanitation vocation in Suzhou. Methods: All medical units registered in administration center of Suzhou were included. The above selected medical units were completely investigated, district and county under the same condition of quality control. Results: The radiation safety and safety culture are existing differences among different property and grade hospitals of medicai sanitation vocation in Suzhou. Conclusion: The construction of radiation safety and safety culture is generally occupying in good level in suhzou, but there are obvious differences among different property and grade hospitals. The main reason for the differences in the importance attached to by the hospital decision-making and department management officials as well as the staff personal. (authors)

  10. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: Evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ganasegeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS® (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY was used. Cronbach′s alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Results: Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%. Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. Conclusion: The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  11. The Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Abolghasem, Farhang; Amin, Dadgar Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Organizations effort is to achieve a common goal. There are many constructs needed for organizations. Organizational culture and organizational commitment are special concepts in management. The objective of the current research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment among the personnel of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive- correlational study. The statistical population was whole tenured staff of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences that worked for this organization in 2012-2013. Random sampling method was used and 165 samples were chosen. Two standardized questionnaires of the organizational culture (Schein, 1984) and organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 2002) were applied. The face and construct validity of the questionnaires were approved by the lecturers of Management and experts. Reliability of questionnaires of the organizational culture and organizational commitment were 0.89 and 0.88 respectively, by Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. All statistical calculations performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of significance was set at Porganizational culture and organizational commitment (P value=0.027). Also, the results showed that there was a significant relation between organizational culture and affective commitment (P-value=0.009), organizational culture and continuance commitment (P-value=0.009), and organizational culture and normative commitment (P-value=0.009). PMID:26925884

  12. The Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Abolghasem, Farhang; Mohammad Amin, Dadgar

    2015-12-14

    Organizations effort is to achieve a common goal. There are many constructs needed for organizations. Organizational culture and organizational commitment are special concepts in management. The objective of the current research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment among the personnel of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences.  This is a descriptive- correlational study. The statistical population was whole tenured staff of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences that worked for this organization in 2012-2013. Random sampling method was used and 165 samples were chosen. Two standardized questionnaires of the organizational culture (Schein, 1984) and organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 2002) were applied. The face and construct validity of the questionnaires were approved by the lecturers of Management and experts. Reliability of questionnaires of the organizational culture and organizational commitment were 0.89 and 0.88 respectively, by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. All statistical calculations performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of significance was set at Porganizational culture and organizational commitment (P value=0.027). Also, the results showed that there was a significant relation between organizational culture and affective commitment (P-value=0.009), organizational culture and continuance commitment (P-value=0.009), and organizational culture and normative commitment (P-value=0.009).

  13. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from ‘popular’ forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in ‘medical gothic’ fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's ‘Good Lady Ducayne’ (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. PMID:28495908

  14. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from 'popular' forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in 'medical gothic' fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's 'Good Lady Ducayne' (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Student perspectives on diversity and the cultural climate at a U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Robert; McClendon, Jennifer; Henderson, Anita; Evans, Yolanda; Colquitt, Rosa; Saha, Somnath

    2007-02-01

    To obtain the perspectives of medical students at one school on racial/ethnic campus diversity and cultural competence and to gain their perceptions of the institutional climate around diversity at their university and of reasons for minority underrepresentation at their medical school. A student-driven survey of all medical students (N = 398) at a single medical school in the spring of 2003, supplemented by four focus groups from all racial and ethnic groups on the campus. A large majority of the responding students (n = 216; 54%) endorsed the value of campus diversity and the importance of cultural competence to the process of becoming a clinician. Most students felt their university had achieved a positive cultural climate, characterized by openness to diverse perspectives and attention to equity. Most students also felt that the university's programs and policies reflected a commitment to diversity, but fewer students--those from underrepresented minorities (URMs) in particular--felt that the university truly valued having a diverse student body and faculty. Most students felt that the lack of diversity on campus was a barrier to recruiting and retaining minority candidates. Some minority students also blamed the medical school's limited social, academic, and financial support, as well as inadequate efforts to recruit minority students. Medical students generally place a high value on campus diversity and cultural competence. URM students in particular felt that their university could do more to implement its commitment to diversity, including making greater efforts to recruit and retain URM students. These views constitute a barometer for medical schools to gauge and track their efforts to enhance campus diversity, incorporate cultural competence education, and create an inclusive and welcoming climate for students of all backgrounds.

  16. Influence of national culture on the adoption of integrated medical curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippes, Mariëlle; Majoor, Gerard D

    2011-03-01

    Integrated curricula have been implemented in medical schools all over the world. However, among countries different relative numbers of schools with integrated curricula are found. This study aims to explore the possible correlation between the percentage of medical schools with integrated curricula in a country and that country's cultural characteristics. Curricula were defined as not integrated if in the first 2 years of the program at least two out of the three monodisciplinary courses Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry were identified. Culture was defined using Hofstede's dimensions Power distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity, and Individualism/Collectivism. Consequently, this study had to be restricted to the 63 countries included in Hofstede's studies which harbored 1,195 medical schools. From each country we randomly sampled a maximum of 15 schools yielding 484 schools to be investigated. In total 91% (446) of the curricula were found. Correlation of percent integrated curricula and each dimension of culture was determined by calculating Spearman's Rho. A high score on the Power distance index and a high score on the Uncertainty avoidance index correlated with a low percent integrated curricula; a high score on the Individualism index correlated with a high percent integrated curricula. The percentage integrated curricula in a country did not correlate with its score on the Masculinity index. National culture is associated with the propensity of medical schools to adopt integrated medical curricula. Consequently, medical schools considering introduction of integrated and problem-based medical curricula should take into account dimensions of national culture which may hinder the innovation process.

  17. Cultural similarities and differences in medical professionalism: a multi-region study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John

    2012-03-01

    Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  18. Radiation Safety Culture in the UK Medical Sector: A Top to Bottom Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Claire-Louise; Bradley, Andy; Murray, Maria; Orr, Phil; Reay, Jill; Riley, Peter; Rogers, Andy; Sandhu, Navneet; Thurston, Jim

    2017-04-01

    UK professional bodies have established a number of sectorial working parties to provide guidance on the improvement of radiation safety (RS) culture in the workplace. The medical sector provides unique challenges in this regard, and the remit of the medical group was to review the current state of RS culture and to develop a framework for improvement. The review of current RS culture was based on measurable indicators, including data from regulatory inspections, personal monitoring data and incident data. An online survey to capture the RS-related views and experience of hospital staff at all levels was carried out, and the responses provided a wealth of information on RS awareness and implementation across the country. The framework for improving RS culture includes both 'top-down' initiatives to engage management and regulators, and 'bottom-up' initiatives relating to engagement and training of different staff groups. A 'Ten-point Assessment' on what constitutes a good approach to medical RS culture has been proposed, which provides a tool for management to assess RS culture in the workplace and has potential use in regulatory inspections in the UK. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cultural competence in medical education: aligning the formal, informal and hidden curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David; Ewen, Shaun C; Jones, Rhys

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cultural competence has become reified by inclusion as an accreditation standard in the US and Canada, in New Zealand it is demanded through an Act of Parliament, and it pervades discussion in Australian medical education discourse. However, there is evidence that medical graduates feel poorly prepared to deliver cross-cultural care (Weissman et al. in J Am Med Assoc 294(9):1058-1067, 2005) and many commentators have questioned the effectiveness of cultural competence curricula. In this paper we apply Hafferty's taxonomy of curricula, the formal, informal and hidden curriculum (Hafferty in Acad Med 73(4):403-407, 1998), to cultural competence. Using an example across each of these curricular domains, we highlight the need for curricular congruence to support cultural competence development among learners. We argue that much of the focus on cultural competence has been in the realm of formal curricula, with existing informal and hidden curricula which may be at odds with the formal curriculum. The focus of the formal, informal and hidden curriculum, we contend, should be to address disparities in health care outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that without congruence between formal, informal and hidden curricula, approaches to addressing disparity in health care outcomes in medical education may continue to represent reform without change.

  20. Radiation safety culture in the UK medical sector: a top to bottom strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapple, Claire-Louise; Bradley, Andy; Murray, Maria; Orr, Phil; Reay, Jill; Riley, Peter; Rogers, Andy; Sandhu, Navneet; Thurston, Jim

    2017-01-01

    UK professional bodies have established a number of sectorial working parties to provide guidance on the improvement of radiation safety (RS) culture in the workplace. The medical sector provides unique challenges in this regard, and the remit of the medical group was to review the current state of RS culture and to develop a framework for improvement. The review of current RS culture was based on measurable indicators, including data from regulatory inspections, personal monitoring data and incident data. An online survey to capture the RS-related views and experience of hospital staff at all levels was carried out, and the responses provided a wealth of information on RS awareness and implementation across the country. The framework for improving RS culture includes both 'top-down' initiatives to engage management and regulators, and 'bottom-up' initiatives relating to engagement and training of different staff groups. A 'Ten-point Assessment' on what constitutes a good approach to medical RS culture has been proposed, which provides a tool for management to assess RS culture in the workplace and has potential use in regulatory inspections in the UK. (authors)

  1. African American Medical Culture in the Antebellum South: As Remembered in the WPA Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This project examines the oral accounts of former slaves, as recorded in the WPA narratives in the 1930s, to study the development of African American medical culture in the Antebellum South. Through an examination of these transcribed memories, my research investigates how African American praxes with medicinal flora, healing techniques, and spiritual harmony, reflected their ethnomedical and cosmological ideologies. The duality of these ideologies represents an African American medical iden...

  2. The impact of organizational culture on employees’ organizational silence In Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Parcham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organizational Culture is one of the most important factors that can change the climate of silence. The main aim of this research was to investigate the influence of organizational culture on employees’ organizational silence in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method: This research was a descriptive-correlation one. The target population was chosen from 1900 staff of the University of Medical sciences and Health Care headquarter in Shiraz. Thus 311 employees were selected using the Krejcie and Morgan sampling table. The instrument used in this research was Denison (2006 organizational culture questionnaire and Dimitris Buratas and Maria Vacula (2007 organizational culture. Cornbrash’s alpha method was used to calculate the reliability. The Item analysis and expert consensus were applied to calculate the validity of instruments. All gathered data analyzed with PLS software. Results: The results showed that the four dimensions of organizational culture include organizational involvement, organizational adaptability, organizational concistency and organizational mission was moderate and the mean scores obtained for each factor were 2.85, 2.82, 2.94 and 2.93 respectively. Structural equation model showed Organizational culture has a significant positive impact on organizational silence (β=0.68; P<.001. Conclusion: Based on the results and impact of organizational culture on organizational silence that is positive and significant; The organization further efforts to strengthen various aspects of organizational culture, especially the employees’ involvement in decision making; Employees can better express their opinions and thus reduced their organizational silence. In other words strengthening corporate culture is combined with the reduction of organizational silence. Medical organizations can establish appropriate reward system for creative ideas and suggestions to encourage people express their ideas As a result, reduced

  3. Canadian residents' perceptions of cross-cultural care training in graduate medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Barinder; Banwell, Emma; Groll, Dianne

    2017-12-01

    The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada specifies both respect for diversity as a requirement of professionalism and culturally sensitive provision of medical care. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perception of preparedness and attitudes of medical residents to deliver cross-cultural care. The Cross Cultural Care Survey was sent via e-mail to all Faculty of Medicine residents (approx. 450) in an academic health sciences centre. Comparisons were made between psychiatry residents, family medicine residents, and other residency groups with respect to training, preparedness, and skillfulness in delivering cross-cultural care. Seventy-three (16%) residents responded to the survey. Residents in psychiatry and family medicine reported significantly more training and formal evaluation regarding cross-cultural care than residents in other programs. However, there were no significant differences in self-reported preparedness and skillfulness. Residents in family medicine were more likely to report needing more practical experience working with diverse groups. Psychiatry residents were less likely to report inadequate cross-cultural training. While most residents reported feeling skillful and prepared to work with culturally diverse groups, they report receiving little additional instruction or formal evaluation on this topic, particularly in programs other than psychiatry and family medicine.

  4. Canadian residents’ perceptions of cross-cultural care training in graduate medical school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Barinder; Banwell, Emma; Groll, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Background The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada specifies both respect for diversity as a requirement of professionalism and culturally sensitive provision of medical care. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perception of preparedness and attitudes of medical residents to deliver cross-cultural care. Methods The Cross Cultural Care Survey was sent via e-mail to all Faculty of Medicine residents (approx. 450) in an academic health sciences centre. Comparisons were made between psychiatry residents, family medicine residents, and other residency groups with respect to training, preparedness, and skillfulness in delivering cross-cultural care. Results Seventy-three (16%) residents responded to the survey. Residents in psychiatry and family medicine reported significantly more training and formal evaluation regarding cross-cultural care than residents in other programs. However, there were no significant differences in self-reported preparedness and skillfulness. Residents in family medicine were more likely to report needing more practical experience working with diverse groups. Psychiatry residents were less likely to report inadequate cross-cultural training. Conclusion While most residents reported feeling skillful and prepared to work with culturally diverse groups, they report receiving little additional instruction or formal evaluation on this topic, particularly in programs other than psychiatry and family medicine. PMID:29354194

  5. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.

  6. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: Evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    K Ganasegeran; SAR Al-Dubai

    2014-01-01

    Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials a...

  7. Cross-cultural education in U.S. medical schools: development of an assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Dolhun, Eduardo; Muñoz, Claudia; Grumbach, Kevin

    2003-06-01

    Medical education is responding to an increasingly diverse population and to regulatory and quality-of-care requirements by developing cross-cultural curricula in health care. This undertaking has proved problematic because there is no consensus on what elements of cross-cultural medicine should be taught. Further, less is known about what is being taught. This study hypothesized that a tool could be developed to assess common themes, concepts, learning objectives, and methods in cross-cultural education. In 2001, 31 U.S. medical schools were invited to provide the researchers all written and/or Web-based materials related to implementing cross-cultural competency in their curricula. A tool was developed to measure teaching methods, skill sets, and eight content areas in cross-cultural education. A total of 19 medical schools supplied their curricular materials. There was considerable variation in approaches to teaching and in the content of cross-cultural education across the schools. Most emphasized teaching general themes, such as the doctor-patient relationship, socioeconomic status, and racism. Most also focused on specific cultural information about the ethnic communities they served. Few schools extensively addressed health care access and language issues. This assessment tool is an important step toward developing a standard nomenclature for measuring the success of cross-cultural education curricula. On the national level, the tool can be used to compare program components and encourage the exchange of effective teaching tools by promoting a common language, which will be essential for developing and implementing curricula, for comparing programs, and evaluating their effects on quality of care.

  8. Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwesen, L.; Brink, A. van den; Hofstede, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with

  9. Exploring cultural and linguistic influences on clinical communication skills: a qualitative study of International Medical Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anju; Griffin, Ann; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are known to perform less well in many postgraduate medical examinations when compared to their UK trained counterparts. This "differential attainment" is observed in both knowledge-based and clinical skills assessments. This study explored the influence of culture and language on IMGs clinical communication skills, in particular, their ability to seek, detect and acknowledge patients' concerns in a high stakes postgraduate clinical skills examination. Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework was used to look at the impact of culture on examination performance. This was a qualitative, interpretative study using thematic content analysis of video-recorded doctor-simulated patient consultations of candidates sitting the MRCP(UK) PACES examination, at a single examination centre in November 2012. The research utilised Hofstede's cultural dimension theory, a framework for comparing cultural factors amongst different nations, to help understand the reasons for failure. Five key themes accounted for the majority of communication failures in station 2, "history taking" and station 4, "communication skills and ethics" of the MRCP(UK) PACES examination. Two themes, the ability to detect clues and the ability to address concerns, related directly to the overall construct managing patients' concerns. Three other themes were found to impact the whole consultation. These were building relationships, providing structure and explanation and planning. Hofstede's cultural dimensions may help to contextualise some of these observations. In some cultures doctor and patient roles are relatively inflexible: the doctor may convey less information to the patient (higher power distance societies) and give less attention to building rapport (high uncertainty avoidance societies.) This may explain why cues and concerns presented by patients were overlooked in this setting. Understanding cultural differences through Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory

  10. Serving an Indigenous community: Exploring the cultural competence of medical students in a rural setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Hoong Wong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, medical students from the International Medical University (IMU in Malaysia have been providing primary healthcare services, under the supervision of faculty members, to the indigenous people living in Kampung Sebir. The project has allowed the students to learn experientially within a rural setting. This study aims to examine the cultural competence of IMU medical students through an examination of their perspective of the indigenous people who they serve and the role of this community service in their personal and professional development. Students who participated in the project were required to complete a questionnaire after each community engagement activity to help them reflect on the above areas. We analysed the responses of students from January to December 2015 using a thematic analysis approach to identify overarching themes in the students’ responses. Students had differing perceptions of culture and worldviews when compared to the indigenous people. However, they lacked the self-reflection skills necessary to understand how such differences can affect their relationship with the indigenous people. Because of this, the basis of their engagement with the indigenous community (as demonstrated by their views of community service is focused on their agenda of promoting health from a student’s perspective rather than connecting and building relationships first. Students also lacked the appreciation that building cultural competency is a continuous process. The results show that the medical students have a developing cultural competence. The project in Kampung Sebir is an experiential learning platform of great value to provide insights into and develop the cultural competency of participating students. This study also reflects on the project itself, and how the relationship with stakeholders, the competence and diversity of academic staff, and the support of the university can contribute toward training in cultural

  11. Marketing to increase participation in a Web-based continuing medical education cultural competence curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2011-01-01

    CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of 2 marketing strategies in the context of an online CME cultural competence curriculum (www.c-comp.org). In an interrupted time-series quasi-experimental design, 2 marketing strategies were tested: (1) wide dissemination to relevant organizations over a period of approximately 4 months, and (2) Internet paid search using Google Ads (5 consecutive 8-week periods--control 1, cultural/CME advertisement, control 2, hypertension/ content advertisement, control 3). Outcome measures were CME credit requests, Web traffic (visits per day, page views, pages viewed per visit), and cost. Overall, the site was visited 19,156 times and 78,160 pages were viewed. During the wide dissemination phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit decreased between the first (5.3%) and second (3.3%) halves of this phase (p = .04). During the Internet paid search phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit was highest during the cultural/CME advertisement period (control 1, 1.4%; cultural/CME ad, 4.3%; control 2, 1.5%; hypertension/content ad, 0.6%; control 3, 0.8%; p advertisement periods. The incremental cost for the cultural advertisement per CME credit requested was US $0.64. Internet advertisement focusing on cultural competence and CME was associated with about a threefold increase in requests for CME credit at an incremental cost of under US $1; however, Web traffic changes were independent of the advertisement strategy. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical

  12. Information technology leadership in academic medical centers: a tale of four cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C P

    1999-07-01

    Persons and groups within academic medical centers bring consistent and predictable viewpoints to planning and decision making. The varied professional and academic cultures of these individuals appear to account primarily for the diversity of their viewpoints. Understanding these professional cultures can help leaders achieve some predictability in the complex environments for which they are responsible. Leaders in information technology in particular, in order to be successful, must become part-time anthropologists, immersing themselves in the varied workplaces of their constituents to understand the work they do and the cultures that have grown up around this work. Only in this way will they be able to manage the challenges that arise continuously as the technology and the needs it can address change over time. In this article, the author briefly describes the concept of culture, portrays four specific professional cultures that typically coexist in academic medical centers, and argues that understanding these cultures is absolutely critical to effective management and use of information resources.

  13. A meta-ethnography of organisational culture in primary care medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne; Guthrie, Bruce; Entwistle, Vikki; Williams, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing international interest in shaping local organisational cultures in primary healthcare. However, the contextual relevance of extant culture assessment instruments to the primary care context has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to derive a new contextually appropriate understanding of the key dimensions of primary care medical practice organisational culture and their inter-relationship through a synthesis of published qualitative research. A systematic search of six electronic databases followed by a synthesis using techniques of meta-ethnography involving translation and re-interpretation. A total of 16 papers were included in the meta-ethnography from the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand that fell into two related groups: those focused on practice organisational characteristics and narratives of practice individuality; and those focused on sub-practice variation across professional, managerial and administrative lines. It was found that primary care organisational culture was characterised by four key dimensions, i.e. responsiveness, team hierarchy, care philosophy and communication. These dimensions are multi-level and inter-professional in nature, spanning both practice and sub-practice levels. The research contributes to organisational culture theory development. The four new cultural dimensions provide a synthesized conceptual framework for researchers to evaluate and understand primary care cultural and sub-cultural levels. The synthesised cultural dimensions present a framework for practitioners to understand and change organisational culture in primary care teams. The research uses an innovative research methodology to synthesise the existing qualitative research and is one of the first to develop systematically a qualitative conceptual framing of primary care organisational culture.

  14. Culture, ritual, and errors of repudiation: some implications for the assessment of alternative medical traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, G

    2000-07-01

    In this article, sources of error that are likely involved when alternative medical traditions are assessed from the standpoint of orthodox biomedicine are discussed. These sources include (1) biomedicine's implicit reductive materialism (manifested in its negative orientation toward placebo effects), (2) a related bias against ritual, and (3) cultural barriers to the construction of externally valid protocols. To overcome these biases, investigators must attend to ritualistic elements in alternative treatments and should recruit patients from appropriate cultural groups. Collaborative research may be the key. Benefits of collaborative research include (1) increased mutual respect and integration between culturally distinct groups and practices, (2) increased understanding and use of sophisticated techniques of empirical analysis among practitioners from the alternative traditions, (3) increased appropriation of the therapeutic benefits of ritual, and (4) enhanced overall benefit for patients of all cultural backgrounds.

  15. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Ivory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students’ thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students’ perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months.

  16. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Kimberley D; Dwyer, Paul; Luscombe, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students’ thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students’ perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months. PMID:29349320

  17. Reactions to Diversity: Using Theater to Teach Medical Students about Cultural Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Kimberley D; Dwyer, Paul; Luscombe, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Training medical students to understand the effects of culture and marginalization on health outcomes is important to the future health of increasingly diverse populations. We devised and evaluated a short training module on working with diversity to challenge students' thinking about the role of both patient and practitioner culture in health outcomes. The workshop combined didactic teaching about culture as a social determinant of health using the cultural humility model, interactive exercises, and applied theater techniques. We evaluated changes in the students' perceptions and attitudes over time using the Reaction to Diversity Inventory. There was initial significant improvement. Women and students with no past diversity training responded best. However, scores largely reverted to baseline over 12 months.

  18. Cultural transition of international medical graduate residents into family practice in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscott, Jean A C; Szafran, Olga; Waugh, Earle H; Torti, Jacqueline M I; Barton, Martina

    2016-05-04

    To identify the perceived strengths that international medical graduate (IMG) family medicine residents possess and the challenges they are perceived to encounter in integrating into Canadian family practice. This was a qualitative, exploratory study employing focus groups and interviews with 27 participants - 10 family physicians, 13 health care professionals, and 4 family medicine residents. Focus group/interview questions addressed the strengths that IMGs possess and the challenges they face in becoming culturally competent within the Canadian medico-cultural context. Qualitative data were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. Participants identified that IMG residents brought multiple strengths to Canadian practice including strong clinical knowledge and experience, high education level, the richness of varied cultural perspectives, and positive personal strengths. At the same time, IMG residents appeared to experience challenges in the areas of: (1) communication skills (language nuances, unfamiliar accents, speech volume/tone, eye contact, directness of communication); (2) clinical practice (uncommon diagnoses, lack of familiarity with care of the opposite sex and mental health conditions); (3) learning challenges (limited knowledge of Canada's health care system, patient-centered care and ethical principles, unfamiliarity with self-directed learning, unease with receiving feedback); (4) cultural differences (gender roles, gender equality, personal space, boundary issues; and (5) personal struggles. Residency programs must recognize the challenges that can occur during the cultural transition to Canadian family practice and incorporate medico-cultural education into the curriculum. IMG residents also need to be aware of cultural differences and be open to different perspectives and new learning.

  19. Is a Widely Available Cure for Sickle Cell Disease on the Horizon? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  20. Journalist Liz Hernandez hopes to make Alzheimer’s a thing of the past | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  1. Finding Better and More Personalized Ways to Diagnose Cancer at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  2. From the lab - CancerSEEK: Blood Test Could Detect Cancer Earlier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  3. From Bench to Bedside: Researchers of NIH’s Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [1.5 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  4. From the lab - Brain Scan Technology Extends Treatment Window for Stroke | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  5. Learning culture and feedback: an international study of medical athletes and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher; Driessen, Erik; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Lingard, Lorelei

    2014-07-01

    Feedback should facilitate learning, but within medical education it often fails to deliver on its promise. To better understand why feedback is challenging, we explored the unique perspectives of doctors who had also trained extensively in sport or music, aiming to: (i) distinguish the elements of the response to feedback that are determined by the individual learner from those determined by the learning culture, and (ii) understand how these elements interact in order to make recommendations for improving feedback in medical education. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 doctors or medical students who had high-level training and competitive or performance experience in sport (n = 15) or music (n = 12). Data were analysed iteratively using constant comparison. Key themes were identified and their relationships critically examined to derive a conceptual understanding of feedback and its impact. We identified three essential sources of influence on the meaning that feedback assumed: the individual learner; the characteristics of the feedback, and the learning culture. Individual learner traits, such as motivation and orientation toward feedback, appeared stable across learning contexts. Similarly, certain feedback characteristics, including specificity, credibility and actionability, were valued in sport, music and medicine alike. Learning culture influenced feedback in three ways: (i) by defining expectations for teachers and teacher-learner relationships; (ii) by establishing norms for and expectations of feedback, and (iii) by directing teachers' and learners' attention toward certain dimensions of performance. Learning culture therefore neither creates motivated learners nor defines 'good feedback'; rather, it creates the conditions and opportunities that allow good feedback to occur and learners to respond. An adequate understanding of feedback requires an integrated approach incorporating both

  6. Clinically applied medical ethnography: relevance to cultural competence in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Medical anthropology provides an excellent resource for nursing research that is relevant to clinical nursing. By expanding the understanding of ethnographic research beyond ethnicity, nurses can conduct research that explores patient's constructions and explanatory models of health and healing and how they make meaning out of chronic conditions and negotiate daily life. These findings can have applicability to culturally competent care at both the organizational or systems level, as well as in the patient/provider encounter. Individual patient care can be improved by applying ethnographic research findings to build provider expertise and then using a cultural negotiation process for individualized patient care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Culture and medical decision making: Healthcare consumer perspectives in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John M; Lee, Angela Y; de Vries, Marieke; Osawa, Ryosuke; Chen, Qimei

    2015-12-01

    Two studies identified core value influences on medical decision-making processes across and within cultures. In Study 1, Japanese and American adults reported desired levels of medical decision-making influence across conditions that varied in seriousness. Cultural antecedents (interdependence, independence, and power distance) were also measured. In Study 2, American adults reviewed a colorectal cancer screening decision aid. Decision preparedness was measured along with interdependence, independence, and desire for medical information. In Study 1, higher interdependence predicted stronger desire for decision-making information in both countries, but was significantly stronger in Japan. The path from information desire to decision-making influence desire was significant only in Japan. The independence path to desire for decision-making influence was significant only in the United States. Power distance effects negatively predicted desire for decision-making influence only in the United States. For Study 2, high (low) interdependents and women (men) in the United States felt that a colorectal cancer screening decision aid helped prepare them more (less) for a medical consultation. Low interdependent men were at significantly higher risk for low decision preparedness. Study 1 suggests that Japanese participants may tend to view medical decision-making influence as an interdependent, information sharing exchange, whereas American respondents may be more interested in power sharing that emphasizes greater independence. Study 2 demonstrates the need to assess value influences on medical decision-making processes within and across cultures and suggests that individually tailored versions of decision aids may optimize decision preparedness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwesen, Ludwien; van den Brink-Muinen, Atie; Hofstede, Geert

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with national wealth. A total of 307 general practitioners (GPs) and 5820 patients from Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland participated in the study. Medical communication was videotaped and assessed using Roter's interaction analysis system (RIAS). Additional context information of physicians (gender, job satisfaction, risk-taking and belief of psychological influence on diseases) and patients (gender, health condition, diagnosis and medical encounter expectations) was gathered by using questionnaires. Countries differ considerably form each other in terms of culture dimensions. The larger a nation's power distance, the less room there is for unexpected information exchange and the shorter the consultations are. Roles are clearly described and fixed. The higher the level of uncertainty avoidance, the less attention is given to rapport building, e.g. less eye contact. In 'masculine' countries there is less instrumental communication in the medical interaction, which was contrary to expectations. In wealthy countries, more attention is given to psychosocial communication. The four culture dimensions, together with countries' wealth, contribute importantly to the understanding of differences in European countries' styles of medical communication. Their predictive power reaches much further than explanations along the north/south or east/west division of Europe. The understanding of these cross-national differences is a precondition for the prevention of intercultural miscommunication. Improved understanding may occur at microlevel in the medical encounter, as well as on macrolevel in pursuing more effective cooperation and

  9. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.

  10. Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Meeuwesen, L.; Brink, A. van den; Hofstede, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated at a country level how cross-national differences in medical communication can be understood from the first four of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, i.e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity/femininity, together with national wealth. METHODS: A total of 307 general practitioners (GPs) and 5820 patients from Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland par...

  11. Fungal Culture Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB, Paes RD, Schuback AO. Sporothrix schenckii and Sporotrichosis. Clin Microbial Rev [Internet]. 2011 Oct [cited 2017 ... Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Sporotrichosis [updated 2016 Aug 18; cited 2017 Oct 8]; [ ...

  12. SOCIO-CULTURAL AND MEDICAL INDICATORS OF THE SCHOOLCHILDREN'S QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Bašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimate of life quality is based upon medical, psychological and social indicators. It increasingly engages the attention of doctors of medicine, sociologists and psychologists.The aim of this research is to headlight some more relevant socio-cultural parametres in order to determine the quality of life of schoolchildren, that is, to determine whether the crisis in which our society has found itself has produced such socio-cultural conditions that could have induced changes in the children's quality of life and, if they have, to what extent the crisis has been reflected upon their health. The research has comprised 398 schoolchildren and their parents, three elementary schools from Nish and one in Sokobanja.The research of the socio-cultural and medical indicators of their quality of life has shown that the parent's education and ther material position have had an important influence upon the children's life quality.Since there has been no significant presence of any disease recorded in the observed children's sample, it can be concluded that the socio-cultural features have affected the children's life but they have not any significant impact upon their health.

  13. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication : an Agenda for Science and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J.; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A.

    2016-01-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making ...

  14. Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on television or read about it in the paper. Perhaps you hear that a certain drug causes a 300% increase in strokes. That's a large ... complex experiments or have more experience with the topic. Many large clinical ... there side effects? Sometimes the side effects are almost as serious ...

  15. Il Fasciculo di Medicina of 1493: medical culture through the eyes of the artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Salvatore; Discepola, Federico; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2006-01-01

    THE FASCICULUS MEDICINA, printed in 1491, is considered the first illustrated medical book. The Latin essays and illustrations in this volume provide insight into the medical knowledge of Western Europe and, in the Italian edition published in 1493, glimpses into the medical culture of the late 15th century. We outline the scientific and social environments into which the Fasciculus Medicinae of 1491 was introduced and the transition that occurred with the publication of the 1493 Italian edition. The artist of the 1493 Fasciculo witnessed a paradigm shift occurring. In four woodcuts, the artist captured four themes: the relevance of knowledge-based medicine, the emergence of laboratory medicine, the Hippocratic lessons of patient observation, and the emerging revolution in anatomy.

  16. How does the culture of medical group practices influence the types of programs used to assure quality of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissi, Amer; Kralewski, John; Curoe, Ann; Dowd, Bryan; Silversmith, Janet

    2004-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the culture of medical group practices greatly influences the quality of care, but little is known about how cultures are translated into specific types of programs focused on quality. This study explores this issue by assessing the influence of the organizational culture on these types of programs in medical group practices in the upper Midwest. Data were obtained from two surveys of medical group practices. The first survey was designed to assess the culture of the practice using a nine-dimension instrument developed previously. The second survey was designed to obtain organizational structure data including the programs identified by the literature as important to the quality of care in medical practices. Completed surveys were obtained from eighty-eight medical groups. The relationship of the group practice culture to structural programs focused on quality of care was analyzed using logistic regression equations. Several interesting patterns emerged. As expected, practices with a strong information culture favor electronic data systems and formal programs that provide comparative or evidence-based data to enhance their clinical practices. However, those with a quality-centered culture appear to prefer patient satisfaction surveys to assess the quality of their care, while practices that are more business-oriented rely on bureaucratic strategies such as benchmarking and physician profiling. Cultures that emphasize the autonomy of physician practice were negatively (but not at a statistically significant level) associated with all the programs studied. Practices with a highly collegial culture appear to rely on informal peer review mechanisms to assure quality rather than any of the structural programs included in this analysis. This study suggests that the types of quality programs that group practices develop differ according to their cultures. Consequently, it is important for practice administrators and medical directors to

  17. Medical school personal statements: a measure of motivation or proxy for cultural privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Students from state schools are underrepresented in UK medical schools. Discussions often focus on deficient academic and motivational traits of state school students, rather than considering the effects of student support during the admissions process. This qualitative study explored student experiences of support from schools and families during the medical school admissions process with particular focus on the personal statement. Interviews were conducted with thirteen medical students at a British medical school who had each attended a different secondary school (classified as private or state funded). A thematic analysis was performed. Bourdieu's concepts of capital and field were used as a theoretical lens through which to view the results. Interviews revealed substantial differences in support provided by private and state funded schools. Private schools had much more experience in the field of medical school admissions and had a vested interest in providing students with support. State schools were lacking by comparison, offering limited support that was often reactive rather than proactive. Students from private schools were also more likely to have social contacts who were knowledgeable about medical school admissions and who could help them gain access to work experience opportunities that would be recognised as legitimate by selectors. While medical schools endeavour to make fair admissions policies, there is an unintended link between a student's access to capital and ability to demonstrate commitment and motivation on personal statements. This helps explain why academically capable but financially or socially challenged students are less likely to be recognised as having potential during the admissions process. Medical schools need to be challenged to review their admissions policies to ensure that the do not inadvertently favour cultural privilege rather than student potential.

  18. Patient safety culture at neonatal intensive care units: perspectives of the nursing and medical team 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Andréia; Rocha, Patrícia Kuerten; de Souza, Sabrina; Anders, Jane Cristina; de Malfussi, Hamilton Filipe Correia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to verify the assessment of the patient safety culture according to the function and length of experience of the nursing and medical teams at Neonatal Intensive Care Units. METHOD: quantitative survey undertaken at four Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Florianópolis, Brazil. The sample totaled 141 subjects. The data were collected between February and April 2013 through the application of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. For analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-Square tests and Cronbach's Alpha coefficient were used. Approval for the research project was obtained from the Ethics Committee, CAAE: 05274612.7.0000.0121. RESULTS: differences in the number of positive answers to the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, the safety grade and the number of reported events were found according to the professional characteristics. A significant association was found between a shorter Length of work at the hospital and Length of work at the unit and a larger number of positive answers; longer length of experience in the profession represented higher grades and less reported events. The physicians and nursing technicians assessed the patient safety culture more positively. Cronbach's alpha demonstrated the reliability of the instrument. CONCLUSION: the differences found reveal a possible relation between the assessment of the safety culture and the subjects' professional characteristics at the Neonatal Intensive Care Units. PMID:25493670

  19. Patient safety culture among medical students in Singapore and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Ang, Sophia Bee Leng; Lau, Tang Ching; Neo, Hong Jye; Patil, Nivritti Gajanan; Ti, Lian Kah

    2013-09-01

    Undergraduate education in medical schools plays an important role in promoting patient safety. Medical students from different backgrounds may have different perceptions and attitudes toward issues concerning safety. This study aimed to investigate whether patient safety cultures differed between students from two Asian countries, and if they did, to find out how they differed. This study also aimed to identify the educational needs of these students. A voluntary, cross-sectional and self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on 259 students from two medical schools - one in Hong Kong and the other in Singapore. None of the students had received any formal teaching on patient safety. We used a validated survey instrument, the Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire III (APSQ-III), which was designed specifically for students and covered nine key factors of patient safety culture. Of the 259 students, 81 (31.3%) were from Hong Kong and 178 (68.7%) were from Singapore. The overall response rate was 66.4%. Significant differences between the two groups of students were found for two key factors - 'patient safety training', with Hong Kong students being more likely to report having received more of such training (p = 0.007); and 'error reporting confidence', which Singapore students reported having less of (p working hours and professional incompetence were important causes of medical errors. The importance of patient involvement and team functioning were ranked relatively lower by the students. Students from different countries with no prior teaching on patient safety may differ in their baseline patient safety cultures and educational needs. Our findings serve as a reference for future longitudinal studies on the effects of different teaching and healthcare development programmes.

  20. An anthropological approach to teach and evaluate cultural competence in medical students - the application of mini-ethnography in medical history taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jyh-Gang; Hsu, Mutsu; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use mini-ethnographies narrating patient illness to improve the cultural competence of the medical students. Methods Between September 2013 and June 2015, all sixth-year medical students doing their internship at a medical center in eastern Taiwan were trained to write mini-ethnographies for one of the patients in their care. The mini-ethnographies were analyzed by authors with focus on the various aspects of cultural sensitivity and a holistic care approach. Results Ninety-one students handed in mini-ethnographies, of whom 56 were male (61.5%) and 35 were female (38.5%). From the mini-ethnographies, three core aspects were derived: 1) the explanatory models and perceptions of illness, 2) culture and health care, and 3) society, resources, and health care. Based on the qualities of each aspect, nine secondary nodes were classified: expectations and attitude about illness/treatment, perceptions about their own prognosis in particular, knowledge and feelings regarding illness, cause of illness, choice of treatment method (including traditional medical treatments), prejudice and discrimination, influences of traditional culture and language, social support and resources, and inequality in health care. Conclusions Mini-ethnography is an effective teaching method that can help students to develop cultural competence. It also serves as an effective instrument to assess the cultural competence of medical students.

  1. Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... areas of its research: MedlinePlus . medlineplus.gov . Type "Parkinson's disease" in the Search box. NIHSeniorHealth —Parkinson's Disease ...

  2. Report for spreading culture of medical radiation safety in Korea: Mainly the activities of the Korean alliance for radiation safety and culture in medicine (KARSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Su; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Ji Hyun; Choi, In Seok; Sung, Dong Wook; Do, Kyung Hyun; Jung, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    There are many concerns about radiation exposure in Korea after Fukushima Nuclear Plant Accident on 2011 in Japan. As some isotope materials are detected in Korea, people get worried about the radioactive material. In addition, the mass media create an air of anxiety that jump on the people’s fear instead of scientific approach. Therefore, for curbing this flow, health, medical institute from the world provide a variety of information about medical radiation safety and hold the campaign which can give people the image that medical radiation is safe. At this, the Korean Food and Drug Administration(KFDA) suggested that make the alliance of medical radiation safety and culture on August, 2011. Seven societies and institutions related medical radiation started to research and advertise the culture of medical radiation safety in Korea. In this report, mainly introduce the activities of the Korean Alliance for Radiation Safety and Culture in Medicine(KARSM) for spreading culture of medical radiation safety from 2011 to 2012

  3. Report for spreading culture of medical radiation safety in Korea: Mainly the activities of the Korean alliance for radiation safety and culture in medicine (KARSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yong Su; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Ji Hyun; Choi, In Seok [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Kyung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Soo [Dept. of Radiation Safety, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    There are many concerns about radiation exposure in Korea after Fukushima Nuclear Plant Accident on 2011 in Japan. As some isotope materials are detected in Korea, people get worried about the radioactive material. In addition, the mass media create an air of anxiety that jump on the people’s fear instead of scientific approach. Therefore, for curbing this flow, health, medical institute from the world provide a variety of information about medical radiation safety and hold the campaign which can give people the image that medical radiation is safe. At this, the Korean Food and Drug Administration(KFDA) suggested that make the alliance of medical radiation safety and culture on August, 2011. Seven societies and institutions related medical radiation started to research and advertise the culture of medical radiation safety in Korea. In this report, mainly introduce the activities of the Korean Alliance for Radiation Safety and Culture in Medicine(KARSM) for spreading culture of medical radiation safety from 2011 to 2012.

  4. Angioplasty: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... segment (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Percutaneous transluminal ... segment Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - slideshow Directional coronary atherectomy ... transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Stent Related ...

  5. Effectiveness of cross-cultural education for medical residents caring for burmese refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan Song; Nutakki, Kavitha; Swigonski, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    Limited resources are available to educate health professionals on cultural considerations and specific healthcare needs of Burmese refugees. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a module focused on cross-cultural considerations when caring for Burmese refugees. A brief educational module using anonymously tracked pre- and post-intervention, self-administered surveys was developed and studied. The surveys measured pediatric and family medicine residents' knowledge, attitudes, and comfort in caring for Burmese refugees. Paired t-tests for continuous variables and Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables were used to test pre- and post-intervention differences. We included open-ended questions for residents to describe their experiences with the Burmese population. The survey was available to 173 residents. Forty-four pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed (response rate of 25%). Resident comfort in caring for Burmese increased significantly after the module (P = 0.04). Resident knowledge of population-specific cultural information increased regarding ethnic groups (P = 0.004), appropriate laboratory use (P = 0.04), and history gathering (P = 0.001). Areas of improved resident attitudes included comprehension of information from families (P = 0.03) and length of time required with interpreter (P = 0.01). Thematic evaluation of qualitative data highlighted four themes: access to interpreter and resources, verbal communication, nonverbal communication, and relationship building with cultural considerations. A brief intervention for residents has the potential to improve knowledge, attitudes, and comfort in caring for Burmese patients. Interventions focused on cultural considerations in medical care may improve cultural competency when caring for vulnerable patient populations.

  6. Exploring the implications of the influence of organisational culture on work-life balance practices: evidence from Nigerian medical doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, Toyin Ajibade; Modi, Chima; Osabutey, Ellis L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - Whilst significant evidence of western work-life balance (WLB) challenges exists, studies that explore Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce. This article explores how organisational culture in Nigerian medical organisations influences doctors’ WLB and examines the implications of supportive and unsupportive cultures on doctors’ WLB. \\ud \\ud Methodology - The paper uses qualitative data gleaned from semi-structured interviews of 60 medical doctors across the six geo-political zones of...

  7. Cultural dimensions in the transition of overseas medical graduates to the UK workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Gill; Rothwell, Charlotte; Burford, Bryan; Illing, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Historically, overseas-qualified doctors have been essential for meeting service needs in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, these doctors encounter many cultural differences, in relation to training, the healthcare system and the doctor-patient relationship and training. To examine whether Hofstede's cultural model may help us understand the changes doctors from other countries experience on coming to work in the UK, and to identify implications for supervisors and clinical teams. Telephone interviews were conducted with overseas medical graduates before starting work as a Foundation Year One (F1) doctor, followed up after four months and 12 months; and with educational supervisors. Data were analysed using a confirmatory thematic approach. Sixty-four initial interviews were conducted with overseas doctors, 56 after four months, and 32 after 12 months. Twelve interviews were conducted with educational supervisors. The changes doctors experienced related particularly to Hofstede's dimensions of power distance (e.g. in relation to workplace hierarchies and inter-professional relationships), uncertainty avoidance (e.g. regarding ways of interacting) and individualism-collectivism (e.g., regarding doctor-patient/family relationship; assertiveness of individuals). Hofstede's cultural dimensions may help us understand the adaptations some doctors have to make in adjusting to working in the UK NHS. This may promote awareness and understanding and greater 'cultural competence' amongst those working with them or supervising them in their training.

  8. [The comparative evaluation of level of security culture in medical organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitberg, G E; Kondratova, N V; Galanina, E V

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out on the basis of clinic “Medicine” in 2014-2015 concerning security culture. The sampling included 465 filled HSPSC questionnaires. The comparative analysis of received was implemented. The “Zubovskaia district hospital” Having no accreditation according security standards and group of clinics from USA functioning for many years in the system of patient security support were selected as objects for comparison. The evaluation was implemented concerning dynamics of security culture in organization at implementation of strategies of security of patients during 5 years and comparison of obtained results with USA clinics was made. The study results demonstrated that in conditions of absence of implemented standards of security in medical organization total evaluation of security remains extremely low. The study of security culture using HSPSC questionnaire is an effective tool for evaluating implementation of various strategies of security ofpatient. The functioning in the system of international standards of quality, primarily JCI standards, permits during several years to achieve high indices of security culture.

  9. Constructing publics, preventing diseases and medicalizing bodies: HIV, AIDS, and its visual cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizzio Mc Manus

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper we analyze the visual cultures surrounding HIV and AIDS; we are especially interested in tracking the actors, discourses and visual cultures involved in AIDS prevention in Mexico for a period of twenty years: from 1985 to 2005. We use media studies to better comprehend how HIV and AIDS further medicalized human bodies by mobilizing specific discourses, metaphors and visual resources that, though promoting a better understanding of how HIV could be acquired and how it could be prevented, also generated new representations of sexuality, bodies and persons living with HIV or AIDS often biased in favor of different systems of value. Moreover, we try to offer a general characterization of the different publics that were targeted and preconceptions involving ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, geography and membership in different sociocultural groups.

  10. Managing the culturally diverse medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A common misconception is that the phrase workplace diversity means meeting certain quotas in employee race or gender categories. In fact, diversity is much more than that. This article explores the unique benefits and challenges of managing a culturally diverse medical practice team and offers practice managers 25 practical strategies. It describes the two types of diversity training that are beneficial to practice managers and the kinds of policies, practices, and procedures that foster and promote diversity. This article also explores ethnocentrism, racism, ageism, sexism, stereotyping, and other potentially divisive issues among a diverse medical practice team. It provides an assessment instrument practice managers can use to evaluate their own diversity management skills. Finally, this article defines specifically what is meant by the term diversity and explores the top 10 diversity issues in workplaces today.

  11. Patient Safety Culture Status From The Perspective Medical Staff Of Yasuj Hospitals In 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most important problems in the health sector, particularly in clinical centers, is the quality of healthcare. Patient safety is one of the most important elements in creating health care quality due to the fact that it is a critical component to the quality of health care and many errors are present in patient care and treatment practices..                                                               Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the status of the patient safety culture and its relationship with events reported in Yasuj hospitals. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 361 medical staff of Yasuj hospitals. The data were collected through a hospital survey on patient safety culture. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS statistics soft ware version 21, using Descriptive methods, Pearson Coefficient, ANOVA, and T-Test. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the teamwork among hospital units (71/89percent, with expectations and management measures (66/38% in the case of safety obtained the most score and non-punitive response to errors (48/79% and manager support (55/88 percent obtained the least score. 73/7% of employees of three hospitals in the past 12 months did not report any event. In addition, there was a meaningful statistical relationship between the total score of safety culture and reporting the events. In this study, 15.5 % of respondents assess their safety culture in work as good, 44.3 % as acceptable and 30.5 percent reported poor. The overall safety culture among the three studied hospitals was 61.81 %. Results confirmed that the culture safety of patient in studied hospitals was average. Conclusions: The hospitals may rely on their strong points in terms of patient safety culture and try to remove their weak points to form a safe environment and appropriate

  12. Differences in ADHD medication usage patterns in children and adolescents from different cultural backgrounds in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ban, Els F; Souverein, Patrick C; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2015-07-01

    Differences in incidence and prevalence of ADHD medication use between ethnic groups have been reported. Goal of this study was to determine whether there are also differences in usage patterns of ADHD medication among native Dutch children and adolescents and those with a Moroccan, Turkish and Surinam cultural background in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2010. In a cohort of ADHD patients cultural background never used ADHD medication compared to Dutch natives (21 %). One-fifth of native Dutch and Turkish patients already used ADHD medication before the ADHD diagnosis date. Discontinuation of ADHD medication within 5 years was significantly higher in Moroccan [HR 2.4 (95 % CI 1.8-3.1)] and Turkish [HR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.1-2.6)] patients. A sensitivity analysis with a zip code-matched comparison between Dutch natives and non-natives showed similar results, suggesting this effect is probably not explained by socio-economic status (SES). Differences are found in prescribing and use of ADHD medication between patients with a different cultural background. Native Dutch and Turkish patients start more frequently with ADHD medication before the ADHD diagnose date, which can be an indication of differences in either referral patterns and/or access to care. A higher percentage of patients with a Moroccan and Turkish cultural background never start using ADHD medication at all and discontinuation rate is higher compared to Dutch natives and Surinamese.

  13. Libraries in New Jersey: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deborah.org/ Camden Cooper University Hospital Cooper Medical School of Rowan University Library 1 Cooper Plaza Camden, NJ 08103 856-342- ... 8285 http://www.valleyhealth.com Stratford Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine ... Library 1 Medical Center Drive Stratford, NJ 08084-1504 ...

  14. Cultural competence springs up in the desert: the story of the center for cultural competence in health care at Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    The authors describe the factors that led Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) to establish the Center for Cultural Competence in Health Care from the ground up, and they explore challenges and successes in implementing cultural competence training.Qatar's capital, Doha, is an extremely high-density multicultural setting. When WCMC-Q's first class of medical students began their clinical clerkships at the affiliated teaching hospital Hamad Medical Corporation in 2006, the complicated nature of training in a multicultural and multilingual setting became apparent immediately. In response, initiatives to improve students' cultural competence were undertaken. Initiatives included launching a medical interpretation program in 2007; surveying the patients' spoken languages, examining the effect of an orientation program on interpretation requests, and surveying faculty using the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training in 2008; implementing cultural competence training for students and securing research funding in 2009; and expanding awareness to the Qatar community in 2010. These types of initiatives, which are generally highly valued in U.S. and Canadian settings, are also apropos in the Arabian Gulf region.The authors report on their initial efforts, which can serve as a resource for other programs in the Arabian Gulf region.

  15. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Medication Regimen Complexity Index Adapted to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez de la Fuente, Javier; Such Diaz, Ana; Cañamares-Orbis, Irene; Ramila, Estela; Izquierdo-Garcia, Elsa; Esteban, Concepcion; Escobar-Rodríguez, Ismael

    2016-11-01

    The most widely used validated instrument to assess the complexity of medication regimens is the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). This study aimed to translate, adapt, and validate a reliable version of the MRCI adapted to Spanish (MRCI-E). The cross-cultural adaptation process consisted of an independent translation by 3 clinical pharmacists and a backtranslation by 2 native English speakers. A reliability analysis was conducted on 20 elderly randomly selected patients. Two clinical pharmacists calculated the MRCI-E from discharge treatments and 2 months later. For the validity analysis, the sample was augmented to 60 patients. Convergent validity was assessed by analyzing the correlation between the number of medications; discriminant validity was stratified by gender; and predictive validity was determined by analyzing the ability to predict readmission and mortality at 3 and 6 months. The MRCI-E retained the original structure of 3 sections. The reliability analysis demonstrated an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.83), and the intraclass correlation coefficient exceeded 0.9 in all cases. The correlation coefficient with the number of medications was 0.883 ( Pdifferences were found when stratified by gender (3.6; 95%CI=-2.9 to 10.2; P=0.27). Patients who were readmitted at 3 months had a higher MRCI-E score (10.7; 95%CI=4.4 to 17.2; P=0.001). The differences remained significant in patients readmitted at 6 months, but differences in mortality were not detected. The MRCI-E retains the reliability and validity of the original index and provides a suitable tool to assess the complexity of medication regimens in Spanish.

  17. Underage Drinking: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Prevention and Risk Factors College Drinking - Changing the Culture (National Institute ... and rural... Article: Ethnic and sex differences in E-cigarette use and relation to... Article: Socioeconomic differences in ...

  18. [Adaptation of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre-Busto, C; Torijano-Casalengua, M L; Olivera-Cañadas, G; Astier-Peña, M P; Maderuelo-Fernández, J A; Rubio-Aguado, E A

    2015-01-01

    To adapt the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) Excel(®) tool for its use by Primary Care Teams of the Spanish National Public Health System. The process of translation and adaptation of MOSPSC from the Agency for Healthcare and Research in Quality (AHRQ) was performed in five steps: Original version translation, Conceptual equivalence evaluation, Acceptability and viability assessment, Content validity and Questionnaire test and response analysis, and psychometric properties assessment. After confirming MOSPSC as a valid, reliable, consistent and useful tool for assessing patient safety culture in our setting, an Excel(®) worksheet was translated and adapted in the same way. It was decided to develop a tool to analyze the "Spanish survey" and to keep it linked to the "Original version" tool. The "Spanish survey" comparison data are those obtained in a 2011 nationwide Spanish survey, while the "Original version" comparison data are those provided by the AHRQ in 2012. The translated and adapted tool and the analysis of the results from a 2011 nationwide Spanish survey are available on the website of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. It allows the questions which are decisive in the different dimensions to be determined, and it provides a comparison of the results with graphical representation. Translation and adaptation of this tool enables a patient safety culture in Primary Care in Spain to be more effectively applied. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of cross-cultural interactions on medical students' preparedness to care for diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nina N; Syed, Zeba A; Krupat, Edward; Crutcher, Betty N; Pelletier, Stephen R; Shields, Helen M

    2012-11-01

    Medical students who graduate from schools with diverse student populations are more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients compared with students who graduate from more homogenous schools. This study aimed to identify the types of cross-cultural interactions associated with students' self-rated preparedness. In 2010, the authors developed and administered a Web-based survey that queried Harvard Medical School students about their voluntary interethnic interactions (studying, socializing), participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities, and self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. The authors separated students' responses regarding interethnic interactions and participation in diversity-related extracurricular activities into high and low participation, then determined the association between these responses and those to questions about students' self-rated preparedness to care for diverse patients. They used ANOVA and Z tests of proportion to analyze their data. Of 724 eligible students, 460 completed the survey (64%). Seventy-five percent (324/433) believed they were prepared to care for patients from backgrounds different from their own. Students who spent >75% of their study time with students from different backgrounds or who participated in a greater number of diversity-related extracurricular activities were more likely to rate themselves as prepared to care for diverse patients overall and to perform seven other skills. Voluntary cross-cultural interactions, both studying and socializing, are associated with higher self-rated preparedness to care for patients from diverse backgrounds. Medical schools should continue to support multicultural pursuits to prepare students to become physicians sensitive to the needs of diverse patients.

  20. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Quave

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed.

  1. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed. PMID:22899952

  2. Epistemology, culture, justice and power: non-bioscientific knowledge for medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Ayelet; Veinot, Paula; Leavitt, Jennifer; Levitt, Sarah; Li, Amanda; Goguen, Jeannette; Schreiber, Martin; Richardson, Lisa; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2017-02-01

    While medical curricula were traditionally almost entirely comprised of bioscientific knowledge, widely accepted competency frameworks now make clear that physicians must be competent in far more than biomedical knowledge and technical skills. For example, of the influential CanMEDS roles, six are conceptually based in the social sciences and humanities (SSH). Educators frequently express uncertainty about what to teach in this area. This study concretely identifies the knowledge beyond bioscience needed to support the training of physicians competent in the six non-Medical Expert CanMEDS roles. We interviewed 58 non-clinician university faculty members with doctorates in over 20 SSH disciplines. We abstracted our transcripts (meaning condensation, direct quotations) resulting in approximately 300 pages of data which we coded using top-down (by CanMEDS role) and bottom-up (thematically) approaches and analysed within a critical constructivist framework. Participants and clinicians with SSH PhDs member-checked and refined our results. Twelve interrelated themes were evident in the data. An understanding of epistemology, including the constructed nature of social knowledge, was seen as the foundational theme without which the others could not be taught or understood. Our findings highlighted three anchoring themes (Justice, Power, Culture), all of which link to eight more specific themes concerning future physicians' relationships to the world and the self. All 12 themes were cross-cutting, in that each related to all six non-Medical Expert CanMEDS roles. The data also provided many concrete examples of potential curricular content. There is a definable body of SSH knowledge that forms the academic underpinning for important physician competencies and is outside the experience of most medical educators. Curricular change incorporating such content is necessary if we are to strengthen the non-Medical Expert physician competencies. Our findings, particularly our cross

  3. Erectile Dysfunction: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men's Health (Hormone Health Network) Also in Spanish Sex and the Man With Cancer (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish Specifics Bent Penis (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Videos and Tutorials Simultaneous Inflatable Penile Prosthesis (IPP) and ...

  4. Health Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Have an Eye Exam? (Prevent Blindness America) Lipid Panel (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Lung Cancer Screening (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish Skin Cancer Screening (National Cancer ...

  5. Urinary Incontinence: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor, or surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Start Here Urinary Incontinence (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Urinary Tract Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) ...

  6. Dealing with foreign cultural paradigms: A systematic review on intercultural challenges of international medical graduates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Michalski

    Full Text Available An increasing number of International Medical Graduates (IMG, who are defined to be physicians working in a country other than their country of origin and training, immigrate to Western countries. In order to ensure safe and high-quality patient care, they have to take medical and language tests. This systematic review aims to (1 collect all empiric research on intercultural communication of IMGs in medical settings, (2 identify and categorize all text passages mentioning intercultural issues in the included studies, and (3 describe the most commonly reported intercultural areas of communication of IMGs.This review was based on the PRISMA-Guidelines for systematic reviews. We conducted a broad and systematic electronic literature search for empiric research in the following databases: MEDLINE, BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, KCI-Korean Journal Database and SciELO Citation Index. The search results were synthesized and analyzed with the aid of coding systems. These coding systems were based on textual analysis and derived from the themes and topics of the results and discussion sections from the included studies. A quality assessment was performed, comparing the studies with their corresponding checklist (COREQ or STROBE. Textual results of the studies were extracted and categorized.Among 10,630 search results, 47 studies were identified for analysis. 31 studies were qualitative, 12 quantitative and 4 studies used mixed methods. The quality assessment revealed a low level of quality of the studies in general. The following intercultural problems were identified: IMGs were not familiar with shared decision-making and lower hierarchies in the health care system in general. They had difficulties with patient-centered care, the subtleties of the foreign language and with the organizational structures of the new health care system. In addition, they described the medical education in their home countries as science-oriented, without focusing

  7. Dealing with foreign cultural paradigms: A systematic review on intercultural challenges of international medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Kerstin; Farhan, Nabeel; Motschall, Edith; Vach, Werner; Boeker, Martin

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of International Medical Graduates (IMG), who are defined to be physicians working in a country other than their country of origin and training, immigrate to Western countries. In order to ensure safe and high-quality patient care, they have to take medical and language tests. This systematic review aims to (1) collect all empiric research on intercultural communication of IMGs in medical settings, (2) identify and categorize all text passages mentioning intercultural issues in the included studies, and (3) describe the most commonly reported intercultural areas of communication of IMGs. This review was based on the PRISMA-Guidelines for systematic reviews. We conducted a broad and systematic electronic literature search for empiric research in the following databases: MEDLINE, BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, KCI-Korean Journal Database and SciELO Citation Index. The search results were synthesized and analyzed with the aid of coding systems. These coding systems were based on textual analysis and derived from the themes and topics of the results and discussion sections from the included studies. A quality assessment was performed, comparing the studies with their corresponding checklist (COREQ or STROBE). Textual results of the studies were extracted and categorized. Among 10,630 search results, 47 studies were identified for analysis. 31 studies were qualitative, 12 quantitative and 4 studies used mixed methods. The quality assessment revealed a low level of quality of the studies in general. The following intercultural problems were identified: IMGs were not familiar with shared decision-making and lower hierarchies in the health care system in general. They had difficulties with patient-centered care, the subtleties of the foreign language and with the organizational structures of the new health care system. In addition, they described the medical education in their home countries as science-oriented, without focusing on

  8. The Restorative Role of Apology in Resolving Medical Disputes: Lessons From Chinese Legal Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nuannuan

    2015-12-01

    This article is the first exploration of the Chinese notion of apology from a comparative legal perspective. By reviewing the significance of apology in the context of Chinese culture, the article presents a three-dimensional structure of apology that, in contrast to the understanding the research community now has, defines acknowledgement of fault, admission of responsibility, and offer of reparation as three essential elements of an apology. It is the combination of these three elements that enables apology to serve as a form of reparation. The article further places the three-dimensional apology in the context of the Chinese concept of "the relations of humanity," arguing that an apology accompanying admission of fault and responsibility may help to restore the harmony of relations and, by so doing, resolve medical disputes positively.

  9. Hunter New England Training (HNET): how to effect culture change in a psychiatry medical workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin; Llewellyn, Anthony; Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Vamos, Marina

    2011-12-01

    It is now recognized that education and training are at the core of quality systems in health care. In this paper we discuss the processes and drivers that underpinned the development of high quality education and training programs and placements for all junior doctors. The early identification and development of doctors interested in psychiatry as a career, engagement and co-operation with the broader junior doctor network and the creation of teaching opportunities for trainees that was linked to their stage of development were identified as key to the success of the program. Targeted, high quality education programs and clinical placements coupled with strategic development of workforce has reduced staff turn over, led to the stabilization of the medical workforce and created a culture where learning and supervision are highly valued.

  10. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  11. Weight Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss medications Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Body Weight Diets Eating Disorders Exercise and Physical Fitness Nutrition Obesity Weight Loss Surgery National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Weight Control is the National Institute of ...

  12. Using Medical Students to Enhance Curricular Integration of Cross-Cultural Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Shields

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that an interested medical student group would be helpful in reviewing tutorial cases and giving relevant feedback on the curricular integration of cross-cultural content using case triggers in a preclinical gastrointestinal pathophysiology course. Self-selected student leaders (n = 9 reviewed pre-existing problem-based learning tutorial cases (n = 3 with cross-cultural triggers, and provided narrative feedback to course faculty. The cases were modified and used for the entire class in the following 2 years. Participating course students' comments and teaching faculty feedback were also noted. Outcomes were a change in case content, student global evaluations of the course, and self-reported faculty comfort with teaching the cases. All three tutorial cases were reviewed by a separate group of 2–3 students. Major and minor revisions were made to each case based on the student feedback. These cases were used in 2007 and 2008 and were the major change to the course during that time. Overall course evaluation scores improved significantly from 2006 to 2008 (p = 0.000. Tutors (n = 22 in 2007; n = 23 in 2008 expressed relief during tutor meetings that students had reviewed the cases. A general framework for eliciting student feedback on problem-based cases was developed. Student feedback, consisting of self-selected students' case reviews and solicited course and tutor comments, added value to a curricular reform to improve the integration of cross-cultural content into a problem-based learning curriculum. Our study underscores the fundamental link between teachers and students as partners in curricular development.

  13. Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/redbloodcellantibodyscreen.html Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an RBC Antibody Screen? An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen ...

  14. The Match of Her Life | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... answer questions for this issue of NIH MedlinePlus magazine about her breast cancer. You discovered you had ... way of healing. As this issue of the magazine went to press, Navratilova was receiving radiation therapy ...

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/respiratorysyncytialvirusrsvtest.html Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Test To use the sharing ... is an RSV test? RSV , which stands for respiratory syncytial virus, is an infection that affects the ...

  16. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/prostatespecificantigenpsatest.html Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures ...

  17. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - NIH MedlinePlus magazine Winter 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who is a star of 'The Big Bang Theory' television show, and the producer/narrator of a ... trials, NIH MedlinePlus magazine reports the current life expectancy of a person with sickle cell disease is ...

  18. NIH Launches National COPD Action Plan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD Action Plan Follow us NIH Launches National COPD Action Plan Photo: National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... questions for NIH MedlinePlus magazine. Why was the COPD National Action Plan created? The staggering numbers associated ...

  19. The Iatroref study: medical errors are associated with symptoms of depression in ICU staff but not burnout or safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Perrin, Marion; Soufir, Lilia; Vesin, Aurélien; Blot, François; Maxime, Virginie; Beuret, Pascal; Troché, Gilles; Klouche, Kada; Argaud, Laurent; Azoulay, Elie; Timsit, Jean-François

    2015-02-01

    Staff behaviours to optimise patient safety may be influenced by burnout, depression and strength of the safety culture. We evaluated whether burnout, symptoms of depression and safety culture affected the frequency of medical errors and adverse events (selected using Delphi techniques) in ICUs. Prospective, observational, multicentre (31 ICUs) study from August 2009 to December 2011. Burnout, depression symptoms and safety culture were evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), CES-Depression scale and Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, respectively. Of 1,988 staff members, 1,534 (77.2 %) participated. Frequencies of medical errors and adverse events were 804.5/1,000 and 167.4/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Burnout prevalence was 3 or 40 % depending on the definition (severe emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment; or MBI score greater than -9). Depression symptoms were identified in 62/330 (18.8 %) physicians and 188/1,204 (15.6 %) nurses/nursing assistants. Median safety culture score was 60.7/100 [56.8-64.7] in physicians and 57.5/100 [52.4-61.9] in nurses/nursing assistants. Depression symptoms were an independent risk factor for medical errors. Burnout was not associated with medical errors. The safety culture score had a limited influence on medical errors. Other independent risk factors for medical errors or adverse events were related to ICU organisation (40 % of ICU staff off work on the previous day), staff (specific safety training) and patients (workload). One-on-one training of junior physicians during duties and existence of a hospital risk-management unit were associated with lower risks. The frequency of selected medical errors in ICUs was high and was increased when staff members had symptoms of depression.

  20. The relationship between cultural intelligence and social compatibility in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories resident students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Soltani, Batoul

    2014-01-01

    Cultural intelligence and social compatibility are two acquired processes that their education and reinforcement between dormitory's students who have inter cultural interactions with each other can conclude with results that tension diminution, inter cultural contrast and conflict, social divisions and consequently healthy and peaceful relationships and governance and finally mental peace, and health are of its most important. Hence, the research has been occurring in order to the determination of cultural intelligence relationship with the social compatibility of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories resident students in 2012. The research method is descriptive-correlation, and its population is composed of all Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories resident students in 2012 that were totally 2500 persons. The two steps sampling method have been used, group sampling and random sampling has been occurring at first and second steps and totally 447 persons were selected. Research data were collected via Earley and Ang cultural intelligence questionnaire with 0.76 Cronbach's alpha Coefficient and California social compatibility standard questionnaire with higher than 0.70 Cronbach's alpha factor. Questionnaire data have been analyzed with the SPSS software and results have been presented in the shape of descriptions and statistics. Results showed that there is a direct significant relationship (P intelligence and the social adjustment in students living in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories and also there is a direct significant relationship in the level of (P intelligence; however, there is no significant relationship between cognitive and behavioral dimensions of cultural intelligence and social adjustment (P > 0.05). Cultural intelligence and cognitive and motivational addition in dimensions of students living in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences dormitories increase their social integration, therefore, cultural

  1. Cross-cultural Differences in Mental Health, Quality of Life, Empathy, and Burnout between US and Brazilian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Damiano, Rodolfo Furlan; DiLalla, Lisabeth F; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Moutinho, Ivana Lúcia Damásio; da Silva Ezequiel, Oscarina; Kevin Dorsey, J

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare mental health, quality of life, empathy, and burnout in medical students from a medical institution in the USA and another one in Brazil. This cross-cultural study included students enrolled in the first and second years of their undergraduate medical training. We evaluated depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS 21), empathy, openness to spirituality, and wellness (ESWIM), burnout (Oldenburg), and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref) and compared them between schools. A total of 138 Brazilian and 73 US medical students were included. The comparison between all US medical students and all Brazilian medical students revealed that Brazilians reported more depression and stress and US students reported greater wellness, less exhaustion, and greater environmental quality of life. In order to address a possible response bias favoring respondents with better mental health, we also compared all US medical students with the 50% of Brazilian medical students who reported better mental health. In this comparison, we found Brazilian medical students had higher physical quality of life and US students again reported greater environmental quality of life. Cultural, social, infrastructural, and curricular differences were compared between institutions. Some noted differences were that students at the US institution were older and were exposed to smaller class sizes, earlier patient encounters, problem-based learning, and psychological support. We found important differences between Brazilian and US medical students, particularly in mental health and wellness. These findings could be explained by a complex interaction between several factors, highlighting the importance of considering cultural and school-level influences on well-being.

  2. From the lab - Eyes May be ‘Windows to the Brain’ in Stroke Patients | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [3.1 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  3. "That never would have occurred to me": a qualitative study of medical students' views of a cultural competence curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Gabriella

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence is mixed regarding the efficacy of cultural competence curricula in developing learners' knowledge, attitudes and skills. More research is needed to better understand both the strengths and shortcomings of existing curricula from the perspective of learners in order to improve training. Methods We conducted three focus groups with medical students in their first year of clinical training to assess their perceptions of the cultural competence curriculum at a public university school of medicine. Results Students evaluated the informal curriculum as a more important source of learning about cultural competence than the formal curriculum. In terms of bias in both self and others, the cultural competence curriculum increased awareness, but was less effective in teaching specific interventional skills. Students also noted that the cultural competence curriculum did not always sufficiently help them find a balance between group-specific knowledge and respect for individual differences. Despite some concerns as to whether political correctness characterized the cultural competence curriculum, it was also seen as a way to rehumanize the medical education experience. Conclusion Future research needs to pay attention to issues such as perceived relevance, stereotyping, and political correctness in developing cross-cultural training programs.

  4. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  5. Defining a framework for medical teachers' competencies to teach ethnic and cultural diversity: Results of a European Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Rowan; Hendrickx, Kristin; Lanting, Katja; MacFarlane, Anne; Muntinga, Maaike; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2018-02-28

    Medical students need to be trained in delivering diversity-responsive health care but unknown is what competencies teachers need. The aim of this study was to devise a framework of competencies for diversity teaching. An open-ended questionnaire about essential diversity teaching competencies was sent to a panel. This resulted in a list of 74 teaching competencies, which was sent in a second round to the panel for rating. The final framework of competencies was approved by the panel. Thirty-four experts participated. The final framework consisted of 10 competencies that were seen as essential for all medical teachers: (1) ability to critically reflect on own values and beliefs; (2) ability to communicate about individuals in a nondiscriminatory, nonstereotyping way; (3) empathy for patients regardless of ethnicity, race or nationality; (4) awareness of intersectionality; (5) awareness of own ethnic and cultural background; (6) knowledge of ethnic and social determinants of physical and mental health of migrants; (7) ability to reflect with students on the social or cultural context of the patient relevant to the medical encounter; (8) awareness that teachers are role models in the way they talk about patients from different ethnic, cultural and social backgrounds; (9) empathy for students of diverse ethnic, cultural and social background; (10) ability to engage, motivate and let all students participate. This framework of teaching competencies can be used in faculty development programs to adequately train all medical teachers.

  6. Perceptions and culture of safety among helicopter emergency medical service personnel in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Adam; Grieve, Philip H; Hodgetts, Timothy J

    2016-11-01

    The use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has increased significantly in the UK since 1987. To date there has been no research that addresses HEMS pilots and medical crews' own ideas on the risks that they view as inherent in their line of work and how to mitigate these risks. The aim of this survey is to describe and compare the attitudes and perceptions towards risk in HEMS operations of these staff. A questionnaire was administered electronically to a representative selection of HEMS doctors, paramedics and pilots in the UK. A number of questions were grouped into common themes, and presented as Likert scales and ranking where appropriate. Descriptive and comparative results were presented and statistically analysed. The target sample of 100 consecutive respondents was achieved. All questionnaires were entirely completed. Respondents attributed the most risk to night HEMS operations without the use of night vision goggles, commercial pressure and mechanical aircraft failure. There was no statistical difference in overall perception of safety and years of experience (p=0.58) or between professions (p=0.08). Those who had experienced a crash were more likely to believe that HEMS operations are not inherently safe (p=0.05). We have surveyed a cross-section of the HEMS operational community in the UK in order to describe their perceptions of safety and risk within their professional life. Two-thirds of respondents believed that HEMS operations were inherently safe. Those who did not seemed to be influenced by personal experience of a crash or serious incident. We support increased operational training for clinical crewmembers, an increased emphasis on incident reporting and a culture of safety, and careful attention to minimum training and equipment requirements for all HEMS missions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The influence of cultural and religious orientations on social support and its potential impact on medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatah E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ernieda Hatah,1 Kien Ping Lim,1,2 Adliah Mohd Ali,1 Noraida Mohamed Shah,1 Farida Islahudin1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 2Pharmacy Department, Kuala Lumpur General Hospital, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Social support can positively influence patients’ health outcomes through a number of mechanisms, such as increases in patients’ adherence to medication. Although there have been studies on the influence of social support on medication adherence, these studies were conducted in Western settings, not in Asian settings where cultural and religious orientations may be different. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cultural orientation and religiosity on social support and its relation to patients’ medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with chronic diseases in two tertiary hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia. Patients who agreed to participate in the study were asked to answer questions in the following areas: 1 perceived group and higher authority cultural orientations; 2 religiosity: organizational and non-organizational religious activities, and intrinsic religiosity; 3 perceived social support; and 4 self-reported medication adherence. Patients’ medication adherence was modeled using multiple logistic regressions, and only variables with a P-value of <0.25 were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 300 patients completed the questionnaire, with the exception of 40 participants who did not complete the cultural orientation question. The mean age of the patients was 57.6±13.5. Group cultural orientation, organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, and intrinsic religiosity demonstrated significant associations with patients’ perceived social support (r=0.181, P=0.003; r=0.230, P<0.001; r=0.135, P=0.019; and r=0.156, P=0.007, respectively. In the medication adherence model

  8. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Esmaeili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intelligence quotient (IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring are among important and influential parameters in learning-teaching process of students. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between these parameters in the students of Birjand University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional type. The study population included all the students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, selected through stratified randomized sampling method. In order to study IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring parameters R & B Cattell scale (Scale III, Erli’s Cultural Intelligence Inventory, and Snyder’s Self-monitoring Test were applied, respectively. The obtained data was fed into SPSS (V:21 software using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA, and t-test at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: From a total of 171 subjects participating in the study, 53.2% were female. The average age of the participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring scores were 106±10.44, 85.73±17.31, and 12.35±3.20, respectively. There was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and self-monitoring (P<0.000; r=0/37. However, there were no significant associations between cultural intelligence and IQ scores as well as between self-monitoring and IQ scores. Conclusion: Regarding the unfavorable cultural intelligence’ skills and abilities ;and their acquirable nature, it is suggested that University consider a significant position for educational and cultural programs in order to enhance cultural intelligence.

  9. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Esmaeili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intelligence quotient (IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring are among important and influential parameters in learning-teaching process of students. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between these parameters in the students of Birjand University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional type. The study population included all the students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, selected through stratified randomized sampling method. In order to study IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring parameters R & B Cattell scale (Scale III, Erli’s Cultural Intelligence Inventory, and Snyder’s Self-monitoring Test were applied, respectively. The obtained data was fed into SPSS (V:21 software using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA, and t-test at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: From a total of 171 subjects participating in the study, 53.2% were female. The average age of the participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring scores were 106±10.44, 85.73±17.31, and 12.35±3.20, respectively. There was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and self-monitoring (P<0.000; r=0/37. However, there were no significant associations between cultural intelligence and IQ scores as well as between self-monitoring and IQ scores. Conclusion: Regarding the unfavorable cultural intelligence’ skills and abilities ;and their acquirable nature, it is suggested that University consider a significant position for educational and cultural programs in order to enhance cultural intelligence.

  10. Making Sense of HIV in Southeastern Nigeria Fictional Narratives, Cultural Meanings, and Methodologies in Medical Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Brown, Peter J.; Patterson, Amy E.; Burkot, Camilla; Mbakwem, Benjamin C.

    2018-01-01

    Fictional narratives have rarely been used in medical anthropological research. This article illustrates the value of such narratives by examining how young people in southeastern Nigeria navigate the cultural resources available to them to make sense of HIV in their creative writing. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, it analyzes a sample (N = 120) from 1,849 narratives submitted by Nigerian youth to the 2005 Scenarios from Africa scriptwriting contest on the theme of HIV. The narratives are characterized by five salient themes: tragedy arising from the incompatibility of sex outside marriage and kinship obligations; female vulnerability and blame; peer pressure and moral ambivalence; conservative Christian sexual morality; and the social and family consequences of HIV. We consider the strengths and limitations of this narrative approach from a theoretical perspective and by juxtaposing our findings with those generated by Daniel Jordan Smith using standard ethnographic research methods with a similar Igbo youth population. [HIV, Igbo, youth, narrative, methodology] PMID:23804317

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of British and Pakistani medical students' understanding of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Raja, Nazia; Khan, Umar Ali

    2008-06-30

    This study aimed to compare British, British Pakistani and Native Pakistani (from Pakistan) medical students' beliefs about the manifestation, causes and cures of schizophrenia, prior to any psychiatric training. A total of 305 participants completed a questionnaire on general beliefs about people with schizophrenia, causal explanations concerning the aetiology of schizophrenia and the role of hospitals and society in treating people with schizophrenia. It was predicted that compared with the British and British Pakistanis, the Pakistanis would have more negative beliefs and attitudes, considering people with schizophrenia to be more dangerous and unpredictable; they were also expected to use more superstitious beliefs to explain the cause of schizophrenia and its symptoms; as well as believe more in seeking help from God and faith healers. There was strong evidence to suggest that Pakistanis possessed more negative beliefs and attitudes about people with schizophrenia, but there was no evidence to indicate that Pakistanis believed more in superstitious causal explanations. Pakistanis were more likely to consider seeking help from faith healers, but not God, compared with British Pakistanis and the British. Results confirm previous European-Asian difference in the understanding of the cause, manifestation and cure of schizophrenia. The impact of traditional and Western cultural influences on British Pakistanis is considered.

  12. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The transition to medication adoption in publicly funded substance use disorder treatment programs: organizational structure, culture, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Medications for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) are not widely available in publicly funded SUD treatment programs. Few studies have drawn on longitudinal data to examine the organizational characteristics associated with programs transitioning from not delivering any pharmacotherapy to adopting at least one SUD medication. Using two waves of panel longitudinal data collected over a 5-year period, we measured the transition to medication adoption in a cohort of 190 publicly funded treatment organizations that offered no SUD medications at baseline. Independent variables included organizational characteristics, medical resources, funding, treatment culture, and detailing activities by pharmaceutical companies. Of 190 programs not offering SUD pharmacotherapy at baseline, 22.6% transitioned to offering at least one SUD medication at follow-up approximately 5 years later. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that the employment of at least one physician at baseline, having a greater proportion of Medicaid clients, and pharmaceutical detailing were positively associated with medication adoption. Adoption of pharmacotherapy was more likely in programs that had greater medical resources, Medicaid funding, and contact with pharmaceutical companies. Given the potential expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, patients served by publicly funded programs may gain greater access to such treatments, but research is needed to document health reform's impact on this sector of the treatment system.

  14. Adapting to a US Medical Curriculum in Malaysia: A Qualitative Study on Cultural Dissonance in International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Ryan Y

    2016-01-01

    Context Minimal research has examined the recent exportation of medical curricula to international settings. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA partnered with Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and implemented the same curriculum currently used at Johns Hopkins University to teach medical students at Perdana University. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of first-year medical students at Perdana University, focusing on issues of cultural dissonance during adaptation to a US curriculum. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews with the inaugural class of first-year students (n=24) were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed the qualitative data for major themes. Results The most prominent themes identified were the transition from a “passive” to an “active” learning environment and the friendliness and openness of the professors. Students noted that “[Perdana University] is a whole new, different culture and now we are adapting to the culture.” Being vocal during classes and taking exams based on conceptual understanding and knowledge application/integration proved to be more challenging for students than having classes taught entirely in English or the amount of material covered. Discussion This study reinforced many cultural education theories as it revealed the major issues of Malaysian graduate students adapting to a US-style medical curriculum. Despite coming from a collectivistic, Confucian-based cultural learning background, the Malaysian students at Perdana University adopted and adapted to, and subsequently supported, the US learning expectations. PMID:27672530

  15. Finger Pricks and Blood Vials: How doctors medicalize 'cultural' solutions to demedicalize the 'broken' hymen in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuandini, Sherria

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides new perspectives on the scholarship on medicalization and demedicalization, building on an ethnography of hymenoplasty consultations in the Netherlands. By examining how doctors can play an active role in demedicalization, this paper presents novel insights into Dutch physicians' attempt to demedicalize the "broken" hymen. In their consultations, Dutch doctors persuade hymenoplasty patients to abandon the assumed medical definition of the "broken" hymen and offer nonmedical solutions to patients' problems. Drawing from unique ethnographical access from 2012 to 2015 to 70 hymenoplasty consultations in the Netherlands, this paper's original contribution comes from closely examining how demedicalization can be achieved through the process of medicalization. It investigates how Dutch physicians go even further in their efforts to demedicalize by medicalizing "cultural" solutions as an alternative course of action to surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  17. Could Externalized St. Jude Medical Riata® Lead Be a Culture Medium of a Polymicrobial Endocarditis? A Clinical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefferino Palamà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a man affected by polymicrobial endocarditis developed on a St. Jude Medical Riata lead with a malfunction because of the outsourcing of conductors. The patient was treated with antibiotic targeted therapy and showed different bacteria at the blood cultures and then underwent transvenous leads extraction. Vegetations were highlighted on the caval, atrial, and ventricular tracts of the Riata lead, but the cultures were all negative. The externalization of Riata lead may cause the malfunction but it could also promote bacterial colonies and vegetations. In conclusion, looking for early signs of infection is mandatory during Riata leads follow-up checks.

  18. Does your pig go 'knor'? Medical students' skills in using animal sounds as a cross-cultural paediatric engagement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Roy, Melyssa

    2016-12-01

    The development of verbal communication skills is an important aspect of medical education as accurate assessment in part relies on effectively obtaining information from patients. When assessing children of different cultural or ethnic backgrounds, young medics may find effective verbal communication difficult because they lack understanding about what children are really like. Animal noises are a likely tool with which to successfully engage with young children. However, these differ by culture and it is unclear whether young New Zealand medical students will be adept at effectively engaging and communicating with foreign children via this mode of communication. We therefore assessed whether medical students in our country were able to accurately reproduce animal noises from different cultures. Six current medical students from New Zealand (with English as their first language) were assessed on their ability to reproduce animal noises from three different foreign languages: Dutch, Arabic and Danish. The animals selected were duck, cow, dog, frog, pig and sheep. Students were played recordings of the foreign-language animal noises, and were then rated on a scale of 1-5 (1 = poor, 5 = outstanding) on their ability to reproduce the noise. Arabic animal noises were reproduced more convincingly than those in the other languages (mean score: 3.8), of which animal noises in Danish were worst (mean score: 3.1). Perhaps unsurprisingly, sheep noises were reproduced best (mean score: 4.7), whereas pig noises were the least convincing (mean score: 2.2). Findings indicate that New Zealand medical students are likely to be better than average at reproducing animal noises in the languages examined, and are perhaps socially and genetically predisposed to replicating sheep noises successfully. They are therefore likely to make good paediatric registrars and fabulous au pairs. The study highlights the more serious issues of multicultural understanding and tolerance of other

  19. Assessment and promotion of safety culture in medical practices using sources of ionizing radiation. The Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, Ruben; Guillen Campos, Alba; Arnau Fernandez, Alma

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The lessons learned from several radiological accidents in medical and industrial practices using sources of ionization radiation show that a fragile safety culture in the organizations and the human error were the most important contributors to such events. The high contribution of human factors to safety of radiotherapy treatment process have been also revealed by the results of a recent study on Probabilistic Safety Assessment to this process conducted in the framework of the Extra budgetary Programme on Nuclear and Radiological Safety in Iberian-America. Nevertheless non considerable efforts are appreciated around the world to investigate and develop methods and techniques to assess and promote a strong safety culture in those practices as it has been happening in other sectors like nuclear power, chemical, commercial aviation and oil industry. The Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority has in course a National Program for Promoting and Assessment of Safety Culture in organizations using sources of ionizing radiation. As part of this program, during the 2007 year, a pilot study with this purpose was carried out Two Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Units were selected for this pilot study, where managers and specialists were interviewed, a safety culture survey was executed and a final report was prepared with several recommendations to be taking account by Regulator for designing its regulatory strategy on safety culture for medical practices and by users to increase their safety culture level. This paper describes the methodology used to organize, prepare, execute and report the results, findings and recommendations of this kind of review, the benefits and main difficulties encountered during this effort and the perspective and suggestions that, in opinion of the authors of this paper, are important to take into account in the field of radiological safety culture in the near future. (author)

  20. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-05-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence-favorably evaluated in the West-for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources.

  1. Perceptions of an 'international hospital' in Thailand by medical travel patients: cross-cultural tensions in a transnational space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea; Chee, Heng Leng

    2015-01-01

    The growing trade in patients seeking health care in other countries, or medical travel, is changing the forms and experiences of health care seeking and producing changes to hospitals in terms of their design, organization and spaces. What is termed in marketing parlance in Thailand as an 'international hospital' oriented to attracting foreign patients, is a hotel-hospital hybrid that is locally produced through the inflexion of local practices to make a therapeutic space for international patients. The paper reports on work undertaken within a Thai hospital in 2012 which included observations and interviews with thirty foreign in-patients and nine informal interviews with hospital staff. Although theorized as a culturally neutral transnational 'space of connectivity', we show how cross-cultural tensions affect the experience of the hospital with implications for the organization of the hospital and notions of 'cultural competence' in care. There is no single universal experience of this space, instead, there are multiple experiences of the 'international hospital', depending on who patients are, where they are from, their expectations and relationships. Such hospitals straddle the expectations of both local patients and international clientele and present highly complex cross-cultural interactions between staff and patients but also between patients and other patients. Spatial organisation within such settings may either highlight cultural difference or help create culturally safe spaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating Theory, Content, and Method to Foster Critical Consciousness in Medical Students: A Comprehensive Model for Cultural Competence Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Diane K; Goss, Adeline L; Hoekzema, Andrew S; Kelly, Lauren A; Logan, Alexander A; Mehta, Sanjiv D; Sandesara, Utpal N; Munyikwa, Michelle R; DeLisser, Horace M

    2017-03-01

    Many efforts to design introductory "cultural competence" courses for medical students rely on an information delivery (competence) paradigm, which can exoticize patients while obscuring social context, medical culture, and power structures. Other approaches foster a general open-minded orientation, which can remain nebulous without clear grounding principles. Medical educators are increasingly recognizing the limitations of both approaches and calling for strategies that reenvision cultural competence training. Successfully realizing such alternative strategies requires the development of comprehensive models that specify and integrate theoretical frameworks, content, and teaching principles.In this article, the authors present one such model: Introduction to Medicine and Society (IMS), a required cultural competence course launched in 2013 for first-year medical students at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Building on critical pedagogy, IMS is centered on a novel specification of "critical consciousness" in clinical practice as an orientation to understanding and pragmatic action in three relational domains: internal, interpersonal, and structural. Instead of transmitting discrete "facts" about patient "types," IMS content provokes students to engage with complex questions bridging the three domains. Learning takes place in a small-group space specifically designed to spur transformation toward critical consciousness. After discussing the three key components of the course design and describing a representative session, the authors discuss the IMS model's implications, reception by students and faculty, and potential for expansion. Their early experience suggests the IMS model successfully engages students and prepares future physicians to critically examine experiences, manage interpersonal dynamics, and structurally contextualize patient encounters.

  3. Empathy without borders? Cross-cultural heart and mind-reading in first-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehning, Sandra; Gasperi, Sarah; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Eshetu; Meyer, Sebastian; Krahl, Wolfgang; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Müller, Norbert; Siebeck, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    This cross-cultural study was designed to examine cultural differences in empathy levels of first-year medical students. A total of 257 students from the academic year 2010/11, 131 at Jimma University, Ethiopia, and 126 at the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany, completed the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME-R) test, and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the students' personal views on the definition of empathy and possible influencing factors. Group comparisons and correlation analyses of empathy scores were performed for the entire cohort and for the Jimma and Munich students separately. We used a regression tree analysis to identify factors influencing the BEES. The male students in Jimma (39.1 ± 22.3) scored significantly higher in the BEES than those male students from Munich (27.2 ± 22.6; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference between the female groups. We found a moderate, positive correlation between the BEES and RME-R test, i.e. between emotional and cognitive empathy, within each university. Nevertheless, the RME-R test, which shows only Caucasian eyes, appears not to be suitable for use in other cultures. The main findings of our study were the influence of culture, religion, specialization choice, and gender on emotional empathy (assessed with the BEES) and cognitive empathy (assessed with the RME-R test) in first-year medical students. Further research is required into the nature of empathy in worldwide medical curricula.

  4. [Organisational responsibility versus individual responsibility: safety culture? About the relationship between patient safety and medical malpractice law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    The contribution is concerned with the correlations between risk information, patient safety, responsibility and liability, in particular in terms of liability law. These correlations have an impact on safety culture in healthcare, which can be evaluated positively if--in addition to good quality of medical care--as many sources of error as possible can be identified, analysed, and minimised or eliminated by corresponding measures (safety or risk management). Liability influences the conduct of individuals and enterprises; safety is (probably) also a function of liability; this should also apply to safety culture. The standard of safety culture does not only depend on individual liability for damages, but first of all on strict enterprise liability (system responsibility) and its preventive effects. Patient safety through quality and risk management is therefore also an organisational programme of considerable relevance in terms of liability law.

  5. Medical Disease or Moral Defect? Stigma Attribution and Cultural Models of Addiction Causality in a University Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nicole L; Dressler, William W

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the knowledge individuals use to make judgments about persons with substance use disorder. First, we show that there is a cultural model of addiction causality that is both shared and contested. Second, we examine how individuals' understanding of that model is associated with stigma attribution. Research was conducted among undergraduate students at the University of Alabama. College students in the 18-25 age range are especially at risk for developing substance use disorder, and they are, perhaps more than any other population group, intensely targeted by drug education. The elicited cultural model includes different types of causes distributed across five distinct themes: Biological, Self-Medication, Familial, Social, and Hedonistic. Though there was cultural consensus among respondents overall, residual agreement analysis showed that the cultural model of addiction causality is a multicentric domain. Two centers of the model, the moral and the medical, were discovered. Differing adherence to these centers is associated with the level of stigma attributed towards individuals with substance use disorder. The results suggest that current approaches to substance use education could contribute to stigma attribution, which may or may not be inadvertent. The significance of these results for both theory and the treatment of addiction are discussed.

  6. The MedlinePlus public user interface: studies of design challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Jennifer L.; Miller, Naomi; Kitendaugh, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Question: What are the challenges involved in designing, modifying, and improving a major health information portal that serves over sixty million page views a month? Setting: MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) consumer health Website, is examined. Method: Challenges are presented as six “studies,” which describe selected design issues and how NLM staff resolved them. Main Result: Improving MedlinePlus is an iterative process. Changes in the public user interface are ongoing, reflecting Web design trends, usability testing recommendations, user survey results, new technical requirements, and the need to grow the site in an orderly way. Conclusion: Testing and analysis should accompany Website design modifications. New technologies may enhance a site but also introduce problems. Further modifications to MedlinePlus will be informed by the experiences described here. PMID:16404467

  7. The relationship of centralization, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant

  8. How students perceive medical competences: a cross-cultural study between the medical course in Portugal and African Portuguese speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joselina; Severo, Milton; Fresta, Mário; Ismail, Mamudo; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Barros, Henrique

    2011-05-25

    A global effort has been made in the last years to establish a set of core competences that define the essential professional competence of a physician. Regardless of the environment, culture or medical education conditions, a set of core competences is required for medical practice worldwide. Evaluation of educational program is always needed to assure the best training for medical students and ultimately best care for patients. The aim of this study was to determine in what extent medical students in Portugal and Portuguese speaking African countries, felt they have acquired the core competences to start their clinical practice. For this reason, it was created a measurement tool to evaluate self-perceived competences, in different domains, across Portuguese and Portuguese-speaking African medical schools. The information was collected through a questionnaire that defines the knowledge, attitudes and skills that future doctors should acquire. The Cronbach's Alpha and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire. In order to remove possible confounding effect, individual scores were standardized by country. The order of the domain's scores was similar between countries. After standardization, Personal Attitudes and Professional Behavior showed median scores above the country global median and Knowledge alone showed median score below the country global median. In Portugal, Clinical Skills showed score below the global median. In Angola, Clinical Skills and General Skills showed a similar result. There were only significant differences between countries in Personal Attitudes (p speaking African medical schools was confirmed. Students have perceived their level of competence in personal attitudes in a high level and in opposite, knowledge and clinical skills with some weaknesses.

  9. Euthanasia and Other Medical Decisions at the End of Life: Societal Control and Cultural Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Buiting (Hilde)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDeath is a socially and culturally embedded phenomenon.1 It is inevitably understood and experienced within a complex web of cultural meanings that differ within and across countries. During the past century, acute death due to infectious diseases has to a great extent been replaced by

  10. Variability in market uptake of psychotropic medications in Europe reflects cultural diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Leufkens, H G M; van Dijk, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last 20-30 years, many international studies have found substantial differences in the use of (older) psychotropic medication between European countries. The majority mentioned an important role for attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication. So far, no studies have looked into the

  11. Using Foreign Virtual Patients With Medical Students in Germany: Are Cultural Differences Evident and Do They Impede Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Jens; Jähnert, Tina; Berman, Norman B; Fischer, Martin R

    2016-09-27

    Learning with virtual patients (VPs) is considered useful in medical education for fostering clinical reasoning. As the authoring of VPs is highly demanding, an international exchange of cases might be desirable. However, cultural differences in foreign VPs might hamper learning success. We investigated the need for support for using VPs from the United States at a German university, with respect to language and cultural differences. Our goal was to better understand potential implementation barriers of a intercultural VP exchange. Two VPs were presented to 30 German medical students featuring a cultural background different from German standards with respect to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, ethical aspects, role models, and language (as identified by a cultural adaptation framework). Participants were assigned to two groups: 14 students were advised to complete the cases without further instructions (basic group), and 16 students received written explanatory supplemental information specifically with regard to cultural differences (supplement group). Using a 6-point scale (6=strongly agree), we analyzed the results of an integrated assessment of learning success as well as an evaluation of cases by the students on usefulness for learning and potential issues regarding the language and cultural background. The German students found it motivating to work with cases written in English (6-point scale, 4.5 points). The clinical relevance of the VPs was clearly recognized (6 points), and the foreign language was considered a minor problem in this context (3 points). The results of the integrated learning assessment were similar in both groups (basic 53% [SD 4] vs supplement 52% [SD 4] correct answers, P=.32). However, students using the supplemental material more readily realized culturally different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies (basic 4 vs supplement 5 points, P=.39) and were less affirmative when asked about the transferability of cases to a German

  12. Reduction of Clinical Culture Contamination in an Inpatient Medical Unit by Revisiting Microbiology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bona; Irmler, Monica; Faselis, Charles; Liappis, Angelike P

    2016-10-01

    Clinical culture contaminations delay the correct diagnosis, result in repeat testing, and may extend the length of a hospital stay. A simple educational session reminding providers of the ubiquitous presence of bacteria on the skin and in our environment, led to a significant decrease in contaminated cultures (16.9% versus 10.9%, p = 0.03). J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(10):446-448. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Measuring and benchmarking safety culture: application of the safety attitudes questionnaire to an acute medical admissions unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relihan, E; Glynn, S; Daly, D; Silke, B; Ryder, S

    2009-12-01

    To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy. The safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU. All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses, healthcare assistants (HCAs) and allied healthcare professionals (AHPs). Safety attitude scores for the overall unit and individual caregiver types were assessed across six domains of safety culture. When compared against an international benchmark, the AMAU scored significantly higher for four of the six safety domains: p < 0.01 for 'teamwork climate', 'safety climate' and 'stress recognition' and p < 0.05 for 'job satisfaction'. The difference between nurse manager scores and the overall mean for the study group was statistically significant for the domains of 'teamwork climate' (p < 0.05) and 'safety climate' (p < 0.01). HCAs scored significantly lower relative to staff overall with regard to 'working conditions' (p < 0.05) and 'perceptions of management' (p < 0.01). The SAQ was successfully applied to an AMAU setting giving a valuable insight into staff issues of concern across the safety spectrum: employee and environmental safety, clinical risk management and medication safety.

  14. Medical faculty members' perspectives on the components of cross-cultural competence in the Islamic Republic of Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaz, M Mousavi; Zazoly, A Zabihi; Karimi Moonaghi, H

    2015-02-25

    Despite the importance of cultural competence in health care, there has been no research to develop a framework for cultural competence in the Iranian context. This qualitative study at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences aimed to elucidate the views of medical faculty staff on the components of cross-cultural competence and compare these with similar studies published in English. Using a combination of archival studies, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions among faculty members 3 major domains (knowledge, attitude and behaviour) and 21 components were identified to describe the cross-cultural competence of faculty members in medical schools. Participants expressed the importance of knowledge as a precursor to changing attitudes and the 6 knowledge components related to knowledge and awareness of values, beliefs and norms of different ethnic, racial and cultural groups. Experts mostly emphasized the importance of interaction between faculty members and clients (students and patients).

  15. Medical faculty members' perspectives on the components of cross-cultural competence in the Islamic Republic of Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaz, M Mousavi; Zazoly, A Zabihi; Moonaghi, H Karimi

    2015-02-02

    Despite the importance of cultural competence in health care, there has been no research to develop a framework for cultural competence in the Iranian context. This qualitative study at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences aimed to elucidate the views of medical faculty staff on the components of cross-cultural competence and compare these with similar studies published in English. Using a combination of archival studies, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions among faculty members 3 major domains (knowledge, attitude and behaviour) and 21 components were identified to describe the cross-cultural competence of faculty members in medical schools. Participants expressed the importance of knowledge as a precursor to changing attitudes and the 6 knowledge components related to knowledge and awareness of values, beliefs and norms of different ethnic, racial and cultural groups. Experts mostly emphasized the importance of interaction between faculty members and clients (students and patients).

  16. ONE SIZE FITS ALL? ON PATIENT AUTONOMY, MEDICAL DECISION-MAKING, AND THE IMPACT OF CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Roy; Miola, José

    2015-01-01

    While both medical law and medical ethics have developed in a way that has sought to prioritise patient autonomy, it is less clear whether it has done so in a way that enhances the self-determination of patients from non-western backgrounds. In this article, we consider the desire of some patients from non-western backgrounds for family involvement in decision-making and argue that this desire is not catered for effectively in either medical law or medical ethics. We examine an alternative approach based on relational autonomy that might serve both to allow such patients to exercise their self-determination while still allowing them to include family members in the decision-making process. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. USING ONLINE MARKETING TO INCREASE PARTICIPATION IN A WEB-BASED CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION CULTURAL COMPETENCE CURRICULUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. The use of online advertisements to recruit participants for clinical trials, public health programs, and Continuing Medical Education (CME) has been shown to be effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of two marketing strategies in the context of an online CME cultural competence curriculum (www.c-comp.org). Methods In an interrupted time-series quasi-experimental design, two marketing strategies were tested: a) wide dissemination to relevant organizations over a period of approximately four months, and b) Internet paid search using Google Ads (five consecutive eight-week periods--control 1, cultural/ CME advertisement, control 2, hypertension/ content advertisement, control 3). Outcome measures were CME credit requests, Web traffic (visits per day, page views, pages viewed per visit), and cost. Results Overall, the site was visited 19,156 times and 78,160 pages were viewed. During the wide dissemination phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit decreased between the first (5.3%) and second halves (3.3%) of this phase (p= .04). During the Internet paid search phase, the proportion of visits requesting CME credit was highest during the cultural/ CME advertisement period (control 1, 1.4%; cultural/CME ad, 4.3%; control 2, 1.5%; hypertension/content ad, 0.6%; control 3, 0.8%; p<.001). All measures of Web traffic changed during the Internet paid search phase (p<.01); however, changes were independent of the advertisement periods. The incremental cost for the cultural advertisement per CME credit requested was $0.64US. Discussion Internet advertisement focusing on cultural competence and CME was associated with about a three-fold increase in requests for CME credit at an incremental cost of under $1; however, Web traffic changes were independent of the advertisement strategy. PMID

  18. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, Charlotte; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study

  19. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, Charlotte, E-mail: charlavender@gmail.com; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-04-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study.

  20. Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries, Joy; Fu-Chang Tsai, Daniel; Dornan, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. In fall 2014, the authors purposively sampled 22 clinical students from Taiwan and the Netherlands and asked them to keep audio diaries, narrating emotional experiences during clerkships using three prompts: What happened? What did you feel/think/do? How does this interplay with your development as a doctor? Dutch audio diaries were supplemented with follow-up interviews. The authors analyzed participants' narratives using a critical discourse analysis informed by Figured Worlds theory and Bakhtin's concept of dialogism, according to which people's spoken words create identities in imagined future worlds. Participants talked vividly, but differently, about their experiences. Dutch participants' emotions related to individual achievement and competence. Taiwanese participants' rich, emotional language reflected on becoming both a good person and a good doctor. These discourses constructed doctors' and patients' autonomy in culturally specific ways. The Dutch construct centered on "hands-on" participation, which developed the identity of a technically skilled doctor, but did not address patients' self-determination. The Taiwanese construct located physicians' autonomy within moral values more than practical proficiency, and gave patients agency to influence doctor-patient relationships. Participants' cultural constructs of physician and patient autonomy led them to construct different professional identities within different imagined worlds. The contrasting discourses show how medical students learn about different meanings of becoming doctors in culturally specific contexts.

  1. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder in an 11-Year Old South American Boy: Medical and Cultural Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermbrucker, Jonah; Kimber, Melissa; Johnson, Natasha; Kearney, Sarah; Couturier, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is new in the DSM-5, replacing the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood. ARFID has no age criterion, and therefore addresses eating disturbances across the lifespan. This report illustrates the case of an 11-year-old boy of Colombian ancestry with ARFID and explores the role of culture in the diagnosis of ARFID. To date, literature describing this disorder is limited. ARFID is often seen in the child and adolescent population and can have significant medical consequences, including weight loss, hemodynamic instability, and growth retardation. Studies examining the potential cultural challenges of diagnosing and treating ARFID would benefit patients, as well as health professionals working in primary care, pediatrics, and psychiatry. This paper is intended to inform the reader about this multifaceted disorder, and to generate interest for future research.

  2. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  3. [Human myoblast culture as muscle stem cells in medical and biological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, S M; Krokhina, T B; Shishkin, S S; Krakhmaleva, I N; Zakharov, S F; Ershova, E S

    2001-01-01

    The method for obtaining human myoblast culture has been modified to consider the specific histological localization of the satellite cells as well as their growth properties; the cultivation conditions have been selected to grow up to 150000 cells/cm2. At high densities, the cells remain mononuclear and preserve their typical myoblast morphology as well as the capacity for fusion and the formation of myotubes. By contrast to fibroblasts, up to 80% of the cells in the myoblast culture were positive in the acid phosphatase test, which indicates their stem nature. The obtained myoblast cultures were used in the clinical tests of cell-mediated gene therapy of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy as well as in the bioassay for the effects of biologically active compounds.

  4. Married...with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Married...with Food Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Photo: ... life together and a common problem—severe food allergies. NIH MedlinePlus magazine’s Naomi Miller caught up with ...

  5. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/alphafetoproteinafptest.html Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Test? Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein ...

  6. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures ...

  7. High school peer tutors teach MedlinePlus: a model for Hispanic outreach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debra G.; Olney, Cynthia A.; Wood, Fred B.; Hansen, Lucille; Bowden, Virginia M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to introduce the MedlinePlus Website to the predominantly Hispanic residents of the Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas by partnering with a health professions magnet high school (known as Med High). Methods: Community assessment was used in the planning stages and included pre-project focus groups with students and teachers. Outreach methods included peer tutor selection, train-the-trainer sessions, school and community outreach, and pre- and posttests of MedlinePlus training sessions. Evaluation methods included Web statistics; end-of-project interviews; focus groups with students, faculty, and librarians; and end-of-project surveys of students and faculty. Results: Four peer tutors reached more than 2,000 people during the project year. Students and faculty found MedlinePlus to be a useful resource. Faculty and librarians developed new or revised teaching methods incorporating MedlinePlus. The project enhanced the role of school librarians as agents of change at Med High. The project continues on a self-sustaining basis. Conclusions: Using peer tutors is an effective way to educate high school students about health information resources and, through the students, to reach families and community members. PMID:15858628

  8. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Blood: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/carbondioxideco2inblood.html Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Blood To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Blood Test? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an ...

  9. Stocking up on Fish Mox: a Systematic Analysis of Cultural Narratives about Self-medicating in Online Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Howes-Mischel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a systematic review of cultural narratives that drive American belief in the value and efficacy of stocking up on fish antibiotics for human consumption. Popularized by “doomsday prepper” forums and survivalist medical professionals’ online videos, this narrative suggests that in some scenarios humans may benefit from such treatments—even as they note its contraindication to mainstream public health advice. Discussions in crowd-sourcing forums however, reveal that in practice Americans are using them as a form of home remedy to treat routine infections without missing work or to make up for gaps in insurance coverage. This article argues for greater attention to what makes it plausible and reasonable to treat human conditions with animal medications. It suggests that public health initiatives should address such decisions as emerging from a rational analysis of social and economic conditions rather than dismissing such practices as dangerous to population and individual health outcomes. As social scientists of medicine have long argued, collective narratives about health and medicine illustrate deeply the broader contexts in which communities understand and experience bodily state and shape how communities interact with public health institutions and respond to medical expertise. This study surveys online discussions about “fish mox” to show how participants contest medical expertise and promote a more distributed form of populist expertise. As such, consuming fish mox is both panacea for health inequality and a critique of health institutions for perpetrating such stratification.

  10. Different use of medical terminology and culture-specific models of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where words were in the vocabulary of both groups, significant differences existed in the number and range of definitions, with many clinically significant discordances of definition being apparent. Some common examples relevant to paediatric respiratory problems are presented. Three culture-specific explanatory models ...

  11. Welcome from Library Director Donald A.B. Lindberg, M.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Welcome to the NIH MedlinePlus Magazine. Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Donald ... about their efforts to cure disease. Lastly, the magazine's lively graphics, fun quizzes and practical tips have ...

  12. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described the genesis of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); the Visible Human Project (a digital ... expand the publication and distribution of NIH MedlinePlus magazine, thousands and thousands more people will gain valuable, ...

  13. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  14. Changing the culture of academic medicine: the C-Change learning action network and its impact at participating medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupat, Edward; Pololi, Linda; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E

    2013-09-01

    The culture of academic medicine has been described as hierarchical, competitive, and not highly supportive of female or minority faculty. In response to this, the authors designed the Learning Action Network (LAN), which was part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C-Change). The LAN is a five-school consortium aimed at changing the organizational culture of its constituent institutions. The authors selected LAN schools to be geographically diverse and representative of U.S. medical schools. Institutional leaders and faculty representatives from constituent schools met twice yearly for four years (2006-2010), forming a cross-institutional learning community. Through their quarterly listing of institutional activities, schools reported a wide array of actions. Most common were increased faculty development and/or mentoring, new approaches to communication, and adoption of new policies and procedures. Other categories included data collection/management, engagement of key stakeholders, education regarding gender/diversity, and new/expanded leadership positions. Through exit interviews, most participants reported feeling optimistic about maintaining the momentum of change. However, some, especially in schools with leadership changes, expressed uncertainty. Participants reported that they felt that the LAN enabled, empowered, facilitated, and/or caused the reported actions.For others who might want to work toward changing the culture of academic medicine, the authors offer several lessons learned from their experiences with C-Change. Most notably, people, structures, policies, and reward systems must be put into place to support cultural values, and broad-based support should be created in order for changes to persist when inevitable transitions in leadership occur.

  15. Cross-Cultural Differences in Perception of Patient by Senior Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Nizovtseva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyses the qualitative characteristics of the attitude of the Russian and international medical students to the patient. The peculiarities of the perception of the patient and the contact with him/her are revealed through interviewing students.

  16. Calling Orientations of Junior Doctors and Medical Interns in India: Cultural, Occupational and Relational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factors that shape calling orientations within the Indian context. Based on the narratives of 72 junior doctors and medical interns, it is found that participants identify with harbouring a calling both prior and subsequent to occupational entry. Although factors such as self-recognition of talent and sensemaking of work as…

  17. Marketing to Increase Participation in a Web-Based Continuing Medical Education Cultural Competence Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of…

  18. Learning culture and feedback: an international study of medical athletes and musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.N.; Driessen, E.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Lingard, L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Feedback should facilitate learning, but within medical education it often fails to deliver on its promise. To better understand why feedback is challenging, we explored the unique perspectives of doctors who had also trained extensively in sport or music, aiming to: (i) distinguish the

  19. You need to bond with the ones you train : Mixing epistemic cultures in medical residency training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Wallenburg (Iris); J. Pols (Jeannette); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses contemporary reform in postgraduate medical education that aims to standardise training. The reforms are guided by public policy interventions to increase quality of care, objectify performance, and to prepare residents for changing health care needs. This

  20. Make her a virgin again: when medical disputes about minors are cultural clashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2014-02-01

    Recalcitrant disputes among health care providers and patients or their families may signal deep cultural differences about what interventions are needed or about clinicians's professional duties. These issues arose in relation to a mother's request for hymenoplasty or revirgination for her minor daughter to enable an overseas, forced marriage and protect her from an honor killing. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology committee recommends against members performing a hymenoplasty or other female genital cosmetic surgeries due to a lack of data concerning their safety and efficacy. A key issue in such cases is how to determine what is in the minor's best interest and the scope of health care moral or professional's duties. The Best Interests Standard can serve as a powerful moral tool for resolving cross-cultural disputes and identifying needed policy.

  1. Oltenia – Micro-destination of Cultural and Medical Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Felicia STĂNCIOIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A region, in order to express its viability as tourism destination, has to emphasize not only its defining elements, but also the activities from the recreative, curative or cultural field in which it has specialized in (processed after Cocean et al., 2002, pp. 297-298. This involves several stages, organically linked in a planned framework, with the establishment of the specific objectives and strategies, not only at micro and meso, but also at macro level, beginning with “the study of the motivational demand, of the resources, in terms of their functionality in tourism and their profitability in exploitation” (Erdeli, Gheorghilaş, 2006, pp. 288-289.The authors intend, based on these considerations, to reveal the elements of regional brand, with the identification of those functions or types of tourism (recreative, curative and/or cultural which are specific to the region of Oltenia, that is “still unseen and unknown”.

  2. The effect of professional culture on intrinsic motivation among physicians in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives.

  3. Medical students' preferences for problem-based learning in relation to culture and personality: a multicultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Are; Manandhar, Kedar; Pant, Devendra S; Karmacharya, Biraj M; Olson, Linda M; Koju, Rajendra; Mansur, Dil I

    2015-07-19

    The aim of this study was to explore positive and negative preferences towards problem-based learning in relation to personality traits and socio-cultural context. The study was an anonymous and voluntary cross-sectional survey of medical students (N=449) in hybrid problem-based curricula in Nepal, Norway and North Dakota. Data was collected on gender, age, year of study, cohabitation and medical school. The PBL Preference Inventory identified students' positive and negative preferences in relation to problem-based learning; the personality traits were detected by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The determinants of the two kinds of preferences were analyzed by hierarchical multiple linear regressions. Positive preferences were mostly determined by personality; associations were found with the traits Extra-version, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism; the first three are related to sociability, curiosity and orderliness, the last, to mental health. The learn-ing environments of such curricula may be supportive for some and unnerving for others who score high on Neuroticism. Negative preferences were rather determined by culture, but also, they correlated with Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Negative preferences were lower among females and students living in symmetrical relationships. Some high on Conscientiousness disliked group work, and the negative correlation with Agreeableness indicated that less sociable students were not predisposed to this kind of learning activity. Preferences related to problem-based learning were significantly and independently determined both by personality traits and culture. More insights into the nature of students' preferences may guide aspects of curriculum modifications and the daily facilitation of groups.

  4. Using cultural immersion as the platform for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janie D; Wolfe, Christina; Springer, Shannon; Martin, Mary; Togno, John; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Sargeant, Sally; Murphy, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Bond University was looking for innovative ways to meet the professional standards and guidelines in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in its Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) curriculum. In 2012 Bond piloted a compulsory cultural immersion program for all first year students, which is now a usual part of the MBBS program. Three phases were included - establishing an Indigenous health group, determining the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational content based on the professional standards and developing nine educational sessions and resources - as well as significant administrative processes. The cultural immersion was piloted in 2012 with 92 first year medical students. Following refinements it was repeated in 2013 with 95 students and in 2014 with 94 students. A comprehensive evaluation process was undertaken that included a paper-based evaluation form using a five-point Likert scale, as well as a confidential talking circle evaluation. The response rate was 95.4% (n=271, pooled cohort). Data were entered separately into SPSS and annual reports were written to the Faculty. Descriptive statistics are reported alongside themed qualitative data. The three combined student evaluation results were extremely positive. Students (n=271) strongly agreed that the workshop was well organised (M=4.3), that the facilitators contributed very positively to their experience (M=4.3), and that they were very satisfied overall with the activity (M=4.2). They agreed that the eight overall objectives had been well met (M=3.9-4.3). The nine sessions were highly evaluated with mean ratings of between 3.9 and 4.8. The 'best thing' about the immersion identified by more than half of the students was overwhelmingly (n=140) the Storytelling session, followed by bonding with the cohort, the Torres Strait Islander session and learning more about culture. The item identified as needing most improvement was the food (n=87), followed by the

  5. Explaining the role of organizational culture on succession-planning at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtak, Mohammad; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Habibzadeh, Shahram; Kamran, Aziz; Zandian, Hamed; Mahdavi, Abdollah

    2017-11-01

    Developing and guiding new knowledge are futile unless the organizational culture can also be transformed. Future leaders cannot emerge out of an organizational environment that is not conducive to the accumulation of experiences. The aim of this study was to explore the role of organizational culture in creating a succession-planning system at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2014. The present qualitative framework analysis held interviews with 23 director generals, administrative directors and deputies from the headquarters of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2014 who were selected through snowball sampling. The data obtained were analyzed in MAXQDA-10. Codes were extracted using inductive techniques. The cultural factors affecting succession-planning at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education were identified and classified under three main areas, including the cultural factors related to the directors with four themes (Directors' job security, Constructive competition, Transparency and trust development, Creating opportunities), to the personnel with four themes (Organizational identity and loyalty, Trust in the organization, Talent and merit, Peer envy) and to the system with two themes (Values and beliefs, Politicization). Findings of the study show that establishment and institutionalization of the succession planning to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education is deeply affected by the components of organizational culture. Accordingly, unprofessional organization culture can deprive the organization of numerous advantages in multiple-succession planning.

  6. Audit of child maltreatment medical assessments in a culturally diverse, metropolitan setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Hotton, Paul Rex

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a major public health problem globally. While there is evidence for the value of medical examination in the assessment of CM, little is known about the quality of clinical assessments for CM. South Western Sydney (SWS) has a large metropolitan population with many vulnerable subgroups. We aimed to describe acute presentations of CM in SWS over a 3-year period-with a focus on the quality of the clinical assessments. We wanted to determine whether the cases assessed fulfilled established minimum standards for clinical assessment of CM and whether the assessments were performed in a child-friendly manner. We gathered data from the acute child protection database on all children forensic doctors were better at identifying these health concerns than solo assessments. Most assessments were multidisciplinary and used protocols; half were not followed up; a third were performed after-hours and a third had no carer present during assessments. We identified strengths and weaknesses in current CM assessments in our service. Locally relevant standards for CM assessments are achievable in the acute setting, more challenging is addressing appropriate medical and psychosocial follow-up for these children. While we have established baseline domains for measuring a child-friendly approach to CM assessments, more should be done to ensure these vulnerable children are assessed in a timely, child-friendly manner, with appropriate follow-up.

  7. Scaffolding knowledge building in a Web-based communication and cultural competence program for international medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Leila R; Russell, M Lynn; Nelles, Laura J; Smith, Cathy M

    2009-10-01

    Professional behaviors, tacitly understood by Canadian-trained physicians, are difficult to teach and often create practice barriers for IMGs. The purpose of this design research study was to develop a Web-based program simulating Canadian medical literacy and culture, and to evaluate strategies of scaffolding individual knowledge building. Study 1 (N = 20) examined usability and pedagogic design. Studies 2 (N = 39) and 3 (N = 33) examined case participation patterns. Model design was validated in Study 1. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated high levels of participation, on unprompted third tries, on knowledge tests. Recursive patterns were strongest on Reflective Exercises. Five strategies scaffolded knowledge building: (1) video simulations, (2) contextualized resources, (3) concurrent feedback, (4) Reflective Exercises, and (5) commentaries prompting "reflection on reflection." Scaffolded design supports complex knowledge building. These findings are concurrent with educational research on the importance of recursion and revision of knowledge for improvable and relational understanding.

  8. Medical student perceptions of factors affecting productivity of problem-based learning tutorial groups: does culture influence the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Carlo, Mandira; Swadi, Harith; Mpofu, Debbie

    2003-01-01

    The popularization of problem-based learning (PBL) has drawn attention to the motivational and cognitive skills necessary for medical students in group learning. This study identifies the effect of motivational and cognitive factors on group productivity of PBL tutorial groups. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 115 students at the end of PBL tutorials for 4 themes. The questionnaire explored student perceptions about effect of motivation, cohesion, sponging, withdrawal, interaction, and elaboration on group productivity. We further analyzed (a) differences in perceptions between male and female students, (b) effect of "problems," and (c) effect of student progress over time on group productivity. There were linear relations between a tutorial group's success and the factors studied. Significant differences were noted between male and female student groups. Students and tutors need to recognize symptoms of ineffective PBL groups. Our study emphasizes the need to take into account cultural issues in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials.

  9. 'It's a cultural expectation...' The pressure on medical trainees to work independently in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Regehr, Glenn; Baker, G Ross; Lingard, Lorelei A

    2009-07-01

    Medical trainees demonstrate a reluctance to ask for help unless they believe it is absolutely necessary, a situation which could impact on the safety of patients. This study aimed to develop a theoretical exploration of the pressure on medical trainees to be independent and to generate theory-based approaches to the implications for patient safety of this pressure towards independent working. In Phase 1, 88 teaching team members from internal and emergency medicine were observed during clinical activities (216 hours), and 65 participants completed brief interviews. In Phase 2, 36 in-depth interviews were conducted using video vignettes. Data collection and analysis employed grounded theory methodology. Participants conceived that the pressure towards independence in clinical work originated in trainees' desire to lay claim to the identity of a doctor (as a member of a group of autonomous high achievers), and in organisational issues such as heavy workloads and constant evaluations. The identity and organisational issues related to the pressure towards independence were explored through the lenses of established theories from education and psychology. Consideration of Lave and Wenger's situated learning theory suggests that giving attention to the 'independent doctor' ideal, through measures such as involving trainees when their supervisors ask for help, could impact the safety of teaching team practice. Amalberti et al.'s migration model explains how pressures to maximise productivity and individual gain may cause teaching teams to migrate beyond the boundaries of safe practice and suggests that managing triggers (such as workload and high-stakes evaluations) for violations of safe practice might improve safety. Implementation and evaluation of these theory-based approaches to the safety of teaching team practice would contribute to a better understanding of the links between trainee independence and patient safety.

  10. The Bioinformatics of Integrative Medical Insights: Proposals for an International PsychoSocial and Cultural Bioinformatics Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Rossi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the formation of an International PsychoSocial and Cultural Bioinformatics Project (IPCBP to explore the research foundations of Integrative Medical Insights (IMI on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the psychological, cultural, social, and spiritual. Just as The Human Genome Project identified the molecular foundations of modern medicine with the new technology of sequencing DNA during the past decade, the IPCBP would extend and integrate this neuroscience knowledge base with the technology of gene expression via DNA/proteomic microarray research and brain imaging in development, stress, healing, rehabilitation, and the psychotherapeutic facilitation of existentional wellness. We anticipate that the IPCBP will require a unique international collaboration of, academic institutions, researchers, and clinical practioners for the creation of a new neuroscience of mind-body communication, brain plasticity, memory, learning, and creative processing during optimal experiential states of art, beauty, and truth. We illustrate this emerging integration of bioinformatics with medicine with a videotape of the classical 4-stage creative process in a neuroscience approach to psychotherapy.

  11. The Bioinformatics of Integrative Medical Insights: Proposals for an International Psycho-Social and Cultural Bioinformatics Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Rossi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the formation of an International Psycho-Social and Cultural Bioinformatics Project (IPCBP to explore the research foundations of Integrative Medical Insights (IMI on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the psychological, cultural, social, and spiritual. Just as The Human Genome Project identified the molecular foundations of modern medicine with the new technology of sequencing DNA during the past decade, the IPCBP would extend and integrate this neuroscience knowledge base with the technology of gene expression via DNA/proteomic microarray research and brain imaging in development, stress, healing, rehabilitation, and the psychotherapeutic facilitation of existentional wellness. We anticipate that the IPCBP will require a unique international collaboration of, academic institutions, researchers, and clinical practioners for the creation of a new neuroscience of mind-body communication, brain plasticity, memory, learning, and creative processing during optimal experiential states of art, beauty, and truth. We illustrate this emerging integration of bioinformatics with medicine with a videotape of the classical 4-stage creative process in a neuroscience approach to psychotherapy.

  12. Perceptions of problem-based learning (PBL) group effectiveness in a socially-culturally diverse medical student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaram, V S; Dolmans, D H J M; Lachman, N; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2008-07-01

    A key aspect of the success of a PBL curriculum is the effective implementation of its small group tutorials. Diversity among students participating in tutorials may affect the effectiveness of the tutorials and may require different implementation strategies. To determine how students from diverse backgrounds perceive the effectiveness of the processes and content of the PBL tutorials. This study also aims to explore the relationship between students' perceptions of their PBL tutorials and their gender, age, language, prior educational training, and secondary schooling. Data were survey results from 244 first-year student-respondents at the Nelson Mandela School of Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify scale constructs in the questionnaire. Relationships between independent and dependent variables were investigated in an analysis of variance. The average scores for the items measured varied between 3.3 and 3.8 (scale value 1 indicated negative regard and 5 indicated positive regard). Among process measures, approximately two-thirds of students felt that learning in a group was neither frustrating nor stressful and that they enjoyed learning how to work with students from different social and cultural backgrounds. Among content measures, 80% of the students felt that they learned to work successfully with students from different social and cultural groups and 77% felt that they benefited from the input of other group members. Mean ratings on these measures did not vary with students' gender, age, first language, prior educational training, and the types of schools they had previously attended. Medical students of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, regardless of their backgrounds, generally have positive perceptions of small group learning. These findings support previous studies in highlighting the role that small group tutorials can play in overcoming cultural barriers and promoting unity and

  13. Culture-positive invasive aspergillosis in a medical center in Taiwan, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiue, H-C; Wu, T-H; Chang, T-C; Hsiue, Y-C; Huang, Y-T; Lee, P-I; Hsueh, P-R

    2012-07-01

    We reviewed 776 patients who were culture positive for Aspergillus species at the hospital from 2000 to 2009. The isolates were collected for species identification by oligonucleotide hybridization and sequence analysis. A total of 96 cases of proven or probable IA were identified according to published criteria. The incidence of IA has increased significantly during the study period. Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus (41.7% each) were equally prevalent causative species. IA due to unusual species including A. nidulans (n=2), A. versicolor (n=2), and A. tubingensis (n=1) were also found. Among patients with IA, 55.2% had hematological disorder, 19.8% had underlying lung disorder, and 10.4% had autoimmune disease. The isolates species (Pculture with invasive disease. The overall mortality at three months was 62.5%, which remained stable throughout the study period. Multivariate analysis identified prior steroid use (P=0.007) as a significant risk factor for death, while surgery (P=0.030) and voriconazole (P=0.012) had protective effects. In conclusion, autoimmune disorders and underlying pulmonary diseases should also be considered as important predisposing factors of IA. Further emphasis on surgery and voriconazole in the management of IA might be beneficial.

  14. Sailing smoothly across the cultural divide: Constructing effective behavioral science presentations for medical audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerholtz, Linda; Schirmer, Julie; Carling, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    Beginning behavioral science faculty, who are critical residency program contributors, face significant immediate challenges that often diminish their effectiveness and increase the time it takes to translate and reformat their expertise into relevant and meaningful educational presentations. Residency program culture and competency-based learning are quite different from the educational objectives and teaching environments found in most behavioral health training programs. The goal of this article is to provide beginning behavior science faculty, who are typically on their own and learning on the job, with a guide to the core educational perspectives and skills required as well as key resources that are available to them. Since a significant portion of behavioral science faculty's teaching time revolves around small and large group presentations, our guide focuses on how to incorporate key strategies and resources into relevant, evidenced-based and, most importantly, effective behavioral health presentations for the program's resident physicians. Specifically, our recommendations include selection of content, methods of content organization, techniques for actively engaging resident physicians in discussing the significance of the topics, and descriptions of numerous Internet resources for the primary mental health topics that concern family medicine trainees. Finally, it is emphasized that the relevant and effective use of these recommendations is dependent upon the behavioral science faculty educator's first understanding and appreciating how physicians' think, speak, and prioritize information while caring for their patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Tradition meets innovation: transforming academic medical culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-04-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past 20 years. Although the academic physician's triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic health centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. The authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multipronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met five times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles, and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers.

  16. Strong leadership and teamwork drive culture and performance change: Ohio State University Medical Center 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Fred; Bendapudi, Neeli; Rucci, Anthony; Schlesinger, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    Several characteristics of academic health centers have the potential to create high levels of internal conflict and misalignment that can pose significant leadership challenges. In September 2000, the positions of Ohio State University (OSU) senior vice president for health sciences, dean of the medical school, and the newly created position of chief executive officer of the OSU Medical Center (OSUMC) were combined under a single leader to oversee the OSUMC. This mandate from the president and trustees was modeled after top institutions with similar structures. The leader who assumed the role was tasked with improving OSUMC's academic, clinical, and financial performance. To achieve this goal, the senior vice president and his team employed the service value chain model of improving performance, based on the premise that leadership behavior/culture drives employee engagement/satisfaction, leading to customer satisfaction and improved organizational performance. Implementing this approach was a seven-step process: (1) selecting the right leadership team, (2) assessing the challenges and opportunities, (3) setting expectations for performance and leadership behavior, (4) aligning structures and functions, (5) engaging constituents, (6) developing leadership skills, and (7) defining strategies and tracking goals. The OSUMC setting during this period provides an observational case study to examine how these stepwise changes, instituted by strong leadership and teamwork, were able to make and implement sound decisions that drove substantial and measurable improvements in the engagement and satisfaction of faculty and staff; the satisfaction of students and patients; and academic, clinical, and financial performance.

  17. Cross-cultural comparison of the patient-centeredness of the hidden curriculum between a Saudi Arabian and 9 US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bawardy, Rasha; Blatt, Benjamin; Al-Shohaib, Saad; Simmens, Samuel J

    2009-12-18

    The implicit "hidden curriculum" strongly influences medical students' perceptions of the importance of patient-centeredness. A new instrument, the Communication, Curriculum, and Culture Survey (C3), already used to assess this hard-to- access part of the curriculum in the US, has potential for use in cross-cultural comparisons. To use the C3 to perform a pilot cross-cultural comparison of the patient-centeredness of the hidden curriculum between a Saudi medical school and 9 U.S. medical schools. Senior Saudi medical students completed the C3 and a second instrument, the Patient-Provider Orientation Scale (PPOS), which measured their attitudes toward patient-centered behavior. Senior Saudi medical students. 139/256 (54%) Saudis completed the C3; 122/256(48%) completed the PPOS. Means for 2 out of 3 of the C3's domains (0-100 scale) were lower for the Saudis than those for the Americans (95% confidence intervals in parentheses): 47 (45, 50) vs. 55 (53, 58); 54 (50, 58) vs. 68 (67, 70); they overlapped in the third: 60 (57, 63) vs. 62 (60, 63). The mean Saudi PPOS score was 4.0 (3.9, 4.1); for the American medical schools, 4.8 (4.8-4.8) (1-6, least to most patient-centered). In this preliminary study the data suggest that the patient-centeredness of the hidden curriculum differs in Saudi and US medical schools in 2 out of 3 domains. Cross-cultural use of instruments such as the C3 can highlight such important differences and help educators evaluate their curriculum from an international, as well as a local perspective. Use of instruments across borders is a growing trend and an indicator of the increasing globalization of medical education.

  18. [Cultural adaptation and validation of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey questionnaire (MOS-SSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Fachado, A; Montes Martinez, A; Menendez Villalva, C; Pereira, M Graça

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assesment of psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the instrument "Medical Outcomes Study - Social Support Survey (MOSSSS)". This questionnaire has been translated and adapted in a Portuguese sample of 101 patients with chronic illness of a rural health centre in Portugal. The average age of patients was 63.4 years, 56.4% female. 29% were illiterate and 2% had completed high school. 78% had arterial hypertension and the 56.4% had diabetes mellitus type 2. The internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis were performed in order to confirm reliability and validity of the scale and its multidimensional characteristics. The 2-week test-retest reliability was estimated using weighted kappa for the ordinals variables and intraclass coefficient correlation for the quantitative variables. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from 0.873 to 0.967 at test, and 0.862 to 0.972 at retest. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors (emotional, tangible, positive interaction and affection support) that explain the 72.71% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of four factors that allowed the application of the scale with original items. The goodness-of-fit measures corroborate the initial structure, with chi2/ df=2.01, GFI=0.998, CFI=0.999, AGFI=0.998, TLI=0.999, NFI=0.998, SRMR=0.332, RMSEA=0.76. The 2-weeks test-retest reliability of the Portuguese MOS-SSS as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient was ranged from 0.941 to 0.966 for the four dimensions and the overall support index. The weighted kappa was ranged from 0.67 to 0.87 for all the items. The MOS-SSS Portuguese version demonstrates good psychometric properties and seems to be useful to measure multidimensional aspects of social support in the Portuguese population.

  19. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of urine culture-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis at medical centers in Taiwan from 1995 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-L; Lai, C-C; Yu, M-C; Yu, F-L; Lee, J-C; Chou, C-H; Tan, C-K; Yang, P-C; Hsueh, P-R

    2011-03-01

    All patients with urine culture-confirmed genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) diagnosed between 1995 and 2007 at two medical centers in northern Taiwan were included in this retrospective study. Genotypes of 48 preserved Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from these patients were determined by spoligotyping and double repetitive element PCR (DRE-PCR) analysis. Among the 64 patients, 38 (59.4%) were male with a mean ±SD age of 60.3 ± 16.1 years old. The overall mortality rate was 26.2%. Poor prognostic factors included age over 65 years (HR = 4.03; 95%; CI: 1.27-12.76), cardiovascular disease (HR = 5.96; 95% CI: 1.98-17.92), receiving steroids (HR = 10.16; 95% CI: 2.27-45.47), not being treated (HR 4.81; 95% CI 1.12-20.67). Spoligotyping and DRE-PCR of the 48 MTB isolates revealed that 20 (41.7%) belonged to the Beijing family and 40 (83.3%) had a clustering pattern. Identification of a Beijing family isolate was not correlated with drug resistance or mortality. Clustering strains were likely to be resistant to isoniazid (OR = 4.71; 95% CI: 1.10 to 23.53). In this study of patients with urine culture-confirmed GUTB, age and coexisting diseases were independently associated with an unfavorable outcome. The Beijing family was the dominant genotype of GUTB isolates, but did not correlate with drug resistance or outcome.

  20. Assessment of Patient Safety Culture in a Selected Number of Pharmacies Affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Using the Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (SOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jamili

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, commitment of healthcare authorities to patient safety culture is the most important factor in the promotion of organizational patient safety. Considering that the lowest score of patient safety culture belonged to the dimension of “overall perceptions of patient safety”,it is recommended that related training interventions be implemented for healthcare staff in order to establish and promote the patient safety culture in pharmacies.

  1. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann B; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2013-04-01

    Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE: The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include (1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; (2) assess the population, need, and context; (3) evaluate the intervention to be adapted with attention to

  2. 传统医德文化与医学伦理学教学改革探讨%Discussion on the Traditional Medical Ethics Culture and Teaching Reform of Medical Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星; 王晓敏

    2017-01-01

    Through discussing the traditional medical ethics culture and medical ethics,this paper pointed out the main problems in the teaching practice of medical ethics:it did not well handle the relationship between the inheritance of traditional culture and the absorption of foreign culture;it emphasized too much on the learning of analysis methods and tools of ethical problems but ignored the cultivation of personality and morality;the teaching curriculum of medical ethics is unreasonable.This paper discussed the similarities and differences between medical ethics and traditional ethics culture,gasped the common essence of ethics,and put forward to better improve the teaching of medical ethics through the construction of basic theory system,the settings and perfection of curriculum system,the construction and improvement of the curriculum evaluation system,and the inheritance of traditional medical ethics cultural.%通过论述传统医德文化及其医学伦理思想,指出了医学伦理学教学实践中的主要问题:没有处理好传统文化继承和外来文化吸收之间的关系;过分重视伦理问题分析方法和工具的学习,而忽视了对象人格和德性的培育;医学伦理学教学课程设置不合理.客观论证医学伦理学与传统医德文化之间的异同,把握两者共同的伦理思想精髓,并提出了通过基础理论体系的建构,课程体系的设置和完善,课程评价体系的建构和完善,传统医德文化的传承途径来更好地完善医学伦理学教学.

  3. Exercise for Seniors: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Exercise and age Related Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Seniors' Health Sports Fitness National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Exercise for Seniors is the National Institute ...

  4. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  5. The Visible Humans | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in contrast to similar images drawn by Leonardo DaVinci around 1500. Photos By: Karl Hoehne, University Medical ... develop products like artificial limbs; or to create tools to help surgeons rehearse operations. They've even ...

  6. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Related Issues Specifics See, Play and Learn Images Videos and Tutorials Research Clinical Trials Journal Articles Resources ... bypass surgery - slideshow (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... is better to reduce postoperative stroke... Article: Blood transfusion and ...

  7. Kids and Concussions | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the extent of that impact," if it's short-term, long-term, temporary or permanent. NIH neuropsychologist Alison ... later." Post-concussion symptoms include difficulty concentrating, headaches, memory ... medical attention as soon as possible. Keep the child still, ...

  8. Mucus in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is normal. An excess amount may indicate a urinary tract infection (UTI) or other medical condition. A test called urinalysis ... your urinalysis if you have symptoms of a UTI. These include: Frequent urge to urinate, but little ...

  9. Cultural Intelligence and Social Adaptability: A Comparison between Iranian and Non-Iranian Dormitory Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Batoul; Keyvanara, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    At the modern age, to acquire knowledge and experience, the individuals with their own specific culture have to enter contexts with cultural diversity, adapt to different cultures and have social interactions to be able to have effective inter-cultural relationships.To have such intercultural associations and satisfy individual needs in the society, cultural intelligence and social adaptability are deemed as inevitable requirements, in particular for those who enter a quite different culture. Hence, the present study tries to compare the cultural intelligence and its aspects and social adaptability in Iranian and non-Iranian dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The study was of descriptiveanalytical nature. The research population consisted of Iranian and non-Iranian students resided in the dormitories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences which are 2500, totally. For Iranian students, two-stage sampling method was adopted. At the first stage, classified sampling and at the second stage, systematic random sampling was conducted. In this way, 441 students were selected. To form non-Iranian students' sample, consensus sampling method was applied and a sample of 37 students were obtained. The research data was collected by using Earley & Ang's Cultural Intelligence Questionnaire with the Cronbach's coefficient α of 76% and California Social Adaptability Standard Questionnaire with the Cronbach's coefficient α of over 70%. Then, the data were put into SPSS software to be analyzed. Finally, the results were presented by descriptive and inferential statistics methods. The study findings revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between cultural intelligence and cognitive aspect of cultural intelligence in Iranian and non-Iranian students (P≥0/05). However, Iranian and non-Iranian students statistically differed in terms of the following aspects of cultural intelligence: meta-cognitive aspect (61.8% for

  10. What Are Disparities? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: Race Ethnicity Immigrant status Disability Sex or gender Sexual orientation Geography Income To better understand the context of ... persist even when the data are controlled for gender, race and ethnicity, age, ... role in implementing culturally competent health promotion and disease ...

  11. Psoriasis Doesn't Slow Down Texan Brian LaFoy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... willing to do. I'm one of the lucky ones." Find Out More National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) MedlinePlus-Psoriasis Clinical Trials Search Psoriasis Spring 2017 Issue: Volume 12 Number 1 Page 22 MedlinePlus Subscribe Magazine Information Contact ...

  12. Take this Quick Quiz: Alcohol and Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12 ounces of regular beer 5 ounces of wine 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits none of the above all of the above ... can or bottle of regular beer, ale, or wine cooler; one 8- or 9-ounce can or bottle ... distilled spirits such as whiskey, gin, vodka, or rum. False. ...

  13. Life Works: Explore Health and Medical Science Careers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and education was always a priority in our house. They encouraged my brother and me to pursue higher education and ... Italian and proficient as an Italian cook. On my return to the U.S., I was assigned to the White House and had the privilege of providing dental care ...

  14. [The Revista médica de Hamburgo. A medical journal as an instrument of German foreign cultural propaganda during the Weimar Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    After the First World War, foreign cultural policy became one of the few fields in which Germany could act relatively free from the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles. In this context, in 1920 the Hamburg doctors Brauer, Nocht and Mühlens created a monthly medical journal in Spanish (and a bit of Portuguese) for use as an instrument of cultural propaganda, i.e. to increase German influence in Spain and, more importantly, in the countries of Latin America: the Revista médica de Hamburgo (since 1928 Revista médica germano-ibero-americana). The focus of the article is on the protagonists of the Revista project, i.e. the Hamburg doctors, the Cultural Department of the Foreign Office in Berlin, the German pharmaceutical industry, and the publishing houses involved: their conceptions and actions; their correspondence, negotiations, agreements and controversies.

  15. Could Values and Social Structures in Singapore Facilitate Attainment of Patient-Focused, Cultural, and Linguistic Competency Standards in a Patient-Centered Medical Home Pilot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jenny A; Shiow, Sue-Anne Toh Ee; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Primary care practices in the United States are transforming into patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) at a rapid pace. Newer PCMH standards have emphasized culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS), but at this time, only some states in the United States have proposed or passed cultural competency training for health care professionals. Other countries are moving to PCMH models. Singapore, a small, ethnically diverse island nation, has national values and social structures that emphasize cultural and linguistic cohesion. In this piece, we examine Singapore’s first PCMH pilot with a national academic center and primary care practice group. Features such as common shared values, self-reliance, racial and religious harmony, patient experience surveillance, and incorporation of CLAS standards in routine health care transactions may predict success for the PCMH in Singapore, with some implications for the United States. PMID:28725822

  16. Colleagues Pay Tribute to Dr. Donald A.B. Lindberg, Retiring After Three Decades of NLM Leadership | NIH MedlinePlus ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... informatics and helped establish the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a course-changing development that could ... expand the publication and distribution of NIH MedlinePlus magazine, thousands and thousands more people will gain valuable, ...

  17. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Scheib, Peter; Ko, Nayeong; Wirsching, Michael; Kuhnert, Andrea; Hick, Jie; Schüßler, Gerhard; Wu, Wenyuan; Yuan, Shen; Cat, Nguyen Huu; Vongphrachanh, Sisouk; Linh, Ngo Tich; Viet, Ngyuen Kim

    2012-08-29

    With the "ASIA-LINK" program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1) an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2) a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3) training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai), Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue) and Laos (Vientiane). A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the participants were necessary for the topics of "breaking bad

  18. Results of a psychosomatic training program in China, Vietnam and Laos: successful cross-cultural transfer of a postgraduate training program for medical doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Kurt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the “ASIA-LINK” program, the European Community has supported the development and implementation of a curriculum of postgraduate psychosomatic training for medical doctors in China, Vietnam and Laos. Currently, these three countries are undergoing great social, economic and cultural changes. The associated psychosocial stress has led to increases in psychological and psychosomatic problems, as well as disorders for which no adequate medical or psychological care is available, even in cities. Health care in these three countries is characterized by the coexistence of Western medicine and traditional medicine. Psychological and psychosomatic disorders and problems are insufficiently recognized and treated, and there is a need for biopsychosocially orientated medical care. Little is known about the transferability of Western-oriented psychosomatic training programs in the Southeast Asian cultural context. Methods The curriculum was developed and implemented in three steps: 1 an experimental phase to build a future teacher group; 2 a joint training program for future teachers and German teachers; and 3 training by Asian trainers that was supervised by German teachers. The didactic elements included live patient interviews, lectures, communication skills training and Balint groups. The training was evaluated using questionnaires for the participants and interviews of the German teachers and the future teachers. Results Regional training centers were formed in China (Shanghai, Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City and Hue and Laos (Vientiane. A total of 200 physicians completed the training, and 30 physicians acquired the status of future teacher. The acceptance of the training was high, and feelings of competence increased during the courses. The interactive training methods were greatly appreciated, with the skills training and self-experience ranked as the most important topics. Adaptations to the cultural background of the

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOFSTEDE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND EMPLOYEES JOB BURNOUT IN HOSPITALS OF TEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Abbasi, Mahya; Foruoshani, Abbas Rahimi; Pooyan, Ebrahim Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Organizational culture plays a supportive role in modification of structure and implementation of new management systems. So, the management of organizational culture with cultural elements recognition plays an important role in improving the efficacy and effectiveness of the organization. On the other hand, the health sector requires healthy and motivated practitioners and staff to achieve these goals. Job burnout as a response to environmental stressors causes some changes in attitude and behavior towards work and work environment, and factors such as organizational culture effect on it. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between organizational culture and employee's burnout. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. The study population included all clinical staff (physicians and nurses) and nonclinical (administrative and financial) in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014-2015. Among them, 387 participants were selected using simple stratified random sampling. In order to collect the required data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (1981) and Hofstede's organizational cultural questionnaire (1988) were used. Also Cronbach's alpha obtained 0.836 and 0.913 for them, respectively. In order to analyze the data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, multiple regression, independent t-test and binomial test were performed using SPSS 20. Results showed that organizational culture in studied population were masculine, collectivism with high uncertainty avoidance and relatively equitable power distance. Mean score for emotional exhaustion was (31.4) and most of participants 315 (40.6%) had average emotional exhaustion. Mean score for depersonalization was (21.16) and most of participants 315 (82.1%) had high depersonalization. Mean score for personal accomplishment was (30.02) and most of participants 280 (73.2%) had high personal accomplishment. Multiple correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant relationship between

  20. A cross-cultural perspective of medical clowning: comparison of its effectiveness in reducing pain and anxiety among hospitalized Bedouin and Jewish Israeli children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilboa-Negari Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zehavit Gilboa-Negari,1 Sarah Abu-Kaf,2 Ephrat Huss,1 Gavriel Hain,3 Asher Moser4 1Spitzer Department of Social Work, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 2Conflict Management and Resolution Program, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 3Department of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 4Department of Pediatric Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel Purpose: Medical clowning has proven effective for reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, however, its differential effects on children from different cultures have not yet been researched. This study evaluated the effects of medical-clowning intervention on anxiety and pain among Jewish and Bedouin children, and anxiety among their parents, in southern Israel. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in hospital pediatric departments and employed a pre–post design involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included 89 children whose ages ranged from 7.5 to 12 years (39 Jewish and 50 Bedouin and 69 parents (19 Jewish and 50 Bedouin. Questionnaires assessing pain, anxiety, and demographics were used at the pre-intervention stage and pain, anxiety, and enjoyment of different aspects of the intervention were evaluated following the intervention. The intervention stage lasted for 8–10 minutes and included the use of word play, body language, and making faces, as well as the use of props brought by the clown. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted at the post-intervention stage. Results: The intervention reduced pain and anxiety among both groups of children and reduced anxiety among both groups of parents. However, anxiety levels were reduced more significantly among Bedouin children. The nonverbal components of the clowns’ humor were most central, but it was the verbal components that mediated the reduction in anxiety among the Bedouin children. Conclusion: This study underscored

  1. A study on organizational culture, structure and information technology as three KM enablers: A case study in five Iranian medical and healthcare research centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Iran-nejad-parizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates organizational structure, culture, and information technology as knowledge management (KM infrastructural capabilities, and compares their significance and status quo in five medical research centers in Tehran, Iran. Objectives of this research were pursued by employing two statistical methods, regression analysis and Friedman test. Included in the study were 135 people (researchers and support staff from five medical and healthcare research centers of Tehran. A survey questionnaire including 23 questions was utilized to examine organizational structure, culture and information technology indicators. And another 12 questions examined KM effectiveness. The Friedman test indicated that in terms of their status quo, the three studied KM enablers are at different conditions, with organizational culture having the best (mean rank=1.79 and IT the worst (mean rank=2.14 status. Moreover, it was revealed by regression analysis that organizational structure is believed to have the most significant impact (Beta= 0.397 on the effectiveness of knowledge management initiatives, while information technology gained the least perceived impact (Beta= 0.176.

  2. Theoretical overview and socio-cultural implications of urban dwellers patronage of trado-medical homes and services in Nigerian urban centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojua, T.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global connectivity and developmental strides and the quest for human improvement as well as cultural behaviors of people is creating a concern for intellectual articulation. While Sociologists and Anthropologists alike look for a multi-cultural linkage for national and global development, as service provisions and acquisitions are being achieved at different areas. One of these is the increasing trado-medical centers in urban areas to meet or compliment orthodox medical services for good health. The problem of fake drugs, inactive or inefficient healing or curative strength of the orthodox services, high cost, and poor distribution, etc. has made the trado-medical services enjoy high patronage. This shows the viability of the different centers in a developing nation like Nigeria and which are especially being utilized by the urban dwellers for various reasons. This recently is becoming comparable with what exist in the rural areas. The paper discovered that irrespective of the social reconscientisation education/enlightenment and campaign at various levels against the patronage of these centers, they seem to progressively succeed in their own right. Some major ailments are being handled successfully although without any scientific means. Therefore, the paper recommends amongst others the improved and regulated policy measure of these practitioners. They should be professionally registered and proper training or induction made with clear ethical codes and principles adopted for effective performance etc. not as alternative medicine, but complementary medicine to orthodox practices.

  3. A cross-cultural perspective of medical clowning: comparison of its effectiveness in reducing pain and anxiety among hospitalized Bedouin and Jewish Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Negari, Zehavit; Abu-Kaf, Sarah; Huss, Ephrat; Hain, Gavriel; Moser, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Medical clowning has proven effective for reducing pain, anxiety, and stress, however, its differential effects on children from different cultures have not yet been researched. This study evaluated the effects of medical-clowning intervention on anxiety and pain among Jewish and Bedouin children, and anxiety among their parents, in southern Israel. The study was conducted in hospital pediatric departments and employed a pre-post design involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included 89 children whose ages ranged from 7.5 to 12 years (39 Jewish and 50 Bedouin) and 69 parents (19 Jewish and 50 Bedouin). Questionnaires assessing pain, anxiety, and demographics were used at the pre-intervention stage and pain, anxiety, and enjoyment of different aspects of the intervention were evaluated following the intervention. The intervention stage lasted for 8-10 minutes and included the use of word play, body language, and making faces, as well as the use of props brought by the clown. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted at the post-intervention stage. The intervention reduced pain and anxiety among both groups of children and reduced anxiety among both groups of parents. However, anxiety levels were reduced more significantly among Bedouin children. The nonverbal components of the clowns' humor were most central, but it was the verbal components that mediated the reduction in anxiety among the Bedouin children. This study underscored the effectiveness and importance of medical clowning in reducing pain and anxiety among children in different cultural contexts. Moreover, the issue of culturally appropriate humor was underscored and implications for intercultural clown training are discussed.

  4. ' Emotional Learning and Identity Development in Medicine : A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Study Comparing Taiwanese and Dutch Medical Undergraduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; de Vries-Erich, Joy M; Tsai, Daniel Fu-Chang; Dornan, Tim

    Purpose Current knowledge about the interplay between emotions and professional identity formation is limited and largely based on research in Western settings. This study aimed to broaden understandings of professional identity formation cross-culturally. Method In fall 2014, the authors

  5. Lack of language skills and knowledge of local culture in international medical graduates: Implications for the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarneh, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    International Medical Graduates (IMGs) form a coherent part of the National Health Service (NHS). Nearly 25% of the doctors working in the NHS are IMGs who obtained their primary medical degree from outside the EU. Moving to a different country that holds a different set of values and belief systems can be very challenging for IMGs, which in turn could have a significant effect on the service provided to NHS patients. This article will address the issue of effective communication skills within the IMG population and will explore the underlying issues behind this problem.

  6. Associations Among Depressive Symptoms, Wellness, Patient Involvement, Provider Cultural Competency, and Treatment Nonadherence: A Pilot Study Among Community Patients Seen at a University Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Huffman, Lauren E; Higginbotham, John C; Mugoya, George C T; Smith, Annie K; Dumas, Tia N

    2018-02-01

    Treatment nonadherence is a pernicious problem associated with increasing rates of chronic diseases, escalating healthcare costs, and rising mortality in some patients. Although researchers have suggested numerous factors related to treatment nonadherence, several understudied aspects warrant attention, such as primary-care settings, provider cultural competence, and patient involvement. Adding to the research base, the present pilot study examined 88 primarily Black American and White American community patients from a large university medical center in the southern part of the United States. The study explored two research questions: (a) To what extent are there associations among depressive symptoms, wellness, patient involvement, cultural competency, and treatment nonadherence in a racially diverse community patient population? And (b) to what extent do the study exploratory variables and background characteristics predict treatment nonadherence, both separately and jointly? Depressive symptoms, the patient's perception of a provider's cultural competence, and marital/partnered status were found to be statistically significantly associated with treatment nonadherence, but not entirely in the directions expected.

  7. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  8. Tradition Meets Innovation: Transforming Academic Medical Culture at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-01-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past twenty years. While the academic physician’s triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic medical centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around r...

  9. Effects of glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured human trabecular meshwork and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, David A; Kahook, Malik Y

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the potential cytotoxicity of various topical ophthalmic glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) cell lines. We tested 0.004% travoprost preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), sofZia or 0.001% Polyquad (PQ); and 0.005% latanoprost preserved with 0.020% BAK. We also tested a range of BAK concentrations in balanced salt solution (BSS). TM cells were treated for 10 min at 37°C with solutions diluted 1:10 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. Viability was determined by the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM (n = 6). BAK solutions (diluted 1:10) demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability in both cell types (TM and NPCE). With a 1:10 dilution of 0.020% BAK, there were significantly more living NPCE cells (89 ± 6%) than TM cells (57 ± 6%; p < 0.001). In TM cells, travoprost + BAK had statistically fewer live cells (83 ± 5%) than both travoprost + sofZia (97 ± 5%) and travoprost + PQ (97 ± 6%; p < 0.05). Compared with BSS-treated NPCE cells, travoprost had statistically fewer live cells (p < 0.05) when preserved with BAK (85 ± 16%), sofZia (91 ± 6%) or PQ (94 ± 2%). These results demonstrate that substitution of BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater viability of cultured TM cells, the cells involved in the conventional outflow pathway. Cultured NPCE, responsible for aqueous inflow, appear more resilient to BAK.

  10. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder in an 11-Year Old South American Boy: Medical and Cultural Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Schermbrucker, Jonah; Kimber, Melissa; Johnson, Natasha; Kearney, Sarah; Couturier, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is new in the DSM-5, replacing the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood. ARFID has no age criterion, and therefore addresses eating disturbances across the lifespan. This report illustrates the case of an 11-year-old boy of Colombian ancestry with ARFID and explores the role of culture in the diagnosis of ARFID. To date, literature describing this disorder is limited. ARFID is often seen in the child and adoles...

  11. Investigation the Basic and Cultural Causes of Comorbidity of Major Depression and Obsession in Patient Referring to Clinics and Medical Centers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Nikpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The diagnosis of the disease from another disease for the patient and the therapist is very important and it happens in the diagnostic process.  When the disease has more than one disorder axis, we face with multiple diagnose or comorbidity. So, the research investigated underlying factors of comorbidity of OCD and major depression and cultural factors resulting the incidence of comorbidity of OCD and major depression.  Methods: 300 patients were selected by targeted sampling from the patients referred to clinics and medical centers of psychology and psychiatry in Tehran, and responded to the questionnaire made by researcher for diagnosis of cultural factors of comorbidity of OCD and major depression, and Klinjer’s TCI test that measures natural elements and secretary personality. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: The results showed that the lack of flexibility, perfection-seeking of parents and giving extreme importance to cleanliness have impact on the incidence of comorbidity of these disorders without interaction of these variables with other variables,. Also, in part of cultural factors (extreme importance to hygiene and cleanliness and (intransigence and violence of the parents, and in the part of character and nature (persistence and perfection-seeking of parents were predicted by regression model. Conclusion: This study suggests that in the incidence of comorbidity of OCD and major depression, two cultural factors including the extreme importance of hygiene and cleanliness and perfection-seeking of parents interacting with an underlying of persistence leads to the comorbidity of this disorder.

  12. Non-cultural methods of human microflora evaluation for the benefit of crew medical control in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Lana, Moukhamedieva; Georgy, Osipov; Aleksey, Batov; Zoya, Soloviova; Robert, Mardanov; Yana, Panina; Anna, Gegenava

    2011-05-01

    Current control of human microflora is a great problem not only for the space medicine but also for practical health care. Due to many reasons its realization by classical bacteriological method is difficult in practical application or cannot be done. To evaluate non-cultural methods of microbial control of crews in a confined habitat we evaluated two different methods. The first method is based on digital treatment of microbial visual images, appearing after gram staining of microbial material from natural sample. This way the rate between gram-positive and gram-negative microbe could be gained as well as differentiation of rods and cocci could be attained, which is necessary for primary evaluation of human microbial cenosis in remote confined habitats. The other non-culture method of human microflora evaluation is gas chromatomass spectrometry (gcms) analysis of swabs gathered from different body sites. Gc-ms testing of swabs allows one to validate quantitative and special microflora based on specific lipid markers analysis.

  13. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a European Portuguese version of the 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Ana C; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Figueiredo, Isabel V

    2018-04-01

    The 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) is one of the most widely used instruments to assess medication adherence, but a validated European Portuguese version of MMAS-8 does not exist. Our aim was to develop and validate a European Portuguese version of the MMAS-8. A process of translation and back-translation of the original MMAS-8 was performed. The questionnaire was administered in nine community pharmacies and one public hospital between March 2014 and September 2015. Adult patients taking at least one antihypertensive drug were invited to participate. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed and internal consistency, convergent validity and concurrent validity were examined. A total of 472 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean MMAS-8 score obtained was 6.74±1.39. One hundred and thirty-two patients were classified as low adherers (28%), 181 (38.3%) as medium adherers and 159 (33.7%) as high adherers. For the factorial structure of the Portuguese version of the MMAS-8, the fit indices of the final model (chi-square [18] 48.465, pPortuguese version of the MMAS-8 was created that maintained a similar structure to the original MMAS-8 and good psychometric properties. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary language and cultural background as factors in resident burnout in medical specialties: a study in a bilingual US city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khalid I; Khan, Farhan M; Mulla, Zuber; Akins, Ralista; Ledger, Elizabeth; Giordano, Frank L

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the degree of burnout among resident physicians enrolled in seven postgraduate training programs at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC), Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, Texas, as it related to residents' age, gender, marital status, number of hours worked per week, primary language, race/ethnicity, and cultural background. : The Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey (MBI) was administered to measure the level of burnout according to the prevalence of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). : Eighty-one percent of the residents at TTUHSC participated in the study. Residents raised in the United States or Canada comprised 28% and 35% of the study, and all reported English as their primary language. The EE scale was significant for obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) residents (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 13.55, P = 0.02) and psychiatry (PSY) residents (POR = 6.50, P = 0.03). Emergency medicine (EM) residents (POR = 23.35, P = 0.002), OB/GYN (POR = 10.89, P = 0.02), and general surgery (GS) (POR = 6.24, P = 0.03) residents had high DP. Internal medicine (IM) residents (primarily Spanish-speaking) reported significantly low EE (POR = 0.22, P = 0.03) and PA (POR = 0.09, P = 0.001) scores. Residents from the United States or Canada who reported English as their primary language and noted their race as white, had high EE (POR = 3.06, P = 0.03; POR = 5.61, P = 0.0001; POR = 2.91, P = 0.004), DP (POR = 3.19, P = 0.02; POR = 8.34, P burnout and residents' race/ethnicity, primary language, and cultural background. Larger studies with similar focus would be necessary to generalize these findings. At-risk residents in bilingual locations should be provided with cultural awareness workshops, language assistance programs, as well as senior resident and faculty mentors.

  16. Do socio-cultural factors influence medical students’ health status and health-promoting behaviors? A cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Riemenschneider

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and mental health is important for coping with the high requirements of medical studies that are associated with a higher risk for severe stress, insomnia, smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and easier access to drugs. Health behaviors of medical students influence not just their own health but also the health of their future patients. We examined whether socio-cultural factors can explain differences in students’ health status and health-promoting behaviors. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional survey in Germany (Dresden, Munich and Hungary (Budapest, Pécs enclosed international medical students in their 1st, 3rd and 5th academic years. The students were invited to voluntarily and anonymously complete a questionnaire on different aspects of health behavior during obligatory seminars and lectures in 2014. The response rate of the total sample was 56.2 % (n = 2935; the subgroup analysis enclosed data of German (n = 1289, Hungarian (n = 1057 and Norwegian (n = 148 students. Results A high number of Norwegian students (84.5 % assessed their health status as very good/excellent. In comparison, only 60.3 % of the Hungarian and 70.7 % of the German participants reported a very good/excellent health status. The distributions were comparable between the study sites. Although gender, financial situation and nationality were significant health status predictors, they could explain only 8.2 % of the total variance of health status in the multivariable model. A comparably high number of Hungarian students (95.3 % vs. 67.4 % German and 56.7 % Norwegian reported that they can currently do a lot/very much for their health. In contrast, a significant number of Norwegians (73.0 % vs. 63.7 % Hungarian and 51.5 % German reported that they currently do a lot/very much for their health (chi2-test, p ≤ 0.001. Financial situation, study site and study year were the strongest predictors for health

  17. Cross-cultural challenges for assessing medical professionalism among clerkship physicians in a Middle Eastern country (Bahrain): feasibility and psychometric properties of multisource feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ansari, Ahmed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Al Azzawi, Mohamed; Al Amer, Rashed; Al Sharqi, Dana; Al-Mansoor, Anwar; Munshi, Fadi M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to design, implement, and evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a multisource feedback (MSF) system to assess interns in their clerkship year in the Middle Eastern culture, the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study was undertaken in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A total of 21 interns (who represent the total population of the interns for the given year) were assessed in this study. All of the interns were rotating through our hospital during their year-long clerkship rotation. The study sample consisted of nine males and 12 females. Each participating intern was evaluated by three groups of raters, eight medical intern colleagues, eight senior medical colleagues, and eight coworkers from different departments. A total of 21 interns (nine males and 12 females) were assessed in this study. The total mean response rates were 62.3%. A factor analysis was conducted that found that the data on the questionnaire grouped into three factors that counted for 76.4% of the total variance. These three factors were labeled as professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the full instrument scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients for the surveys were estimated to be 0.78. Based on our results and analysis, we conclude that the MSF tool we used on the interns rotating in their clerkship year within our Middle Eastern culture provides an effective method of evaluation because it offers a reliable, valid, and feasible process.

  18. Does the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) for the Fifth Revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) affect medical communication? A qualitative exploratory study from the New York site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K.; DeSilva, Ravi; Nicasio, Andel V.; Boiler, Marit; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cross-cultural mental health researchers often analyze patient explanatory models of illness to optimize service provision. The Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) is a cross-cultural assessment tool released in May 2013 with DSM-5 to revise shortcomings from the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF). The CFI field trial took place in 6 countries, 14 sites, and with 321 patients to explore its feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility with patients and clinicians. We sought to analyze if and how CFI feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility were related to patient-clinician communication. Design We report data from the New York site which enrolled 7 clinicians and 32 patients in 32 patient-clinician dyads. We undertook a data analysis independent of the parent field trial by conducting content analyses of debriefing interviews with all participants (n=64) based on codebooks derived from frameworks for medical communication and implementation outcomes. Three coders created codebooks, coded independently, established inter-rater coding reliability, and analyzed if the CFI affects medical communication with respect to feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility. Results Despite racial, ethnic, cultural, and professional differences within our group of patients and clinicians, we found that promoting satisfaction through the interview, eliciting data, eliciting the patient’s perspective, and perceiving data at multiple levels were common codes that explained how the CFI affected medical communication. We also found that all but 2 codes fell under the implementation outcome of clinical utility, 2 fell under acceptability, and none fell under feasibility. Conclusion Our study offers new directions for research on how a cultural interview affects patient-clinician communication. Future research can analyze how the CFI and other cultural interviews impact medical communication in clinical settings with subsequent effects on outcomes

  19. Does the Cultural Formulation Interview for the fifth revision of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) affect medical communication? A qualitative exploratory study from the New York site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K; Desilva, Ravi; Nicasio, Andel V; Boiler, Marit; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural mental health researchers often analyze patient explanatory models of illness to optimize service provision. The Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) is a cross-cultural assessment tool released in May 2013 with DSM-5 to revise shortcomings from the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF). The CFI field trial took place in 6 countries, 14 sites, and with 321 patients to explore its feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility with patients and clinicians. We sought to analyze if and how CFI feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility were related to patient-clinician communication. We report data from the New York site which enrolled 7 clinicians and 32 patients in 32 patient-clinician dyads. We undertook a data analysis independent of the parent field trial by conducting content analyses of debriefing interviews with all participants (n = 64) based on codebooks derived from frameworks for medical communication and implementation outcomes. Three coders created codebooks, coded independently, established inter-rater coding reliability, and analyzed if the CFI affects medical communication with respect to feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility. Despite racial, ethnical, cultural, and professional differences within our group of patients and clinicians, we found that promoting satisfaction through the interview, eliciting data, eliciting the patient's perspective, and perceiving data at multiple levels were common codes that explained how the CFI affected medical communication. We also found that all but two codes fell under the implementation outcome of clinical utility, two fell under acceptability, and none fell under feasibility. Our study offers new directions for research on how a cultural interview affects patient-clinician communication. Future research can analyze how the CFI and other cultural interviews impact medical communication in clinical settings with subsequent effects on outcomes such as medication adherence

  20. Patients' perceptions of cosmetic surgery at a time of globalization, medical consumerism, and mass media culture: a French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Câlin Constantin; Deneuve, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    The global popularity of cosmetic surgery, combined with mass media attention on medical consumerism, has resulted in misinformation that may have negatively affected the "collective image" of aesthetic practitioners. The authors assess patients' perceptions of cosmetic surgery and analyze their decision-making processes. During a 2-year period, 250 consecutive patients presenting to either of 2 public hospitals for cosmetic surgery treatment were asked to complete a 7-item questionnaire evaluating their knowledge of opinions about, and referring practices for, aesthetic procedures. Patients undergoing oncologic, postbariatric, or reconstructive procedures were not included in the study. After exclusion of 71 cases for refusal or incompletion, 179 questionnaires were retained and analyzed (from 162 women and 17 men). Overall, repair (70.4%), comfort (45.3%), and health (40.8%) were the words most frequently associated with cosmetic surgery. Quality of preoperative information (69.3%), patient-physician relationship (65.4%), and results seen in relatives/friends (46.3%) were the most important criteria for selecting a cosmetic surgeon. Moreover, 82.7% of patients knew the difference between cosmetic surgery and cosmetic medicine. Although potential patients appear to be more educated about cosmetic surgery than they were several years ago, misinformation still persists. As physicians, we must be responsible for disseminating accurate education and strengthening our collaboration with general practitioners to improve not only our results but also the accuracy of information in the mass media.

  1. Development and evaluation of pictograms on medication labels for patients with limited literacy skills in a culturally diverse multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, Nadir; Awaisu, Ahmed; Radoui, Amina; El Badawi, Aya; Jean, Linda; Dowse, Ros

    2014-01-01

    Much of the migrant workforce in Qatar is of low literacy level and does not understand Arabic or English, presenting a significant challenge to health care professionals. Medicine labels are typically in Arabic and English and are therefore poorly understood by these migrant workers. To develop pictograms illustrating selected medicine label instructions and to evaluate comprehension of the pictograms or conventional text supported with verbal instructions in foreign workers with low literacy skills. A range of common labeling instructions were identified and pictograms depicting these were developed using visual concepts and ideas from the literature. The process involved a consultative approach with input from the researchers, a local graphic artist, and members of the target population. The final set was evaluated for comprehension in participants who were randomized to one of three study groups: text plus verbal instructions, pictogram-only label, and pictogram with verbal instructions. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to assess differences between group variables. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Of 23 label instructions screened, 11 were selected for the study. A total of 123 participants took part in this study. Pictogram plus verbal instructions group achieved better results in interpreting the majority of the label instructions (P ≤ 0.05). The best interpreted pictograms with verbal instructions included: "Take two tablets three times a day," "Take one tablet in the morning and one tablet at night," and "Instill one drop in the eye." The worst interpreted pictograms with verbal instructions were: "Do not take with dairy products" and "Do not use by mouth." Some pictograms were difficult to interpret even when accompanied with verbal instructions, suggesting the need to thoroughly pilot them among users prior to implementation. Medication labels consisting of simple pictorials supported by verbal instructions were better

  2. The Future of Personalized Medicine | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about your family's medical history. What is a family medical history? It is knowing the medical challenges faced ... is very important to systematically collect your family medical history. Collecting a family history sounds complicated. Fortunately, it isn't. The ...

  3. Surface characterization of insulin-coated Ti6Al4V medical implants conditioned in cell culture medium: An XPS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchukarev, Andrey, E-mail: andrey.shchukarev@umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå SE-90187 (Sweden); Malekzadeh, Behnosh Öhrnell [Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 (Sweden); Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 (Sweden); Ransjö, Maria [Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 (Sweden); Tengvall, Pentti [Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 (Sweden); Westerlund, Anna [Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 (Sweden)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • In the absence of FBS, chemically immobilized insulin layer remains intact; • The immobilized insulin expose hydrophobic domains outward the implant; • In the presence of FBS, a partial replacement of insulin occurs; • The immobilized insulin stabilizes the secondary structure of adsorbed proteins. - Abstract: Surface characterization of insulin-coated Ti6Al4V medical implants, after incubation in α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM), was done by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in order to analyze the insulin behavior at the implant – α-MEM interface. In the absence of serum proteins in cell culture medium, the coated insulin layer remained intact, but experienced a time-dependent structural transformation exposing hydrophobic parts of the protein toward the solution. The presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium resulted in partial substitution of insulin by serum proteins. In spite of some insulin release, the remaining coated layer demonstrated a direct surface effect by stabilizing the structure of protein competitors, and by supporting the accumulation of calcium and phosphate ions at the interface. A structurally stable protein layer with incorporated calcium and phosphate ions at the implant–tissue interface could be an important prerequisite for enhanced bone formation.

  4. First experience using cultured epidermal autografts in Taiwan for burn victims of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park explosion, as part of Japanese medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hajime; Harunari, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hiroto

    2016-05-01

    On June 27, 2015, a flammable starch-based powder exploded at Formosa Fun Coast in Taipei, Taiwan, injuring 499 people, and more than 200 people were in critical condition with severe burns. Although a cultured epidermal autograft (CEA) was not approved or used in clinical practice, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration requested a Japanese CEA manufacturer to donate CEA for the burn victims as part of international medical assistance. The authors cooperated in this project and participated in the patient selection, wound bed management for CEA, and technical assistance for CEA use. Here, we provide an overview of the project. Nine patients were enrolled, and two patients were excluded from the skin biopsy; seven skin biopsies were collected approximately 1 month after the disaster. The average TBSA% burned was 81.0%, and the mean age was 20.1 years. CEA was grafted in five patients; wound closure had been obtained in one patient, and one patient was severely ill at the time of grafting. The CEA was combined with a wide split auto mesh graft or patch graft. The mean re-epithelization rate at 4 weeks after the grafting was 84.2% by patient, and all of the patients survived. Although this project had many obstacles to overcome, CEA grafting was successful and contributed to wound closure and survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface characterization of insulin-coated Ti6Al4V medical implants conditioned in cell culture medium: An XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchukarev, Andrey; Malekzadeh, Behnosh Öhrnell; Ransjö, Maria; Tengvall, Pentti; Westerlund, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In the absence of FBS, chemically immobilized insulin layer remains intact; • The immobilized insulin expose hydrophobic domains outward the implant; • In the presence of FBS, a partial replacement of insulin occurs; • The immobilized insulin stabilizes the secondary structure of adsorbed proteins. - Abstract: Surface characterization of insulin-coated Ti6Al4V medical implants, after incubation in α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM), was done by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in order to analyze the insulin behavior at the implant – α-MEM interface. In the absence of serum proteins in cell culture medium, the coated insulin layer remained intact, but experienced a time-dependent structural transformation exposing hydrophobic parts of the protein toward the solution. The presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium resulted in partial substitution of insulin by serum proteins. In spite of some insulin release, the remaining coated layer demonstrated a direct surface effect by stabilizing the structure of protein competitors, and by supporting the accumulation of calcium and phosphate ions at the interface. A structurally stable protein layer with incorporated calcium and phosphate ions at the implant–tissue interface could be an important prerequisite for enhanced bone formation.

  6. Lo cultural y lo espiritual en la formación médica: apreciaciones de estudiantes de 5to. año de Medicina The cultural and spiritual aspects in medical training: appreciations of the 5th year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo González Menéndez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El 94,6 % de los alumnos de 5to. año de Medicina en su rotación semestral por la asignatura Psiquiatría, contestó una encuesta anónima autoaplicable luego de participar en la actividad de reflexión y debate que abordó el tema del hombre como unidad bio-psico-socio-cultural y espiritual. Consistió en 6 preguntas a contestar en escala termómetro de 1 al 10, donde el 1 representaba la evaluación mínima y el 10 la máxima. Exploraba los criterios sobre la significación profesional de lo cultural y lo espiritual, así como el nivel de desarrollo alcanzado por médicos y estudiantes de su facultad en dichos aspectos. Se recogieron también las apreciaciones sobre los medios para desarrollar cada vez más ambos objetivos educativos. Los resultados evidenciaron una nítida conceptualización diferencial entre lo propiamente cultural y espiritual, así como la priorización consistente de lo espiritual sobre lo cultural, pese a reconocer la imbricación y potenciación de ambos aspectos en la integralidad del profesional de la salud. Las recomendaciones específicas para alcanzar y perfeccionar estos objetivos resultaron concordantes con los programas nacionales para desarrollar cada vez más la cultura y al espiritualidad de nuestra población, e hicieron énfasis en la trascendencia de la ejemplaridad de los profesores.94.6 % of the 5th year medical students in their semestral studies of Psychiatry answered an anonimous self-applicable survey after taking part in a reflexion and debate activity on the topic of man as a bio-socio-cultural and spiritual unit. The survey had 6 questions to be anwered at a thermometer scale from 1 to 10, where 1 represented the minimum evaluation and 10 the maximum. It explored the criteria on the professional significance of the cultural and the spiritual aspects, as well as the level of development attained by doctors and students of the faculty as regards these aspects. Their considerations on the means that

  7. Culture and Healthcare in Medical Education: Migrants' Health and Beyond [Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt in der medizinischen Ausbildung: "Migrantenmedizin" und mehr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soydan, Nedim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] One of the main challenges for teaching programs on immigration, ethnic diversity and health is to transform the commonplace notion of “culture” into a helpful tool for medical training and practice. This paper presents the teaching approach of an interdisciplinary course on “migrants’ health” established at the University of Giessen since 2004, which has recently been complemented by a thematically related collaboration with two universities in Latin America (Ecuador, Peru. The overall goal is to translate the abstract philosophy of into medical practice, and to provide students with the insights, attitudes and skills needed for a fruitful use of concepts like “culture”, “ethnicity” and “migration background”. A key feature of the course is the strong commitment to ethnography as an important means for looking under the surface of superficial attributions to culture, and for grasping the interplay of medicine and health with cultural, social, religious, economic and legal aspects in its particular local and/or individual shape. Three elements of the course are presented to illustrate this approach: First, a unit on Islam and Medicine, as important parts of the local immigrant community are Muslims. The second one deals with psychosomatic aspects, because in case of immigrants, complex symptoms and disease representations like somatisation are easily misinterpreted as “cultural”. The third element consists of a unit with specialized social workers form outside the university, who provide direct insights into the living conditions and health problems of local immigrant communities. [german] Eine der zentralen Herausforderungen für Lehrprojekte zum Thema Medizin und ethnisch-kulturelle Vielfalt besteht in der Vermittlung eines angemessenen Konzepts von „Kultur“. Vor allem gilt es, den exklusiven Fokus auf als „fremd“ wahrgenommene Bevölkerungsgruppen und die Gefahr oberflächlicher kulturelle

  8. Anxiety Distorders: Types, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications used for anxiety disorders are antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, and beta-blockers. Be aware that some medications are effective only ... anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety medications) The anti-anxiety medications called benzodiazepines ... control some of the physical symptoms ...

  9. Medical Movies on the Web Debuts with Gene Kelly's "Combat Fatigue Irritability" 1945 Film | NIH MedlinePlus the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine (NLM) is a World War II U.S. Navy training film directed by and starring Gene Kelly, who was then a rising Hollywood star. Combat Fatigue Irritability is a historically significant, yet ...

  10. Fundamentalization of the content of physical culture and health education of students in the largest medical schools of different professional orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlenko V.A.

    2017-01-01

    The content of competence of physical culture and health work reveals. It causes the affects the physical development of students, effective self-realization in the sphere of future professional activity, the need for physical activity, awareness and acceptance of the values of physical culture for the preservation and strengthening of individual health. The directions of the fundamentalization of education for the acquisition of basic knowledge in physical culture and sports, forming student...

  11. Adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to plastic tissue culture plates: a quantitative model for the adherence of staphylococci to medical devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, G D; Simpson, W A; Younger, J J; Baddour, L M; Barrett, F F; Melton, D M; Beachey, E H

    1985-01-01

    The adherence of coagulase-negative staphylococci to smooth surfaces was assayed by measuring the optical densities of stained bacterial films adherent to the floors of plastic tissue culture plates. The optical densities correlated with the weight of the adherent bacterial film (r = 0.906; P less than 0.01). The measurements also agreed with visual assessments of bacterial adherence to culture tubes, microtiter plates, and tissue culture plates. Selected clinical strains were passed through ...

  12. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  13. [Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized.

  14. Culture and Illness (Cultura y Enfermedad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pedro Daniel

    1975-01-01

    Every culture has unique attitudes and values toward health and sickness. This article explores Mexican medical culture on native, folk and scientific levels, and its effect on national health and medical practice. (In Spanish). (CK)

  15. My Family Health Portrait, A tool from the Surgeon General | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. My Family Health Portrait, A tool from the Surgeon General ... use Why is it important to know my family medical history? Your family medical history is a ...

  16. Conceptions of How a Learning or Teaching Curriculum, Workplace Culture and Agency of Individuals Shape Medical Student Learning and Supervisory Practices in the Clinical Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E.

    2015-01-01

    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the…

  17. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  18. Is Genetic Testing Right for You? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing CLINSEQ®: A Large-Scale Medical Sequencing Clinical Research Pilot Study Prenatal Screening - Prenatal testing information, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling ( ...

  19. Medical design anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventura, Jonathan; Gunn, Wendy

    Barnard and Spencer define medical anthropology in the Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology as "Medical anthropology is, as the phrase implies, unavoidably concerned with the paradigm of modern Western medicine, whether implicitly or explicitly" (2002: 541). Recently there is a new...... focus in medical sociology and anthropology, which is patient's practices and influence on wider global health environment (see for example vol. 36(2) of Sociology of Health & Illness). While various social science theoreticians have written about agentic abilities of objects, there is a gap...... in literature concerning various levels of socio-cultural influence of the medical environment through medical products. In our research we have outlined the importance of medical design anthropology (MDA) to the practice and theory of design (Ventura and Gunn, 2016). In this paper, we study the ways in which...

  20. Stem Cell Education for Medical Students at Tongji University: Primary Cell Culture and Directional Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Caixia; Tian, Haibin; Li, Jiao; Jia, Song; Li, Siguang; Xu, Guo-Tong; Xu, Lei; Lu, Lixia

    2018-01-01

    Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types under certain conditions. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy for the treatment of certain diseases. To deliver knowledge about this frontier in science and technology to medical undergraduate students, we designed an…

  1. A qualitative study of enablers and barriers influencing the incorporation of social accountability values into organisational culture: a perspective from two medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, Nicholas; Stroud, Laura; Murdoch Eaton, Deborah; Rudolf, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Definitions of social accountability describe the obligation of medical schools to direct education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the population they serve. While such statements give some direction as to how the goal might be reached, it does not identify what factors might facilitate or hinder its achievement. This study set out to identify and explore enablers and barriers influencing the incorporation of social accountability values into medical schools. Semi structured interviews of fourteen senior staff in Bar Ilan and Leeds medical schools were undertaken following a literature review. Participants were recruited by purposive sampling in order to identify factors perceived to play a part in the workings of each institution. Academic prestige was seen as a key barrier that was dependent on research priorities and student selection. The role of champions was considered to be vital to tackle staff perceptions and facilitate progress. Including practical community experience for students was felt to be a relevant way in which the curriculum could be designed through engagement with local partners. Successful adoption of social accountability values requires addressing concerns around potential negative impacts on academic prestige and standards. Identifying and supporting credible social accountability champions to disseminate the values throughout research and education departments in medical and other faculties is also necessary, including mapping onto existing work streams and research agendas. Demonstrating the contribution the institution can make to local health improvement and regional development by a consideration of its economic footprint may also be valuable.

  2. The Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ford Photo: AP “Mrs. Ford was a courageous pioneer, a groundbreaking First Lady , and a forceful advocate ... and drug addiction, located next to the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California. The facility offers ...

  3. "Beyond the Diagnosis" Making the Invisible Patients Visible | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... playing guitar, riding his pedal bike, bowling on Xbox Kinect, and swinging in his new sensory room. ... taps, 10 surgeries, five Port-a-Caths, and one medical tattoo. He is quite proud of getting ...

  4. “We feel deep compassion for patients...” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Medical Mysteries “We feel deep compassion for patients...” Past Issues / Spring 2011 ... hope and maybe even relief. As doctors, we feel deep compassion for patients who have been without ...

  5. Quantification of the impact of multifaceted initiatives intended to improve operational efficiency and the safety culture: a case study from an academic medical center radiation oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chera, Bhishamjit S; Mazur, Lukasz; Jackson, Marianne; Taylor, Kinely; Mosaly, Prithima; Chang, Sha; Deschesne, Kathy; LaChapelle, Dana; Hoyle, Lesley; Saponaro, Patricia; Rockwell, John; Adams, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B

    2014-01-01

    We have systematically been incorporating several operational efficiency and safety initiatives into our academic radiation oncology clinic. We herein quantify the impact of these initiatives on prospectively collected, clinically meaningful, metrics. The data from 5 quality improvement initiatives, each focused on a specific safety/process concern in our clinic, are presented. Data was collected prospectively: operational metrics recorded before and after implementation of the initiative were compared using statistical analysis. Results from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) patient safety culture surveys administered during and after many of these initiatives were similarly compared. (1) Workload levels for nurses assisting with brachytherapy were high (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores >55-60, suggesting, "overwork"). Changes in work flow and procedure room layout reduced workload to more acceptable levels (NASA-TLX 50% to <10%; P < .01). To assess the overall changes in "patient safety culture," we conducted a pre- and postanalysis using the AHRQ survey. Improvements in all measured dimensions were noted. Quality improvement initiatives can be successfully implemented in an academic radiation oncology department to yield measurable improvements in operations resulting in improvement in patient safety culture. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptions of how a learning or teaching curriculum, workplace culture and agency of individuals shape medical student learning and supervisory practices in the clinical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E

    2015-05-01

    The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.

  7. Direct short-term effects of EBP teaching: change in knowledge, not in attitude; a cross-cultural comparison among students from European and Asian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report about the direct short-term effects of a Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-based Medicine (CE-EBM module on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students in the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU, Universitas Indonesia (UI, and University of Malaya (UM. Methods: We used an adapted version of a 26-item validated questionnaire, including four subscales: knowledge, attitude, behavior, and future use of evidence-based practice (EBP. The four components were compared among the students in the three medical schools before the module using one-way ANOVA. At the end of the module, we measured only knowledge and attitudes. We computed Cronbach's α to assess the reliability of the responses in our population. To assess the change in knowledge and attitudes, we used the paired t-test in the comparison of scores before and after the module. Results: In total, 526 students (224 UI, 202 UM, and 100 UMCU completed the questionnaires. In the three medical schools, Cronbach's α for the pre-module total score and the four subscale scores always exceeded 0.62. UMCU students achieved the highest pre-module scores in all subscales compared to UI and UM with the comparison of average (SD score as the following: knowledge 5.04 (0.4 vs. 4.73 (0.69 and 4.24 (0.74, p<0.001; attitude 4.52 (0.64 vs. 3.85 (0.68 and 3.55 (0.63, p<0.001; behavior 2.62 (0.55 vs. 2.35 (0.71 and 2.39 (0.92, p=0.016; and future use of EBP 4.32 (0.59 vs. 4.08 (0.62 and 3.7 (0.71, p<0.01. The CE-EBM module increased the knowledge of the UMCU (from average 5.04±0.4 to 5.35±0.51; p<0.001 and UM students (from average 4.24±0.74 to 4.53±0.72; p<0.001 but not UI. The post-module scores for attitude did not change in the three medical schools. Conclusion: EBP teaching had direct short-term effects on knowledge, not on attitude. Differences in pre-module scores are most likely related to differences in the system and infrastructure of both medical schools and their

  8. Healthy Eating and Harambee: curriculum development for a culturally-centered bio-medically oriented nutrition education program to reach African American women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Sparks, Arlene V; Webster, J DeWitt; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lumeng, Julie

    2010-07-01

    The purpose was to develop, implement and evaluate a peer-led nutrition curriculum Healthy Eating and Harambee that addresses established objectives of maternal and infant health and to shift the stage for African American women of childbearing age in Genesee County toward healthier dietary patterns using a socio-cultural and biomedical orientation. The PEN-3 model, which frames culture in the context of health promotion interventions, was integrated with the Transtheoretical Model to guide this 13-week pre-test/post-test curriculum. Materials developed included soul food plate visuals, a micronutrient availability worksheet, a fruit stand, and gardening kits. Learning activities included affirmations, stories, case-scenarios, point-of-purchase product recognition, church health teams, and community health fairs. We investigated health-promoting dietary behaviors (consumption of more fruits and vegetables (F&V), serving more F&V to their families, and moderating dietary sodium and fat intakes), and biomedical behaviors (self-monitoring blood pressure and exercising) across five stages of change. Session attendance and program satisfaction were assessed. N = 102 women participated (mean age = 27.5 years). A majority (77%) reported adopting at least one healthy eating behavior (moderating sodium, serving more F&V to their families), 23% adopted at least two such behaviors (reading food labels for sodium; using culinary herbs/spices; serving more F&V to their families), and 45% adopted both dietary (moderating sodium; eating more fruits) and biomedical behaviors. Participants and facilitators favorably evaluated the curriculum and suggested improvements. A multi-conceptual approach coupled with cultural and biomedical tailoring has potential to promote young African American women's movement to more advanced stages of change and improve self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake, dietary sodium moderation, and self-monitoring blood pressure and physical activity.

  9. Study of teaching quality guarantee system on cultural types of medical master%以医学类硕士生培养类型论教学质量保障体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞捷; 许洁; 庹芳旭; 黄厚今

    2015-01-01

    Objective Through the understanding of cultural types of medical master,to study the teaching quality guarantee system of scientific degree and professional degree. Methods Medical master in 5 different ordinary colleges who were randomly extract were investigated through the methods of questionnaire. Results (1)The most direct motivation of reading postgraduate for medical master between scientific degree and professional degree was no statistical significance(P > 0.05).The most proportion motivation was to further improve academic levels,while the constituent ratio of professional title assessment and promotion was 0%.(2)The differences of the learning on professional level(42.8%),the creative ability(40.0%),the scientific research ability(41.6%)for individual effect of medical master between scientific degree and professional degree was not obviously(P > 0.05).The learning on professional level for individual influence degree of medical master of professional degree was higher than which of scientific degree(48.4% > 40.3%),the learning on creative ability between medical master of professional degree and scientific degree has little difference,the learning on scientific research ability for individual influence degree of medical master of professional degree was higher than which of scientific degree(45.2%>40.0%).(3)The differences of the studying attitude,the moral cultivation,the cardiac affordability for individual effect of medical master between scientific degree and professional degree was not obviously(P > 0.05),with the cardiac affordability for individual effect of medical master of scientific degree was(41.4%),and which was(43.9%)of professional degree.The differences of sociability for individual effect of medical master between scientific degree and professional degree was statistical significance(P < 0.05).(4)Medical master between scientific degree and professional degree had considered that,the understanding of related disciplines and the ability

  10. Fostering clinical engagement and medical leadership and aligning cultural values: an evaluation of a general practice specialty trainee integrated training placement in a primary care trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruston, Annmarie; Tavabie, Abdol

    2010-01-01

    To report on the extent to which a general practice specialty trainee integrated training placement (ITP) developed the leadership skills and knowledge of general practice specialty trainees (GPSTRs) and on the potential of the ITP to improve clinical engagement. A case study method was used in a Kent primary care trust (PCT). Sources of data included face-to-face and telephone interviews (three GPSTRs, three PCT clinical supervisors, three general practitioner (GP) clinical supervisors and three Deanery/PCT managers), reflective diaries, documentary sources and observation. Interview data were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method. All respondents were positive about the value and success of the ITP in developing the leadership skills of the GPSTRs covering three dimensions: leadership of self, leadership of teams and leadership of organisations within systems. The ITP had enabled GP trainees to understand the context for change, to develop skills to set the direction for change and to collect and apply evidence to decision making. The ITP was described as an effective means of breaking down cultural barriers between general practice and the PCT and as having the potential for improving clinical engagement. The ITP provided a model to enable the effective exchange of knowledge and understanding of differing cultures between GPSTRs, general practice and the PCT. It provided a sound basis for effective, dispersed clinical engagement and leadership.

  11. NIH Research: Cancers: A "Constellation" of Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the control of cancer has required new knowledge from the many fields of research that the NCI supports. As ... to solve our most difficult problems. Funding for many kinds of medical ... must balance our knowledge about the public health burden of each cancer ...

  12. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect oral health. Poor blood glucose control in diabetes, for example, can put you at risk for periodontal (gum) disease. Cancer treatments can cause a host of oral problems. Medications can damage oral tissues and/or decrease salivary flow, causing dry mouth. It’s also important to know ...

  13. The effect of socio-cultural characteristics on the effectiveness of teamwork: a study in the Gülhane Military Medical Faculty Training Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelen, Özay; Teke, Abdulkadir; Cihangiroglu, Necmettin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, our aim was to determine the effect of the socio-cultural characteristics of health workers on the effectiveness of teamwork. In this study, a questionnaire method was used for data collection. To this end, a scale was first developed to assess the effectiveness of teamwork. The study was conducted in 34 departments/divisions within the GMMF Training Hospital with 423 health workers. "Specialist opinion" was used to determine the content validity of the "Teamwork Effectiveness Scale" developed for this study, while "factor analysis" was used to test the scale's construct validity. Cronbach Alpha values were calculated to test the reliability of the scale. To determine the effect of socio-cultural characteristics on the effectiveness of teamwork, the "Kruskal-Wallis" test, the "Mann-Whitney U" test and "Logistic Regression Analysis" were used within the context of the study. Based on the study results, it was observed that "assignment, "age" and "status" did not have an effect on the effectiveness of teamwork (p > 0.05). On the other hand, a significant and negative relationship was observed between "the obligation to perform compulsory service" and the attitudes that considered teamwork to be effective (p = 0.029). Similarly, a difference was identified between the workers' attitudes towards the effectiveness of teamwork depending on the size of the place of assignment (p = 0,042). It was thus observed that the "effectiveness of teamwork" was affected by the presence or absence of the "obligation to perform compulsory service" and by the "size of the place of assignment.

  14. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2360 Selective culture... solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate and identify certain pathogenic...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture... solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate and identify fastidious...

  16. Provenance marks in the books of historical and cultural fond "Vilna Medical and Surgical Academy" of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine as a source for study of formation history of the academy’s scientifi c library fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaskova T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of provenance marks in the books of a historical and cultural fond “Vilna Medical and Surgical Academy”. This fond containing 7953 single physical units now is deposited in the Department of librarian gatherings and historical collections of the Institute of Book Studies of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. All provenance marks (ex-librises (bookplates, superexlibrises, stamps, autographs, dedicatory inscriptions in the books of the fond have been ordered according to the stages of development of the academy, starting from the foundation of Jesuit College. The author accentuates the necessity of including the data about provenance marks into electronic catalogs for signifi cant acceleration of the search and attribution of the books from various collections and gatherings of the libraries in Ukraine and abroad

  17. Why are a quarter of faculty considering leaving academic medicine? A study of their perceptions of institutional culture and intentions to leave at 26 representative U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Krupat, Edward; Civian, Janet T; Ash, Arlene S; Brennan, Robert T

    2012-07-01

    Vital, productive faculty are critical to academic medicine, yet studies indicate high dissatisfaction and attrition. The authors sought to identify key personal and cultural factors associated with intentions to leave one's institution and/or academic medicine. From 2007 through early 2009, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 4,578 full-time faculty from 26 representative U.S. medical schools. The survey asked about advancement, engagement, relationships, diversity and equity, leadership, institutional values and practices, and work-life integration. A two-level, multinomial logit model was used to predict leaving intentions. A total of 2,381 faculty responded (52%); 1,994 provided complete data for analysis. Of these, 1,062 (53%) were female and 475 (24%) were underrepresented minorities in medicine. Faculty valued their work, but 273 (14%) had seriously considered leaving their own institution during the prior year and 421 (21%) had considered leaving academic medicine altogether because of dissatisfaction; an additional 109 (5%) cited personal/family issues and 49 (2%) retirement as reasons to leave. Negative perceptions of the culture-unrelatedness, feeling moral distress at work, and lack of engagement-were associated with leaving for dissatisfaction. Other significant predictors were perceptions of values incongruence, low institutional support, and low self-efficacy. Institutional characteristics and personal variables (e.g., gender) were not predictive. Findings suggest that academic medicine does not support relatedness and a moral culture for many faculty. If these issues are not addressed, academic health centers may find themselves with dissatisfied faculty looking to go elsewhere.

  18. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  19. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  20. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.