WorldWideScience

Sample records for culture material evidence

  1. Teaching History with Material Culture Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlereth, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews several definitions of material culture and material culture research. Identifies the special characteristics and pitfalls of material culture research appraising how such research can be useful in historical explanation. Forecasts expectations for materials culture research over the next decade. (JDH)

  2. Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda; Villa, Paola; Degano, Ilaria; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Bamford, Marion K; Higham, Thomas F G; Colombini, Maria Perla; Beaumont, Peter B

    2012-08-14

    Recent archaeological discoveries have revealed that pigment use, beads, engravings, and sophisticated stone and bone tools were already present in southern Africa 75,000 y ago. Many of these artifacts disappeared by 60,000 y ago, suggesting that modern behavior appeared in the past and was subsequently lost before becoming firmly established. Most archaeologists think that San hunter-gatherer cultural adaptation emerged 20,000 y ago. However, reanalysis of organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa, shows that the Early Later Stone Age inhabitants of this cave used notched bones for notational purposes, wooden digging sticks, bone awls, and bone points similar to those used by San as arrowheads. A point is decorated with a spiral groove filled with red ochre, which closely parallels similar marks that San make to identify their arrowheads when hunting. A mixture of beeswax, Euphorbia resin, and possibly egg, wrapped in vegetal fibers, dated to ∼40,000 BP, may have been used for hafting. Ornaments include marine shell beads and ostrich eggshell beads, directly dated to ∼42,000 BP. A digging stick, dated to ∼39,000 BP, is made of Flueggea virosa. A wooden poison applicator, dated to ∼24,000 BP, retains residues with ricinoleic acid, derived from poisonous castor beans. Reappraisal of radiocarbon age estimates through bayesian modeling, and the identification of key elements of San material culture at Border Cave, places the emergence of modern hunter-gatherer adaptation, as we know it, to ∼44,000 y ago.

  3. The Beauty of Other Lives: Material Culture as Evidence of Human Ingenuity and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levstik, Linda S.; Henderson, A. Gwynn; Lee, Youngdo

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students are often hampered by a tendency to ascribe innovation to increasing human intelligence or individual agency rather than increased information, better access to information, or collective and institutional agency. As a result, they struggle to build evidence-based interpretations of the distant past. A fifth-grade…

  4. RLG's Cultural Materials Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith-Yoshimura

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:5-12

    RLG members have formed a "Cultural Materials Alliance" to develop a pool of digitized research materials and a coherent, integrated discovery service. Alliance members are identifying best practices to create and describe digital surrogates and a rights-management framework addressing institutional intellectual-property mandates. The paper outlines the issues addressed in developing this new research resource that will promote "cultural heritage" in an unprecedented way. Examples from the RLG Cultural Materials service to be released later in 2001 will illustrate the work done so far.

  5. Fumonisin concentrations and in vivo toxicity of nixtamalized Fusarium verticillioides culture material: evidence for fumonisin-matrix interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T D; Snook, M E; Riley, R T; Voss, K A

    2008-08-01

    The toxic potential of nixtamalized foods can be underestimated if, during cooking, reversible fumonisin-food matrix interactions reduce the amount of mycotoxin that is detected but not the amount that is bioavailable. Fusarium verticillioides culture material (CM) was nixtamalized as is (NCM) or after mixing with ground corn (NCMC). Additional portions were sham nixtamalized without (SCM) or with corn (SCMC). Nixtamalization and sham nixtamalization reduced FB(1); CM, NCM, and SCM diets contained 9.08, 2.08, and 1.19 ppm, respectively. FB(1) was further reduced in the NCMC (0.49 ppm) but not the SCMC (1.01 ppm) diets compared to their NCM and SCM counterparts. Equivalent weights of the cooked products, uncooked CM, corn (UC) or nixtamalized UC (NUC) were fed to rats for up to three weeks. Kidney lesions in the NCM-fed group were less severe than in the CM-fed, positive control group and no lesions were found in the NCMC and other groups. Group kidney sphinganine (biomarker of fumonisin exposure) concentrations decreased in the order: CM (absolute concentration (nmol/g)=600-800)>NCM (400-600)>SCM and SCMC (30-90)>NCMC, UC and NUC (<8). Together, these results suggest that mycotoxin-corn matrix interactions during nixtamalization reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of FB(1).

  6. Russian Folk Culture in the 20 th Century: Oral Evidence of the Villagers (On the Materials of Folklore Expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Dorokhova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Folk culture is capable of developing certain adaptation mechanisms that help it promptly react to the changing conditions of natural, socio-political, and economic environment. This is evidenced by the stories of the villagers recorded during folklore expeditions to different regions of Russia. The article highlights changes that took place in the traditional Russian culture under the influence of collectivization in the 1920s–1930s, the collapse of kolkhozes in the 1990s, the development of the rural club amateur performances in the Soviet time, the events of the World War II, modern military conflicts, and Chernobyl ecological catastrophe. The authors come to conclusion that representatives of traditional culture flexibly adapt to their new living conditions, while extreme conditions such as wars and ecological catastrophes often contribute to the actualization of folk culture and enable the return of its certain aspects to living practice.

  7. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Teaching Religion and Material Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Because religions discipline and interpret bodies; create and define sacred spaces; generate, adore and study images in all media; regulate the intake of food; structure temporal experience; and in general interpenetrate and are permeated by the cultural landscapes in which they exist, religious studies must engage material religion and religious…

  9. Copper minerals and archaeometallurgical materials from the Vinča culture sites of Belovode and Pločnik: Overview of the evidence and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Miljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vinča culture sites of Belovode and Pločnik have been attracting scholarly attention for decades now, due to numerous discoveries indicative of copper mineral and metal use in these settlements, which are confirmed as, currently, the earliest worldwide and very likely developed independently in Eurasia.1 The authors attempt to give an overview of already published data along with new results stemming from the recently completed doctoral research of the primary author.2 All materials related to copper mineral use and pyrometallurgical activities are presented through the concept of metallurgical chaîne opératoire, following the established sequence of operations,3 which is adjusted for this specific case study and divided into three categories: copper mineral processing, (smelting debris, and the making and working of finished metal objects. The qualitative overview of available data is therefore focused mainly around the material side of the studied samples and provides an insight into the technological choices for making copper mineral ornaments and copper metal artefacts in the sites of Belovode and Pločnik. Accordingly, it provides a model for the understanding of similar material assemblages that occur in other Vinča culture sites, or beyond. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communications in the prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  10. Object Lessons: Thinking about Material Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This article describes why art educators might consider studying material forms from everyday life, presents suggestions for exploring them in an art classroom, and includes an example to illustrate teaching about an object of material culture. The author presents reasons for studying material culture in the art classroom and offers suggestions…

  11. Learning Things: Material Culture in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Doug; Bolin, Paul E.

    2018-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to connect art education to material culture--an evolving pedagogy about the meaning of "things" in the lives of children, youth, and adults. Written by luminaries in the field, this resource explores a range of objects exemplifying material culture, defined as "the human-formed objects, spaces,…

  12. Exploring Material Culture in the Barrenlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachren, Zabe

    2012-01-01

    Although the author loves winter camping and holds the Inuit culture in great regard, thinking about material culture in a northern landscape referred to as barren constitutes a daunting lesson. She wondered, when a landscape is barren is it possible at all for someone to find material, make useful items and survive? So it was she joined the Mara…

  13. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  14. Cultural Sensitivity in English Language Teaching Materials

    OpenAIRE

    MEHMET, Sean Collin

    2008-01-01

    This expository paper will begin by uncovering and examining some lesser known, Western journal articles, ones that deal specifically with the issue of cultural sensitivity in language classrooms. This opening discussion will attempt to reveal that cultural sensitivity in teaching materials is by no means an issue limited solely to the Western world. After this, the discussion will focus on Edward Said's widely-known Culture and Imperialism. Said's monograph will be used as a springboard to e...

  15. Back to the Future? History, Material Culture and New Materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schouwenburg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of history currently witnesses two markedly different material turns. Some historians are using material artefacts as alternatives to textual sources. Others draw on ‘new materialism’, a new tradition in thought that originated in the field of gender studies. Both groups are trying to move beyond the cultural turn, which has dominated the study of history since the 1980s. However, the first group merely extends the programme of the cultural turn into new domains without rejecting its methods or epistemological foundations. The latter group, on the other hand, provides a new cultural theory. This article demonstrates that the ‘new’ in new materialism is not so much an increased engagement with the material world, but rather a new conceptualization of developing theory and reading texts, which cuts through established dichotomies between matter and meaning or culture and the social. In doing so, a new materialist history can solve some of the problems associated with the cultural turn and the turn to material artefacts.

  16. Material culture of multilingualism and affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affectivity is an important dimension in humans’ social and individual lives. It is either a stimulating or hindering aspect of language learning. This article aims to draw attention to material culture as a powerful, but mostly neglected source of data on the use and acquisition of languages, and demonstrates the close and intricate links between affectivity and material culture. It is hoped that revealing these interrelationships will assist in understanding and managing language diversity. It will allow practitioners and teachers to carry out social and private encounters, events and language teaching with more care, understanding and expertise. Researchers will be encouraged to join the investigation of yet one more important facet of multilingualism – material culture.

  17. Material Culture of Multilingualism and Affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    Affectivity is an important dimension in humans' social and individual lives. It is either a stimulating or hindering aspect of language learning. This article aims to draw attention to material culture as a powerful, but mostly neglected source of data on the use and acquisition of languages, and demonstrates the close and intricate links between…

  18. Teaching the First Ladies using Material Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Edith P.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses two aspects of the First Lady's role that are applicable to the use of material culture in the classroom: (1) the First Lady's social role, its impact on the presidential administration, and its use as a reflection of the changing status of the nation; and (2) the First Lady's role as campaigner. (CMK)

  19. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary expatiation on micro material evidence and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingtai; Wang Wen; Wu Lunqiang; Dai Changsong

    2012-01-01

    The micro material evidence is the impersonal and concrete material evidences, and the quantity and volume is small, but it plays an important role in judicature litigation. In the paper, the basic character, type and form mechanism of the micro material evidence have been analyzed and discussed, and the gist of the micro material evidence has been summarized. It must play a helpful role in the micro material evidence to correlative workers for cognizance and application. (authors)

  1. Culture and entrepreneurial processses: evidence of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Martin R.; Harms, Rainer; ten Ham, R.; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    Processes that lead to the creation of new ventures are characterized by a combination of planned (causation) and emergent (effectuation) actions. Which one prevails is among others depending on contextual factors such as industry and national culture. Research on the impact of national culture on

  2. Culture, mind, and the brain: current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Uskul, Ayse K

    2011-01-01

    Current research on culture focuses on independence and interdependence and documents numerous East-West psychological differences, with an increasing emphasis placed on cognitive mediating mechanisms. Lost in this literature is a time-honored idea of culture as a collective process composed of cross-generationally transmitted values and associated behavioral patterns (i.e., practices). A new model of neuro-culture interaction proposed here addresses this conceptual gap by hypothesizing that the brain serves as a crucial site that accumulates effects of cultural experience, insofar as neural connectivity is likely modified through sustained engagement in cultural practices. Thus, culture is "embrained," and moreover, this process requires no cognitive mediation. The model is supported in a review of empirical evidence regarding (a) collective-level factors involved in both production and adoption of cultural values and practices and (b) neural changes that result from engagement in cultural practices. Future directions of research on culture, mind, and the brain are discussed.

  3. Building evaluative culture in community services: Caring for evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, John

    2017-05-25

    An organization with a strong evaluative culture engages in self-reflection, evidence-based learning and experimentation. It sees evidence as essential for managing well, but building such a culture is challenging. Community service organizations seek to provide effective services for their clients. To build an evaluative culture, they need to acquire basic monitoring and evaluation capabilities, be provided with opportunities for using these capabilities and be adequately motivated to care about evidence as a means to improve services to their clients. Leadership along with a phased in approach are key in bringing about these behaviour changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Methods for the measurement of micro material evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingtai; Wang Wen; Wu Lunqiang; Dai Changsong

    2012-01-01

    The micro material evidence has been used in judicature litigation successfully, that must base on impersonal authentication with the advanced and proper methods. The basic principle, main trait, applicable range, analysis minimum and sensitive limit of twelve type instruments used in micro material evidence analysis have been related. Those could supply optional proper methods for micro material evidence. (authors)

  5. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  6. Security Culture in Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susyanta-Widyatmaka; Koraag, Venuesiana-Dewi; Taswanda-Taryo

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear related field, there are three different cultures: safety, safeguards and security culture. Safety culture has established mostly in nuclear industries, meanwhile safeguards and security culture are relatively new and still developing. The latter is intended to improve the physical protection of material and nuclear facility. This paper describes concept, properties and factors affecting security culture and interactions among these cultures. The analysis indicates that anybody involving in nuclear material and facility should have strong commitment and awareness of such culture to establish it. It is concluded that the assessment of security culture outlined in this paper is still preliminary for developing and conduction rigorous security culture implemented in a much more complex facility such as nuclear power plant

  7. Material culture across the Aleutian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Virginia L

    2010-12-01

    The material evidence from sites across the Aleutian Islands reflects colonization events, subsequent adaptations, and influxes of ideas and/or people from the east. The occurrence in the eastern Aleutians of bifacial technology around 7000 BP, of artifacts similar to the Arctic Small Tool tradition between 4000 and 3500 BP, and of slate and jet objects around 1000 BP reflects repeated surges of influence or movement of peoples from further east into the eastern end of the chain. In the central and western Aleutians, influence or perhaps colonization from east of the Aleutians is also marked by the occurrence of bifacial technology about 6500 BP and the appearance of slate artifacts after 1000 BP, suggesting the movement of ideas or people from further east. Basic trends across the archipelago include a decrease in formal chipped-stone tools, an increase in the use and the complexity of bone technology, and the increase in use and variety of ground-stone tools. In addition, increasing village site sizes and denser midden deposits are seen later in time throughout the archipelago. The similarity in sites and assemblages, albeit with regional variations, reflects trends that are seen across the chain and indicates that these island communities were not isolated from one another or from mainland Alaska.

  8. Low technology tissue culture materials for initiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low technology tissue culture materials for initiation and multiplication of banana plants. ... African Crop Science Journal ... locally available macronutrients, micronutrients, sugar, equipment and facility reduced the cost of consumable material

  9. Incorporating Local Culture in English Teaching Material for Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijaya Mahardika I Gusti Ngurah Agung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the incorporation of local cultural material in a teaching material developed for the students of the Hinduism Education Department of IHDN Denpasar. Teaching material plays an important part in teaching learning process, yet inappropriate teaching materials may become more harmful than useful. The unique nature of the HED students warranted the need for a tailor-made teaching material. The study found that the use of culturally familiar materials is beneficial for the students learning process. The result of the study also highlighted students’ needs and prior knowledge as the main factors to be considered when developing teaching material.

  10. Culture and attention: evidence from brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Aron, Arthur; Hedden, Trey

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that our experiences, including the culture in which we are raised, shape how we attend to and perceive the world. Behavioral studies have found that individuals raised in Western cultures tend toward analytic processing and prefer tasks emphasizing independent contexts rather than tasks emphasizing interdependent contexts. The opposite is true for individuals raised in East Asian cultures, who tend toward holistic processing and prefer tasks emphasizing interdependent contexts. Recently, cognitive neuroscientists have extended these behavioral findings to examine the brain activity of individuals from different cultures during the performance of cognitive tasks. Results from these initial studies indicate that culture may shape how the brain processes even very abstract stimuli and may influence the features of the environment to which individuals attend. The present chapter reviews evidence that culture influences attention and related systems, which, in turn, impact other cognitive and social processes and their neural correlates.

  11. Object Lessons: Material Culture on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mires, Charlene

    2001-01-01

    Describes the content of a course on material culture for undergraduate students that was separated into two sections: (1) first students read books and analyzed artifacts; and (2) then the class explored the Centennial Exhibition held in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) in 1876, applying material culture methods and constructing a Web site from their…

  12. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient.

  13. Enhancing Access to Primary Cultural Heritage Materials of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Peter M.; Hyman, Malcolm

    This chapter is about enhancing access to primary cultural heritage materials of India housed in academic libraries by integrating them with machine-readable texts, lexical resources, and linguistic software in a digital library. Integrating primary cultural materials with a digital library can enable broad use of Indic collections for research and education. For the purposes of illustrating this procedure, we outline here the development of a prototype using the collections of Sanskrit manuscripts in the libraries at Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania and integrating them with The Sanskrit Library. The result is extendable to collections of Indic materials throughout the world and can serve as a model for digitization projects of cultural materials in other major culture-bearing languages such as Greek, Latin, Arabic, Persian, and Chinese.

  14. Analyzing the Heterogeneous Hierarchy of Cultural Heritage Materials: Analytical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentelman, Karen

    2017-06-12

    Objects of cultural heritage significance are created using a wide variety of materials, or mixtures of materials, and often exhibit heterogeneity on multiple length scales. The effective study of these complex constructions thus requires the use of a suite of complementary analytical technologies. Moreover, because of the importance and irreplaceability of most cultural heritage objects, researchers favor analytical techniques that can be employed noninvasively, i.e., without having to remove any material for analysis. As such, analytical imaging has emerged as an important approach for the study of cultural heritage. Imaging technologies commonly employed, from the macroscale through the micro- to nanoscale, are discussed with respect to how the information obtained helps us understand artists' materials and methods, the cultures in which the objects were created, how the objects may have changed over time, and importantly, how we may develop strategies for their preservation.

  15. Perceptions of Emotion from Facial Expressions are Not Culturally Universal: Evidence from a Remote Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marietta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that certain emotions are universally recognized in facial expressions. Recent evidence indicates that Western perceptions (e.g., scowls as anger) depend on cues to US emotion concepts embedded in experiments. Since such cues are standard feature in methods used in cross-cultural experiments, we hypothesized that evidence of universality depends on this conceptual context. In our study, participants from the US and the Himba ethnic group sorted images of posed facial expressions into piles by emotion type. Without cues to emotion concepts, Himba participants did not show the presumed “universal” pattern, whereas US participants produced a pattern with presumed universal features. With cues to emotion concepts, participants in both cultures produced sorts that were closer to the presumed “universal” pattern, although substantial cultural variation persisted. Our findings indicate that perceptions of emotion are not universal, but depend on cultural and conceptual contexts. PMID:24708506

  16. Material evidence in a digital context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    , but also in the restrictions within an industrial production line. This article presents a method of experimentation with precast concrete, where prototyping using technologies suitable for industrial production provide the parameters for a parallel process of digital form-finding. The method takes its...... al. 2003), and considerations of the sustainability of resources (Cradle to Cradle: McDohnoug & Braungart 2002) as a basis for addressing the relationship between material and technology. The paper argues that this method can support the development of unique architectural elements that challenge...

  17. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  18. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A; Grueter, Cyril C; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the 'method of exclusion' to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture.

  19. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M.; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A.; Grueter, Cyril C.; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L.; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S.; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the ‘method of exclusion’ to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture. PMID:27603668

  20. A Growing Disconnection From Nature Is Evident in Cultural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Kesebir, Pelin

    2017-03-01

    Human connection with nature is widely believed to be in decline even though empirical evidence is scarce on the magnitude and historical pattern of the change. Studying works of popular culture in English throughout the 20th century and later, we have documented a cultural shift away from nature that begins in the 1950s. Since then, references to nature have been decreasing steadily in fiction books, song lyrics, and film storylines, whereas references to the human-made environment have not. The observed temporal pattern is consistent with the explanatory role of increased virtual and indoors recreation options (e.g., television, video games) in the disconnect from nature, and it is inconsistent with a pure urbanization account. These findings are cause for concern, not only because they imply foregone physical and psychological benefits from engagement with nature, but also because cultural products are agents of socialization that can evoke curiosity, respect, and concern for the natural world.

  1. Teaching Students to Infer Meaning through Material Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest Andrew; Fritzer, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Social studies students can learn to glean historical information from the study of material culture through active engagement as curators. Teachers can guide students through a pre-survey of helpful reading materials and then through selecting items of personal significance to them: creating labels that objectively describe the chosen items as to…

  2. Cultural and Ideological Roots of Materialism in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Stening, Bruce W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of cultural values and political ideologies in the development of materialism, and the impact of materialism on subjective well-being, in the Chinese context. A survey was conducted of 487 persons in two cities in China and the results analyzed using structural equation modeling. The findings show that China's…

  3. The Evolution of Polystyrene as a Cell Culture Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Max J; Lembong, Josephine; Muramoto, Shin; Gillen, Greg; Fisher, John P

    2018-04-10

    Polystyrene (PS) has brought in vitro cell culture from its humble beginnings to the modern era, propelling dozens of research fields along the way. This review discusses the development of the material, fabrication, and treatment approaches to create the culture material. However, native PS surfaces poorly facilitate cell adhesion and growthin vitro. To overcome this, liquid surface deposition, energetic plasma activation, and emerging functionalization methods transform the surface chemistry. This review seeks to highlight the many potential applications of the first widely accepted polymer growth surface. Although the majority of in vitro research occurs on 2D surfaces, the importance of 3D culture models cannot be overlooked. Here the methods to transition PS to specialized 3D culture surfaces are also reviewed. Specifically, casting, electrospinning, 3D printing, and microcarrier approaches to shift PS to a 3D culture surface are highlighted. The breadth of applications of the material makes it impossible to highlight every use, but the aim remains to demonstrate the versatility and potential as both a general and custom cell culture surface. The review concludes with emerging scaffolding approaches and, based on the findings, presents our insights on the future steps for PS as a tissue culture platform.

  4. Trepanation and Roman medicine: a comparison of osteoarchaeological remains, material culture and written texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullo, E

    2010-06-01

    Evidence for prehistoric trepanation is limited to preserved osteoarchaeological material, namely human skulls, and the occasional discovery of surgical instruments. However, the Roman empire gave rise to an abundant and diverse range of source types, including skeletal remains, material culture and detailed medical texts, each of which harbours the potential to contribute to our understanding of trepanation during this historical period. This paper highlights the advantages and inherent biases of each of these source types, and proposes that the simultaneous analysis and integration of different types of historical evidence is essential for the study of trepanation as a surgical procedure.

  5. On Tea Bowl from Jianzhan to Tenmoku: Material Culture and Intangible Culture in Cultural Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Guan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to precise and scientific literature that recorded, Chinese tea culture has a documented history of more than 1700 years. During which period, Yuan Dynasty was considered a crucial turning-point with great changes. The current tea culture in China is an adoption and innovation of Ming and Qing dynasty, especially in the form of processing technology. For those elements inherited from Tang and Song dynasties, however, they were more directly adopted systematically by Japan. Ever since powdered tea culture from Song dynasty was accepted in Japan, Jianzhan, the tea bowl that gained renowned reputation in the Song tea culture was also introduced and became tenmoku (tianmu after localization. As the transformation of Chinese tea culture ended in Japan, Japanese tea culture of wabi-cha was shaped after the tenmoku’s obvious decline in value. Jianzhan’s prosper, and tenmoku’s emergence and transition, all proved a definitive impact from intangible culture.

  6. Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis: Common Problems and Radical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marvin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a transcribed audio recording of the invited address the author gave to Sigrid Glenn on the relations between cultural materialism and radical behaviorism at the 12th annual conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on May 23rd, 1986. In his address, the author emphasizes that the necessity…

  7. Valuing Stuff: Materials Culture and Artifactual Literacies in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Régine; Mercurio, Mia Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Recent interest in materials culture and artifactual literacies has helped the authors of this article rethink how they teach preservice and inservice teachers and collaborate with K-12 teachers. Each discipline has its own stuff that can help students understand the products and practices of a field beyond what they might be able to glean from…

  8. Looking at, Engaging More: Approaches for Investigating Material Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Doug; Bolin, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Objects of material culture are not always those items most commonly explored in the art classroom, and are, instead, the frequently overlooked things in people's everyday world. They are the items people collect in their homes, carry with them in backpacks, purses, and pockets, and stow on shelves in the back of closets--often the things they…

  9. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  10. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  11. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy...

  12. Cloth cultures in prehistoric Europe: the Bronze Age evidence from Hallstatt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Harris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloth Cultures in Prehistoric Europe is a Postdoctoral Fellowship project awarded to Susanna Harris by the British Academy. Its aim is to bring together and examine evidence for textiles and animal skins in prehistoric Europe from the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Several case studies are being examined as part of this project, including the Bronze Age Hallstatt salt mines. Here researchers working on the materials from Hallstatt look at some of the similarities and differences between the techniques applied to textiles and animal skins in their production and use in the mines.

  13. Materializing Mind: The Role of Objects in Cognition and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; McGraw, John J.

    2014-01-01

    , and distributed cognition, we review and classify a set of cognitive processes mediated by material representations. Specifically, we ask how—in a range of everyday cognitive and cultural practices—we employ objects (1) to scaffold memory, (2) to alter cognitive complexity, (3) to facilitate epistemic......If mind is investigated as the set of interactions that accomplish a cognitive task, that is, if mind is more than that which occurs inside the head, then how does the interplay of biological and environmental resources produce human cognition? Informed by active externalism, joint action...... experimentation, (4) to enable the division of cognitive labor, (5) to promote confidence and trust, (6) to consolidate social structure, and (7) to support dialogical coupling. We conclude that through cultural practices the stable, “manipulable”, and public properties of objects have come to afford...

  14. General principles of researching the lexicon of traditional material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljkov Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a linguistic research of terminological systems connected with basic fields of human life and work which, in modern conditions, are either transformed into contemporary modern forms or gradually disappear due to changes in the way of life and work. The lexicon of material culture of native inhabitants of Vojvodina is examined, resulting in monographs on the terminologies of fishing, cartwrighting, shepherding and houses and furniture, all of which have in common the fact that the starting point was the research of the lexicon in question by semantic fields. The paper shows the lexicological and lexicographical procedures used while researching these terminological systems.

  15. The evolution and cultural transmission of percussive technology: integrating evidence from palaeoanthropology and primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Schick, Kathy; Toth, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    We bring together the quite different kinds of evidence available from palaeoanthropology and primatology to better understand the origins of Plio-Pleistocene percussive technology. Accumulated palaeoanthropological discoveries now document the Oldowan Complex as the dominant stone tool making culture between 2.6-1.4 Ma, the earlier part of this contemporaneous with pre-Homo hominins. The principal types of artefacts and other remains from 20 Early Stone Age (Oldowan and earliest Acheulean) localities in Africa and elsewhere are reviewed and described. To better understand the ancestral behavioural foundations of this early lithic culture, we examine a range of recent findings from primatology. In particular, we attempt to identify key shared characteristics of Homo and Pan that support inferences about the preparedness of our common ancestor for the innovation of stone tool culture. Findings of particular relevance include: (i) the discovery of an expanding repertoire of percussive and other tool use based on directed use of force among wild chimpanzees, implicating capacities that include significant innovatory potential and appreciation of relevant causal factors; (ii) evidence of material cultural diversity among wild chimpanzees, indicating a readiness to acquire and transmit tool use innovations; and (iii) experimental studies of social learning in chimpanzees and bonobos that now encompass the acquisition of nut cracking through observation of skilled use of hammers and anvils by conspecifics, the diffusion within and between groups of alternative styles of tool use, and the adoption of free-hand stone-to-stone percussion to create useful flakes for cutting to gain access to food resources. We use the distributions of the inferred cultural traits in the wild to assess how diffusion relates to geographic distances, and find that shared traits drop by 50% from the approximately eight characteristic of close neighbours over a distance of approximately 700 km

  16. Beyond Cultural History? The Material Turn, Praxiography, and Body History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Clever

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The body came to be taken seriously as a topic of cultural history during the “corporeal” or “bodily” turn in the 1980s and 1990s. Soon, however, critique was raised against these studies’ conceptualization of the body as discursively shaped and socially disciplined: individual bodily agency and feeling were felt to be absent in the idea of the material body. This article critically analyzes new approaches in the field of body history, particularly the so-called “material turn”. It argues that the material turn, especially in the guise of praxiography, has a lot to offer historians of the body, such as more attention to material practices, to different kinds of actors and a more open eye to encounters. Potential problems of praxiographical analyses of the body in history include the complicated relationship between discourses and practices and the neglect of the political and feminist potential of deconstructive discourse analyses. However, a focus on the relationship between practices of knowledge production and the representation of the body may also provide new ways of opening up historical power relations.

  17. Gelatin methacrylamide as coating material in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Michael; Tovar, Günter E M; Hoch, Eva; Southan, Alexander

    2016-06-13

    Unmodified gelatin (uG) is widely used as a coating material in cell culture for improving surface properties. In this study, the authors investigated if gelatin methacrylamide (GM) with a medium degree of methacrylamide modification (GM1.5) and a high degree of methacrylamide modification (GM4) are equally suitable for this purpose. Therefore, gold surfaces were coated with uG, GM1.5, and GM4 by adsorption of the polymers on the surfaces. Coating success was confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The authors found that upon adsorption of uG, GM1.5, a nd GM4 on gold, thin films with thicknesses of 2.95 nm, 2.50 nm, and 2.26 nm were formed. The coated surfaces showed advancing contact angles of 46° (uG and GM1.5) and 52° (GM4) without alteration of the surface roughness determined by AFM. Protein adsorption taking place on the coated surfaces was measured during contact of the surfaces with fetal calf serum by SPRS. Protein adsorption on the coated surfaces was reduced by the factor of 6.4 (uG), 5.4 (GM1.5), and 4.6 (GM4) compared to gold surfaces. Human fibroblasts cultured on the surfaces showed excellent viability shown by water soluble tetrazolium salt assay as well as live/dead staining with propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate. No cytotoxic effects of the GM coated surfaces were observed, giving rise to the conclusion that GMs are suitable materials as coatings in cell culture.

  18. Zimbabwe culture before Mapungubwe: new evidence from Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Manyanga, Munyaradzi; Pollard, A Mark; Bandama, Foreman; Mahachi, Godfrey; Pikirayi, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.

  19. PREFACE: Modern Archaeoastronomy: From Material Culture to Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting (NAM) 2014 was hosted by the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation (ICG) at the University of Portsmouth. It was held from June 23-26 2014 and was sponsored by the RAS, STFC, SEPnet and Winton Capital. As part of this meeting a session stream titled Modern Archaeoastronomy: From Material Culture to Cosmology took place on Monday 23rd proposed and organized by Brian Sheen (Roseland Observatory) and Daniel Brown (Nottingham Trent University). It consisted of an illustration of the many aspects of archaeoastronomy or cultural-astronomy as it has developed and embraced areas such as anthropology, public engagement and sociology. Anita Heward (Press Officer NAM) stated that 'sessions on the history of astronomy have been a feature of many NAM programmes over the years, but NAM 2014 was the first to include a dedicated session on archaeoastronomy.' It was motivated from past decades where our understanding of astronomy of our ancestors has become more strongly based on factual data. As such it allowed researchers to identify possible traces of astronomical knowledge in archaeological remains and artefacts. Archaeoastronomy is an ideal example of the advancement in this area as well as the power of interdisciplinary work that in recent times has started to interpret these findings through cultural, anthropological and educational research. This session will offer an opportunity to present a multitude of different approaches of analyzing the perception and origins of astronomy in ancient and modern cultures, and also bring together young researchers and students in the field to present their research to a wider community.

  20. Large Devices of Industrial Culture: the Preservation of their Historical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Kempas, Ruth

    Development of material science and engineering technology is present in devices of the last 150 years. How can the historical evidence of their construction and use, the transfer of technological stages of development be preserved as a special quality in cultural tradition? The conservation of technical artefacts as a cultural heritage of western civilisation has developed scientific methods of conservation so as to respect their authenticity as materialised references of the past. During the last fifteen years these methods have been evaluated in the unique training program for this specialisation of conservation discipline at the HTW Berlin, University for Applied Sciences. They are enough standardised now to be applied without hesitation on objects being kept indoor in a museum or private collection. It is much more difficult to keep devices outside or, as is the case in Observatory - at climates changing between inside aud outside situations. The paper will show a few examples of how to develop concepts for conservation and how it is teclinically possible to preserve the very important original surfaces of the objects, their authentic materiality. As soon as the objects are kept as part of cultural history or history of science they change their function and can not be kept in the same manner as before. They give evidence of their materiality. The archaeometry of modern times is a new and expanding branch of historic research. Moreover the surface of a historic device is the point of contact between passed times and the presence for the general public as much as for the scientists. It will be demonstrated how large the loss of historic information and thus of cultural value of objects can be by renovation instead of considerate conservation. Some examples of careful conservation work carried out on big objects other than an observatory are presented. The paper will then summarise the possibilities and difficulties of doing such work on large devices still in

  1. Building a Culture of Evidence: A Case Study of a California Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jill H.; Sax, Caren L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the practices associated with building a culture of evidence and to identify the factors influencing the success of such an endeavor. By definition, a culture of evidence is based upon practices employing data and research to inform decision making at all levels of the institution, with the…

  2. Personality, Organizational Culture, and Cooperation: Evidence from a Business Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatman, Jennifer A.; Barsade, Sigal G.

    1995-01-01

    Explored personal and situational sources of cooperation. Assessed MBA students' disposition to cooperate and randomly assigned them to simulated organizations emphasizing either collectivistic or individualistic cultural values. Coworkers rated cooperative subjects in collectivistic cultures as most cooperative. Cooperative people were most…

  3. Culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention for Latino immigrants: the need to integrate fidelity and cultural relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Cardona, Jose Ruben; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2012-03-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce despite extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (2) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training principles, and (3) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. © FPI, Inc.

  4. Culturally Adapting an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention for Latino Immigrants: The Need to Integrate Fidelity and Cultural Relevance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Jose Ruben Parra; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the US. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce in spite of extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (b) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training (PMT) principles, and (c) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. PMID:22428711

  5. Conceptualising 'materialities of care': making visible mundane material culture in health and social care contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Christina; Martin, Daryl; Nettleton, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    'Materialities of care' is outlined as a heuristic device for making visible the mundane and often unnoticed aspects of material culture within health and social care contexts, and exploring interrelations between materials and care in practice. Three analytic strands inherent to the concept are delineated: spatialities of care, temporalities of care and practices of care. These interconnecting themes span the articles in this special issue. The articles explore material practice across a range of clinical and non-clinical spaces, including hospitals, hospices, care homes, museums, domestic spaces, and community spaces such as shops and tenement stairwells. The collection addresses fleeting moments of care, as well as choreographed routines that order bodies and materials. Throughout there is a focus on practice, and relations between materials and care as ongoing, emergent and processual. We conclude by reflecting on methodological approaches for examining 'materialities of care', and offer some thoughts as to how this analytic approach might be applied to future research within the sociology of health and illness. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  6. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  7. Recalling community: Using material culture and digital archives in Salford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Cassidy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores strategies for engaging geographically fragmented urban communities as active participants in conceptually re-mapping their former localities. It looks in detail at the ongoing Retracing Salford project in Salford, UK, which employs the use of everyday objects and oral histories to engage and enable former residents to reconnect with their recently demolished neighbourhoods and each other. The project also seeks to document an urban working class history largely overlooked by the large-scale institutions. The project is based on a PhD study undertaken by the author at The District Six Museum in Cape Town, South Africa, which examined the use of material artefacts in exhibitions and memory workshops at that museum (Cassidy 2009. Like District Six, Salford has undergone wide-scale demolition and population dispersal over the past 40 years. What began as relatively simple installations in museums, libraries and the like, has now grown to include digitised versions of the family snaps, street signs and oral histories, as a developing online Streets Museum archive (www.streetsmuseum.co.uk. This article reflects on how the methodology employed in the Retracing Salford project has helped rejuvenate and reconnect these dispersed communities. The article argues that the approach used is succeeding in widening the circle of participation and debate in relation to heritage issues, in particular the absence of commemoration of working-class community culture in the city. It has also increased awareness of urban land clearance issues. Its continued success depends on numerous factors, such as developing new strategies of engagement with the community, regularly gaining publicity and organising new exhibitions and workshops. Keywords: Material culture, community participation, urban working class history

  8. Implementing the Integrated Strategy for the Cultural Adaptation of Evidence-Based Interventions: An Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Ibrahim, Sarah; Lok, Jana; Fan, Lifeng; Fox, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Background Persons' cultural beliefs about a health problem can affect their perceived acceptability of evidence-based interventions, undermining evidence-based interventions' adherence, and uptake to manage the problem. Cultural adaptation has the potential to enhance the acceptability, uptake, and adherence to evidence-based interventions. Purpose To illustrate the implementation of the first two phases of the integrated strategy for cultural adaptation by examining Chinese Canadians' perceptions of chronic insomnia and evidence-based behavioral therapies for insomnia. Methods Chinese Canadians ( n = 14) with chronic insomnia attended a group session during which they completed established instruments measuring beliefs about sleep and insomnia, and their perceptions of factors that contribute to chronic insomnia. Participants rated the acceptability of evidence-based behavioral therapies and discussed their cultural perspectives regarding chronic insomnia and its treatment. Results Participants actively engaged in the activities planned for the first two phases of the integrated strategy and identified the most significant factor contributing to chronic insomnia and the evidence-based intervention most acceptable for their cultural group. Conclusions The protocol for implementing the two phases of the integrated strategy for cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions was feasible, acceptable, and useful in identifying culturally relevant evidence-based interventions.

  9. Building a culture of evidence-based planning in Nigeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    care, it is essential to base plans on evidence of what is ... For six years, the Nigerian Evidence- based Health ... best to respond to findings they participated in generating. Nigeria .... It also uses this data in evaluating ... Decision-makers work with researchers to plan the implementation ... of Nursing Services from Bauchi.

  10. Reflections on Visual and Material Culture: An Example from Southwest Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, J.

    2007-01-01

    Although several art educators have called our attention to the importance of studying visual culture, others have widened the discussion to include material culture and its effects on our lives. Because of growing concern for the value of exploring the personal and social functions of visual and material culture, the purpose of this article is to…

  11. The Cultural Foundations of Family Business Management: Evidence from Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. BRICE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines what makes Ukrainian family-firm culture unique by comparing the values and beliefs of Ukrainian family-business members with that of professional bank managers within Ukraine. Morck and Yeung (2003 suggest that the implications of family business are especially relevant for former planned economies such as Ukraine in that government’s social policy on the encouragement or discouragement of privately-held sectors of the economy is yet to be fully formed. Ukraine’s future course in this regard is particularly sensitive as the pre-Soviet Ukrainian economy was almost entirely held in private hands while the Soviet-era economy was almost entirely state-controlled. Family-firm literature stresses the differences between family-firm and professional management in terms of culture, goal-setting, and strategy. Family-firm culture is said to be a resource leading to competitive advantage. This study is based on a survey comparing 76 family-firm members and 99 professional managers. Statistically significant differences between the culture of members of family-owned firms and professional managers were found within Ukraine. Family-firm membership had a significant effect in five culture constructs. We can conclude that differences in Power Distance, Social Cynicism, Social Flexibility, Spirituality and Fate Control describe fundamental aspects of family-firms in Ukraine and may possibly contribute to family-firm competitive advantage as discussed in management literature.

  12. CULTURAL TOURISM EXPERIENCE ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: EVIDENCE FROM THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Sukanthasirikul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the service quality of cultural tourism experience perceived by tourists on their satisfaction and further explores the relationships between perceived value, appraisal emotion, and customer satisfaction. A total of 327 respondents completed a survey conducted at two cultural festivals in Thailand. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, the results reveal the direct and positive effects of the service quality on perceived value, appraisal emotion, and customer satisfaction. This study summarizes the findings and offers some interesting implications for practitioners and researchers.

  13. BUILDING A CULTURE OF EVIDENCE-BASED PLANNING

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Nigeria Evidence-based Health System Initiative (NEHSI) is a ..... PAC structure was tested during the planning phase; the structure .... the research and training organization CIET, engaging ..... scorecards, equipment and office supplies.

  14. Cultural Literacy Based Critical Reading Teaching Material with Active Reader Strategy for Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaianti, Vismaia S.; Damaianti, Lira Fessia; Mulyati, Yeti

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a study aimed at producing a set of cultural literacy-oriented critical reading teaching material. This material is developed as a countermeasure to the increasingly thin sensitivity of society, especially the students toward noble values of religion, custom, and culture. With this material student get a…

  15. The development of children's prelife reasoning: evidence from two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Natalie A; Kelemen, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Two studies investigated children's reasoning about their mental and bodily states during the time prior to biological conception-"prelife." By exploring prelife beliefs in 5- to 12-year-olds (N = 283) from two distinct cultures (urban Ecuadorians, rural indigenous Shuar), the studies aimed to uncover children's untutored intuitions about the essential features of persons. Results showed that with age, children judged fewer mental and bodily states to be functional during prelife. However, children from both cultures continued to privilege the functionality of certain mental states (i.e., emotions, desires) relative to bodily states (i.e., biological, psychobiological, perceptual states). Results converge with afterlife research and suggest that there is an unlearned cognitive tendency to view emotions and desires as the eternal core of personhood. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Translation, cross-cultural adaption and measurement properties of the evidence-based practice profile

    OpenAIRE

    Titlestad, Kristine Berg; Snibsoer, Anne Kristin; Stromme, Hilde; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Graverholt, Birgitte; Espehaug, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Background The evidence-based practice profile (EBP2) questionnaire assesses students? self-reported knowledge, behaviour and attitudes related to evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt EBP2 into Norwegian and to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version. Methods EBP2 was translated and cross-culturally adapted using recommended methodology. Face validity and feasibility were evaluated in a pilot on bache...

  17. The effect of corporate culture on firm performance: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Hailin Zhao; Haimeng Teng; Qiang Wu

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether corporate culture promotion affects firm performance in China in terms of firm market value, firm financial performance and innovation output. We find consistent evidence that corporate culture promotion is negatively related to firm market value, positively related to innovation output and not significantly related to firm financial performance. In addition, the negative effect of corporate culture promotion on firm market value is driven by small firms and firms ...

  18. Does Culture Affect Divorce Decisions? Evidence from European Immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Almudena Sevilla-Sanz; Delia Furtado and Miriam Marcen

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of culture in determining divorce decisions by examining differences in divorce rates by country of origin of immigrants in the United States. Because immigrants who arrived in the US at a young age are all exposed to a common set of American laws and institutions, we interpret cross-ancestry differences in divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. The quantitatively significant estimated effects of culture are robust to controlling for a large number of...

  19. The Current Evidence for Hayek’s Cultural Group Selection Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Lowell Stone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.

  20. Cross-Cultural Effects of Cannabis Use Disorder: Evidence to Support a Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Shikha; Milligan, Amber L.; Cousijn, Janna; Filbey, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are prevalent worldwide. Current epidemiological studies underscore differences in behaviors that contribute to cannabis use across cultures that can be leveraged towards prevention and treatment of CUDs. This review proposes a framework for understanding the effects of cross-cultural differences on psychological, neural, and genomic processes underlying CUDs that has the potential to inform global policies and impact global public health. Recent findings We found that cultural factors may influence (1) the willingness to acknowledge CUD-related symptoms among populations of different countries, and (2) neural responses related to the sense of self, perception, emotion, and attention. These findings leverage the potential effects of culture on neural mechanisms underlying CUDs. Summary As the number of individuals seeking treatment for CUDs increases globally, it is imperative to incorporate cultural considerations to better understand and serve differing populations and develop more targeted treatment strategies and interventions. PMID:29062679

  1. Cross-Cultural Effects of Cannabis Use Disorder: Evidence to Support a Cultural Neuroscience Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Shikha; Milligan, Amber L; Cousijn, Janna; Filbey, Francesca M

    2017-06-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are prevalent worldwide. Current epidemiological studies underscore differences in behaviors that contribute to cannabis use across cultures that can be leveraged towards prevention and treatment of CUDs. This review proposes a framework for understanding the effects of cross-cultural differences on psychological, neural, and genomic processes underlying CUDs that has the potential to inform global policies and impact global public health. We found that cultural factors may influence (1) the willingness to acknowledge CUD-related symptoms among populations of different countries, and (2) neural responses related to the sense of self, perception, emotion, and attention. These findings leverage the potential effects of culture on neural mechanisms underlying CUDs. As the number of individuals seeking treatment for CUDs increases globally, it is imperative to incorporate cultural considerations to better understand and serve differing populations and develop more targeted treatment strategies and interventions.

  2. The role of material evidence in architectural research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The following texts explore the production of knowledge in architectural research. Focussing on a wide definition of practice led research, the aim for these texts is to discuss how the practices of architectural design; drawing, modelling, prototyping and building embody a particular set of know...... emerges are the fundamental crossovers between these practices. What we see here is that drawing is as much a practice of theoretical reflection as one of detailing, prototyping as much one of physical as conceptual testing.......The following texts explore the production of knowledge in architectural research. Focussing on a wide definition of practice led research, the aim for these texts is to discuss how the practices of architectural design; drawing, modelling, prototyping and building embody a particular set...... of knowledges that inform architectural thinking. Architectural reflection is allied with it media. It is through the drawing, the model and the built that architecture is conceived and developed. In practice based research working through design means reflecting through the production of material evidence...

  3. Rapid quantification and sex determination of forensic evidence materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréasson, Hanna; Allen, Marie

    2003-11-01

    DNA quantification of forensic evidence is very valuable for an optimal use of the available biological material. Moreover, sex determination is of great importance as additional information in criminal investigations as well as in identification of missing persons, no suspect cases, and ancient DNA studies. While routine forensic DNA analysis based on short tandem repeat markers includes a marker for sex determination, analysis of samples containing scarce amounts of DNA is often based on mitochondrial DNA, and sex determination is not performed. In order to allow quantification and simultaneous sex determination on minute amounts of DNA, an assay based on real-time PCR analysis of a marker within the human amelogenin gene has been developed. The sex determination is based on melting curve analysis, while an externally standardized kinetic analysis allows quantification of the nuclear DNA copy number in the sample. This real-time DNA quantification assay has proven to be highly sensitive, enabling quantification of single DNA copies. Although certain limitations were apparent, the system is a rapid, cost-effective, and flexible assay for analysis of forensic casework samples.

  4. Color categories: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson, Debi; Davidoff, Jules B.; Davies, Ian R. L.; Shapiro, Laura R.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether language affects our categorization of perceptual continua is of particular interest for the domain of color where constraints on categorization have been proposed both within the visual system and in the visual environment. Recent research (Roberson, Davies, & Davidoff, 2000; Roberson et al., in press) found substantial evidence of cognitive color differences between different language communities, but concerns remained as to how representative might be a tiny, extrem...

  5. Effects of Air Pollution on Materials and Cultural Heritage: ICP Materials Celebrates 25 Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Tidblad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of all results from the International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments (ICP Materials, which was launched in 1985. Since then, about twenty different materials have been exposed repeatedly in a network of test sites consisting of more than twenty sites with an extensive environmental characterisation and more than sixty official reports have been issued. Recent results on trends in corrosion, soiling, and pollution show that corrosion of carbon steel, zinc, and limestone is today substantially lower than 25 years ago, but while corrosion of carbon steel has decreased until today, corrosion of zinc and limestone has remained more or less constant since the turn of the century. Unique data are given on measured HNO3 concentrations from 2002-2003, 2005-2006, and 2008-2009, and the relative average decrease was about the same from 2002-2003 to 2005-2006 as it was from 2005-2006 to 2008-2009.

  6. Using research evidence to inform staff learning needs in cross-cultural communication in aged care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Xiao, Lily; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2018-04-01

    Developed countries worldwide are facing an unprecedented demand for aged care services, with recent migrants of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds increasingly recruited as care workers while at the same time there is growing cultural diversity among aged care residents. This situation is compounded by rapidly changing technology and varied educational levels of care workers from diverse backgrounds. The objectives were threefold: to identify staff learning needs to enable them to provide high-quality cross-cultural care; to improve team cohesion; and identify preferred learning approaches. An interpretive qualitative study utilising focus group and interview data informed the development of an education resource. Fifty six care workers from four residential aged care facilities participated in either focus groups or interviews conducted in private meeting rooms within the care facilities. Participants included personal care attendants, registered and clinical nurses, managers, hospitality staff and allied health professionals. Focus group and interview data were categorised and thematically analysed. Data relevant to cross-cultural care, team cohesion and preferred learning approaches informed education resource development, including case studies. Major themes identified the need to promote cultural awareness and understanding, and strategies for cross-cultural care and communication. Themes related to team cohesion demonstrated that staff were already sympathetic and sensitive to cross-cultural issues, and that culturally and linguistically diverse staff add value to the workforce and are supported by the organisation. Staff required clear, uncomplicated education resources to equip them with skills to address problematic cultural situations. Preferred learning approaches varied and highlighted the need for varied educational materials and approaches, as well as time efficient, opportunistic education strategies for the busy workplace. An education

  7. Religion, Culture, and Tax Evasion: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the impact of culture and religion on tax evasions in the Czech Republic, which represents one of the most atheistic countries in Europe, and a very interesting example of attitudes to the church and religion, as well as the influence of religion on the social and economic aspects of everyday life. Our results suggest that, in the Czech Republic, religion plays the role of tax compliance, but only through a positive effect of visiting the church. National pride supports tax morality while trust in government institutions and attitudes towards government are not associated with tax compliance. These results suggest that the Czech Republic is no different from other countries regarding the relationship between religion and tax compliance. Moreover, the role of government as the authority for improving tax compliance is different from what is observed in other countries.

  8. The erotic evidence as cultural consumption symbolic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Serrano Barquín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The desires, pleasures and emotions that relate to female sexuality and eroticism have been repressed as an expression of male power. Under this perspective, this paper presents some results of an investigation in which college students were interviewed in the city of Toluca, is seen discussing sexuality that specifically address physical aspects and their experiences are very different and inequitable between men and women. Young people often link sexuality with concepts such as reproduction, intimacy, warmth, love and pleasure. Also, the theme reflects certain connotations of morality and immorality, sin and danger, as well as imposition of power relations, domination and other stereotypes. Thus, from the interviews and cultural consumption is perceived sexuality and erotic also involves symbolic violence.

  9. Assessing the cultural in culturally sensitive printed patient-education materials for Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Tran, Henrietta; Chesla, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects Chinese Americans at an alarming rate. To address this health disparity, research in the area of cultural sensitivity and health literacy provides useful guidelines for creating culturally appropriate health education. In this article, we use discourse analysis to examine a group of locally available, Chinese- and English-language diabetes print documents from a surface level and deep structure level of culture. First, we compared these documents to research findings about printed health information to determine whether and how these documents apply current best practices for health literacy and culturally appropriate health communication. Second, we examined how diabetes as a disease and diabetes management is being constructed. The printed materials addressed surface level culture through the use of Chinese language, pictures, foods, and exercises. From a deeper cultural level, the materials constructed diabetes management as a matter of measurement and control that contrasted with previous research suggesting an alternative construction of balance. A nuanced assessment of both surface and deeper levels of culture is essential for creating health education materials that are more culturally appropriate and can lead to increased health literacy and improved health outcomes.

  10. Cross-Cultural Effects of Cannabis Use Disorder: Evidence to Support a Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prashad, S.; Milligan, A.L.; Cousijn, J.; Filbey, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are prevalent worldwide. Current epidemiological studies underscore differences in behaviors that contribute to cannabis use across cultures that can be leveraged towards prevention and treatment of CUDs. This review proposes a framework for

  11. East-West Cultural Differences in Context-Sensitivity are Evident in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples.…

  12. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  13. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…

  14. 19 CFR 10.121 - Visual or auditory materials of an educational, scientific, or cultural character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual or auditory materials of an educational... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Visual Or Auditory Materials § 10.121 Visual or auditory materials of an... the articles are visual or auditory materials of an educational, scientific, or cultural character...

  15. Cross-cultural emotional prosody recognition: evidence from Chinese and British listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Silke; Uskul, Ayse K

    2014-01-01

    This cross-cultural study of emotional tone of voice recognition tests the in-group advantage hypothesis (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002) employing a quasi-balanced design. Individuals of Chinese and British background were asked to recognise pseudosentences produced by Chinese and British native speakers, displaying one of seven emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happy, neutral tone of voice, sad, and surprise). Findings reveal that emotional displays were recognised at rates higher than predicted by chance; however, members of each cultural group were more accurate in recognising the displays communicated by a member of their own cultural group than a member of the other cultural group. Moreover, the evaluation of error matrices indicates that both culture groups relied on similar mechanism when recognising emotional displays from the voice. Overall, the study reveals evidence for both universal and culture-specific principles in vocal emotion recognition.

  16. The Structure of the Chinese Material Value Scale: An Eastern Cultural View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqun Liao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the structure of the Chinese Material Value Scale (MVS. A two-factor structure, rather than the original three-factor structure, was proposed for China by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Direct evidence showed that the dimensions of success and happiness could be merged together. Both explicit and implicit methods were used to examine the relationship between success and happiness based on possession. In particular, as an implicit method, the dot-probe paradigm recording participants’ response time supported the idea that the two-factors could be merged together. The results also showed that for Chinese people, success to an extent means happiness, while the converse is not necessarily true. Chinese are much more concerned about social evaluation than their own feelings, and this cultural characteristic is reflected in our findings.

  17. Material Evidence for Ocean Impact from Shock-Metamorphic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.; Takayama, K.; Iancu, O. G.

    1993-07-01

    Continental impact reveals an excavated crater that has few fresh fine ejecta showing major high shock metamorphism due to weathering [1]. A giant ocean impact rarely remains as an excavated crater mainly due to crushing by dynamic plate-tectonic movements on the crust [2]. However, all impact materials, including fine-grained ejecta, can be obtained with artificial impact experiments [3]. The purpose of this study is to discuss material evidence for ocean impact based on shock-metamorphic experiments. Artificial impact experiments indicate that fine shocked quartz (SQ) aggregates can be formed on several target rocks (Table 1) [1]. It is found in Table 1 that (1) the largest-density deviation of SQ grain is found not at the wall-rock or the impact crater but at fine-grained ejecta, and (2) silica-poor rocks of basalt, gabbro, and anorthosite can also make fine SQ aggregates by impact. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows formations of fine shocked quartz aggregates from ocean-floor rocks of basalt, gabbroic anorthosite, and granite [3]. An asteroid (about 10 km across) hits the Earth ~65 m.y. ago [4] to result in global catastrophe by titanic explosion and climate change. But shocked quartz grains found in the K/T boundary layer were considered to come from crystalline continental rocks [5]. The present result as listed in Table 1 indicates that fine SQ aggregates can also be formed at sea-floor basaltic and gabbroic rocks [3]. The present result of formation of the SQ grains from sea- floor target rocks is nearly consistent with the finding of a sea-impact crater at the K/T boundary near the Caribbean [6]. Impact-induced volcanism at the K/T boundary can explained by the penetration from thin ocean crust to upper mantle reservoirs, if giant impact of a 10-km- diameter asteroid hit the ocean [2,7]. The present result can explain "phreatomagmatic (magmatic vapor) explosion," which is created by abrupt boiling between high-temperature magma and cold

  18. Material Culture and Daily Hygiene in Córdoba in the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Moreyra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available From the history of everyday life and material culture studies, in this paper we describe and analyze household cleaning practices in the city of Cordoba (Argentina. We look for the presence (or absence of material objects and rooms for the daily hygiene in post mortem inventories. Changes in material culture and the domestic architecture allow us to recognize both changes as stays in the sensibilities and the ideas of cleanliness and dirtiness.

  19. Does Culture Affect Divorce Decisions? Evidence from European Immigrants in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla-Sanz, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of culture in determining divorce decisions by examining country of origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of US laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home country variables including average church at...

  20. Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Sawitzky, Angelina C.

    2006-01-01

    Mental health provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) are associated with organizational context and provider individual differences. Organizational culture and climate are contextual factors that can affect staff acceptance of innovation. This study examined the association of organizational culture and climate with attitudes toward adopting EBP. Participants were 301 public sector mental health service providers from 49 programs providing mental health services for ...

  1. Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Rock Art from the Mongolian Altai: The Material and its Cultural Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Jacobson-Tepfer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rock-pecked images from the northern Mongolian Altai attest to the presence of human communities within the high valleys of that region during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. The material provides evidence that is hitherto largely missing from the archaeological record of that region. This paper reviews the rock art, its find sites and larger physical contexts and uses evidence from paleoenvironmental studies to propose dating and cultural significance. The material is compared with other sites said to have Paleolithic imagery from Mongolia and the adjoining Russian Altai. The body of presented material offers a major resource for the study of early hunter-gatherer communities at the interface of Central and North Asia.

  2. Culture, Materiality, Memory: Collective Ownership and Action In Romanian Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis TULBURE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the tensions between collectivist and corporatist forms of ownership for Romanian mutual funds. Drawing on my research among retail investors of funds that ended up in bankruptcy throughout the postsocialist period, I document the material practices and graphic artefacts they deploy in litigation as ways to make claims and produce evidence regarding their ongoing financial involvement and the rights to compensations. I focus specifically on the files documenting their personal histories (providing moral reasons for pursuing “speculative” investments as well as those materializing the memory of their involvement with the capital market. I conclude that material practices are constitutive of vernacular forms of financial and legal knowledge. Furthermore, they engender specific types of property that serve as premises for the defense of investor rights and as grounds for emerging forms of collective action. Methodologically, the conclusion of the paper is that qualitative methods constitute alternative approaches and a valuable complement of quantitate research methods for the behaviors of mutual fund investors illustrating some of the cultural components giving specific dynamics to the popular participation to the capital market that can be subsequently quantified.

  3. IMPLEMENTING A STUDENT-CENTERED PEDAGOGY THROUGH THE USE OF INTERESTING AND CULTURALLY CONTEXTUALIZED AUTHENTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Kidwell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The selection and use of appropriate materials is one of the most critical challenges facing English teachers today. In this article, we tell the stories (vignettes of some of the major challenges we have faced as educators in this regard, and we offer a research base and practical suggestions related to each vignette. Selection of interesting and culturally contextualized authentic materials can go a long way towards creating a student-centered peddagogy. This will help to increase student motivation, achievemnt, and retention. Our first recommendation is to cultivate interst in the classroom. Interest can be elicited by selecting materials that lead to individual interest, students‘ personal interests, situational interest, the inherant interest in a specific situation like amystery or a puzzle, or topic interest, interest in the subject of the activity. An excellent way to elicit student interest is through the use of authentic materials. Teachers should endeavor to create interst in their classrooms by choosing interesting topics and texts, editing those texts, and using suspense and surprise. Our second suggestion is to use culturally contextualized authentic materials. These can come from two directions: either they can be situated in the culture of the students (the ―home‖ culture, or they can be situated in the culture of native speakers (the ―target‖ culture. Use of both types of cultural materials is important, and both can be termed ―authentic.‖ The most important point is that the materials are authentic, and therefore more meaningful to students.

  4. Developing a Culture of Readers: Complementary Materials That Engage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Misty; Kaambankadzanja, Davie

    2017-01-01

    Many professionals, including members of the International Literacy Association, are concerned with the lack of reading materials in classrooms across the world. In this paper, the authors present the creation of high-quality, locally produced, complementary reading materials in Malawi, where there are very few children's books and few…

  5. Canadian Cultural Materialism: Personal Values and Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Squire, Larry A.

    A study examined the relationship between social and material values and attitudes toward television advertising. Using the Rokeach Value Survey Form E, 157 Canadian college students ranked the 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in order of their importance as guiding principles for life. The values were classified as either material, social,…

  6. Application of stem-cell media to explant culture of human periosteum: An optimal approach for preparing osteogenic cell material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Kohya; Nagata, Masaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2013-01-01

    As part of our clinical tests on bone regeneration using cultured periosteal sheets, here, we prepared cultured periosteal sheets in two types of stem-cell culture media, STK1 and STK3. Human periosteum was expanded either in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1 for 28 days, in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1 for 14 days followed by 1% human serum-supplemented STK3 for 14 days (1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3), or in 10% fetal bovine serum-supplemented Medium 199 for 28 days (control). Cultured periosteal sheet diameter and DNA content were significantly higher, and the multilayer structure was prominent in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1 and 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3. The messenger RNA of osteoblastic markers was significantly upregulated in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3. Osteopontin-immunopositive staining and mineralization were evident across a wide area of the cultured periosteal sheet in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3. Subcutaneous implantation in nude mice following expansion in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3 produced the highest cultured periosteal sheet osteogenic activity. Expansion in 1% human serum-supplemented STK1+3 successfully induced cultured periosteal sheet growth while retaining osteogenic potential, and subsequent osteoblastic induction promoted the production of homogeneous cell material.

  7. Economic botany collections: A source of material evidence for exploring historical changes in Chinese medicinal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-03-22

    Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a

  8. Developing Culturally Targeted Diabetes Educational Materials for Older Russian-Speaking Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Son, Catherine R

    2014-07-01

    Older adults who immigrate late in life face many challenges adapting to a new country. Immigrants bring their cultural beliefs and behaviors with them, which can influence their ability to make dietary changes required when they have type 2 diabetes. Culturally targeted patient education materials are needed to improve immigrants' health literacy and abilities to self-manage diabetes. Currently, there is a scarcity of diabetes patient education materials to meet the educational needs of the Russian-speaking immigrant group. The purpose of this article is to describe a project in which culturally targeted diabetes education materials for older Russian-speaking immigrants were designed and developed. Culturally targeted patient education materials are essential if they are to be accepted and used by clients from different ethnic minority populations. The creation of culturally relevant materials requires a team effort and community stakeholder input. The availability of materials on the internet facilitates access and use by health care providers. Culturally targeted education materials are an important component in addressing health literacy in ethnic minority populations. Next steps require that these materials be evaluated to test their impact on diabetes self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes such as adherence, amount of physical activity, and blood glucose levels. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. Culture through Comparison: Creating Audio-Visual Listening Materials for a CLIL Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhyrun, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Authentic listening has become a part of CLIL materials, but it can be difficult to find listening materials that perfectly match the language level, length requirements, content, and cultural context of a course. The difficulty of finding appropriate materials online, financial limitations posed by copyright fees, and necessity to produce…

  10. Teacher Perception of Cultural Difference in L2 Materials: Is Filtering Culture the Right Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermessi, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of the intercultural approach to L2 teaching, several studies investigated teachers' attitudes and beliefs concerning the cultural dimension of L2 teaching in different foreign language settings. This study explored teachers' perceptions of the relationship between teaching English and culture in Tunisia, an EFL setting where…

  11. FMR measurements in fire ants: evidence of magnetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Darci M.S.; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel; El-Jaick, Lea J.; Cunha, Alexandra D.M.; Malheiros, Maria G.; Wajnberg, Eliane [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, Marilia P. [Centro de Ciencias do Estado, do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-01-01

    Based on the behavioral and the localization of iron-containing tissue fire ants were examined by EPR for magnetic material. Results suggest the presence of magnetite particles. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Early differential processing of material images: Evidence from ERP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebel, Christiane B; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-06-24

    Investigating the temporal dynamics of natural image processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) has a long tradition in object recognition research. In a classical Go-NoGo task two characteristic effects have been emphasized: an early task independent category effect and a later task-dependent target effect. Here, we set out to use this well-established Go-NoGo paradigm to study the time course of material categorization. Material perception has gained more and more interest over the years as its importance in natural viewing conditions has been ignored for a long time. In addition to analyzing standard ERPs, we conducted a single trial ERP pattern analysis. To validate this procedure, we also measured ERPs in two object categories (people and animals). Our linear classification procedure was able to largely capture the overall pattern of results from the canonical analysis of the ERPs and even extend it. We replicate the known target effect (differential Go-NoGo potential at frontal sites) for the material images. Furthermore, we observe task-independent differential activity between the two material categories as early as 140 ms after stimulus onset. Using our linear classification approach, we show that material categories can be differentiated consistently based on the ERP pattern in single trials around 100 ms after stimulus onset, independent of the target-related status. This strengthens the idea of early differential visual processing of material categories independent of the task, probably due to differences in low-level image properties and suggests pattern classification of ERP topographies as a strong instrument for investigating electrophysiological brain activity. © 2014 ARVO.

  13. Materiality Thresholds in Accounting and Auditing Some UK Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Gin

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the telephone interviews with 12 auditors (Big 5 and non Big 5) and 14 non auditors on the materiality thresholds adopted by them or by their organisations. Non auditors include from finance directors, banker, lawyer, internal auditors, an academic, and technical directors of the Accounting Standards Board (ASB) and the Auditing Practices Board (APB) in the UK. This is in respond to the issuance of Statement of Auditing Standards (SAS) 220 on ‘Materiality and the Audit= by t...

  14. Evidence for a Cultural Influence on Field-Independence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hwan Cui; Milne, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Field-independence, or weak central coherence, is a recognised phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is also evidence of cultural variation in this perceptual style, as neurotypical individuals from Western nations are more field-independent than neurotypical individuals from East-Asian nations. The majority of research on perceptual…

  15. Measuring Collaboration and Communication to Increase Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices: The Cultural Exchange Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Garcia, Antonio; Aarons, Gregory; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Fuentes, Dahlia; Holloway, Ian; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The Cultural Exchange Inventory (CEI) is a 15-item instrument designed to measure the process (7 items) and outcomes (8 items) of exchanges of knowledge, attitudes and practices between members of different organisations collaborating in implementing evidence-based practice. We conducted principal axis factor analyses and parallel analyses of data…

  16. East-West cultural differences in context-sensitivity are evident in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples. Moreover, no past research has investigated the relation between context-sensitivity and other domains of cognitive development. The present study examined children in the United States and Japan (N = 175, age 4-9 years) to investigate the developmental pattern in context-sensitivity and its relation to executive function. The study found that context-sensitivity increased with age across cultures. Nevertheless, Japanese children showed significantly greater context-sensitivity than American children. Also, context-sensitivity fully mediated the cultural difference in a set-shifting executive function task, which might help explain past findings that East Asian children outperformed their American counterparts on executive function. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  18. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Manurung; Ignatius Harjanto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement ...

  19. Analytical techniques for characterization of raw materials in cell culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Raw materials are a critical part of any cell culture medium; therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand and characterize them for high-quality product. The raw material characterization (RMC program at SAFC focuses on individual screening of raw materials both analytically and biologically. The goal of the program is to develop the best-in-class knowledge base of the raw materials used in SAFC’s media formulations and their impact on performance of products.

  20. When African teenagers become fathers: culture, materiality and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Nkani, Nomvuyo

    2014-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2010, the percentage of African children living with their fathers in South Africa dropped from 44% to 31%, with only a third of preschool children living with their parents. Concern about the spate of father absence and its effects on children's well-being has led to a growing focus on fathers in family interventions, although there is relative silence on teenage fathers. In this paper, we draw on an interview-based study with teenage fathers living under conditions of poverty to show how their understandings of fatherhood and constructions of provider masculinity intersect with cultural demands that express both weakness and power. In expressing the desire to care and be involved with their children, and aligning with patterns of masculinity that sought enhanced options for contraceptive use based on gender-equitable relationships, we show a new direction in the making of teenage fatherhood, diverging from hierarchical gender relations where men make the decisions. These changes, however, are limited by constructions of masculinity that contradictorily reinforce provider status, gender inequalities and male patterns of sexual entitlements within a context where teenage fathers are unable to achieve the cultural status of provider masculinity. Implications are discussed in the conclusion.

  1. Evidence for highly processed material ejected from Abell 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard, C.; Terlvich, R.; Ferland, G.; Sargent, W.L.W.

    1980-01-01

    The discovery of compact knots of highly processed material apparently ejected from the central star of the emission nebula Abell 30 is reported here. Spectra obtained from the compact nebulosities surrounding the central star, which indicate a remarkable enhancement of helium relative to hydrogen, are discussed. Preliminary model calculations to investigate the properties of hydrogen deficient nebulae and to study the abundances of some heavy elements have been applied to the results. (UK)

  2. Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K R; Wallbott, H G

    1994-02-01

    The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing.

  3. Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sawitzky, Angelina C

    2006-02-01

    Mental health provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice (EBP) are associated with organizational context and provider individual differences. Organizational culture and climate are contextual factors that can affect staff acceptance of innovation. This study examined the association of organizational culture and climate with attitudes toward adopting EBP. Participants were 301 public sector mental health service providers from 49 programs providing mental health services for youths and families. Correlation analyses and multilevel hierarchical regressions, controlling for effects of provider characteristics, showed that constructive culture was associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption of EBP and poor organizational climates with perceived divergence of usual practice and EBP. Behavioral health organizations may benefit from consideration of how culture and climate affect staff attitudes toward change in practice.

  4. Technical records as material evidence in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the aid of technical records - recordings (audio, visual or combined audiovisual events and occurrences can be registered in the outside world in detail. The recording enables the creator or anyone who has it in disposal that at any moment of its reproduction, it can be found in detail how the recorded event has happened or how an occurrence seemed at the time of the recording. Among the current formats of technical records are included: photography, filming, magnetic, magnetoscope, and videophone recording etc. (Sahiti & Murati 2016, 295. The possibility provided by the rapid technical development is also of interest to criminal procedure because technical records containing any fact that may be proved in criminal proceedings may serve as a source of knowledge about facts. In other words, they may serve as evidence to establish facts in criminal proceedings. Given the extensive options that technical fact recordings provide, entities that use the aid of various devices from this fi eld, as well as the different purposes of the author of the recording which have led to the case of making the recording, there is a reasonable question of the permission on their use as evidence in criminal proceedings. In Kosovo, the situation is clear in terms of recordings made in the criminal procedure, as Kosovo CCP 1 provides the possibility of photographing, filming, sketching, etc., of the crime scene, audio visual recording etc. examination of persons (defendant, witness, expert or recordings of any action on judicial review.

  5. Examining Student Work for Evidence of Teacher Uptake of Educative Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismack, Amber Schultz; Arias, Anna Maria; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify evidence in student work of teachers' uptake of educative features in educative curriculum materials. These are features in curriculum materials designed with the specific intent of supporting teacher learning and enactment. This study was prompted by previous work on educative curriculum materials and the…

  6. Evidence of different red emissions in irradiated germanosilicate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, A., E-mail: antonino.alessi@univ-st-etienne.fr [Univ-Lyon, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Di Francesca, D. [Univ-Lyon, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Agnello, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Girard, S. [Univ-Lyon, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Cannas, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Richard, N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F91297 Arpajon (France); Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y. [Univ-Lyon, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR CNRS 5516, Université Jean Monnet, 18 rue du Pr. Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2016-09-15

    This experimental investigation is focused on a radiation induced red emission in Ge doped silica materials, elaborated with different methods and processes. The differently irradiated samples as well as the pristine ones were analyzed with various spectroscopic techniques, such as confocal microscopy luminescence (CML), time resolved luminescence (TRL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Our data prove that irradiation induces a red luminescence related to the presence of the Ge atoms. Such emission features a photoexcitation spectrum in the UV-blue spectral range and, TRL measurements show that its decrease differs from a single exponential law with a lifetime of tens of nanoseconds. CML measurements under laser at 633 nm evidenced the lack of correlation of the emission here reported with that of the Ge- or Si- non bridging oxygen hole centers. Moreover, our EPR experiments highlighted the lack of correlation between the red emitting defect with other radiation induced paramagnetic centers such as the E′Ge and Ge(2). The relation of the investigated emission with the H(II) defects, previously considered as responsible for a red emission, can not be totally excluded. - Highlights: • Composite nature of the red emission in Ge-doped doped silica materials. • Experimental study with various spectroscopic techniques and on different samples. • Time resolved and stationary characterization of an new red emission. • Study of the spatial distributions of diverse red emissions in optical fibers.

  7. Culture as a problem in linking material inequality to health: on residential crowding in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauster, Nathanael; Tester, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Two problems are noted in the process of measuring material inequality and linking it to health across cultural boundaries. First, comparative measurements may be used as the basis for policy making, which ends up disciplining cultural minorities. In this way, policies intended to relieve disparities can actually have the effect of extending the power of the dominant group to define appropriate cultural understanding of the world for the minority group. Second, comparative measurements may inaccurately inform theories of how inequality works to influence health and well-being. To the extent that culture mediates the relationship between inequality and outcomes of interest to researchers, those ignoring cultural differences will fail to adequately assess the impact and significance of material inequality. In this paper we discuss and illustrate these problems with reference to the study and measurement of overcrowding and its effects on health and well-being for Inuit communities in Nunavut, Canada. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Big brains, small worlds: material culture and the evolution of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Fiona; Gamble, Clive

    2008-06-12

    New developments in neuroimaging have demonstrated that the basic capacities underpinning human social skills are shared by our closest extant primate relatives. The challenge for archaeologists is to explain how complex human societies evolved from this shared pattern of face-to-face social interaction. We argue that a key process was the gradual incorporation of material culture into social networks over the course of hominin evolution. Here we use three long-term processes in hominin evolution-encephalization, the global human diaspora and sedentism/agriculture-to illustrate how the cultural transmission of material culture allowed the 'scaling up' of face-to-face social interactions to the global societies known today. We conclude that future research by neuroimagers and archaeologists will need to investigate the cognitive mechanisms behind human engagement with material culture as well as other persons.

  9. Cultural Changes and Chronology from the Transition Late Bronze to Iron Age in Palestine: New Evidence from Tell Abu al-Kharaz, Jordan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    The 12th century BCE was a period of turmoil in the Southern Levant. The Canaanite Late Bronze Age culture - during several hundred years dominated by Egypt - received quite abruptly strong influences from the Eastern Mediterranean. The bearer of these new cultural elements, the so called Sea Peoples who included the Philistines, settled in Palestine after attacking Egypt. The changes that took place in Palestine are best reflected in the material culture which demonstrates Aegean and Cypriote elements. The exact date of their arrival in Palestine is a matter of recurrent discussion but the majority of scholars agree that it happened in the 12th century BCE. Philistine culture is usually associated with the area around today's Gaza. Nevertheless, the current excavations at Tell Abu al- Kharaz in the Transjordanian Jordan Valley provide evidence of Eastern Mediterranean/Philistine culture and a number of radiocarbon dates from first class find contexts. (author)

  10. Internal colonization, material culture and power in the Inka Empire

    OpenAIRE

    DeMarrais, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se emplean perspectivas de la teoría postcolonial para entender la “experiencia discrepante” del personal imperial y de las poblaciones sujetas dentro del Imperio inca. El análisis de la cultura material revela procesos –que incluyen la aculturación, la emulación, la cooptación y la hibridación– que resaltan las variadas relaciones de poder existentes entre el estado inca y los grupos locales. Dependiendo en gran parte de la amenaza y la coerción, la ideología inca fue reforz...

  11. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  12. Fixed, Fluid, and Transient: Negotiating Layers of Art Classroom Material Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woywod, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Objects of material culture have meaning. American flags, worktables, bulletin boards, interactive whiteboards, and large white-faced clocks signify "classroom" while color wheels, cupboards, cabinets, sinks, drawing supplies, and that particular scent that lingers after years of exposure to painting materials even more specifically…

  13. "Their Little Wooden Bricks": A History of the Material Culture of Kindergarten in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochner, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the material culture of kindergarten in the United States in relation to the production and consumption of materials and kindergarten theory and pedagogy. The focus is on Friedrich Froebel's building gifts as they were manufactured and sold by the Milton Bradley Company from 1869 to 1939. A review of trade catalogues over the…

  14. Contingencies and metacontingencies: Toward a synthesis of behavior analysis and cultural materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    1988-01-01

    A synthesis of cultural materialism and behavior analysis might increase the scientific and technological value of both fields. Conceptual and substantive relations between the two fields show important similarities, particularly with regard to the causal role of the environment in behavioral and cultural evolution. Key concepts in Marvin Harris's cultural materialist theories are outlined. A distinction is made between contingencies at the behavioral level of analysis (contingencies of reinforcement) and contingencies at the cultural level of analysis (metacontingencies). Relations between the two kinds of contingencies are explored in cultural practices from paleolithic to industrial sociocultural systems. A synthesis of these two fields may offer the opportunity to resolve serious problems currently facing modern cultures. PMID:22478011

  15. Lost in transformation? Reviving ethics of care in hospital cultures of evidence-based healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente

    2017-07-01

    Drawing on previous empirical research, we provide an exemplary narrative to illustrate how patients have experienced hospital care organized according to evidence-based fast-track programmes. The aim of this paper was to analyse and discuss if and how it is possible to include patients' individual perspectives in an evidence-based practice as seen from the point of view of nursing theory. The paper highlights two conflicting courses of development. One is a course of standardization founded on evidence-based recommendations, which specify a set of rules that the patient must follow rigorously. The other is a course of democratization based on patients' involvement in care. Referring to the analysis of the narrative, we argue that, in the current implementation of evidence-based practice, the proposed involvement of patients resembles empty rhetoric. We argue that the principles and values from evidence-based medicine are being lost in the transformation into the current evidence-based hospital culture which potentially leads to a McDonaldization of nursing practice reflected as 'one best way'. We argue for reviving ethics of care perspectives in today's evidence practice as the fundamental values of nursing may potentially bridge conflicts between evidence-based practice and the ideals of patient participation thus preventing a practice of 'McNursing'. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Impact of Traditional Culture on Farmers’ Moral Hazard Behavior in Crop Production: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To obtain higher yields, farmers may excessively use pesticides when they grow crops (like rice, vegetables, or fruit, causing moral hazard behavior. This paper examines how Chinese farmers’ moral hazard behavior in crop production is influenced by their traditional culture. A semi-parametric logistic model is used to investigate the impact of Chinese traditional culture on farmers’ moral hazard behavior. The results reveal that Chinese traditional culture has a positive effect on ameliorating the farmers’ excessive use of pesticides in crop production, which leads to a moral hazard in agro-product safety. Specifically, when we control for extraneous variables, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 15% if farmers consider their traditional culture in their production decisions. Moreover, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 17% if farmers consider the traditional culture as a powerful restraint regarding the use of pesticides. Our analysis provides some supportive evidence on the effect of Chinese traditional culture on mitigating farmers’ excessive use of pesticides.

  17. Organizational transformation: a model for joint optimization of culture change and evidence-based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D Kirk; Orr, Robin Diane; Raboin, W Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare organizations face continuous and accelerating external change and thus must be prepared to manage their own change initiatives proactively. Given that many believe that the U.S. healthcare system is broken and most healthcare organizations are dealing with pervasive problems, some organizations may choose to seek transformational change to achieve the six aims identified by the Institute of Medicine: healthcare that is safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Transformational change will almost certainly involve organizational culture. Culture change may be most effective when linked to other organizational change initiatives such as organizational strategy, structure, policies, procedures, and recruiting. Significant organizational change often requires accompanying facility change. There is an interdependent relationship between facility design and organizational culture. They affect each other and both impact organizational performance. Sociotechnical theory promotes joint optimization of the social (culture) and technical (facilities) aspects of an organization to achieve sustained positive change. To achieve organizational transformation and to sustain positive change, organizations must be prepared to adopt collaborative efforts in culture change and facility design. The authors propose a model for accomplishing joint optimization of culture change and evidence-based facility design.

  18. Laboratory evidence of MTBE biodegradation in Borden aquifer material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Mario; Butler, Barbara J.; Church, Clinton D.; Barker, James F.; Nadarajah, Nalina

    2003-02-01

    Mainly due to intrinsic biodegradation, monitored natural attenuation can be an effective and inexpensive remediation strategy at petroleum release sites. However, gasoline additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) can jeopardize this strategy because these compounds often degrade, if at all, at a slower rate than the collectively benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylene (BTEX) compounds. Investigation of whether a compound degrades under certain conditions, and at what rate, is therefore important to the assessment of the intrinsic remediation potential of aquifers. A natural gradient experiment with dissolved MTBE-containing gasoline in the shallow, aerobic sand aquifer at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Borden (Ontario, Canada) from 1988 to 1996 suggested that biodegradation was the main cause of attenuation for MTBE within the aquifer. This laboratory study demonstrates biologically catalyzed MTBE degradation in Borden aquifer-like environments, and so supports the idea that attenuation due to biodegradation may have occurred in the natural gradient experiment. In an experiment with batch microcosms of aquifer material, three of the microcosms ultimately degraded MTBE to below detection, although this required more than 189 days (or >300 days in one case). Failure to detect the daughter product tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in the field and the batch experiments could be because TBA was more readily degradable than MTBE under Borden conditions.

  19. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  20. Material Culture and Cultural Meanings: Current Studies of Archaeological Ceramics and in Ce­ramic Ethnoarchaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Kolb

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Pottery and People: A Dynamic Interaction. James M. Skibo and Gary M. Feinman (editors. Founda­tions of Archaeological Inquiry. Salt Lake City. University of Utah Press. 1999. 260 pp. 91 figures. 30 tables. ISBN 0-87480-576-7. $55.00 (cloth; 0-87489-577-5. $25.00 (paperback. Material Meanings: Critical Approaches to the Interpretation of Material Culture. Elizabeth S. Chilton (editor. Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 1999.179pp. 35 figures. 11 tables. ISBN 0-87480-632-1. $55.00 (cloth; 087480-633-X. $35.00 (paperback. The description and interpretation of material culture may be regarded as the essence of archaeology, a discipline that seeks to recover, describe, document, and interpret past human culture. More recently, understanding that actions occur in a material world that is constituted symbolically, archaeological explanations are often framed in sociocultural meanings, the analysis of agencies, practices and behaviors. I shall subsequently return to this issue. Because of their longevity in the archaeological record, lithic and ceramic artifacts are crucial to the endeavor to interpret human culture. Objects fashioned from clay and subjected to intentional artificial sources of heat made their initial appearance in the archaeological record more than 26.000 years ago. Ceramic objects have been created in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and forms, varying from fertility figurines. to cooking and food storage vessels. lamps, smoking pipes, medicinal pastilles, tokens, beehives, and coffins to modern whitewares and pyroceramics.

  1. Silk, porcelain and lacquer: China and Japan and their trade with Western Europe and the New World, 1500-1644. A survey of documentary and material evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan became inextricably linked with the West. Multiple sources provided new and unexpected documentary and material evidence of this trade by the Iberian Kingdoms of Portugal and Spain, and the tradin...

  2. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos.

  3. CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS OF EVIDENCE-BASED HOME-VISITATION MODELS IN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Parker, Myra E; Sanchez, Jenae; Riley, Rebecca; Heath, Debra; Chomo, Julianna C; Beltangady, Moushumi; Sarche, Michelle

    2018-05-01

    The Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (Tribal MIECHV) Program provides federal grants to tribes, tribal consortia, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations to implement evidence-based home-visiting services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) families. To date, only one evidence-based home-visiting program has been developed for use in AI/AN communities. The purpose of this article is to describe the steps that four Tribal MIECHV Programs took to assess community needs, select a home-visiting model, and culturally adapt the model for use in AI/AN communities. In these four unique Tribal MIECHV Program settings, each program employed a rigorous needs-assessment process and developed cultural modifications in accordance with community strengths and needs. Adaptations occurred in consultation with model developers, with consideration of the conceptual rationale for the program, while grounding new content in indigenous cultures. Research is needed to improve measurement of home-visiting outcomes in tribal and urban AI/AN settings, develop culturally grounded home-visiting interventions, and assess the effectiveness of home visiting in AI/AN communities. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Iron Age Material Culture in South Asia – Analysis and Context of Recently Discovered Slag Sites in Northwest Kashmir (Baramulla District in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz A Yatoo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with presence or absence of Iron Age material culture and explores the development of Iron Age in northwest Kashmir (Baramulla District. It has been noted from the previous surveys that a chronological gap existed (c. 1000 BCE – 100 CE, which roughly equates to the Iron Age in Kashmir (Yatoo 2005; Yatoo 2012. Furthermore, considering that there is very little evidence of Iron Age material culture from the few excavated (or explored sites in Kashmir, there is a debate about the very presence of Iron Age in Kashmir. The little information we have about Iron Age material culture from key sites in Kashmir (such as a few sherds of NBPW, some iron artefacts and slag at one site, has been largely dismissed as imports and lacked serious attention by scholars. It was therefore difficult to build any comparisons in the material culture for the present study. Instead the Iron Age material culture in other parts of South Asia, such as the Indian plains and northern regions of Pakistan, are discussed, as these regions have documented evidence of iron and its associated material culture but very few have archaeometallurgical evidence. Furthermore, Kashmir historically had communication links with these regions in South Asia since the early third millennium BCE until the 10th century CE, so we might expect some contact during the period of early iron production and use. Therefore, one key issue for archaeology in northwest Kashmir in this paper is to understand the link between the newly discovered slag and tuyeres with the key sites in Kashmir and in South Asia; and a further key issue is to determine whether or not there was a distinct Iron Age in north west Kashmir (or whole of Kashmir, or whether the few recovered iron artefacts from key sites of Kashmir are indeed all imports.

  5. Improving Elementary School Students’ English Vocabulary Through Local Cultural Content Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Manurung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elementary students of a certain public school in Indonesia had difficulties in learning English. One of the crucial problems was learning English vocabulary. In an attempt to help the students learn and improve English vocabulary, the researchers decided to use CAR to teach English vocabulary with local cultural content materials. The aim of this study was to investigate how the teaching of English vocabulary with local cultural content materials contributed to the improvement of the students’ English vocabulary mastery. The topics covered in the materials were selected based on schemata theory. Vocabulary learning process was done through several activities provided in the materials: classroom and outside vocabulary learning. The results showed that the teaching of local cultural content materials have contributed to the improvement of the Elementary students’ vocabulary mastery. The schematic knowledge found in the familiar topics has aroused the students’ interest and motivation in learning English vocabulary. Students who were more familiar with the topics could respond to the vocabulary learning better than those who were not familiar with. The vocabulary mastery was more successful only if the students participated in both classroom and outside vocabulary learning process. Keywords: Vocabulary Mastery, Vocabulary Improvement, Local Cultural Content Materials, Vocabulary Learning, Schemata

  6. THE FEDERAL LIST OF EXTREMIST MATERIALS AS A CULTURAL ARTEFACT “FAN-FICTION”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Salnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the analysis of problem of counteraction to distribution of extremist materials. According to the author, a strictly legal interpretation of the Federal list of extremist materials ignores the problem of the nature of extremist materials and the question of the applicability of this concept. As a result extremist materials can be understood as phantom, determined by fight the power with its political opponents. Overcoming this negative interpretation is possible through the interpretation of extremist materials in the context of the practices of the prohibition of texts that took place in society at different historical stages. Qualitative difference of extremist materials from other forms of censorship sets a postmodern culture in which there is a transformation of the concept of the author of the text up until his disappearance. This is the epitome of cultures fan-fiction – free community of persons who in their literary works – fanfiction – develop, modify or refine some of the original idea, embodied in a book, film, computer game. The author offers the interpretation of extremist materials as of fanfics object, where the list of extremist materials sets the boundaries of the field of extremist ideas, acting as a marker of the space limitation of the creative generation of information in the world of mass culture.

  7. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, BoKyung; Tsai, Jeanne L; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-02-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people's immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets' ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, BoKyung; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people’s immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets’ ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. PMID:26342220

  9. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  10. Acting and Collecting: Imagining Asia through material culture and musical theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Thorley

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between Asian-inspired material culture and musical theatre through the collections of Anglo-Australian performer Herbert Browne (1895-1975). Brown played lead roles in 1920s Australian musical theatre productions of The Mikado and Chu Chin Chow and re-lived his connection with oriental theatre by collecting and responding to objects performatively in the Chinoiserie room of his Melbourne home. Oriental musical theatre blended exotic cultures and locales in visual...

  11. Color categories are not universal: new evidence from traditional and western cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi D.; Davidoff, Jules; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2002-06-01

    Evidence presented supports the linguistic relativity of color categories in three different paradigms. Firstly, a series of cross-cultural investigations, which had set out to replicate the seminal work of Rosch Heider with the Dani of New Guinea, failed to find evidence of a set of universal color categories. Instead, we found evidence of linguistic relativity in both populations tested. Neither participants from a Melanesian hunter-gatherer culture, nor those from an African pastoral tribe, whose languages both contain five color terms, showed a cognitive organization of color resembling that of English speakers. Further, Melanesian participants showed evidence of Categorical Perception, but only at their linguistic category boundaries. Secondly, in native English speakers verbal interference was found to selectively remove the defining features of Categorical Perception. Under verbal interference, the greater accuracy normally observed for cross-category judgements compared to within-category judgements disappeared. While both visual and verbal codes may be employed in the recognition memory of colors, participants only make use of verbal coding when demonstrating Categorical Perception. Thirdly, in a brain- damaged patient suffering from a naming disorder, the loss of labels radically impaired his ability to categorize colors. We conclude that language affects both the perception of and memory for colors.

  12. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Terence E

    2010-05-01

    AIDS media lead unexpected lives once distributed through urban space: billboards fade, posters go missing, bumper stickers travel to other cities. The materiality of AIDS campaign objects and of the urban settings in which they are displayed structures how the public interprets their messages. Ethnographic observation of AIDS media in situ and interview data reveal how the materiality of objects and places shapes the availability of AIDS knowledge in Accra, Ghana. Significantly for AIDS organizations, these material conditions often systematically obstruct access to AIDS knowledge for particular groups. Attending to materiality rethinks how scholars assess the cultural power of media.

  13. Cultural events – does attendance improve health? Evidence from a Polish longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Węziak-Białowolska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is strong advocacy for uptake of both the arts and creative activities as determinants of individual health conditions, studies evaluating causal influence of attendance at cultural events on population health using individual population data on health are scarce. If available, results are often only of an associative nature. In this light, this study investigated causative impact of attendance at cultural events on self-reported and physical health in the Polish population. Methods Four recent waves (2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015 of the biennial longitudinal Polish household panel study, Social Diagnosis, were analysed. The data, representative for the Polish population aged over 16, with respect to age, gender, classes of place of residence and NUTS 2 regions, were collected from self-report questionnaires. Causative influence of cultural attendance on population health was established using longitudinal population representative data. To account for unobserved heterogeneity of individuals and to mitigate issues caused by omitted variables, a panel data model with a fixed effects estimator was applied. The endogeneity problem (those who enjoy good health are more likely to participate in cultural activities more frequently was circumvented by application of instrumental variables. Results Results confirmed positive association between cultural attendance and self-reported health. However, in contrast to the often suggested positive causative relationship, such a link was not confirmed by the study. Additionally, no evidence was found to corroborate a positive impact from cultural attendance on physical health. Both findings were substantiated by augmentation in the longitudinal perspective and causal link. Conclusions We showed the relation between attendance at cultural events and self-reported health could only be confirmed as associational. Therefore, this study provided little justification to encourage use

  14. National Agendas and Local Realities: Festive Material and Ritual Culture, Nationalism, and Modernity in the Chita Region of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean McPherson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The reworking of religious space in modern Japan encompassed the reinvention of the spatial, material, and ritual culture of matsuri 祭り(festivals. After a period of relative official disfavor, festivals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were reinvigorated by changes in ritual process and spatial scope, as well as by shifts in the architecture and sculpture of dashi 山車 (wheeled festival floats. The incorporation of matsuri into broader discourses of national cultural identity was driven by the affective potential of their supposed cultural authenticity. This reinvention of festivity is evident in the Tokoname Matsuri of Tokoname City, Aichi Prefecture, where after the 1905 Russo-Japanese conflict several Edo-period shrine festivals were merged into a shōkonsai 招魂祭 (festival for the war dead. The spatial scope and ritual process, as well as the architecture and sculptural iconography, of the six dashi built for the new Tokoname Matsuri tied this regional city into national discourses of cultural authenticity, racial purity, and martial valor. The ideological resonance in prewar Japan of the Tokoname Matsuri and other festivals with nationalist imagery sprang from their indelibly local origins; matsuri were not controlled entirely from the top down, but rather were mediated at multiple levels.

  15. IMPLEMENTING A STUDENT-CENTERED PEDAGOGY THROUGH THE USE OF INTERESTING AND CULTURALLY CONTEXTUALIZED AUTHENTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Tabitha Kidwell; Hanung Triyoko

    2017-01-01

    The selection and use of appropriate materials is one of the most critical challenges facing English teachers today. In this article, we tell the stories (vignettes) of some of the major challenges we have faced as educators in this regard, and we offer a research base and practical suggestions related to each vignette. Selection of interesting and culturally contextualized authentic materials can go a long way towards creating a student-centered peddagogy. This will help to increase student ...

  16. Culture modulates the brain response to human expressions of emotion: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to natural and artificial materials from cultural heritages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brai, Maria; Gennaro, Gaetano; Schillaci, Tiziano; Tranchina, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an applied physical technique that has shown in recent years its great potential for rapid qualitative analysis of materials. Thanks to the possibility to implement a portable instrument that perform LIBS analysis, this technique is revealed to be particularly useful for in situ analysis in the field of cultural heritages. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potentiality of LIBS technique in the field of cultural heritages, with respect to the chemical characterization of complex matrix as calcareous and refractory materials for further quantitative analyses on cultural heritages. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses were used as reference. Calibration curves of certified materials used as standards were obtained by XRF analyses. The LIBS measurements were performed with a new mobile instrument called Modi (Mobile Double pulse Instrument for LIBS Analysis). The XRF analyses were performed with a portable instrument ArtTAX. LIBS and XRF measurement were performed on both reference materials and samples (bricks and mortars) sampled in the ancient Greek-Roman Theatre of Taormina. Although LIBS measurements performed on reference materials have shown non linear response to concentrations, and so we were not able to obtain quantitative results, an integrated study of XRF and LIBS signals permitted us to distinguish among chemical features and degradation state of measured building materials.

  18. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to natural and artificial materials from cultural heritages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brai, Maria; Gennaro, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed.18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Schillaci, Tiziano, E-mail: tschillaci@unipa.i [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed.18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Tranchina, Luigi [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed.18, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an applied physical technique that has shown in recent years its great potential for rapid qualitative analysis of materials. Thanks to the possibility to implement a portable instrument that perform LIBS analysis, this technique is revealed to be particularly useful for in situ analysis in the field of cultural heritages. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potentiality of LIBS technique in the field of cultural heritages, with respect to the chemical characterization of complex matrix as calcareous and refractory materials for further quantitative analyses on cultural heritages. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses were used as reference. Calibration curves of certified materials used as standards were obtained by XRF analyses. The LIBS measurements were performed with a new mobile instrument called Modi (Mobile Double pulse Instrument for LIBS Analysis). The XRF analyses were performed with a portable instrument ArtTAX. LIBS and XRF measurement were performed on both reference materials and samples (bricks and mortars) sampled in the ancient Greek-Roman Theatre of Taormina. Although LIBS measurements performed on reference materials have shown non linear response to concentrations, and so we were not able to obtain quantitative results, an integrated study of XRF and LIBS signals permitted us to distinguish among chemical features and degradation state of measured building materials.

  19. Materializing Culture - Culturizing Material. On the Status, Responsibilities and Function of Cultural Property Repositories within the Framework of a "Transformative Scholarship"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hilgert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain theoretical streams in the cultural and social sciences that are occasionally subsumed under the term “New Materialism” 2 (see Witzgall, as well as recent social, political, cultural and media technology developments require a theoretical and research-political repositioning of academic object repositories. For it is obvious that under the influence of these multi-layered, partly interwoven processes, the status, responsibilities, as well as the function and spheres of activity of these object or cultural property repositories with research commitment (on the term see section 2 below are currently undergoing long-lasting change. For the respective institutions, these changes not only result in complex challenges regarding contents and structure, but also present extraordinary opportunities for the fulfillment of their academic, social and political responsibilities. The appropriate handling of these challenges and opportunities can substantially contribute to the sharpening of the academic and social profile of these institutions and increase their visibility on both a national and international level.

  20. Investigating longitudinal and cross cultural measurement Invariance of Inglehart’s short post-materialism scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ippel, L.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Moors, G.B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Inglehart applies a four item ranking scale to measure post-materialism which is used for cross-cultural and cross-temporal comparative purposes. The aim of this research is to test measurement invariance of the scale to establish to what extent the scale produces comparable results in time and

  1. Reinvigorating Ethnic Cultural Identity Through Mother-Tongue-Teaching Materials in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-chiao

    1996-01-01

    Explores to what extent a mother-tongue educational program can reinvigorate Taiwan's ethnic cultural identity. Content of mother-tongue materials used in Taipei county for Taiwanese, Hakka, and Ataylic students is analyzed, and interviews with members from each ethnic group are also conducted as a supplement. (JL)

  2. Pages of the phytomorphology history in the monuments of material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yu. Barshteyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It was reviewed Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome sources of plants morphology, plant morphology knowledge in Renaissance age – scientific works of Andrea Cesalpino, Joachim Jungius, Marcello Malpighi and plant morphology formation as the separate branch of science due to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe scientific works and its reflection in the monuments of material culture.

  3. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from ‘popular’ forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in ‘medical gothic’ fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's ‘Good Lady Ducayne’ (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. PMID:28495908

  4. Towards cultural materialism in the medical humanities: the case of blood rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    This paper argues for an approach within the medical humanities that draws on the theoretical legacy of cultural materialism as a framework for reading cultural practices and their relationship to the social and economic order. It revisits the origins and development of cultural materialism in cultural studies and literary studies between the 1970s and 1990s and considers how, with adaptation, this methodology might facilitate ideological criticism focused on material formations of health, disease and the human body. I outline three key characteristics of a medicocultural materialist approach along these lines: (a) interdisciplinary work on a broad range of medical and cultural sources, including those drawn from 'popular' forms of culture; (b) the combination of historicist analysis with scrutiny of present-day contexts; (c) analyses that engage with political economy perspectives and/or the work of medical sociology in this area. The subsequent sections of the paper employ a medicocultural materialist approach to examine conjectural understandings of, and empirical investigations into, the capacity of transfused human blood to rejuvenate the ageing body. I trace textual faultlines that expose the structures of power which inform the movement of blood between bodies in 'medical gothic' fictions from the 19th-century fin de siècle, including Mary Elizabeth Braddon's 'Good Lady Ducayne' (1896) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). I conclude with a critique of biomedical innovations in blood rejuvenation in the era of medical neoliberalism, before considering the potential applications of medicocultural materialism to other topics within the field of the medical humanities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2018-06-01

    This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. An examination of cross-cultural systems implementing evidence-based assessment and intervention approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Laura K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of evidence-based assessment and intervention approaches for youth with behavioral and/or emotional problems is rising to recognition worldwide. Feasibility research is critical to examine what characteristics of systems allow for success or barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practices into real-world settings, especially when working cross-culturally. This paper briefly reviews the experience of 4 international sites to understand how the overall structure and specific site variables directed the implementation of the World Health Organization and the World Psychiatry Association project. Discussion includes a thematic summary of the successes and challenges experienced by the sites, and future directions of feasibility studies.

  7. The influence of workplace culture on nurses' learning experiences: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kate; White, Sarahlouise; Stephenson, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    A healthy workplace culture enables nurses to experience valuable learning in the workplace. Learning in the workplace enables the provision of evidence-based and continuously improving safe patient care, which is central to achieving good patient outcomes. Therefore, nurses need to learn within a workplace that supports the implementation of evidence-based, professional practice and enables the best patient outcomes; the influence of workplace culture may play a role in this. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise and synthesize the best available qualitative evidence to understand both the nurses' learning experiences within the workplace and the factors within the workplace culture that influence those learning experiences. Registered and enrolled nurses regulated by a nursing and midwifery board and/or recognized health practitioner regulation agency (or their international equivalent). This review considered studies that described two phenomena of interest: the nurses' learning experience, either within an acute healthcare workplace or a workplace-related learning environment and the influence of workplace culture on the nurses' learning experience (within the workplace or workplace-related learning environment). This review considered studies that included nurses working in an acute healthcare organization within a Western culture. This review considered studies that focused on qualitative evidence and included the following research designs: phenomenological, grounded theory and critical theory. Published and unpublished studies in English from 1980 to 2013 were identified using a three-step search strategy, searching various databases, and included hand searching of the reference lists within articles selected for appraisal. For studies meeting the inclusion criteria, methodological quality was assessed using a standardized checklist from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Qualitative data

  8. Organ culture storage of pre-prepared corneal donor material for Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, Maninder; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S; Allan, Bruce D

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of media composition and storage method on pre-prepared Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts. 50 corneas were used. Endothelial wound healing and proliferation in different media were assessed using a standard injury model. DMEK grafts were stored using three methods: peeling with free scroll storage; partial peeling with storage on the stroma and fluid bubble separation with storage on the stroma. Endothelial cell (EC) phenotype and the extent of endothelial overgrowth were examined. Global cell viability was assessed for storage methods that maintained a normal cell phenotype. 1 mm wounds healed within 4 days. Enhanced media did not increase EC proliferation but may have increased EC migration into the wounded area. Grafts that had been trephined showed evidence of EC overgrowth, whereas preservation of a physical barrier in the bubble group prevented this. In grafts stored in enhanced media or reapposed to the stroma after trephination, endothelial migration occurred sooner and cells underwent endothelial-mesenchymal transformation. Ongoing cell loss, with new patterns of cell death, was observed after returning grafts to storage. Grafts stored as free scrolls retained more viable ECs than grafts prepared with the fluid bubble method (74.2± 3% vs 60.3±6%, p=0.04 (n=8). Free scroll storage is superior to liquid bubble and partial peeling techniques. Free scrolls only showed overgrowth of ECs after 4 days in organ culture, indicating a viable time window for the clinical use of pre-prepared DMEK donor material using this method. Methods for tissue preparation and storage media developed for whole corneas should not be used in pre-prepared DMEK grafts without prior evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Infusing Culture into Practice: Developing and Implementing Evidence-Based Mental Health Services for African American Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen

    2010-01-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…

  10. Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Caitlin Rose

    The application and use of non-destructive portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a critical tool in the preservation and interpretation of cultural material. Portable XRF instrumentation produce elemental compositional data that is used to reconstruct current artifact composition, which can be related to materials and methods of manufacture, technological practice, as well as object condition and presence of corrosion surfaces. Portable XRF analysis is used to assess a variety of material classes utilized in artifact manufacture. The dissertation research is based on a series of three case studies that represent typical groups of material culture commonly encountered in conservation and conservation science research. Conservators and conservation scientists frequently undertake analysis and interpretation of disparate groups of materials. Often, these objects are tied together by research questions or themes directed by outside influences including preservation issues requiring action; curatorial research interests; museum exhibition programs; as well as many other cultural heritage stakeholders. To this end, both non-destructive and destructive tools that provide measurements of interest play critical roles in analysis. The case studies have been designed to answer common compositional questions relating to (a) bulk analysis of Chinese coins, (b) characterization of Southwestern ceramic colorants, and, (c) chemical examination of post-depositional manganese dioxide accretions occurring on archaeological ceramic materials. They evaluate the value of data produced using effectiveness of non-destructive portable XRF analysis for the interpretation of archaeological materials. The case studies provide a template for the development of conservation science research, predicated on object preservation, which produce meaningful data for the interpretation and conservation of the analyzed archaeological artifacts. Portable XRF provides useful data that is used to

  11. Cultural immersion alters emotion perception: Neurophysiological evidence from Chinese immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2017-12-01

    To explore how cultural immersion modulates emotion processing, this study examined how Chinese immigrants to Canada process multisensory emotional expressions, which were compared to existing data from two groups, Chinese and North Americans. Stroop and Oddball paradigms were employed to examine different stages of emotion processing. The Stroop task presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent/incongruent emotions and participants actively judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other. A significant effect of cultural immersion was observed in the immigrants' behavioral performance, which showed greater interference from to-be-ignored faces, comparable with what was observed in North Americans. However, this effect was absent in their N400 data, which retained the same pattern as the Chinese. In the Oddball task, where immigrants passively viewed facial expressions with/without simultaneous vocal emotions, they exhibited a larger visual MMN for faces accompanied by voices, again mirroring patterns observed in Chinese. Correlation analyses indicated that the immigrants' living duration in Canada was associated with neural patterns (N400 and visual mismatch negativity) more closely resembling North Americans. Our data suggest that in multisensory emotion processing, adopting to a new culture first leads to behavioral accommodation followed by alterations in brain activities, providing new evidence on human's neurocognitive plasticity in communication.

  12. Material, behavioural, cultural and psychosocial factors in the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; Oude Groeniger, Joost; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to assess the contribution of material, behavioural, cultural and psychosocial factors in the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities (education and income) in oral health of Dutch adults. Cross-sectional data from participants (25-75 years of age) of the fifth wave of the GLOBE cohort were used (n = 2812). Questionnaires were used to obtain data on material factors (e.g. financial difficulties), behavioural factors (e.g. smoking), cultural factors (e.g. cultural activities) and psychosocial factors (e.g. psychological distress). Oral health outcomes were self-reported number of teeth and self-rated oral health (SROH). Mediation analysis, using multivariable negative binomial regression and logistic regression, was performed. Education level and income showed a graded positive relationship with both oral health outcomes. Adding material, behavioural, cultural and psychosocial factors substantially reduced the rate ratio for the number of teeth of the lowest education group from 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.83) to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.97) and of the lowest income group from 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73-0.88) to 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96-1.14). Inclusion of all factors also substantially reduced the odds ratio for poor SROH of the lowest education group from 1.61 (95% CI: 1.28-2.03) to 1.12 (95% CI: 0.85-1.48) and of the lowest income groups from 3.18 (95% CI: 2.13-4.74) to 1.48 (95% CI: 0.90-2.45). In general, behavioural factors contributed most to the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in adult oral health, followed by material factors. The contribution of cultural and psychosocial factors was relatively moderate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mohammadzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here.Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features.After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2 and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed.Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2 which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  14. Still and Moving Image Evidences for Mating of Echinococcus granulosus Reared in Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Rahimi, Hamidreza

    2014-03-01

    Echinococcus granulosus cultivation is very important for improvement of different aspect of medical and veterinary researches. Despite many advances in this case, there is a missing link for in vitro life cycle of adult worms and it is fertilization. Regarding the researchers' observations, self-fertilization can be done in worms living in dog intestine, but despite all sorts of experimental techniques, this phenomenon has never been observed in reared worms in culture media. Furthermore, cross fertilization has not been observed in vitro and even in parasites with dog intestinal origin; although it theoretically is possible. During a follow-up of cultivated adult worms, evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2) and cross-mating were observed in our lab which will be presented here. Protoscoleces were aseptically removed from sheep hydatid cysts, washed twice with PBS and then cultivated in S.10E.H culture medium. The stages of parasite growth were observed using an inverted microscope for two months and all stages and behaviors were microscopically photographed. Different movies have also been made from these behavioral features. After around 55 days post cultivation, some evidences of behaviors similar to self-mating (Type 2) and cross-mating were observed in some of the mature adult worms. However, fertile eggs in these parasites have never been observed. Regarding the above observations, these parasites show tendency to unsuccessful self-mating/fertilization (type 2) which failure could be due to anatomical position and physiological maturation. Also lack of suitable conditions for self-fertilization causes the worms try to do unsuccessful cross- mating/fertilization in culture media.

  15. Effects of Pop Culture as Authentic Materials toward Students’ Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Writing, one of the four skills which has to be taught by educators in language learning. Starting from classroom observation implied that students confronted the difficulties in writing involving generating ideas, organizing words, and making compositions. This study supposes to explore some effects of pop culture as authentic materials for English language teaching in improving students‘ writing skill. Due to pop culture relates to students‘ life and experience, it is considered to be a stimulus for gaining students‘ ideas, information, motivation, and interest in teaching writing. The students of secondary school were involved in this study and descriptive case study was employed to observe the importance of pop culture in writing class. Also, questionnaires and students‘ works are the instruments to measure its effects. Both students‘ works and result of the questionnaires pointed out that significantly improvement obtained after applying pop culture. In line with findings, it can be said that pop cultures have significant effects toward students‘ writing skill. So, educators need to apply pop culture as their choices in future planning lesson.

  16. The use of material culture to establish the ethnic identity of victims in genocide investigations: a validation study from the American Southwest*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Debra A; Lathrop, Sarah

    2008-09-01

    Successful prosecution of genocide requires that the victims constitute one of four protected groups: national, religious, ethnic, or racial. Establishing victim identity in prior trials has relied on positive identification of decedents, been largely presumptive, or was based on untested methodology. This report details a validation study of one untested method: the use of material culture in establishing ethnic identity. Classes of clothing and personal effects were scored on 3,430 individuals of known Hispanic or White ancestry from autopsy records in New Mexico. Significant differences were seen in evidence of language, nationality, and religious affiliation between the two groups, as well as clothing types and currency. Predictive models used to estimate ethnic identity in random, blind subsets produced an overall accuracy of 81.5% and estimates of 61-98% in specific subsets. Results suggest material culture, when present, can provide reliable evidence of ethnic affinity in genocide investigations.

  17. Plant Materials are Sustainable Substrates Supporting New Technologies of Plant-Only-Based Culture Media for in vitro Culturing of the Plant Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Elhussein F; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Daanaa, Hassan-Sibroe A; Abdou, Mennatullah; Morsi, Ahmed T; Abdelfadeel, Mohamed R; Elsawey, Hend; Nemr, Rahma; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed; Youssef, Hanan H; Abdelhadi, Abdelhadi A; Amer, Wafaa M; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2018-03-29

    In order to improve the culturability and biomass production of rhizobacteria, we previously introduced plant-only-based culture media. We herein attempted to widen the scope of plant materials suitable for the preparation of plant-only-based culture media. We chemically analyzed the refuse of turfgrass, cactus, and clover. They were sufficiently rich to support good in vitro growth by rhizobacteria isolates representing Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. They were also adequate and efficient to produce a cell biomass in liquid batch cultures. These culture media were as sufficient as artificial culture media for the cultivation and recovery of the in situ rhizobacteria of barley (Hordeum murinum L.). Based on culture-dependent (CFU plate counting) and culture-independent analyses (qPCR), mowed turfgrass, in particular, supported the highest culturable population of barley endophytes, representing >16% of the total bacterial number quantified with qPCR. This accurately reflected the endophytic community composition, in terms of diversity indices (S', H', and D') based on PCR-DGGE, and clustered the plant culture media together with the qPCR root populations away from the artificial culture media. Despite the promiscuous nature of the plant materials tested to culture the plant microbiome, our results indicated that plant materials of a homologous nature to the tested host plant, at least at the family level, and/or of the same environment were more likely to be selected. Plant-only-based culture media require further refinements in order to provide selectivity for the in vitro growth of members of the plant microbiome, particularly difficult-to-culture bacteria. This will provide insights into their hidden roles in the environment and support future culturomic studies.

  18. Ramón Reichert and Annika Richterich, eds., Digital Material/ism Vol. 1, Issue 1 – Digital Culture and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pournara, Lizzy

    2017-01-01

    Ramón Reichert and Annika Richterich, eds., Digital Material/ism Vol. 1, Issue 1 – Digital Culture and Society Bielefeld: [transcript] Verlag, 2015. ISBN 978-3-8376-3153-1. Lizzy Pournara Aristotle University of Thessaloniki The issue Digital Material/ism edited by Ramón Reichert and Annika Richterich inaugurates the first volume of the journal Digital Culture & Society. The significance of this volume’s work lies in its attempt to redress the concept of materiality in digital environments an...

  19. Secular gains in fluid intelligence: evidence from the Culture-Fair intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; García-López, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    There is no doubt about the reality of the secular increase in cognitive test scores. However, there is disagreement about a key issue: does the observed increase reflect a genuine upward trend in intelligence? Evidence from the Raven test is clear, although there are some doubts about its adequacy as a fine-grained measure of fluid intelligence. Evidence from the so-called 'method of correlated vectors' is much less clear. When a crystallized battery is considered, the results leave little doubt: the increase does not reflect gains in general intelligence. However, when a fluid battery is analysed, the increase does reflect gains in general intelligence. The present study uses one of the best available measures of fluid intelligence (the Culture-Fair intelligence test) to provide new evidence for the secular increase in fluid intelligence, beyond the findings from the Raven test and the method of correlated vectors. A total of 4498 Spanish high school students and high school graduates were tested within a time interval of 20 and 23 years, respectively. The results show that there is a clear upward trend in intelligence. Moreover, students show an average increase equivalent to 6 IQ points, while graduates show an average increase of 4 IQ points. Therefore, more selected people (graduates) show a smaller increase than less selected people (students). Some implications are discussed.

  20. [Titanium or steel as osteosynthesis material : Systematic literature search for clinical evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeris, Alexander; Goldhahn, Sabine; Rometsch, Elke; Höntzsch, Dankward

    2017-02-01

    The selection of the appropriate implant material, stainless steel or titanium, is still the decision of the surgeon and/or the affiliated institution. Additionally, remarkable international differences can be found between the different markets, which cannot really be explained. A systematic literature search was performed to verify whether there is clinical evidence for the preference of one material over the other. The systematic literature search was performed utilizing the internet databases PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science. Comparative studies were included that reported on adult patients with osteosynthesis of extremities after trauma using either stainless steel or titanium implants. Information was extracted about infection rates, incidence of clinically relevant allergies, problems with implant removal and other complications. A total of 18 publications were identified to be eligible and 2 referenced articles were added. In summary, there is insufficient clinical evidence that the use of titanium or steel implants has a positive or negative effect on fracture healing, shows different rates of allergies, different rates of infections or mechanical failure. No supporting evidence could be identified for the difficulties with removal of titanium implants reported by surgeons. This systematic literature search did not provide any clinical evidence for material-related differences between titanium or stainless steel implants for fracture fixation. Based on the current clinical evidence both titanium and steel implants can be considered to be of equal value. The reported difficulties with implant removal are not reflected in the published literature.

  1. The Islamic Orient and the Development of Material Culture of Muscovy: Evaluation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Leonid A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses approaches to archaeological analysis of the Muslim contribution to the development of Muscovy, as well as the mere possibility of such analysis. So far, the studies focused on identifi cation of some interpenetrating elements of the material and artistic culture, which is necessary, but not quite suffi cient. New tasks must be formulated: to outline and characterize areas of intersection of various cultural streams; to identify forms and stages of such contacts; to understand ways for primary perception of impulses, which gave birth to distinctive national cultures in the Middle Ages and in the Modern era; to trace processing of such impulses further on; to try and understand whether there was a monocultural archaeological environment that existed in the past and belonged to the coexisting groups speaking different languages and belonging to different confessions.

  2. Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlaner, L.M.; Thurik, A.R.; Hutjes, J.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how post-materialism explains differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries. Entrepreneurial activity is defined as the percent of a count...

  3. Cross-cultural evidence for the two-facet structure of pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Chung, Joanne M; Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W; Chen, Xiao; Zheng, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented "authentic pride", and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing "hubristic pride". This same two-facet structure emerged in Chinese participants' semantic conceptualizations of pride (Study 1), Chinese and Koreans' dispositional tendencies to experience pride (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b), Chinese and Koreans' momentary pride experiences (Studies 3a, 3b, and 5), and Americans' pride experiences using descriptors derived indigenously in Korea (Study 4). Together, these studies provide the first evidence that the two-facet structure of pride generalizes to cultures with highly divergent views of pride and self-enhancement processes from North America.

  4. Cross-cultural evidence for the two-facet structure of pride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Chung, Joanne M.; Cheng, Joey T.; Tracy, Jessica L.; Robins, Richard W.; Chen, Xiao; Zheng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Across six studies conducted in Mainland China and South Korea, the present research extended prior findings showing that pride is comprised of two distinct conceptual and experiential facets in the U.S.: a pro-social, achievement-oriented “authentic pride”, and an arrogant, self-aggrandizing “hubristic pride”. This same two-facet structure emerged in Chinese participants’ semantic conceptualizations of pride (Study 1), Chinese and Koreans’ dispositional tendencies to experience pride (Studies 2, 3a, and 3b), Chinese and Koreans’ momentary pride experiences (Studies 3a, 3b, and 5), and Americans’ pride experiences using descriptors derived indigenously in Korea (Study 4). Together, these studies provide the first evidence that the two-facet structure of pride generalizes to cultures with highly divergent views of pride and self-enhancement processes from North America. PMID:27158171

  5. Spontaneous trait inference is culture-specific: behavioral and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2011-08-01

    People with an independent model of the self may be expected to develop a spontaneous tendency to infer a personality trait from another person's behavior, but those with an interdependent model of the self may not show such a tendency. We tested this prediction by assessing the cumulative effect of both trait activation and trait binding in a diagnostic task that required no trait inference. Participants first memorized pairings of facial photos with trait-implying behavior. In a subsequent lexical decision task, European Americans showed clear evidence of spontaneous trait inference: When they were primed with a previously studied face, lexical decision for the word for the implied trait associated with that face was facilitated, and the antonym of the implied trait elicited an electrophysiological sign associated with processing of semantically inconsistent information (i.e., the N400). As predicted, however, neither effect was observed for Asian Americans. The cultural difference was mediated by independent self-construal.

  6. Collective animal navigation and migratory culture: from theoretical models to empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Anthony I.

    2018-01-01

    Animals often travel in groups, and their navigational decisions can be influenced by social interactions. Both theory and empirical observations suggest that such collective navigation can result in individuals improving their ability to find their way and could be one of the key benefits of sociality for these species. Here, we provide an overview of the potential mechanisms underlying collective navigation, review the known, and supposed, empirical evidence for such behaviour and highlight interesting directions for future research. We further explore how both social and collective learning during group navigation could lead to the accumulation of knowledge at the population level, resulting in the emergence of migratory culture. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Collective movement ecology’. PMID:29581394

  7. Corporate governance, cultural factors and voluntary disclosure: Evidence from selected companies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtaruddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test empirically the relationship between corporate governance, cultural factors and voluntary disclosure by the listed companies in Bangladesh. The corporate governance factors examined are proportion of independent non-executive directors (INDs, board leadership structure, management ownership, board size and audit committee size. The extent of voluntary disclosure level is measured using 68 items of information. Data are taken from annual reports of the listed companies in Bangladesh. The result shows a positive association between board size, board leadership structure, audit committee size and voluntary disclosure. However, no evidence is found to support the contention that independent directors are associated with increased disclosure, consistent with previous studies. Higher education of the CEO and CFO is positively related to the level of voluntary disclosure. The result also indicates that the extent of voluntary disclosures is negatively associated with a higher management ownership.

  8. Identification of blue staining vaccine-derived material in inflammatory lesions using cultured canine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Jennifer L; LeBlanc, Casey J

    2015-03-01

    Vaccine reactions are described in cytology textbooks as having eosinophilic to magenta colored globules within and admixed with inflammatory cells. Recently, we have seen increased numbers of inflammatory lesions containing blue to blue-gray globular material, with historical information suggesting an association with rabies vaccination. The purpose of the study was to confirm the blue-gray and the eosinophilic material observed microscopically in some inflammatory lesions as being vaccine-derived. Three different vaccines were cytocentrifuged and Wright stained. Vaccine aliquots were also added to the culture media of canine-derived macrophages for 24 hours and the cells subsequently harvested, cytocentrifuged, and Wright stained. The globular material present in both preparations was compared to that observed in vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions. Morin staining was used to identify metal within vaccine material in both in vitro- and in vivo-derived cytology samples. Vaccine-derived material has a characteristic color and appearance. Appearance of the material was consistent in cytologic samples, in cells incubated with the vaccine, and in cytocentrifuged preparations of the vaccine vial contents. The blue-gray globules stained positively for Morin stain, while the eosinophilic material did not stain. Vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions may contain blue to blue-gray or magenta stained globular material. Blue-gray material was associated with administration of rabies vaccine Imrab 3 TF and the observed material may be metal-containing adjuvant. Magenta material was associated with other vaccines and negative for Morin stain, suggesting a metal-free adjuvant. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao-Ning [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China); Xia, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091 (China); Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Chen, Fa-Ming, E-mail: cfmsunhh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co-cultured

  10. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hao-Ning; Xia, Yu; Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co-cultured

  11. Do we overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities? Evidence of a cultural (mis)attribution bias in American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M; Vitriol, Joseph A; Atkin, Annabelle L

    2018-04-01

    Although culture influences all human beings, there is an assumption in American psychology that culture matters more for members of certain groups. This article identifies and provides evidence of the cultural (mis)attribution bias: a tendency to overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities, and to underemphasize it in the behavior of Whites. Two studies investigated the presence of this bias with an examination of a decade of peer reviewed research conducted in the United States (N = 434 articles), and an experiment and a survey with psychology professors in the United States (N = 361 psychologists). Archival analyses revealed differences in the composition of samples used in studies examining cultural or noncultural psychological phenomena. We also find evidence to suggest that psychologists in the United States favor cultural explanations over psychological explanations when considering the behavior and cognition of racial/ethnic minorities, whereas the opposite pattern emerged in reference to Whites. The scientific ramifications of this phenomenon, as well as alternatives to overcome it, are discussed in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Materials and techniques for coiling of cerebral aneurysms: how much scientific evidence do we have?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurre, W.; Berkefeld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Since coils were approved for aneurysm treatment, materials and techniques developed rapidly. It still remains an open question whether one material or method is superior. This article reviews the literature on various coil types and treatment approaches assessing the scientific evidence of its use. Studies on aneurysm treatment with Guglielmi detachable platinum coils, bioactive coils, hydrogel coated coils, and complex designs as well as balloon- and stent-assisted techniques were retrieved by a PubMed database search from 1990 until May 2008. Data were analyzed in terms of aneurysm occlusion, permanent morbidity and mortality, recanalization, and retreatment. We also assessed the level of evidence of the published studies. Only the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial provides level I evidence proving the superiority of endovascular over surgical therapy in ruptured aneurysms. Randomized trials comparing bioactive or hydrogel coated devices with bare coils are ongoing. Other studies were based on registries or case series mainly conducted without control groups. Morbidity, mortality, and initial occlusion rates appear similar for all devices. No clear evidence exists for the superiority of bioactive- or hydrocoils regarding long-term stability. It remains ambiguous whether morbidity and mortality rises with the use of balloons and stents. There is no evidence that routine use of balloons improves treatment durability. Mid-term results of stent-assisted coiling of complex aneurysms appear favorable. There is a lack of studies with a high level of evidence comparing different coiling materials and techniques. Case series and registries were not able to prove the superiority of any device or method. (orig.)

  14. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  15. Creating an evidence-based dentistry culture at Baylor College of Dentistry: the winds of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Robert J; Dechow, Paul C; Abdellatif, Hoda; Jones, Daniel L; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; D'Souza, Rena

    2011-03-01

    In the early years of the new millennium, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health began funding Oral Health Research Education Grants using the R25 mechanism to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and to encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. This report describes the impact of an R25 grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center's Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) on its curriculum and faculty development efforts. At BCD, the R25 grant supports a multipronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all four years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent EBD culture characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty members who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry.

  16. Cultural and gender convergence in adolescent drunkenness: evidence from 23 European and North American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda; Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-02-01

    To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). High schools in 23 countries. A sample of 77 586 adolescents aged 15 years was analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling. The frequency of drunkenness. We observed a significant increase of about 40% in the mean frequency of drunkenness in all 7 participating Eastern European countries. This increase was evident among both genders, but most consistently among girls. Meanwhile, it declined in 13 of 16 Western countries, about 25% on average. Declines in Western countries were particularly notable among boys and in North America, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Despite this gender convergence, with few exceptions (Greenland, Norway, United Kingdom) boys continued to have a higher frequency of drunkenness in 2005/2006 than girls. The confirmed cultural convergence implies that adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures to mitigate the frequency of adolescent drunkenness such as tax increases and restricting alcohol access and advertisement should get the same priority in Eastern European countries as in Western countries. Policy measures that might facilitate decreases in drunkenness such as server training and the promotion of alcohol-free leisure-time activities should be reinforced in Western countries. The gender convergence implies that prevention policy should be less exclusively focused on male adolescents.

  17. Colloid and materials science for the conservation of cultural heritage: cleaning, consolidation, and deacidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Piero; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Poggi, Giovanna

    2013-04-30

    Serendipity and experiment have been a frequent approach for the development of materials and methodologies used for a long time for either cleaning or consolidation of works of art. Recently, new perspectives have been opened by the application of materials science, colloid science, and interface science frameworks to conservation, generating a breakthrough in the development of innovative tools for the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage. This Article is an overview of the most recent contributions of colloid and materials science to the art conservation field, mainly focusing on the use of amphiphile-based fluids, gels, and alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions for the cleaning of pictorial surfaces, the consolidation of artistic substrates, and the deacidification of paper, canvas, and wood. Future possible directions for solving several conservation issues that still need to be faced are also highlighted.

  18. Navigating Online Selves: Social, Cultural, and Material Contexts of Social Media Use by Diasporic Gay Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Dhoest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media not only create new opportunities but also pose new challenges for the ways people navigate their online selves. As noted by boyd, social media are characterized by unique dynamics such as collapsed contexts, implying that one’s distinct offline social worlds meet online. This creates particular challenges for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ people, at least those who find it crucial to maintain distinct contexts in which they disclose or conceal their gender and/or sexual selves. However, the existing scholarship on social media use by LGBTQs is predominantly anchored in English-language Western contexts and tends to lose sight of the cultural specificities of Internet use. Therefore, in this article, we build on the scholarship to further investigate the role of context for disclosing or concealing gender and/or sexual selves online. More specifically, we ask, “How do social, cultural, and material contexts affect the ways LGBTQs navigate their selves on social media?” To investigate this question, we analyze in-depth face-to-face interviews with gay men who themselves, or whose parents, migrated to Belgium. Because their migration background forces them to negotiate different social, cultural, and material contexts, our focus on diasporic gay men helps to bring out the issue of context in social media use.

  19. Acting and Collecting: Imagining Asia through material culture and musical theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thorley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the link between Asian-inspired material culture and musical theatre through the collections of Anglo-Australian performer Herbert Browne (1895-1975. Brown played lead roles in 1920s Australian musical theatre productions of The Mikado and Chu Chin Chow and re-lived his connection with oriental theatre by collecting and responding to objects performatively in the Chinoiserie room of his Melbourne home. Oriental musical theatre blended exotic cultures and locales in visually spectacular productions which bore little resemblance to reality. The taste for escapist fiction in the theatre took place against a backdrop of museum collecting which aimed to reproduce authentic Asian and Other cultures. In this paper, I draw on French philosopher Merleau-Ponty’s observations on the relationship between thought and the body’s interaction with space to interpret the influence of Browne’s theatricality on collecting choices. From this perspective, objects materialize particular understandings of the world which originate in the body and the body’s performative engagement with space.

  20. Exploring the implications of the influence of organisational culture on work-life balance practices: evidence from Nigerian medical doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, Toyin Ajibade; Modi, Chima; Osabutey, Ellis L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - Whilst significant evidence of western work-life balance (WLB) challenges exists, studies that explore Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are scarce. This article explores how organisational culture in Nigerian medical organisations influences doctors’ WLB and examines the implications of supportive and unsupportive cultures on doctors’ WLB. \\ud \\ud Methodology - The paper uses qualitative data gleaned from semi-structured interviews of 60 medical doctors across the six geo-political zones of...

  1. Penn gap rule in phase-change memory materials: No clear evidence for resonance bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shimakawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although a proposal of resonance bonds in crystalline phase-change materials based on the GeSbTe system has been provided, we do not find any clear evidence in favor of the proposal. The ellipsometric study demonstrates that a change in the high frequency dielectric constant ε∞ between the amorphous and crystalline phases is only scaled by the average bandgap (the Penn gap rule. Even for a pure antimony film, regarded as a prototype resonance bonding material, ε∞ was found to follow the Penn gap rule. Experimentally, we did not find any evidence of a significant change in the optical transition matrix element during the phase change, which is necessary to support the idea of resonance bonds.

  2. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  3. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  4. Morphology like science in the physical culture and its use as a teaching supporting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valia Alina Crespo-Almeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphology is a branch of Biology that is part of the biomedical basic sciences; it fundamentally studies the structure, that is to say, the form of organization of the systems of organs. The poor bibliography existence for the content assimilation related with locomotive human system in the Physical culture career first year students, as well as, the access increase of computer equipment. This research proposes a teaching supporting material to teach the content of Morphology II, where the students can apply and check the acquisition and domain of these contents for the a better professional development. The investigation methods used were the historical tendencies, systemic and analysis and synthesis methods. The empiric methods were: the observation, the interview and documents analysis. The consulted theoretical and methodological referents about the treatment of the contents related with the human locomotive system confirm the necessity of these contents in Morphology as science in the career of Physical Culture.

  5. Crime event 3D reconstruction based on incomplete or fragmentary evidence material--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowicz, Krzysztof; Tunikowski, Wojciech; Kościuk, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Using our own experience in 3D analysis, the authors will demonstrate the possibilities of 3D crime scene and event reconstruction in cases where originally collected material evidence is largely insufficient. The necessity to repeat forensic evaluation is often down to the emergence of new facts in the course of case proceedings. Even in cases when a crime scene and its surroundings have undergone partial or complete transformation, with regard to elements significant to the course of the case, or when the scene was not satisfactorily secured, it is still possible to reconstruct it in a 3D environment based on the originally-collected, even incomplete, material evidence. In particular cases when no image of the crime scene is available, its partial or even full reconstruction is still potentially feasible. Credibility of evidence for such reconstruction can still satisfy the evidence requirements in court. Reconstruction of the missing elements of the crime scene is still possible with the use of information obtained from current publicly available databases. In the study, we demonstrate that these can include Google Maps(®*), Google Street View(®*) and available construction and architecture archives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel approach of signal normalization for depth profile of cultural heritage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Detalle, V.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of cultural heritage materials is always complex and specific because unique. Materials are most often heterogeneous and organized in several layers such as mural paintings or corrosion products. The characterization of a complete artwork's stratigraphy is actually one of the questions of science conservation. Indeed, the knowledge of these layers allows completing the history of the work of art and a better understanding of alteration processes in order to set up an appropriate conservation action. The LIBS technique has been employed to study the stratigraphy of an artwork thanks to the ablation laser. However, as we know, atomic information could be insufficient to characterize two materials composed by the same based elements. Therefore, an additional molecular analysis, like Raman spectroscopy; is sometimes necessary for a better identification of the material in particular for organic coatings in cultural heritage. We suggest in this study to use Standard Normal Variate (SNV) as a common normalization for different kinds of spectra (LIBS and Raman spectroscopy) combined with a 3D colour representation for stratigraphic identification of the different layers composing the complex material from artwork. So in this investigation, the SNV method will be applied on LIBS and Raman spectra but also on baseline Raman spectra often considering as nuisance. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the versatility of SNV applied on varied spectra like LIBS, Raman spectra as well as the luminescence background. This original work considers the SNV with a 3D colour representation as a probable new perspective for an easy recognition of a structure layered with a direct overview of the depth profile of the artwork.

  7. The Winds of Change Revisited: Progress Towards Building a Culture of Evidence-Based Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Robert J.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents’ EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (pdentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture. PMID:25941143

  8. The winds of change revisited: progress towards building a culture of evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Robert J; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Dechow, Paul C

    2015-05-01

    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents' EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (pdentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture.

  9. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  10. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  11. Freeman's transorbital lobotomy as an anomaly: A material culture examination of surgical instruments and operative spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brianne M; Stam, Henderikus J

    2015-05-01

    In 1946, Walter Freeman introduced the transorbital ice pick lobotomy. Touted as a procedure that could be learned and subsequently performed by psychiatrists outside of the operating room, the technique was quickly criticized by neurosurgeons. In this article, we take a material culture approach to consider 2 grounds upon which neurosurgeons based their objections-surgical instruments and operative spaces. On both counts, Freeman was in contravention of established normative neurosurgical practices and, ultimately, his technique was exposed as an anomaly by neurosurgeons. Despite its rejection, the transorbital lobotomy became entrenched in contemporary memory and remains the emblematic procedure of the psychosurgery era. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 per cent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  13. Scientific methods and cultural heritage an introduction to the application of materials science to archaeometry and conservation science

    CERN Document Server

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

  14. Production of bio-based materials using photobioreactors with binary cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, Alex S; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2013-08-27

    A method, device and system for producing preselected products, (either finished products or preselected intermediary products) from biobased precursors or CO.sub.2 and/or bicarbonate. The principal features of the present invention include a method wherein a binary culture is incubated with a biobased precursor in a closed system to transform at least a portion of the biobased precursor to a preselected product. The present invention provides a method of cultivation that does not need sparging of a closed bioreactor to remove or add a gaseous byproduct or nutrient from a liquid medium. This improvement leads to significant savings in energy consumption and allows for the design of photobioreactors of any desired shape. The present invention also allows for the use of a variety of types of waste materials to be used as the organic starting material.

  15. Objects and identities : Dowry and material culture in Venetian Crete in regional and European context (1600-1645)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markaki, T.

    2018-01-01

    This comparative study explores the socioeconomic and cultural meanings of the dowry movables in Venetian Crete and attempts to place the island in the broader context of European material culture studies; especially of those which are based on probate inventory research. Through qualitative and

  16. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Quave

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed.

  17. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed. PMID:22899952

  18. Women Favour Dyadic Relationships, but Men Prefer Clubs: Cross-Cultural Evidence from Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Carney, James; Behncke Izquierdo, Isabel; Krems, Jaimie A.; Townley, Dylan; McDaniell, Elinor; Byrne-Smith, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes. PMID:25775258

  19. Women favour dyadic relationships, but men prefer clubs: cross-cultural evidence from social networking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas David-Barrett

    Full Text Available The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes.

  20. Formal Safety versus Real Safety: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Safety CultureEvidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvis Marina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines differences between formal safety and real safety in Estonian small and medium-sized enterprises. The results reveal key issues in safety culture assessment. Statistical analysis of safety culture questionnaires showed many organisations with an outstanding safety culture and positive safety attitudes. However, qualitative data indicated some important safety weaknesses and aspects that should be included in the process of evaluation of safety culture in organisations.

  1. Who is reducing their material consumption and why? A cross-cultural analysis of dematerialization behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Capstick, Stuart; Nash, Nicholas

    2017-06-13

    The environmental and economic imperatives to dematerialize economies, or 'do more with less', have been established for some years. Yet, to date, little is known about the personal drivers associated with dematerializing. This paper explores the prevalence and profile of those who are taking action to reduce consumption in different cultural contexts (UK and Brazil) and considers influences on dematerialization behaviours. We find that exemplar behaviours (avoiding buying new things and avoiding packaging) are far less common than archetypal environmental behaviours (e.g. recycling), but also that cultural context is important (Brazilians are more likely to reduce their material consumption than people in the UK). We also find that the two dematerialization behaviours are associated with different pro-environmental actions (more radical action versus green consumption, respectively); and have distinct, but overlapping, psychological (e.g. identity) and socio-demographic (e.g. education) predictors. Comparing a more traditional value-identity model of pro-environmental behaviour with a motivation-based (self-determination) model, we find that the latter explains somewhat more variance than the former. However, overall, little variance is explained, suggesting that additional factors at the personal and structural levels are important for determining these consumption behaviours. We conclude by outlining policy implications and avenues for further research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Wonderful Things? A Consideration of 3D Modelling of Objects in Material Culture Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Barry

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of 3D modelling in archaeology is increasing exponentially, from fieldwork to architecture to material culture studies. For the study of archaeological objects the roles of digital and print models for public engagement has been much considered in recent literature. For model makers, focus has typically been placed on exceptional and visually striking objects with inherent appeal. In contrast, this paper explores some of the potential roles for 3D digital models for routine artefact research and publication. Particular emphasis is placed on the challenges this technology raises for archaeological theory and practice. Following a consideration of how 3D models relate to established illustration and photographic traditions, the paper evaluates some of the unique features of 3D models, focussing on both positive and negative aspects of these. This is followed by a discussion of the role of potential research connections between digital and craft models in experimental research. Our overall objective is to emphasise a need to engage with the ways in which this gradual development has begun to change aspects of longestablished workflows. In turn, the increasing use of this technology is argued to have wider ramifications for the development of archaeology, and material culture studies in particular, as a discipline that requires reflection.

  3. Are National and Organizational Cultures Isomorphic? Evidence from a Four Country Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rune Ellemose Gulev

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study investigates whether organizational practices as observed through differing organizational cultures systematically replicate or reject national values. It is among the first to project delineated, narrow national cultural portrayals of Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Denmark against pattern-specific organizational cultures. Through country cluster analysis and correlation tests, the results achieve significance along all three dimensions. Trust allocations, authority perceptio...

  4. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hetero-cellular prototyping by synchronized multi-material bioprinting for rotary cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica; Son, Ae Rin; Hamid, Qudus; Wu, Honglu; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-13

    Bottom-up tissue engineering requires methodological progress of biofabrication to capture key design facets of anatomical arrangements across micro, meso and macro-scales. The diffusive mass transfer properties necessary to elicit stability and functionality require hetero-typic contact, cell-to-cell signaling and uniform nutrient diffusion. Bioprinting techniques successfully build mathematically defined porous architecture to diminish resistance to mass transfer. Current limitations of bioprinted cell assemblies include poor micro-scale formability of cell-laden soft gels and asymmetrical macro-scale diffusion through 3D volumes. The objective of this work is to engineer a synchronized multi-material bioprinter (SMMB) system which improves the resolution and expands the capability of existing bioprinting systems by packaging multiple cell types in heterotypic arrays prior to deposition. This unit cell approach to arranging multiple cell-laden solutions is integrated with a motion system to print heterogeneous filaments as tissue engineered scaffolds and nanoliter droplets. The set of SMMB process parameters control the geometric arrangement of the combined flow's internal features and constituent material's volume fractions. SMMB printed hepatocyte-endothelial laden 200 nl droplets are cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to study the effect of microgravity on an in vitro model of the human hepatic lobule. RCCS conditioning for 48 h increased hepatocyte cytoplasm diameter 2 μm, increased metabolic rate, and decreased drug half-life. SMMB hetero-cellular models present a 10-fold increase in metabolic rate, compared to SMMB mono-culture models. Improved bioprinting resolution due to process control of cell-laden matrix packaging as well as nanoliter droplet printing capability identify SMMB as a viable technique to improve in vitro model efficacy.

  6. Hyperspectral analysis of cultural heritage artifacts: pigment material diversity in the Gough Map of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Di; Messinger, David W.; Howell, David

    2017-08-01

    The Gough Map, one of the earliest surviving maps of Britain, was created and extensively revised over the 15th century. In 2015, the map was imaged using a hyperspectral imaging system while in the collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford University. The goal of the collection of the hyperspectral image (HSI) of the Gough Map was to address questions such as enhancement of faded text for reading and analysis of the pigments used during its creation and revision. In particular, pigment analysis of the Gough Map will help historians understand the material diversity of its composition and potentially the timeline of, and methods used in, the creation and revision of the map. Multiple analysis methods are presented to analyze a particular pigment in the Gough Map with an emphasis on understanding the within-material diversity, i.e., the number and spatial layout of distinct red pigments. One approach for understanding the number of distinct materials in a scene (i.e., endmember selection and dimensionality estimation) is the Gram matrix approach. Here, this method is used to study the within-material differences of pigments in the map with common visual color. The application is a pigment analysis tool that extracts visually common pixels (here, the red pigments) from the Gough Map and estimates the material diversity of the pixels. Results show that the Gough Map is composed of at least five kinds of dominant red pigments with a particular spatial pattern. This research provides a useful tool for historical geographers and cartographic historians to analyze the material diversity of HSI of cultural heritage artifacts.

  7. Seleccionando materiales adecuados cultural y linguisticamente: Sugerencias para los proveedores de servicios (Selecting Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials: Suggestions for Service Providers). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Reese, Debbie

    The population of the United States is growing more culturally diverse each year, and this diversity is clearly evident among families with young children; however, individuals who work in early childhood programs are not as diverse as those they serve. Moreover, many early childhood professionals have little preparation for working with families…

  8. Cross-cultural differences in processing of architectural ranking: evidence from an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklinger, Axel; Kriukova, Olga; Mühlmann, Heiner; Grunwald, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Visual object identification is modulated by perceptual experience. In a cross-cultural ERP study we investigated whether cultural expertise determines how buildings that vary in their ranking between high and low according to the Western architectural decorum are perceived. Two groups of German and Chinese participants performed an object classification task in which high- and low-ranking Western buildings had to be discriminated from everyday life objects. ERP results indicate that an early stage of visual object identification (i.e., object model selection) is facilitated for high-ranking buildings for the German participants, only. At a later stage of object identification, in which object knowledge is complemented by information from semantic and episodic long-term memory, no ERP evidence for cultural differences was obtained. These results suggest that the identification of architectural ranking is modulated by culturally specific expertise with Western-style architecture already at an early processing stage.

  9. How does materiality shape Childbirth? An explorative journey into evidence, childbirth practices & Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jette Aaroe

    2010-01-01

    " for those positioned in evidence based medicine and midwifery about the use of technology in childbirth. The empirical material is developed during a field study at a maternity ward. Noisy stories about the use of epidurals and fetal monitors are used as resources. Noisy stories are stories that do......The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the golden standard in evidence based medicine (EBM), it is used to address the problem of intervention and the use of technology in childbirth. This dissertation discusses the relationship between RCTs and everyday birthing practices. The point of departure...... is Science and Technology Studies (STS). (Post) Actor Network Theory and postphenomenology is used as theoretical resources to help formulate questions to EBM, midwifery and birthing practices. A central theoretical resource is the Dutch Philosopher Annemarie Mol’s concept of mul-tiplicity. Mol argues...

  10. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  11. Reasoning About Cultural and Genetic Transmission: Developmental and Cross-Cultural Evidence From Peru, Fiji, and the United States on How People Make Inferences About Trait Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert; Henrich, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Using samples from three diverse populations, we test evolutionary hypotheses regarding how people reason about the inheritance of various traits. First, we provide a framework for differentiat-ing the outputs of mechanisms that evolved for reasoning about variation within and between (a) biological taxa and (b) culturally evolved ethnic categories from (c) a broader set of beliefs and categories that are the outputs of structured learning mechanisms. Second, we describe the results of a modified "switched-at-birth" vignette study that we administered among children and adults in Puno (Peru), Yasawa (Fiji), and adults in the United States. This protocol permits us to study perceptions of prenatal and social transmission pathways for various traits and to differentiate the latter into vertical (i.e., parental) versus horizontal (i.e., peer) cultural influence. These lines of evidence suggest that people use all three mechanisms to reason about the distribution of traits in the population. Participants at all three sites develop expectations that morphological traits are under prenatal influence, and that belief traits are more culturally influenced. On the other hand, each population holds culturally specific beliefs about the degree of social influence on non-morphological traits and about the degree of vertical transmission-with only participants in the United States expecting parents to have much social influence over their children. We reinterpret people's differentiation of trait transmission pathways in light of humans' evolutionary history as a cultural species. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Culture-Based Arts Education That Teaches against the Grain: A Model for Place-Specific Material Culture Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, James W.

    2014-01-01

    When 50 Midwest teachers in two public schools and one Reservation school worked in respectful, knowledgeable, and power-sharing ways with local Indigenous elders, artists, and academics, the outcome was often culture-based arts education that teaches against the grain. This collaboration and the culturally responsive pedagogy it inspired led to…

  13. Evidence of biogenic corrosion of titanium after exposure to a continuous culture of thiobacillus ferrooxidans grown in thiosulfate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J M; Martin, S I; Masterson, B

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to evaluate extreme conditions under which candidate materials intended for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository might be susceptible to corrosion by endogenous microorganisms. Thiobucillus ferrooxidans, a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, was grown in continuous culture using thiosulfate as an energy source; thiosulfate is oxidized to sulfate as a metabolic endproduct by this organism. Culture conditions were optimized to produce a high-density, metabolically active culture throughout a period of long term incubation in the presence of Alloy 22 (a high nickel-based alloy) and Titanium grade 7 (Tigr7) material coupons. After seven months incubation under these conditions, material coupons were withdrawn and analyzed by high resolution microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analyses. Alloy 22 coupons showed no detectable signs of corrosion. Tigr7, however, demonstrated distinct roughening of the coupon surface, and [presumably solubilized and precipitated] titanium was detected on Alloy 22 coupons incubated in the same T. ferrooxiduns culture vessel. Control coupons of these materials incubated in sterile thiosulfate medium did not demonstrate any signs of corrosion, thus showing that observed corrosive effects were due to the T. ferrooxidans metabolic activities. T. ferrooxidans intermediates of thiosulfate oxidation or sulfate may have caused the corrosive effects observed on Tigr7

  14. Quasi-Appropriation of Dialectical Materialism: A Critical Reading of Marxism in Vygotskian Approaches to Cultural Studies in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in "Cultural Studies of Science Education," that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By…

  15. Material security, life history, and moralistic religions: A cross-cultural examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T.; Apicella, Coren; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Cohen, Emma; McNamara, Rita Anne; Willard, Aiyana K.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Norenzayan, Ara; Henrich, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have recently proposed that “moralistic” religions—those with moral doctrines, moralistic supernatural punishment, and lower emphasis on ritual—emerged as an effect of greater wealth and material security. One interpretation appeals to life history theory, predicting that individuals with “slow life history” strategies will be more attracted to moralistic traditions as a means to judge those with “fast life history” strategies. As we had reservations about the validity of this application of life history theory, we tested these predictions with a data set consisting of 592 individuals from eight diverse societies. Our sample includes individuals from a wide range of traditions, including world religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity, but also local traditions rooted in beliefs in animism, ancestor worship, and worship of spirits associated with nature. We first test for the presence of associations between material security, years of formal education, and reproductive success. Consistent with popular life history predictions, we find evidence that material security and education are associated with reduced reproduction. Building on this, we then test whether or not these demographic factors predict the moral concern, punitiveness, attributed knowledge-breadth, and frequency of ritual devotions towards two deities in each society. Here, we find no reliable evidence of a relationship between number of children, material security, or formal education and the individual-level religious beliefs and behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of why life-history theory is an inadequate interpretation for the emergence of factors typifying the moralistic traditions. PMID:29513766

  16. Evidence for cultural dialects in vocal emotion expression: acoustic classification within and across five nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Neiberg, Daniel; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger

    2014-06-01

    The possibility of cultural differences in the fundamental acoustic patterns used to express emotion through the voice is an unanswered question central to the larger debate about the universality versus cultural specificity of emotion. This study used emotionally inflected standard-content speech segments expressing 11 emotions produced by 100 professional actors from 5 English-speaking cultures. Machine learning simulations were employed to classify expressions based on their acoustic features, using conditions where training and testing were conducted on stimuli coming from either the same or different cultures. A wide range of emotions were classified with above-chance accuracy in cross-cultural conditions, suggesting vocal expressions share important characteristics across cultures. However, classification showed an in-group advantage with higher accuracy in within- versus cross-cultural conditions. This finding demonstrates cultural differences in expressive vocal style, and supports the dialect theory of emotions according to which greater recognition of expressions from in-group members results from greater familiarity with culturally specific expressive styles.

  17. Emotions, Development and Materiality at School: a Cultural-Historical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller Mirza, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    In the school context, feelings and emotions are generally perceived as obstacles to learning. Today, however, the introduction of complex real-world issues in lessons of Geography, History or civic education, such as international migration or cultural diversity, blurs the classic boundaries between emotions and cognition when they prompt students' personal opinions and experiences. In the frame of a research on teaching and learning practices in education for cultural diversity, this paper examines how students' personal emotions were elicited in the lessons, and how they were semiotized, transformed in the course of social interactions. We analyze empirical data gathered in 12 Primary and Junior school classrooms in Switzerland. 12 teachers and 232 students (from 11 to 16 years old) participated. We adopt a cultural-historical perspective inspired by Vygotsky and his followers and show the interactional processes by which the emotions undergo semiotization and influence the unfolding of the students' psychological processes. In the sequences we analyze, using the Valsiner's schema (Human Development, 44, 84-97, 2001), we identify three different modalities of semiotization: 1) the students' feelings are simply verbalized and linked to the speaker's affective world; 2) the verbalized emotions are reframed and interwoven with factual information; 3) the verbalized emotions are linked to information and reframed with collective emotional experiences. These processes are described, illustrated and discussed. We shed light on the central role of the verbal interventions of the teacher (who supports but also hinders the processes sometimes) and of materiality, here photographs, which mediated the teacher-student interactions.

  18. Hetero-cellular prototyping by synchronized multi-material bioprinting for rotary cell culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Jessica; Son, Ae Rin; Hamid, Qudus; Sun, Wei; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Bottom-up tissue engineering requires methodological progress of biofabrication to capture key design facets of anatomical arrangements across micro, meso and macro-scales. The diffusive mass transfer properties necessary to elicit stability and functionality require hetero-typic contact, cell-to-cell signaling and uniform nutrient diffusion. Bioprinting techniques successfully build mathematically defined porous architecture to diminish resistance to mass transfer. Current limitations of bioprinted cell assemblies include poor micro-scale formability of cell-laden soft gels and asymmetrical macro-scale diffusion through 3D volumes. The objective of this work is to engineer a synchronized multi-material bioprinter (SMMB) system which improves the resolution and expands the capability of existing bioprinting systems by packaging multiple cell types in heterotypic arrays prior to deposition. This unit cell approach to arranging multiple cell-laden solutions is integrated with a motion system to print heterogeneous filaments as tissue engineered scaffolds and nanoliter droplets. The set of SMMB process parameters control the geometric arrangement of the combined flow’s internal features and constituent material’s volume fractions. SMMB printed hepatocyte-endothelial laden 200 nl droplets are cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to study the effect of microgravity on an in vitro model of the human hepatic lobule. RCCS conditioning for 48 h increased hepatocyte cytoplasm diameter 2 μm, increased metabolic rate, and decreased drug half-life. SMMB hetero-cellular models present a 10-fold increase in metabolic rate, compared to SMMB mono-culture models. Improved bioprinting resolution due to process control of cell-laden matrix packaging as well as nanoliter droplet printing capability identify SMMB as a viable technique to improve in vitro model efficacy. (paper)

  19. Fabricating the "Southern Belle": Assessing the Role of Imported Material Culture in the Confederacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Emily A.

    2017-10-01

    Confederate society was dependent on a rigidly defined hierarchy that assigned roles and appropriate behavior based on race, gender, and wealth. White, wealthy, southern women were dependent on material culture as a socially acceptable means of self-fashioning and making their status public. The Union naval blockade threatened this practice by preventing Confederate markets from accessing imported, status-affirming goods. The industry of blockade running rose to fill this need, often controversially prioritizing cargo space for civilian, luxury products over necessities for the military. This article examines the artifact assemblages of blockade runner sites off the coasts of Wilmington, North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina through a theoretical framework of agency and costly signaling to make assessments about Confederate identity during the Civil War.

  20. A compact μ-XRF spectrometer for (in situ) analyses of cultural heritage and forensic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittiglio, G.; Bichlmeier, S.; Klinger, P.; Heckel, J.; Fuzhong, W.; Vincze, L.; Janssens, K.; Engstroem, P.; Rindby, A.; Dietrich, K.; Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Schreiner, M.; Denis, D.; Lakdar, A.; Lamotte, A.

    2004-01-01

    A compact, light weight and relatively inexpensive μ-XRF instrument that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/trace level sensitivity was developed. Two versions of this prototype instrument exist: a table-top version that can be used in a laboratory environment while for in situ measurements a readily transportable version was constructed. Polycapillary lenses are used to focus the primary X-ray beam down to the level of 70-100 μm in diameter. Relative detection limits of transition elements in biological and glass matrices are situated at the 10-100 ppm level. These instruments are useful for characterization of various materials from the cultural heritage and forensic sector

  1. IBA techniques: Examples of useful combinations for the characterisation of cultural heritage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Pichon, L.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.; Walter, P.

    2011-12-01

    For many years, ion beam analysis techniques have successfully been used to the study of cultural heritage objects. The chemical composition of work art is usually determined by PIXE, but in many cases, RBS and/or PIGE can provide useful complementary information. RBS gives information about the depth distribution and concentration in light elements, such as carbon and oxygen. In the past years, the experimental facilities at the AGLAE (Accélérateur Grand Louvre d'Analyse Élémentaire) accelerator has been progressively developed in order to apply simultaneously PIXE, PIGE and RBS under optimal conditions using an external beam. This combination is now routinely used for point analyses or mappings. In this contribution, we present several examples of applications: manufacturing technology of lustre-decorated ceramics and silver plating, control of altered or restored surfaces, and quantification of organic phase in painting and bone. The final conclusion is that the association of PIXE with RBS is very attractive for the investigation of cultural heritage objects, in particular of materials containing both mineral and organic components or possessing a multilayered structure. The first results of the production of monochromatic X-rays for radiography purposes by PIXE are also presented.

  2. A critical review of cell culture strategies for modelling intracortical brain implant material reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, A D; Woolley, A J; Poole-Warren, L A; Thomson, C E; Green, R A

    2016-06-01

    The capacity to predict in vivo responses to medical devices in humans currently relies greatly on implantation in animal models. Researchers have been striving to develop in vitro techniques that can overcome the limitations associated with in vivo approaches. This review focuses on a critical analysis of the major in vitro strategies being utilized in laboratories around the world to improve understanding of the biological performance of intracortical, brain-implanted microdevices. Of particular interest to the current review are in vitro models for studying cell responses to penetrating intracortical devices and their materials, such as electrode arrays used for brain computer interface (BCI) and deep brain stimulation electrode probes implanted through the cortex. A background on the neural interface challenge is presented, followed by discussion of relevant in vitro culture strategies and their advantages and disadvantages. Future development of 2D culture models that exhibit developmental changes capable of mimicking normal, postnatal development will form the basis for more complex accurate predictive models in the future. Although not within the scope of this review, innovations in 3D scaffold technologies and microfluidic constructs will further improve the utility of in vitro approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. IBA techniques: Examples of useful combinations for the characterisation of cultural heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Pichon, L.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.; Walter, P.

    2011-01-01

    For many years, ion beam analysis techniques have successfully been used to the study of cultural heritage objects. The chemical composition of work art is usually determined by PIXE, but in many cases, RBS and/or PIGE can provide useful complementary information. RBS gives information about the depth distribution and concentration in light elements, such as carbon and oxygen. In the past years, the experimental facilities at the AGLAE (Accélérateur Grand Louvre d’Analyse Élémentaire) accelerator has been progressively developed in order to apply simultaneously PIXE, PIGE and RBS under optimal conditions using an external beam. This combination is now routinely used for point analyses or mappings. In this contribution, we present several examples of applications: manufacturing technology of lustre-decorated ceramics and silver plating, control of altered or restored surfaces, and quantification of organic phase in painting and bone. The final conclusion is that the association of PIXE with RBS is very attractive for the investigation of cultural heritage objects, in particular of materials containing both mineral and organic components or possessing a multilayered structure. The first results of the production of monochromatic X-rays for radiography purposes by PIXE are also presented.

  4. Towards an innovation culture : what are it's national, corporate, marketing and engineering aspects, some experimental evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.; Cooper, C.L.; Cartwright, S.; Earley, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter addresses the issue of innovation culture (IC) and proposes and try to answer 5 research questions related to the possible impact of different elements, such as national, corporate and professional (engineering vs marketing) cultures (NC, CC, and PC), their intersection and integration

  5. Organizational architecture, ethical culture, and perceived unethical behavior towards customers : Evidence from wholesale banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Raymond O.S.; Jeurissen, Ronald J.M.; Groenland, Edward A.G.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose and test a model of the effects of organizational ethical culture and organizational architecture on the perceived unethical behavior of employees towards customers. This study also examines the relationship between organizational ethical culture and moral acceptability

  6. Social Errors in Four Cultures: Evidence about Universal Forms of Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Alan Page

    1993-01-01

    To test the cross-cultural generality of relational-models theory, 4 studies with 70 adults examined social errors of substitution of persons for Bengali, Korean, Chinese, and Vai (Liberia and Sierra Leone) subjects. In all four cultures, people tend to substitute someone with whom they have the same basic relationship. (SLD)

  7. Reconciling evidence-based practice and cultural competence in mental health services: introduction to a special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    The calls for evidence-based practice (EBP) and cultural competence (CC) represent two increasingly influential mandates within the mental health professions. Advocates of EBP seek to standardize clinical practice by ensuring that only treatment techniques that have demonstrated therapeutic outcomes under scientifically controlled conditions would be adopted and promoted in mental health services. Advocates of CC seek to diversify clinical practice by ensuring that treatment approaches are designed and refined for a multicultural clientele that reflects a wide variety of psychological orientations and life experiences. As these two powerful mandates collide, the fundamental challenge becomes how to accommodate substantive cultural divergences in psychosocial experience using narrowly prescriptive clinical practices and approaches, without trivializing either professional knowledge or cultural difference. In this Introduction to a special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry, the virtue of an interdisciplinary conversation between and among anthropologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and social work researchers in addressing these tensions is extolled. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Culture, innovation and periphery: a theoretical sketch and some evidence from different portuguese contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Brito Henriques

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to look at the culture-innovation nexus in periphery. Starting with a theoretical discussion on this issue, in which the role of culture in current capitalism is analysed, we raise the question whether the increasing imporance of culture in the present economic context has been creating new opportunities for peripheral regions to innovate, namely by the valorization of tradition.The paper will highlight the results of four case studies from the handicraft pottery sector. These achievements will then be confronted with an exemple of cultural political promotion in an urban area - Lisbon'94, European Cultural Capital, in order to unravel the political logic of cultural and innovation in the periphery. The final section provides a brief conclusion, placing emphasis on the ambivalences which characterise peripherical modernisation processes and their cultural dimension. We argue that the ability of periphery to sustain development strategies based on the valorization of tradition depends primarily upon a successful management of these ambivalences.

  9. [Influence of promotional material on hand hygiene in the safety culture of a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cabrillana, J; Dorta-Hung, M E; Otero Sanz, L; Henández Vera, J R; Martín-Rodríguez, M M; García de Carlos, P

    2016-06-01

    In order to increase safety culture about hand hygiene by means of messages and reminders about its importance in preventing nosocomial infections, we developed a new set of materials in the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno-Infantil of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, constitued by two centres with 450 beds each and acredited for medical internal residents training. We hired a well-known caricaturist, who adapted the messages to the local way of speaking, by using characters that used to appear in his artwork in the local newspaper. Also, we continued to work with other graphic design professionals. We monitored adherence and consumption of products for hand rubbing. We noted an increase in both indicators in the following months after the implementation of this strategy. Moreover, we revised the infrastructures for hand hygiene, and were able to demonstrate improvements in most of the patient care areas. The material was well accepted by professionals, patients and visitors. No other interventions were made, so we think improvements can be attributable to this strategy in our setting. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of raw material performance in mammalian cell culture using near infrared spectra combined with chemometrics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Liu, Jun Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variability in raw materials and their impacts on product quality is of critical importance in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. For this purpose, several spectroscopic techniques have been studied for raw material characterization, providing fast and nondestructive ways to measure quality of raw materials. However, investigations of correlation between spectra of raw materials and cell culture performance have been scarce due to their complexity and uncertainty. In this study, near-infrared spectra and bioassays of multiple soy hydrolysate lots manufactured by different vendors were analyzed using chemometrics approaches in order to address variability of raw materials as well as correlation between raw material properties and corresponding cell culture performance. Principal component analysis revealed that near-infrared spectra of different soy lots contain enough physicochemical information about soy hydrolysates to allow identification of lot-to-lot variability as well as vendor-to-vendor differences. The identified compositional variability was further analyzed in order to estimate cell growth and protein production of two mammalian cell lines under the condition of varying soy dosages using partial least square regression combined with optimal variable selection. The performance of the resulting models demonstrates the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy as a robust lot selection tool for raw materials while providing a biological link between chemical composition of raw materials and cell culture performance. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Further evidence that culture media affect perinatal outcome: findings after transfer of fresh and cryopreserved embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C; Van Montfoort, Aafke P; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Geraedts, Joep P; Smits, Luc J; Land, Jolande A; Evers, Johannes L; Dumoulin, John C

    2012-07-01

    We have previously shown that the medium used for culturing IVF embryos affects the birthweight of the resulting newborns. This observation with potentially far-reaching clinical consequences during later life, was made in singletons conceived during the first IVF treatment cycle after the transfer of fresh embryos. In the present study, we hypothesize that in vitro culture of embryos during the first few days of preimplantation development affects perinatal outcome, not only in singletons conceived in all rank order cycles but also in twins and in children born after transfer of frozen embryos. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of culture medium on gestational age (GA) at birth. Oocytes and embryos from consecutive treatment cycles were alternately assigned to culture in either medium from Vitrolife or from Cook. Data on a cohort of 294 live born singletons conceived after fresh transfer during any of a patient's IVF treatment cycles, as well as data of 67 singletons conceived after frozen embryo transfer (FET) and of 88 children of 44 twin pregnancies after fresh transfer were analysed by means of multiple linear regression. In vitro culture in medium from Cook resulted in singletons after fresh transfer with a lower mean birthweight (adjusted mean difference, 112 g, P= 0.03), and in more singletons with low birthweight (LBW) culture in medium from Vitrolife AB. GA at birth was not related to the medium used (adjusted difference, 0.05 weeks, P = 0.83). Among twins in the Cook group, higher inter-twin mean birthweight disparity and birthweight discordance were found. Z-scores after FET were -0.04 (± 0.14) in the Cook group compared with 0.18 (± 0.21) in the Vitrolife group (P> 0.05). Our findings support our hypothesis that culture medium influences perinatal outcome of IVF singletons and twins. A similar trend is seen in case of singletons born after FET. GA was not affected by culture medium. These results indicate that in vitro culture might be an

  12. Cultural differences in attention: Eye movement evidence from a comparative visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Albandri; Underwood, Geoffrey; Smith, Alastair D

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in visual attention have been linked to thinking style: analytic thinking (common in individualistic cultures) is thought to promote attention to detail and focus on the most important part of a scene, whereas holistic thinking (common in collectivist cultures) promotes attention to the global structure of a scene and the relationship between its parts. However, this theory is primarily based on relatively simple judgement tasks. We compared groups from Great Britain (an individualist culture) and Saudi Arabia (a collectivist culture) on a more complex comparative visual search task, using simple natural scenes. A higher overall number of fixations for Saudi participants, along with longer search times, indicated less efficient search behaviour than British participants. Furthermore, intra-group comparisons of scan-path for Saudi participants revealed less similarity than within the British group. Together, these findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between an analytic cognitive style and controlled attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross Cultural Differences in Decisions from Experience: Evidence from Denmark, Israel and Taiwain

    OpenAIRE

    Sibilla Di Guida; Ido Erev; Davide Marchiori

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of different cultural backgrounds on decisions from experience. In Experiment 1, participants from Denmark, Israel, and Taiwan faced each of six binary choice problems for 200 trials. The participants did not receive prior description of the payoff distributions, but obtained complete feedback after each choice. Comparison of choice behavior across cultural groups reveals similar overall choice rates, and similar indications of underweighting of rare events and...

  14. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Marshall, Tara; Fülöp, Marta; Adonu, Joseph; Spiewak, Slawomir; Neto, Felix; Hernandez Plaza, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV), and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival) values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  15. Mate value and self-esteem: evidence from eight cultural groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available This paper explores self-perceived mate value (SPMV, and its association with self-esteem, in eight cultures. 1066 participants, from 8 cultural groups in 7 countries, rated themselves on 24 SPMVs and completed a measure of self-esteem. Consistent with evolutionary theory, women were more likely to emphasise their caring and passionate romantic nature. In line with previous cross-cultural research, characteristics indicating passion and romance and social attractiveness were stressed more by respondents from individualistic cultures, and those higher on self-expression (rather than survival values; characteristics indicative of maturity and confidence were more likely to be mentioned by those from Traditional, rather than Secular, cultures. Contrary to gender role theory, societal equality had only limited interactions with sex and SPMV, with honesty of greater significance for male self-esteem in societies with unequal gender roles. These results point to the importance of cultural and environmental factors in influencing self-perceived mate qualities, and are discussed in relation to broader debates about the impact of gender role equality on sex differences in personality and mating strategies.

  16. The effect of labour on ownership decisions in two cultures: developmental evidence from Japan and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Itakura, Shoji; Hood, Bruce M

    2014-09-01

    Creative labour has an effect on children's and adults' ownership decisions in Western cultures. We investigated whether preschoolers and adults from an Eastern culture (Japan) would show a similar bias. In a first-party task (Experiment 1), in which participants created their own objects, Japanese preschoolers but not adults assigned ownership to creators. When participants watched videos of third-party conflicts between owners of materials and creators (Experiment 2), Japanese adults, but not preschoolers, transferred ownership to creators. In a British comparison group, both preschoolers and adults showed an effect of creative labour in the third-party task. A bias to attribute ownership on the basis of creative labour is thus not specific to Western culture. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Cultural alternatives. A material reading of the mourning of 11th-M / Alternativas de la cultura. Una lectura material del duelo del 11-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jimeno Salvatierra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the human ecology approach occurs a break in the forms of studying culture or its accomplishments. The novelty has to do with the need to examine it not in itself or in their performances, but as an element of the ecological system is interconnected with the rest of their material elements. This material functional analysis model is described as a substantive by its main theoretical. Thus the cultural behaviours are responses to disturbances belonging to the system environment. One of the most interesting for the study of social and cultural are rituals, as part of retroactive mechanisms within any human ecological system. The aims of this paper is to theorize about the observation of the material aspects of collective behaviours, such as rituals, ceremonies, or others collective manifestations, that highlight the social importance and interpretative of these aspects. The article manifests both the creation and the orientation of “enactment of meanings” through the analysis of collective behaviours. It also shows an important part of social truth in material performances. Methodological applications such as Rappaport’s reference to material signs in his ritual theory, placing emphasize on the communication role of these are used to interpret the mourning ritual.

  18. Do societal values influence financial development? : New evidence on the effects of post materialism and institutions on stock markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaan, J.A.; Dima, Dogdan; Goleț, Ionuț

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present new evidence on the effects of social values on stock market development. Using panel data for a heterogeneous set of 43 countries, we use the Inglehart post materialism index to identify the relation between the degree of post materialism and the size of stock markets.

  19. Optimization of cell adhesion on mg based implant materials by pre-incubation under cell culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumeit, Regine; Möhring, Anneke; Feyerabend, Frank

    2014-05-05

    Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture.

  20. Optimization of Cell Adhesion on Mg Based Implant Materials by Pre-Incubation under Cell Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Willumeit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture.

  1. Impact of starting material (fresh versus cryopreserved marrow) on mesenchymal stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alesia; Sackett, Katie; Sumstad, Darin; Kadidlo, Dianne; McKenna, David H

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continue to be investigated in multiple clinical trials as potential therapy for different disorders. There is ongoing controversy surrounding the clinical use of cryopreserved versus fresh MSCs. However, little is known about how cryopreservation affects marrow as starting material. The growth kinetics of MSC cultures derived from fresh versus cryopreserved marrow were compared. Data were reviewed on the growth kinetics of MSCs derived from fresh versus cryopreserved marrow of nine donors. Marrow harvested from each donor was separated into four aliquots (one fresh and three cryopreserved for culture). Data on the date of mononuclear cell cryopreservation/thaw, MSC counts at Passages 1 and 2, MSC doubling, MSC fold expansion, viability (of mononuclear cells and final MSCs), and on flow cytometry markers of mononuclear cells and final MSCs were analyzed for the fresh and cryopreserved marrow groups. In total, 21 MSC lots (seven fresh and 14 cryopreserved) were obtained. The average age of cryopreserved mononuclear cell product was 295 days (range, 18-1241 days). There were no significant differences between MSC numbers at Passage 1 (p = 0.1), final MSC numbers (p = 0.5), MSC doubling (p = 0.7), or MSC fold expansion (p = 0.7). A significant difference was observed in viability by flow cytometry for both mononuclear cells (p = 0.002) and final MSCs (p = 0.009), with higher viability in the fresh marrow group. This study demonstrates that MSCs derived from cryopreserved marrow have the same growth characteristics as fresh marrow-derived MSCs. Further studies are needed to explore potential differences in clinical efficacy. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of asymmetric cultural experiences on the auditory pathway: evidence from music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Perrachione, Tyler K; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2009-07-01

    Cultural experiences come in many different forms, such as immersion in a particular linguistic community, exposure to faces of people with different racial backgrounds, or repeated encounters with music of a particular tradition. In most circumstances, these cultural experiences are asymmetric, meaning one type of experience occurs more frequently than other types (e.g., a person raised in India will likely encounter the Indian todi scale more so than a Westerner). In this paper, we will discuss recent findings from our laboratories that reveal the impact of short- and long-term asymmetric musical experiences on how the nervous system responds to complex sounds. We will discuss experiments examining how musical experience may facilitate the learning of a tone language, how musicians develop neural circuitries that are sensitive to musical melodies played on their instrument of expertise, and how even everyday listeners who have little formal training are particularly sensitive to music of their own culture(s). An understanding of these cultural asymmetries is useful in formulating a more comprehensive model of auditory perceptual expertise that considers how experiences shape auditory skill levels. Such a model has the potential to aid in the development of rehabilitation programs for the efficacious treatment of neurologic impairments.

  4. Do senior management cultures affect performance? Evidence from Italian public healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenestini, Anna; Lega, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are often characterized by diffuse power, ambiguous goals, and a plurality of actors. In this complex and pluralistic context, senior healthcare managers are expected to provide strategic direction and lead their organizations toward their goals and performance targets. The present work explores the relationship between senior management team culture and performance by investigating Italian public healthcare organizations in the Tuscany region. Our assessment of senior management culture was accomplished through the use of an established framework and a corresponding tool, the competing values framework, which supports the idea that specific aspects of performance are related to a dominant management culture. Organizational performance was assessed using a wide range of measures collected by a multidimensional performance evaluation system, which was developed in Tuscany to measure the performance of its 12 local health authorities (LHAs) and four teaching hospitals (THs). Usable responses were received from 80 senior managers of 11 different healthcare organizations (two THs and nine LHAs). Our findings show that Tuscan healthcare organizations are characterized by various dominant cultures: developmental, clan, rational, and hierarchical. These variations in dominant culture were associated with performance measures. The implications for management theory, professional practice, and public policy are discussed.

  5. Science, truth, and forensic cultures: the exceptional legal status of DNA evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Many epistemological terms, such as investigation, inquiry, argument, evidence, and fact were established in law well before being associated with science. However, while legal proof remained qualified by standards of 'moral certainty', scientific proof attained a reputation for objectivity. Although most forms of legal evidence (including expert evidence) continue to be treated as fallible 'opinions' rather than objective 'facts', forensic DNA evidence increasingly is being granted an exceptional factual status. It did not always enjoy such status. Two decades ago, the scientific status of forensic DNA evidence was challenged in the scientific literature and in courts of law, but by the late 1990s it was being granted exceptional legal status. This paper reviews the ascendancy of DNA profiling, and argues that its widely-heralded objective status is bound up with systems of administrative accountability. The 'administrative objectivity' of DNA evidence rests upon observable and reportable bureaucratic rules, records, recording devices, protocols, and architectural arrangements. By highlighting administrative sources of objectivity, this paper suggests that DNA evidence remains bound within the context of ordinary organisational and practical routines, and is not a transcendent source of 'truth' in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Using Foreign Virtual Patients With Medical Students in Germany: Are Cultural Differences Evident and Do They Impede Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Jens; Jähnert, Tina; Berman, Norman B; Fischer, Martin R

    2016-09-27

    Learning with virtual patients (VPs) is considered useful in medical education for fostering clinical reasoning. As the authoring of VPs is highly demanding, an international exchange of cases might be desirable. However, cultural differences in foreign VPs might hamper learning success. We investigated the need for support for using VPs from the United States at a German university, with respect to language and cultural differences. Our goal was to better understand potential implementation barriers of a intercultural VP exchange. Two VPs were presented to 30 German medical students featuring a cultural background different from German standards with respect to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, ethical aspects, role models, and language (as identified by a cultural adaptation framework). Participants were assigned to two groups: 14 students were advised to complete the cases without further instructions (basic group), and 16 students received written explanatory supplemental information specifically with regard to cultural differences (supplement group). Using a 6-point scale (6=strongly agree), we analyzed the results of an integrated assessment of learning success as well as an evaluation of cases by the students on usefulness for learning and potential issues regarding the language and cultural background. The German students found it motivating to work with cases written in English (6-point scale, 4.5 points). The clinical relevance of the VPs was clearly recognized (6 points), and the foreign language was considered a minor problem in this context (3 points). The results of the integrated learning assessment were similar in both groups (basic 53% [SD 4] vs supplement 52% [SD 4] correct answers, P=.32). However, students using the supplemental material more readily realized culturally different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies (basic 4 vs supplement 5 points, P=.39) and were less affirmative when asked about the transferability of cases to a German

  7. Becoming at home in residential care for older people: a material culture perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, Melanie

    2018-02-01

    Residential homes encourage new residents to bring belongings with them, so that they can personalise their room and 'feel at home'. Existing literature on material culture in residential homes views objects as symbols and repositories of home and identity, which can facilitate a sense of belonging in residents through their display in residents' rooms. I suggest that this both misunderstands the processual and fluid nature of home and identity, and conceptualises objects as essentially passive. This article uses ethnographic data and theories of practice and relationality to argue that rather than the meaning of home being inherent in objects, or felt subjectively by residents, meaning is generated through ongoing, everyday interactions between the two. I show that residents became at home by acquiring new things -as well as displaying existing possessions - and also through interacting with mundane objects in everyday social and relational practices such as cleaning and hosting. I conclude that being at home in older people's residential homes need not be so different from being at home at other stages of the life course and in other settings. This challenges conceptualisations of older people's homes - and older age itself - as somehow unknowable and unfamiliar. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. Implementation of a study material for economic culture from cooperative education issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Gámez Iglesias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the process of updating the Cuban economic model, our country has decided to articulate a serie of transformations directed, among other issues, to the strengthening of the cooperative sector, therefore forming human capital with knowledge and skills for this achievement is a challenge that has today higher education, therefore contributing to the learning of the contents related to cooperatives and its transformations in Cuba from the Agricultural Economics subject in the Degree in Education. Economy that is developed in the Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences of the University of Pinar del Río is a priority to respond to this challenge. In this sense, the main objective of the research is to develop a support material to contribute to the economic culture from the issues of cooperative education in the third year students of this career. The experience was applied in the educational practice with satisfactory results, in addition it was submitted to the criterion of the specialists and they consider it is viable.

  9. Masculinity and Material Culture in Technological Transitions: From Letterpress to Offset Lithography, 1960s-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jesse Adams

    Between the 1960s and the 1980s the printing industry in advanced capitalist economies underwent dramatic technological change. While the transition from "hot metal" compositing to computerized typesetting has been extensively analyzed, there was another transformation occurring simultaneously: in the pressroom, letterpress was gradually replaced by offset lithography. Many letterpress machinists retrained, moving from a heavy, manual technology (with an entrenched patriarchal culture) to a method that was faster and less physically taxing. However, unlike their compositor counterparts, the press-machinists' transition involved a continuity of traditional masculine craft identities rather than a rupture associated with "deskilling." Intrinsic to this experience of technological change was a masculine embodiment that was attuned to and shaped by the materiality and aesthetics of printing technologies. This article establishes how masculine craft identities do not rely exclusively on skill-based mastery of traditional technologies, but also relate to other dimensions of technology, such as aesthetics, embodied "know-how," and the physicality of industrial machinery.

  10. Applications of synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques for the analysis of Cultural Heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotte, Marine; Chilida, Javier; Walter, Philippe; Taniguchi, Yoko; Susini, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of cultural Heritage objects is often technically challenging. When analyzing micro-fragments, the amount of matter is usually very tiny, hence requiring sensitive techniques. These samples, in particular painting fragments, may present multi-layered structures, with layer thickness of ∼10 μm. It leads to favor micro-imaging techniques, with a good lateral resolution (about one micrometer), that manage the discriminative study of each layer. Besides, samples are usually very complex in term of chemistry, as they are made of mineral and organic matters, amorphous and crystallized phases, major and minor elements. Accordingly, a multi-modal approach is generally essential to solve the chemical complexity of such hybrid materials. Different examples will be given, to illustrate the various possibilities of synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques, such as micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro FTIR spectroscopy. Focus will be made on paintings, but the whole range of museum objects (going from soft matter like paper or wood to hard matter like metal and glass) will be also considered.

  11. Cultural Adaptation of an Evidence-Informed Psychosocial Intervention to Address the Needs of PHIV+ Youth in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Gisselle; Saisaengjan, Chutima; Gopalan, Priya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lakhonpon, Sudrak; Nestadt, Danielle Friedman; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Mellins, Claude Ann; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2017-01-01

    Globally, pediatric HIV has largely become an adolescent epidemic. Thailand has the highest HIV prevalence in Asia (1.2%), with more than 14,000 children living with HIV. There is growing demand for evidence-based psychosocial interventions for this population that include health and mental health support and sexual risk reduction, which can be integrated into HIV care systems. To address this need, a multidisciplinary team of Thai and US researchers adapted an existing evidence-informed, family-based intervention, The Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Program + (CHAMP+), which has been tested in multiple global trials. Using community-based participatory research methods, changes to the intervention curriculum were made to address language, culture, and Thai family life. Involvement of families, youth, and stakeholders in the adaptation process allowed for identification of salient issues and of program delivery methods that would increase engagement. Participants endorsed using a cartoon-based curriculum format for fostering discussion (as in CHAMP+ South Africa) given stigma around discussing HIV in the Thai context. The Thai version of CHAMP+ retained much of the curriculum content incorporating culturally appropriate metaphors and story line. Sessions focus on family communication, coping, disclosure, stigma, social support, and HIV education. This paper explores lessons learned through the adaption process of CHAMP+ Thailand that are applicable to other interventions and settings. It discusses how culturally informed adaptations can be made to interventions while maintaining core program components.

  12. Leisure and health in cross-cultural settings: Evidences from China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Okinawa, SES has no impact on health. The findings in Japan study suggest a major revision of SGTLE and FSCT that health is not related to SES. All three studies contribute to our understanding of the relationship between leisure lifestyle and health cross-culturally. Keywords: Leisure lifestyle, health, China, Korea, ...

  13. Cultural and Linguistic Imperialism and the EIL Movement: Evidence from a Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Shayesteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of English as an International Language (EIL) has been proposed mainly to alleviate the tenets of language and cultural imperialism and, of course, to facilitate communication through different varieties of English. Hence, English language classrooms are the preliminary venue for the inception of such a rudimentary movement.…

  14. Does Cultural Capital Really Affect Academic Achievement? New Evidence from Combined Sibling and Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mads Meier

    2011-01-01

    This article provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias, which has resulted in too optimistic results in previous research.…

  15. Further evidence that culture media affect perinatal outcome : findings after transfer of fresh and cryopreserved embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, Ewka C.; Van Montfoort, Aafke P.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Geraedts, Joep P.; Smits, Luc J.; Land, Jolande A.; Evers, Johannes L.; Dumoulin, John C.

    We have previously shown that the medium used for culturing IVF embryos affects the birthweight of the resulting newborns. This observation with potentially far-reaching clinical consequences during later life, was made in singletons conceived during the first IVF treatment cycle after the transfer

  16. Cross-cultural evidence that the nonverbal expression of pride is an automatic status signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L; Shariff, Azim F; Zhao, Wanying; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    To test whether the pride expression is an implicit, reliably developing signal of high social status in humans, the authors conducted a series of experiments that measured implicit and explicit cognitive associations between pride displays and high-status concepts in two culturally disparate populations--North American undergraduates and Fijian villagers living in a traditional, small-scale society. In both groups, pride displays produced strong implicit associations with high status, despite Fijian social norms discouraging overt displays of pride. Also in both groups, implicit and explicit associations between emotion expressions and status were dissociated; despite the cross-cultural implicit association between pride displays and high status, happy displays were, cross-culturally, the more powerful status indicator at an explicit level, and among Fijians, happy and pride displays were equally strongly implicitly associated with status. Finally, a cultural difference emerged: Fijians viewed happy displays as more deserving of high status than did North Americans, both implicitly and explicitly. Together, these findings suggest that the display and recognition of pride may be part of a suite of adaptations for negotiating status relationships, but that the high-status message of pride is largely communicated through implicit cognitive processes. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Evidence for evoked release of adenosine and glutamate from cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schousboe, A.; Frandsen, A.; Drejer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Evoked release of [ 3 H]-D-aspartate which labels the neurotransmitter glutamate pool in cultured cerebellar granule cells was compared with evoked release of adenosine from similar cultures. It was found that both adenosine and [3H]-D-aspartate could be released from the neurons in a calcium dependent manner after depolarization of the cells with either 10-100 microM glutamate or 50 mM KCl. Cultures of cerebellar granule cells treated with 50 microM kainate to eliminate GABAergic neurons behaved in the same way. This together with the observation that cultured astrocytes did not exhibit a calcium dependent, potassium stimulated adenosine release strongly suggest that cerebellar granule cells release adenosine in a neurotransmitter-like fashion together with glutamate which is the classical neurotransmitter of these neurons. Studies of the metabolism of adenosine showed that in the granule cells adenosine is rapidly metabolized to ATP, ADP, and AMP, but in spite of this, adenosine was found to be released preferential to ATP

  18. Cross-Cultural Evidence that the Nonverbal Expression of Pride Is an Automatic Status Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Shariff, Azim F.; Zhao, Wanying; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To test whether the pride expression is an implicit, reliably developing signal of high social status in humans, the authors conducted a series of experiments that measured implicit and explicit cognitive associations between pride displays and high-status concepts in two culturally disparate populations--North American undergraduates and Fijian…

  19. Management Control, Results-Oriented Culture and Public Sector Performance : Empirical Evidence on New Public Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H M; Speklé, Roland F.

    2015-01-01

    New Public Management (NPM) has been guiding public sector reform for over 25 years. Its position on the design of effective management control rests on three key ideas: (1) performance improvement requires a results-oriented culture that emphasizes outcomes rather than inputs or processes; (2)

  20. National and Organizational Culture, Performance Evaluation and Trust: Evidence from Multinational Company Subsidiary in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unggul Purwohedi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of national and organizational culture on the relationship between accounting and trust in a subsidiary of a Western Multi-National Company (MNC in Indonesia. This study use a qualitative field study of one French MNC subsidiary and interview four expatriate directors, nine Indonesian managers and 10 Indonesian employees. Key themes were identified with the assistance of NVivo software. In this study, accounting, through formal performance evaluation, contributes to trust building between supervisors and their subordinates. Formal performance evaluation through transparent and objective evaluation increases trust in the supervisor. On the other hand, informal performance evaluation tends to decrease trustful behaviour due to secrecy in the evaluation process.  It appears that Indonesian national culture does influence organizational culture preference in the local staff. Individuals share national culture as a result of values developed from family, religion, education, and experience.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.4733 

  1. Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, October 24-28, 1978). Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Dick, Comp.

    Developed as a result of the second 5-day American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop conducted in Tacoma, Washington, the resource guide presents materials oriented toward Native American dance, music, and games, which were the major thrust of the workshop. The guide provides four flannelboard stories/legends (How Man Was Created, The Gull…

  2. Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, April 25-29, 1977). Book One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Dick, Comp.

    Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…

  3. Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann and Michael North (eds., Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claartje Rasterhoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book notice of: Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann and Michael North (eds., Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia (Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2014. 348 pp. ISBN 978-90-8964-569-2. € 99,00.

  4. Cortical radial glia: identification in tissue culture and evidence for their transformation to astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culican, S M; Baumrind, N L; Yamamoto, M; Pearlman, A L

    1990-02-01

    Radial glia are transiently present in the developing cerebral cortex, where they are thought to guide the migration of neurons from the proliferative zone to the forming cortical plate. To provide a framework for experimental studies of radial glia, we have defined morphological and immunocytochemical criteria to identify them in primary cultures of cortical cells obtained at embryonic day 13 in the mouse. Cortical radial glia in culture for 1-2 d resemble radial glia in vivo: they have a long, thin, unbranched process extending from one or both ends of the elongated cell body and are labeled with the monoclonal antibody RC1 but not with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (abGFAP). We tested the specificity of RC1 by double-labeling with a panel of cell-type specific antibodies, and found that it labels radial glia, astrocytes, and fibroblast-like cells, but not neurons. Fibroblasts are easily distinguished from glia by morphology and by labeling with antibodies to fibronectin. To test the hypothesis that radial glia become astrocytes when their developmental role is complete, we examined their morphological and immunocytochemical development in culture. After 3-4 d in vitro radial glia develop several branched processes; in this transitional stage they are labeled by both RC1 and abGFAP. Many radial glia lose RC1 immunoreactivity as they become increasingly branched and immunoreactive to abGFAP. In areas of the cultures that have few neurons and in cultures depleted of neurons by washing, flat, nonprocess-bearing glia predominate. These cells do not lose immunoreactivity to RC1 during the 9-d period of observation even though they acquire GFAP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Cross-cultural similarities and differences in person-body reasoning: experimental evidence from the United Kingdom and Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emma; Burdett, Emily; Knight, Nicola; Barrett, Justin

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-cultural investigation of person-body reasoning in the United Kingdom and northern Brazilian Amazon (Marajó Island). The study provides evidence that directly bears upon divergent theoretical claims in cognitive psychology and anthropology, respectively, on the cognitive origins and cross-cultural incidence of mind-body dualism. In a novel reasoning task, we found that participants across the two sample populations parsed a wide range of capacities similarly in terms of the capacities' perceived anchoring to bodily function. Patterns of reasoning concerning the respective roles of physical and biological properties in sustaining various capacities did vary between sample populations, however. Further, the data challenge prior ad-hoc categorizations in the empirical literature on the developmental origins of and cognitive constraints on psycho-physical reasoning (e.g., in afterlife concepts). We suggest cross-culturally validated categories of "Body Dependent" and "Body Independent" items for future developmental and cross-cultural research in this emerging area. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara T; Throop, Meryia D; Raju, Dheeraj; Murphy, Deborah A; Loan, Lori A; Patrician, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of a dynamic educational and mentoring program, facilitated by unit-level mentors, to introduce, promote, and sustain an evidence-based practice (EBP) culture among nurses in a military healthcare setting. The need to identify gaps in practice, apply principles of EBP, and advance scientific applications in the pursuit of quality nursing care is as important to military healthcare as it is in the civilian sector. The Advancing Research through Close Collaboration Model guided the intervention and study. Three instruments were used: the Organizational Readiness for System-wide Integration of Evidence-Based Practice, EBP Beliefs, and EBP Implementation scales. The study took place in 3 military hospitals simultaneously undergoing facility and staff integration. Data were collected from staff nurses in the inpatient nursing units before and after a facilitated education and mentoring intervention. Three hundred sixty nurses (38%) completed baseline, and 325 (31%) completed follow-up surveys. Scores improved on all 3 measures following implementation of the program; however, the differences were statistically significant only for the Organizational Readiness for System-wide Integration of Evidence-Based Practice scale (70.96 vs 77.63, t = -3.95, P culture may diffuse among individuals in an organization, even while experiencing significant change. It also demonstrates that a unit-level mentored EBP program is sustainable despite changes in organizational structure and workforce composition.

  7. Somatization as a core symptom of melancholic type depression. Evidence from a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D; Martus, P

    1994-12-01

    The study questions whether different types of somatization may be a core symptom of melancholia, thus, being invariable across cultures and being a candidate for neurobiological research and diagnostic criteria. 51 Turkish patients and 51 education-matched German patients with melancholic depression were compared for two types of somatization. Turkish patients had higher frequencies of somatic preoccupation and hypochondriasis but they were not different in the perception and experience of somatic symptoms. It is concluded that: (1) somatization has to be differentiated psychopathologically; (2) it may be a neurobiological core symptom of melancholia in the well-defined sense of 'perceiving abnormal somatic symptoms'; and (3) it may be a culture-bound symptom in the sense of 'being abnormally concerned with somatic symptoms or hypochondrial fears'.

  8. Could Regulator Materialize Potential Demand for Islamic Securities? Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Kariastanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this paper is to provide a discussion whether Islamic securities enjoy larger demands than conventional securities. This paper also investigate whether regulator could effectively take a role in materializing demands for Islamic securities and whether regulator declaration is more convincing than sharia compliance declaration by another institution.Methods - We employ differences in differences (DID regression to see the immediate, medium, and long term market response to this announcement. We also estimate cumulative abnormal returns by employing the standard market model for the robustness test.Results - We find that market reacts to sharia compliance declaration by regulator in the long-run, hence potential demands are realized and the Islamic securities will enjoy greater market power. We also provide evidence that Islamic investors are not too strict in screening Islamic securities and are willing to accept different opinions regarding sharia compliance.Conclusion - This finding could explain why Islamic finance is still growing rapidly even though there are critiques in the genuineness of sharia compliance of the current Islamic financial products/services.Keywords: Regulator, Islamic securities, sharia compliance, demand, investor confidence

  9. Cross-cultural differences in mental representations of time: evidence from an implicit nonlinguistic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Orly; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-11-01

    Across cultures people construct spatial representations of time. However, the particular spatial layouts created to represent time may differ across cultures. This paper examines whether people automatically access and use culturally specific spatial representations when reasoning about time. In Experiment 1, we asked Hebrew and English speakers to arrange pictures depicting temporal sequences of natural events, and to point to the hypothesized location of events relative to a reference point. In both tasks, English speakers (who read left to right) arranged temporal sequences to progress from left to right, whereas Hebrew speakers (who read right to left) arranged them from right to left, replicating previous work. In Experiments 2 and 3, we asked the participants to make rapid temporal order judgments about pairs of pictures presented one after the other (i.e., to decide whether the second picture showed a conceptually earlier or later time-point of an event than the first picture). Participants made responses using two adjacent keyboard keys. English speakers were faster to make "earlier" judgments when the "earlier" response needed to be made with the left response key than with the right response key. Hebrew speakers showed exactly the reverse pattern. Asking participants to use a space-time mapping inconsistent with the one suggested by writing direction in their language created interference, suggesting that participants were automatically creating writing-direction consistent spatial representations in the course of their normal temporal reasoning. It appears that people automatically access culturally specific spatial representations when making temporal judgments even in nonlinguistic tasks. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Does Cultural Heritage affect Employment decisions – Empirical Evidence for Second Generation Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Koebrich Leon

    2013-01-01

    The participation rate of women in the labor market shows a sizeable variation across countries and across time. Following studies conducted for North America, this section tests the hypothesis whether, next to structural conditions, cultural norms with regard to existing role models within society about working women influence a woman's participation decision. While using the epidemiological approach to economics, which aims to compare economic outcomes between immigrant groups to assess the...

  11. Culture, Privacy Conception and Privacy Concern: Evidence from Europe before PRISM

    OpenAIRE

    Omrani, Nessrine; Soulié, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses individuals’ online privacy concerns between cultural country groups. We use a dataset of more than 14 000 Internet users collected by the European Union in 2010 in 26 EU countries. We use a probit model to examine the variables associated with the probability of being concerned about privacy, in order to draw policy and regulatory implications. The results show that women and poor people are more concerned than their counterparts. People who often use Internet are not p...

  12. Risky Decisions Despite Counter Evidence: Modeling a Culture of Safer Sexual Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vimla L.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Kaufman, David R.; Gutnik, Lily A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    2005-01-01

    To create a culture of safe practices, we need to understand how and under what conditions the public makes risky decisions about their health. Because risky sexual behaviors are known to be common in young adults, we investigated their decision making regarding sexual activities that could incur a high risk of HIV infection. Sixty young urban adults maintained journals for two weeks and were interviewed regarding condom use and sexual history. We characterized four patterns...

  13. Explaining individual differences in alcohol intake in adults: evidence for genetic and cultural transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; Geels, Lot M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to describe what proportion of variation in adult alcohol intake is attributable to genetic differences among individuals and what proportion to differences in environmental experiences individuals have been exposed to. Effects of age, gender, spousal resemblance, and cultural transmission of alcohol intake from parents to offspring were taken into account. In a twin-family design, the effects of genetic and cultural transmission and shared and nonshared environment on alcohol intake were estimated with genetic structural equation models. Data originated from adult twins, their siblings, parents (n = 12,587), and spouses (n = 429) registered with the population-based Netherlands Twin Register (63.5% female; ages 18-97 years). Alcohol intake (grams per day) was higher among men than women and increased with age. Broad-sense heritability estimates were similar across sex and age (53%). Spousal resemblance was observed (r = .39) but did not significantly affect the heritability estimates. No effects of cultural transmission were detected. In total, 23% of the variation in alcohol intake was explained by additive genetic effects, 30% by dominant (nonadditive) gene action, and 47% by environmental effects that were not shared among family members. Individual differences in adult alcohol intake are explained by genetic and individual-specific environmental effects. The same genes are expressed in males and females and in younger and older participants. A substantial part of the heritability of alcohol intake is attributable to nonadditive gene action. Effects of cultural transmission that have been reported in adolescence are not present in adulthood.

  14. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  15. Supercritical CO2 Foaming of Thermoplastic Materials Derived from Maize: Proof-of-Concept Use in Mammalian Cell Culture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. Methodology/Principal Findings We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. Conclusions/Significance We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein

  16. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de Los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  17. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds.We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively. Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145 attached to and proliferated on zein foams.We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves. Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  18. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  19. Mechanism investigation for poloxamer 188 raw material variation in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haofan; Ali, Amr; Lanan, Maureen; Hughes, Erik; Wiltberger, Kelly; Guan, Bing; Prajapati, Shashi; Hu, Weiwei

    2016-05-01

    Variability in poloxamer 188 (P188) raw material, which is routinely used in cell culture media to protect cells from hydrodynamic forces, plays an important role in the process performance. Even though tremendous efforts have been spent to understand the mechanism of poloxamer's protection, the root cause for lot-to-lot variation was not clear. A recent study reported that the low performance was not due to toxicity but inefficiency to protect cells (Peng et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2014;30:1411-1418). In this study, it was demonstrated for the first time that the addition of other surfactants even at a very low level can interfere with P188 resulting in a loss of efficiency. It was also found that the performance of P188 lots correlated well with its foam stability. Foam generated from low performing lots in baffled shaker flask lasts longer, which suggests that the components in the foam layers are different. The spiking of foam generated from a low performing lot into the media containing a high performance lot resulted in cell damage and low growth. Analytical studies using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) identified differences in high molecular weight (HMW) species present in the P188 lots. These differences are much clearer when comparing the HMW region of the SEC chromatogram of foam vs. bulk liquid samples. This study shows that low performing lots have enriched HMW species in foam samples due to high hydrophobicity, which can be potentially used as a screening assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:767-775, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  1. The Origin of Cultural Differences in Cognition: Evidence for the Social Orientation Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research documents cognitive differences between Westerners and East Asians. Westerners tend to be more analytic and East Asians tend to be more holistic. These findings have often been explained as being due to corresponding differences in social orientation. Westerners are more independent and Easterners are more interdependent. However, comparisons of the cognitive tendencies of Westerners and East Asians do not allow us to rule out alternative explanations for the cognitive differences, such as linguistic and genetic differences, as well as cultural differences other than social orientation. In this review we summarize recent developments which provide stronger support for the social orientation hypothesis.

  2. Evidence of Early Cultures in the Palpa Valleys on the South coast of Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Reindel, Markus; Isla, Johny A.

    2012-01-01

    After the pioneering work of Julio C. Tello, Frédéric Engel and John H. Rowe on the Formative and Preceramic periods, few advances have been made in the investigation of early cultural developments on the south coast of Perú. This is especially true for the Río Grande de Nasca drainage, where there is a lack of data regarding early human occupation. The Nasca-Palpa Archaeological Project aims to reconstruct the human occupation of the Palpa valleys during all Prehispanic periods. In this arti...

  3. Phraseology from the perspective of national-cultural specificity (based on English language material)

    OpenAIRE

    Осипова Инна Алексеевна; Osipova Inna Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    within the scope of the current study, linguistic units of English phraseology are perceived from the point of view of the national-cultural identity of English-speaking ethnos. National and stylistic peculiarities have always drawn attention of linguists because of a high cultural potential hidden in nature of phraseological units. This article was created for specialists of philological direction and mainstream audience.

  4. Laser-induced emission, fluorescence and Raman hybrid setup: A versatile instrument to analyze materials from cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Bai, X. S.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.; Detalle, V.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research project was the development of a hybrid system in laboratory coupling together three analytical techniques, namely laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Raman spectroscopy in a single instrument. The rationale for combining these three spectroscopies was to identify a material (molecular and elemental analysis) without any preliminary preparation, regardless of its organic or inorganic nature, on the surface and in depth, without any surrounding light interference thanks to time resolution. Such instrumentation would allow characterizing different materials from cultural heritage. A complete study on LIBS-LIF-Raman hybrid was carried out, from its conception to instrumental achievement, in order to elaborate a strategy of analysis according to the material and to be able to address conservation issues. From an instrumental point of view, condensing the three spectroscopies was achieved by using a single laser for excitation and two spectrometers (time-integrated and not time-integrated) for light collection. A parabolic mirror was used as collecting system, while three excitation sources directed through this optical system ensured the examination of a similar probe area. Two categories of materials were chosen to test the hybrid instrumentation on cultural heritage applications (copper corrosion products and wall paintings). Some examples are reported to illustrate the wealth of information provided by the hybrid, thus demonstrating its great potential to be used for cultural heritage issues. Finally, several considerations are outlined aimed at further improving the hybrid.

  5. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  6. Risky decisions despite counter evidence: modeling a culture of safer sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L; Yoskowitz, Nicole A; Kaufman, David R; Gutnik, Lily A; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2005-01-01

    To create a culture of safe practices, we need to understand how and under what conditions the public makes risky decisions about their health. Because risky sexual behaviors are known to be common in young adults, we investigated their decision making regarding sexual activities that could incur a high risk of HIV infection. Sixty young urban adults maintained journals for two weeks and were interviewed regarding condom use and sexual history. We characterized four patterns of condom use behavior: consistent (35.0%), inconsistent (16.7%), consistent to inconsistent (35.0%), and inconsistent to consistent (13.3%). Directionality of reasoning was analyzed in the explanations provided for condom use decisions. The consistent and inconsistent patterns were associated with data-driven heuristic reasoning, where behavior becomes automated and is associated with a high level of confidence in one's judgment. In the other two patterns, the shift in behavior was due to a significant event that influenced a change in directionality to explanation-based reasoning. We discuss these results within the framework of identifying potentially high-risk groups for whom customized intervention strategies (such as computer-based educational programs) can be used to reduce risk, thereby creating a culture of safer sexual practices.

  7. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O.; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or “memes”), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine. PMID:26483686

  8. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or "memes"), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  9. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  10. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  11. Social learning and traditions in animals: evidence, definitions, and relationship to human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2012-11-01

    The number of publications concerned with social learning in nonhuman animals has expanded dramatically in recent decades. In this article, recent literature addressing three issues that have been of particular concern to those with both an interest in social learning and a background in experimental psychology are reviewed: (1) the definition as well as (2) empirical investigation of the numerous behavioral processes that support social learning in animals, and (3) the relationship of the 'traditions' seen in animals to the 'culture' that is so important in shaping the development of behavioral repertoires in humans. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1196 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. RESPONSE STYLES IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH – EVIDENCE FROM HISTORICAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena BERTEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify differences in response styles between regions which belong to Romania, but have previously been under foreign occupation. To do that, we employ data from the European Social Survey, the 2006 round. We investigate extreme response styles as this is known as a common problem in cross-cultural research. Extreme response styles increase reliability, but affect the validity as all correlation specific methods can be biased in this case. We compare response styles across regions and inside regions using language as a factor variable to identify ethnic groups. Results show that in some cases there are significant differences between regions of the same country, whereas there are none for neighbouring regions belonging to different countries.

  13. A multilevel investigation of motivational cultural intelligence, organizational diversity climate, and cultural sales: evidence from U.S. real estate firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Dong; Portnoy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a multilevel theoretical framework, the authors examined how motivational cultural intelligence influences individual cultural sales--the number of housing transactions occurring between people of different cultural origins. Data from 305 real estate agents employed at 26 real estate firms in the United States demonstrated that an individual's motivational cultural intelligence is positively related to his or her cultural sales. This positive relationship is enhanced by the firm's motivational cultural intelligence and diversity climate. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of their findings in a workplace context that involves cross-cultural interpersonal interactions.

  14. Phraseology from the perspective of national-cultural specificity (based on English language material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipova I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available within the scope of the current study, linguistic units of English phraseology are perceived from the point of view of the national-cultural identity of English-speaking ethnos. National and stylistic peculiarities have always drawn attention of linguists because of a high cultural potential hidden in nature of phraseological units. This article was created for specialists of philological direction and mainstream audience.

  15. Legal regulation of culture of Ukraine: on the materials 90-s of the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Скрипчук

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates the formation of the legal framework of contemporary Ukrainian culture, original official documents, which ensure the formation of the sphere of culture in Ukraine are analyzed in this article. The state budget of Ukraine by years has been researched in more detail, the analysis of the laws of Ukraine «On Libraries and Librarianship», «On Museums and Museology», «On Cinematography» and so on has been performed.

  16. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloy, David J.; Gustin, Pascal G.; Bouhet, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB 1 /kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB 1 contaminated food or feed

  17. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halloy, David J [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Gustin, Pascal G [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Bouhet, Sandrine [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France); Oswald, Isabelle P [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France)

    2005-09-15

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB{sub 1}/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-{gamma} mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-{alpha}. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB{sub 1} contaminated food or feed.

  18. History, modernity, material and spiritual culture of Lemko, Boyko and Transcarpathian Rusyns in the problem field of interdisciplinary researches

    OpenAIRE

    Пронь, Тетяна Михайлівна

    2016-01-01

    The publication represents the interdisciplinary research professionals of social science and literature of Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, the United States and Canada in history, modernity, material and spiritual culture Lemko, Boyko and Transcarpathian Rusyns disclose at the IV International scientific conference (23-24 September 2011 , Slupsk, Poland) and in the new collective proceedings of the Institute of Political Science Zelenogorsk University and the Institute of History Pomeranian Acade...

  19. Personality Testing in Antarctic Expeditioners: Cross Cultural Comparisons and Evidence for Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, D. M.; Sandal, G. M.; Harper, M. L.; Helmreich, R. L.

    Antarctica provides an ideal environment in which to study human behaviour under conditions of isolation and confinement. Such research is currently being conducted through several national Antarctic research programs, with the subject pool for these investigations necessarily consisting of individuals from multiple nationalities. Cross-cultural research has shown, however, that psychological traits and individual values may vary significantly between national and ethnic groups. Until now, there has been an implicit assumption that Antarctic personnel are essentially similar from one national program to another and that therefore findings from any one nation's Antarctic program should generalize to another, as well as to other domains such as spaceflight. We believe that it is necessary to validate this assumption through empirical research. This objective of this analysis was to determine the degree of similarity between the psychological testing profiles of Antarctic research personnel from different national Antarctic programs, and to determine the degrees of similarity or difference of these personnel to a normative population. METHODS In separate studies, Antarctic personnel from Australia (n=57), Norway (=37), and Great Britain (n=145) were administered the Personal Characteristics Inventory (PCI) before departing to Antarctica. The PCI is a battery consisting of 11 psychological scales designed to assess specific traits related to achievement and interpersonal competence that have been shown to be particularly salient to human performance under stressful and complex conditions. For comparative normative data, a group of 441 U.S. undergraduate students were also administered the PCI. Due to historical reasons, researchers in this study used 2 versions of the PCI, and only 9 of the 11 scales were directly equivalent. RESULTS For the three national Antarctic groups (Australia, Norway, and Great Britain), no significant variation was found between group mean

  20. Blood culture-PCR to optimise typhoid fever diagnosis after controlled human infection identifies frequent asymptomatic cases and evidence of primary bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Zhou, Liqing; Blohmke, Christoph J; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Baker, Stephen; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    Improved diagnostics for typhoid are needed; a typhoid controlled human infection model may accelerate their development and translation. Here, we evaluated a blood culture-PCR assay for detecting infection after controlled human infection with S. Typhi and compared test performance with optimally performed blood cultures. Culture-PCR amplification of blood samples was performed alongside daily blood culture in 41 participants undergoing typhoid challenge. Study endpoints for typhoid diagnosis (TD) were fever and/or bacteraemia. Overall, 24/41 (59%) participants reached TD, of whom 21/24 (86%) had ≥1 positive blood culture (53/674, 7.9% of all cultures) or 18/24 (75%) had ≥1 positive culture-PCR assay result (57/684, 8.3%). A further five non-bacteraemic participants produced culture-PCR amplicons indicating infection; overall sensitivity/specificity of the assay compared to the study endpoints were 70%/65%. We found no significant difference between blood culture and culture-PCR methods in ability to identify cases (12 mismatching pairs, p = 0.77, binomial test). Clinical and stool culture metadata demonstrated that additional culture-PCR amplification positive individuals likely represented true cases missed by blood culture, suggesting the overall attack rate may be 30/41 (73%) rather than 24/41 (59%). Several participants had positive culture-PCR results soon after ingesting challenge providing new evidence for occurrence of an early primary bacteraemia. Overall the culture-PCR assay performed well, identifying extra typhoid cases compared with routine blood culture alone. Despite limitations to widespread field-use, the benefits of increased diagnostic yield, reduced blood volume and faster turn-around-time, suggest that this assay could enhance laboratory typhoid diagnostics in research applications and high-incidence settings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Ureolytic/Non-Ureolytic Bacteria Co-Cultured Self-Healing Agent for Cementitious Materials Crack Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Min Son

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the CaCO3 precipitation performance of ureolytic and non-ureolytic bacteria co-cultured as a self-healing agent for cementitious materials crack repair. Three different inoculum ratios of ureolytic Sporosarcina pasteurii and non-ureolytic Bacillus thuringiensis (10:0, 8:2, or 5:5 were used. The effect of coculturing ureolytic and non-ureolytic bacteria on microbial metabolism was investigated by measuring the rate of growth in urea-containing medium and the rate of NH4+ and CaCO3 production in urea–calcium lactate medium. The self-healing efficiency of co-cultured bacteria was examined by exposing cement mortar specimens with predefined cracks to media containing single urease-producing or co-cultured bacteria. The obtained results provide new findings, where CaCO3 precipitation is improved by co-culturing ureolytic and non-ureolytic bacteria, owing to the relatively faster growth rate of non-ureolytic bacteria. The crack filling rate correlated with the width of crack, in particular, specimens with a smaller crack width showed the faster filling effect, indicating that the crack width can be a dominant factor influencing the CaCO3 precipitation capacity of co-cultured bacteria.

  2. Examining Evidence Construction as the Transformation of the Material World into Community Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Recent consensus documents in science education (e.g., the Next Generation Science Standards) emphasize helping students develop facility with constructing and critiquing both claims and the evidence that supports them. While students typically view evidence as necessary for supporting scientific claims, they tend to "objectify"…

  3. Comparing the use of evidence and culture in targeted colorectal cancer communication for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vetta L Sanders; Kalesan, Bindu; Wells, Anjanette; Williams, Sha-Lai; Caito, Nicole M

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the effects (affective reactions, cognitive reactions and processing, perceived benefits and barriers and intent to screen) of targeted peripheral+evidential (PE) and peripheral+evidential+socio-cultural (PE+SC) colorectal cancer communications. This study was a two-arm randomized control study of cancer communication effects on affective, cognitive processing, and behavioral outcomes over a 22-week intervention. There were 771 African American participants, 45-75 years, participating in the baseline survey related to CRC screening. Three follow-up interviews that assessed intervention effects on affective response to the publications, cognitive processing, and intent to obtain CRC screening were completed. There were no statistically significant differences between PE and PE+SC intervention groups for affect, cognitive processing or intent to screen. However, there were significant interactions effects on outcome variables. The advantages and disadvantages of PE+SC targeted cancer communications and implications of sex differences are considered. While there do not appear to be significant differences in behavioral outcomes when using PE and PE+SC strategies, there appear to be subtle differences in affective and cognitive processing outcomes related to medical suspicion and ethnic identity, particularly as it relates to gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. METONYMY BASED ON CULTURAL BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE AND PRAGMATIC INFERENCING: EVIDENCE FROM SPOKEN DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijana Krišković

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Th e characterization of metonymy as a conceptual tool for guiding inferencing in language has opened a new fi eld of study in cognitive linguistics and pragmatics. To appreciate the value of metonymy for pragmatic inferencing, metonymy should not be viewed as performing only its prototypical referential function. Metonymic mappings are operative in speech acts at the level of reference, predication, proposition and illocution. Th e aim of this paper is to study the role of metonymy in pragmatic inferencing in spoken discourse in televison interviews. Case analyses of authentic utterances classifi ed as illocutionary metonymies following the pragmatic typology of metonymic functions are presented. Th e inferencing processes are facilitated by metonymic connections existing between domains or subdomains in the same functional domain. It has been widely accepted by cognitive linguists that universal human knowledge and embodiment are essential for the interpretation of metonymy. Th is analysis points to the role of cultural background knowledge in understanding target meanings. All these aspects of metonymic connections are exploited in complex inferential processes in spoken discourse. In most cases, metaphoric mappings are also a part of utterance interpretation.

  5. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use.Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture.Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for ecological restoration of lomas should include sustainable agroforestry

  6. Suicide in the People's Republic of China categorized by age and gender: evidence of the influence of culture on suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, C

    1996-05-01

    Throughout the developed world suicide is predominantly associated with psychiatric disorders and substance misuse. The main social factors are age, as suicide increases with each decade, and gender, as suicide is more frequent among men than women, and proportionately more young men die than their female peers. An analysis of suicide in the People's Republic of China found that the profile was the opposite to that reported in the rest of the world, as more female subjects kill themselves than males, particularly younger women. Also, unlike the situation in other countries, suicide occurred more often in rural than in urban areas. It is argued that the Chinese data provide evidence of a greater cultural influence upon suicide rates than had previously been realized.

  7. Toxicity of functional nano-micro zinc oxide tetrapods: impact of cell culture conditions, cellular age and material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavlassopoulos, Heike; Mishra, Yogendra K; Kaps, Sören; Paulowicz, Ingo; Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Elbahri, Mady; Maser, Edmund; Adelung, Rainer; Röhl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    With increasing production and applications of nanostructured zinc oxide, e.g., for biomedical and consumer products, the question of safety is getting more and more important. Different morphologies of zinc oxide structures have been synthesized and accordingly investigated. In this study, we have particularly focused on nano-micro ZnO tetrapods (ZnO-T), because their large scale fabrication has been made possible by a newly introduced flame transport synthesis approach which will probably lead to several new applications. Moreover, ZnO-T provide a completely different morphology then classical spherical ZnO nanoparticles. To get a better understanding of parameters that affect the interactions between ZnO-T and mammalian cells, and thus their biocompatibility, we have examined the impact of cell culture conditions as well as of material properties on cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate that the cell density of fibroblasts in culture along with their age, i.e., the number of preceding cell divisions, strongly affect the cytotoxic potency of ZnO-T. Concerning the material properties, the toxic potency of ZnO-T is found to be significantly lower than that of spherical ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, the morphology of the ZnO-T influenced cellular toxicity in contrast to surface charges modified by UV illumination or O2 treatment and to the material age. Finally, we have observed that direct contact between tetrapods and cells increases their toxicity compared to transwell culture models which allow only an indirect effect via released zinc ions. The results reveal several parameters that can be of importance for the assessment of ZnO-T toxicity in cell cultures and for particle development.

  8. KAMUTHE video microanalysis system for use in Brazil: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and evidence of validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Schulz Gattino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background KAMUTHE is a video microanalysis system which observes preverbal communication within the music therapy setting. This system is indicated for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD or multiple disabilities. The purpose of this study was to translate, adapt to Brazilian Portuguese language and analyze some psychometric properties (reliability and validity evidence of KAMUTHE administration in Brazil for individuals with ASD. Participants and procedure Translation, back translation, analysis by judges, and pilot application were performed to obtain evidence of content and face validity. The second part of this study was to administer KAMUTHE in 39 consecutive children with ASD. An individual session of improvisational music therapy was applied to assess the different behaviors included in KAMUTHE. The intra-rater reliability, concurrent validity and convergent validity were analyzed. Results Translation and cross-cultural adaptation were followed and some cultural adaptations were needed. Inter-rater reliability was very good (ICCs 0.95-0.99 for the three child’s behaviors analyzed. Criteria validity with a moderate negative association was found (r = –.38, p = .017 comparing the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the level of ASD along with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Convergent validity was established between the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the two nonlinguistic communication scales (social interaction and interests of the Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC with a moderate correlation (r = –.43, p = .005. Conclusions The administration of the KAMUTHE video microanalysis system showed positive results in children with ASD. Further studies are needed to improve the reliability and validity of the instrument in Brazil.

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells of osteosarcoma patients do not show evidence of neoplastic changes during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddingh, Emilie P; Ruslan, S Eriaty N; Reijnders, Christianne M A; Szuhai, Karoly; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Roelofs, Helene; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Maarten Egeler, R; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Lankester, Arjan C

    2015-01-01

    In vitro expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as experimental cellular therapy. However, there have been concerns regarding the safety of their use, particularly with regard to possible oncogenic transformation. MSCs are the hypothesized precursor cells of high-grade osteosarcoma, a tumor with often complex karyotypes occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults. To determine if MSCs from osteosarcoma patients could be predisposed to malignant transformation we cultured MSCs of nine osteosarcoma patients and five healthy donors for an average of 649 days (range 601-679 days). Also, we compared MSCs derived from osteosarcoma patients at diagnosis and from healthy donors using genome wide gene expression profiling. Upon increasing passage, increasing frequencies of binucleate cells were detected, but no increase in proliferation suggestive of malignant transformation occurred in MSCs from either patients or donors. Hematopoietic cell specific Lyn substrate 1 (HLCS1) was differentially expressed (fold change 0.25, P value 0.0005) between MSCs of osteosarcoma patients (n = 14) and healthy donors (n = 9). This study shows that although HCLS1 expression was downregulated in MSCs of osteosarcoma patients and binucleate cells were present in both patient and donor derived MSCs, there was no evidence of neoplastic changes to occur during long-term culture.

  10. [Evidence of facial palsy and facial malformations in pottery from Peruvian Moche and Lambayeque pre-Columbian cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    2006-01-01

    Moche (100-700 AD) and Lambayeque-Sicán (750-1100 AD) are pre-Columbian cultures from Regional States Period, developed in Northern Peru. Information about daily life, religion and medicine has been obtained through the study of Moche ceramics found in lords and priests tombs, pyramids and temples. To analyze archeological evidences of Moche Medicine and neurological diseases through ceramics. Representations of diseases in Moche and Lambayeque iconography and Moche pottery collections exposed in Casinelli museum from Trujillo, and Brüning National Archeological museum from Lambayeque, Peru, were studied. The most representative cases were analyzed and photographed, previous authorization from authorities and curators of the museums. The following pathologies were observed in ceramic collections: peripheral facial palsy, facial malformations such as cleft lip, hemifacial spasm, legs and arm amputations, scoliosis and Siamese patients. Male and females Moche doctors were also observed in the ceramics in ritual ceremonies treating patients. The main pathologies observed in Moche and Lambayeque pottery are facial palsy and cleft lip. These are one of the earliest registries of these pathologies in pre-Columbian cultures in South-America.

  11. 'It's All Done With Mirrors': V.S. Ramachandran and the Material Culture of Phantom Limb Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Katja

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the material culture of neuroscientist Vilayanur S. Ramachandran's research into phantom limbs. In the 1990s Ramachandran used a 'mirror box' to 'resurrect' phantom limbs and thus to treat the pain that often accompanied them. The experimental success of his mirror therapy led Ramachandran to see mirrors as a useful model of brain function, a tendency that explains his attraction to work on 'mirror neurons'. I argue that Ramachandran's fascination with and repeated appeal to the mirror can be explained by the way it allowed him to confront a perennial problem in the mind and brain sciences, that of the relationship between a supposedly immaterial mind and a material brain. By producing what Ramachandran called a 'virtual reality', relating in varied and complex ways to the material world, the mirror reproduced a form of psycho-physical parallelism and dualistic ontology, while conforming to the materialist norms of neuroscience today.

  12. Bibliography of Unpublished Materials Pertaining to Hispanic Culture in the New Mexico WPA Writers' Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Benito, Comp.

    The bibliography consists of unpublished manuscripts relating to the Hispano culture from the New Mexico Writer's Project. The nearly 600 different items, written 3 or 4 decades ago as part of a WPA project, present a fresh look at a variety of indigenous New Mexico folklore. Most of the entries are annotated, dated, and sources and contributors…

  13. Material Culture and Diasporic Experiences: A Case of Medieval Hanse Merchantsin the Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The Hanseatic League, a late medieval merchant association with roots in northern German towns, is credited with the establishment of extensive economic and geographic connections and considerable impact on the development of urban culture around the Baltic and the North Sea. Its merchants...

  14. Post-Materialism as a Cultural Factor Influencing Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine); A.R. Thurik (Roy); J. Hutjes

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe study of the determinants of entrepreneurship at the country level has been dominated by economic influences. The relative stability of differences in levels of entrepreneurship across coun-tries suggests that other forces such as certain institutional and/or cultural factors are

  15. Consumed by consumer culture? Advertising’s impact on children’s materialism and life satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Do children get consumed by consumer culture? This question occupies the thoughts of many parents, caretakers, and policymakers. Dutch children are annually exposed to approximately 9,500 television advertisements. These advertisements suggest that the good life can be obtained through the goods

  16. Some variants of translating Russian realia into the western culture (on the materials of English newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Андреевна Курбакова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no any unique approach to the understanding of the notion “culture-specific vocabulary”. The main techniques used for its translation include transcription, transliteration, loan-translation and mixed methods. The article contains a lot of examples.

  17. The Cost of Materialism in a Collectivistic Culture: Predicting Risky Behavior Engagement in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Goldfinger, Marc; Abela, John R. Z.; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine whether (a) negative events mediate the relationship between materialism and risky behavior engagement and (b) materialism moderates the relationship between stress and engagement in risky behaviors in Chinese youth. At Time 1, 406 adolescents (ages 14-19) from Yue Yang, China, completed measures…

  18. Making Material and Cultural Connections: the fluid meaning of ‘Living Electrically’ in Japan and Canada 1920–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Chappells

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how material and cultural ‘connections’ to households were crucial in defining historical pathways of domestic electrification in Canada and Japan. Though relatively overlooked in the history of energy, we contend that the intricacies of household connections are important in understanding convergence and divergence in electrified ways of life. Electricity’s arrival in urban and rural homes was an uneven process in part due to geographical diversity and the variable connection policies of public or private providers. Selective insights from our two countries show that spatial irregularities in grid expansion and social inequities in the meaning of electrical service further arose out of misalignments between developers’ visions and the diverse material cultures of households. This disparity manifested in the form of disconnections between non-standard wiring and equipment, as well as in the form of consumer resistance, protests and even illicit acts as people fought to get the electrical service they desired. Instead of seeing electrification as a single, universal ideal around which all countries eventually converged, we conclude that it has always been an open-ended, negotiable and culturally fluid process.

  19. Culturally and linguistically diverse population health social marketing campaigns in Australia: a consideration of evidence and related evaluation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Carroll, Tom E; Taylor, Jennifer J

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a review of population health social marketing campaigns targeting culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) communities in Australia in order to identify characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Literature on CLD population health social marketing was identified from electronic searches of databases in August 2004. At the same time, the grey literature was examined by searching the Internet and talking to Australian experts in the fields of CLD social marketing and CLD research. Eight studies met the search criteria, four from the published literature. Two studies that employed prepost evaluation designs provided tentative support for the potential efficacy of CLD social marketing strategies. The remaining studies did not allow for causal attribution as they used post-campaign only or process evaluations. Studies did, however, show that CLD communities access campaign-related information from both mainstream and ethnic media channels. In addition, Vietnamese respondents were more likely to access campaign messages through ethnic radio and Chinese respondents through ethnic press. There is insufficient evidence to clearly identify the characteristics of effective CLD campaigns. Campaign evaluation designs used to evaluate social marketing strategies targeting CLD communities in Australia are generally weak, but there is tentative evidence supporting the potential efficacy of these strategies in some Australian settings.

  20. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 2: Building a Culture of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-09-01

    research was social reform, while action research in education targeted self through the improvement of practice. The dichotomy between purposes of self and society is resolved by the Lewin‐Dewey connection, where the reiterative cycle of action and reflection is the basis for a common intent for both types of action research. Dewey’s approach comprises the metatheory for emerging theory: a philosophy of purpose and methodology that determines how the research is done.Results – The emerging theory developed in this paper postulates that evidence based information literacy instruction uses action research for two purposes. Self‐oriented action research (AR(S1 targets self‐improvement on the local level of teaching and learning in school libraries; social‐oriented action research (AR(S2 targets social reform on the global level of educational improvement. Corollaries of the theory indicate a research agenda and methodologies for the research.Conclusion – Implicit in the content of the research is methodology that evolves from the distinction between the purposes of self‐ and social‐oriented action research. Clearly, evidence is generated in the field of teaching and learning that is situated in theory‐based practices, such as user‐centered information processing, constructivist learning, and a culture of inquiry that grows from social processes. Librarianship is well suited to developing practitioner‐researchers who are proficient in making the information‐to‐knowledge connection that informs their professional performance.

  1. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last......)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  2. Empirical evidence from an inter-industry descriptive analysis of overall materiality measures

    OpenAIRE

    N. Pecchiari; C. Emby; G. Pogliani

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an empirical cross-industry descriptive analysis of overall quantitative materiality measures. We examine the behaviour of four commonly used quantitative materiality measures within and across industries with respect to their size, relative size and stability, over ten years. The sample consists of large- and medium-sized European companies, representing 24 different industry categories for the years 1998 through 2007 (a total sample of over 36,000 data points). Our resul...

  3. The Study about the Influence of the Pop Culture for the Japanese Fashion : The Historical Materials Collection about the Connection of Japanese Fashion and Pop Cultures after World War II

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 里尚; 中村, 仁; 梅原, 宏司; 齋木, 吉隆; 古賀, 令子

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research collect and arrange documents and historical materials to determine how pop culture influenced the fashion in Japan after World War II. In 2010, we firstly collected previous fashion and popular culture studies done in foreign countries. We found many intriguing studies, but we came upon one which was particularly noteworthy. As a means of clarifying the relationship between fashion and pop culture, we collected books written by Angela McRobbie. Second, we collect...

  4. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Brenda R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Julie B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic

  5. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  6. Characterization of pigments applied on archaeological material from Chincha's Culture by x-rays fluorescence and transmission electronic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, Alcides; Olivera, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The elementary characterization of some pigments applied in the decoration of recipients used by our ancestors of the Chincha Culture by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)method was allowed. Additionally, the morphological and crystalline characterization by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) method has been possible. The results have allowed identifying the presence of mercury sulphur (HgS) (cinnabar) in the red pigment on the 'mate'; the black and white pigments are constituted by materials of organic aspect; in the case the dark brown one they are constituted by organic matter and ferric oxide. This work also demonstrates that a portable EDXRF spectrometer is the most suitable for the study of pieces of our cultural patrimony, mainly of those that are difficult to transport from an archaeological place or museum to an analytic laboratory by reason of its dimensions and conservation conditions. (author)

  7. Introgression of genetic material from Zea mays ssp. Mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Gu, X.; Qu, M.; Luan, J.; Zhang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Zea mays ssp. mexicana, a wild relative of cultivated maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), is a useful gene resource for maize breeding. In this study, two populations were generated by conventional breeding scheme (population I) or tissue culture regime (population II), respectively, to introgress genetic material of Z. mays ssp. mexicana into maize. Karyotype analysis showed that the arm ratios of 10 pairs of chromosomes in parent maize Ye515 and derivative lines from 2 different populations with 26% and 38% chromosome variation frequencies, respectively. Alien chromatin was detected in the root tip cells of progeny plants through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). There were 3.3 chromosomes carrying alien chromatin on average in population I and 6.5 in population II. The hybridization signals were located mainly at the terminal or sub terminal regions of the chromosomes and the sizes were notably variant among lines. Based on those results, it is concluded that the introgression of genetic material from Z. mays ssp. mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture, and subsequently some excellent materials for maize breeding were created. (author)

  8. Improved enrichment culture technique for methane-oxidizing bacteria from marine ecosystems: the effect of adhesion material and gas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekeman, Bram; Dumolin, Charles; De Vos, Paul; Heylen, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation. This positive effect was attributed to bacterial adhesion on the particles via extracellular compounds, with a minimum amount of particles required for effect. As a result, the particles were immobilized, thus creating a stratified environment in which a limited diffusive gas gradients could build up and various microniches were formed. Such diffusive gas gradient might necessitate high headspace concentrations of CH 4 and CO 2 for sufficient concentrations to reach the methane-oxidizing bacteria in the enrichment culture technique. Therefore, high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide, in addition to the addition of adhesion material, were tested and indeed further stimulated methane oxidation. Use of adhesion material in combination with high concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide might thus facilitate the cultivation and subsequent enrichment of environmentally important members of this functional guild. The exact mechanism of the observed positive effects on methane oxidation and the differential effect on methanotrophic diversity still needs to be explored.

  9. Dark fermentative hydrogen production by defined mixed microbial cultures immobilized on ligno-cellulosic waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Sanjay K.S. [Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), CSIR, Delhi University Campus, Mall Road, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Purohit, Hemant J. [Environmental Genomics Unit, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), CSIR, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India); Kalia, Vipin C. [Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), CSIR, Delhi University Campus, Mall Road, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) based on 11 isolates belonging to Bacillus spp. (Firmicutes), Bordetella avium, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis (Proteobacteria) were employed to produce hydrogen (H{sub 2}) under dark fermentative conditions. Under daily fed culture conditions (hydraulic retention time of 2 days), MMC6 and MMC4, immobilized on ligno-cellulosic wastes - banana leaves and coconut coir evolved 300-330 mL H{sub 2}/day. Here, H{sub 2} constituted 58-62% of the total biogas evolved. It amounted to a H{sub 2} yield of 1.54-1.65 mol/mol glucose utilized over a period of 60 days of fermentation. The involvement of various Bacillus spp. -Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus thuringiensis as components of the defined MMCs for H{sub 2} production has been reported here for the first time. (author)

  10. Considering the role of time budgets on copy-error rates in material culture traditions: an experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Kerstin; Mesoudi, Alex; Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research highlights that there are constraints placed on the time available to produce cultural artefacts in differing circumstances. Given that copying error, or cultural 'mutation', can have important implications for the evolutionary processes involved in material culture change, it is essential to explore empirically how such 'time constraints' affect patterns of artefactual variation. Here, we report an experiment that systematically tests whether, and how, varying time constraints affect shape copying error rates. A total of 90 participants copied the shape of a 3D 'target handaxe form' using a standardized foam block and a plastic knife. Three distinct 'time conditions' were examined, whereupon participants had either 20, 15, or 10 minutes to complete the task. One aim of this study was to determine whether reducing production time produced a proportional increase in copy error rates across all conditions, or whether the concept of a task specific 'threshold' might be a more appropriate manner to model the effect of time budgets on copy-error rates. We found that mean levels of shape copying error increased when production time was reduced. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the 20 minute and 15 minute conditions. Significant differences were only obtained between conditions when production time was reduced to 10 minutes. Hence, our results more strongly support the hypothesis that the effects of time constraints on copying error are best modelled according to a 'threshold' effect, below which mutation rates increase more markedly. Our results also suggest that 'time budgets' available in the past will have generated varying patterns of shape variation, potentially affecting spatial and temporal trends seen in the archaeological record. Hence, 'time-budgeting' factors need to be given greater consideration in evolutionary models of material culture change.

  11. After the I-Hotel : Material, Cultural, and Affective Geographies of Filipino San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Tagle, Thea Quiray

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation traces the cultural and economic trajectories of Filipino migration to, settlement in, and displacement from the San Francisco Bay Area from the 1960s through the present moment as represented in the work of local poets, visual artists, and performers. After the I-Hotel argues that the shifting representations of urban and suburban space over this time period not only reveal the structural forces behind the displacement of old and new Filipino migrants in the Bay Area, but a...

  12. Who is reducing their material consumption and why? A cross-cultural analysis of dematerialisation behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Capstick, Stuart; Nash, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The environmental and economic imperatives to dematerialise economies, or ‘do more with less’, have\\ud been established for some years. Yet, to date little is known about the personal drivers associated with\\ud dematerialising. This paper explores the prevalence and profile of those who are taking action to reduce\\ud consumption in different cultural contexts (UK and Brazil) and considers influences on dematerialisation\\ud behaviours. We find exemplar behaviours (avoiding buying new things an...

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials by Sclerotium rolfsii culture filtrate for sugar production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, J G; Sadana, J C

    1979-06-01

    The hydrolysis of purified celluloses (cotton, Avicel, Cellulose-123, Solka Floc SW40) and cellulosic wastes (rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, wood powders, paper factory effluents) by Sclerotium rolfsii CPC 142 culture filtrate was studied. Factors which effect saccharification such as pH, temperature, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, produce inhibition, adsorption, and inactivation of enzyme and particle size were studied. Virtually no inhibition (less than 3%) of cellulose hydrolysis by the culture filtrate was observed by cellobiose and glucose up to 100 mg/mL. Filter paper degrading enzyme(s) (but neither carboxymethylcellulase nor beta-glucosidase) was adsorbed on cellulose. The n value in the S. rolfsii system was calculated to be 0.32 for Avicel P.H. 101 and 0.53 for alkali-treated (AT) rice straw indicating penetration of cellulase into AT rice straw. In batch experiments at 10% substrate level, solutions containing 6 to 7%, 3.8 to 4.7%, 4.0 to 5.1%, and 4.2 to 4.9% reducing sugars were produced in 24 to 48 from AT rice straw. AT bagasse, alkali - peracetic acid treated mesta wood and paper factory sedimented sludge effluent, respectively. The main constituent in the hydrolysate from cellulose was glucose with little or no cellobiose, probably due to the high cellobiase content in the culture filtrate.

  14. Localized Induced Current Stimulation to Neuronal Culture Using Soft Magnetic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Saito, Aki; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    To establish precisely focused magnetic stimulation, we developed a Mu-meal based low-frequency localized induced current (LIC) stimulation system with micro-fabricated dual cell-culture chamber. The dual cell-culture chamber was arranged in a concentric circle manner. Between the inner and outer chambers, 4 or 8 connecting micro-channels were fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Rat cortical neurons were separately cultured in outer and inner chambers. Through the micro-channels, functional synaptic connections were formed. Mu-metal that has very high magnetic permeability was aligned along the outer circle, which allowed us of LIC stimulation to the cells in the outer chamber. Applying low-frequency magnetic fields to the Mu-metal, induced currents were generated and the electrical activity of the cells in the outer chamber was modified depending on the stimulation intensity. Following the modified activity in the outer circles, the cells in the inner chamber also showed slightly depressed activity patterns. These results suggested that our system would be promising for localized stimulation of neuronal networks and highly regulation of network activities.

  15. To Encounter, to Build the World and to Become a Human Being. Advocating for a Material-Cultural Turn in Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Christiane

    2016-12-01

    Why have material world of daily life and material objects in their conventional features or to say it in other words, why have the mundane world and mundane objects, in which the human beings live and children come to, encounter, experience and develop through, received so little attention from psychologists thus remaining a blind spot in mainstream developmental psychology? Certainly the object has not been totally forgotten (e.g. Piaget's constructivist paradigm) but it has been considered as theoretically determined by the categories of understanding (cf. Kant), and considered as a key to understanding the world in its physical properties by the infant. But the material world and the material objects that are used for everyday purposes (i.e. pragmatically) belonging to material culture, have been totally neglected by developmental psychologists. Reacting to the Kantian agenda of developmental psychology but also to heterodox non developmentalist thinkers such as Gibson who is a growing source of inspiration for developmental psychologists today, we challenge the taken-for-granted mundane world, arguing for the importance of material objects related to material culture in psychological development during the prelinguistic period. On the basis of recent research in early development grounded in the Vygotskian paradigm, we discuss this issue through Marxist Anthropology, Material Culture Studies and Phenomenology. As a consequence we advocate for a material-cultural turn in psychological development in order to place the issue of material world and material objects in their pragmatic and semiotic features on the agenda of developmental psychology.

  16. Mandatory special or dedicated trains for radioactive materials shipments evidence shows they're not needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.S.; Garrison, R.F.; Harmon, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The rejection of mandatory special or dedicated trains by all responsible Federal agencies for transportation of radioactive materials in shielded casks has a long history. Working with the railroads and the National Academy of Sciences, the ICC adopted standards for transporting radioactive materials in regular freight trains in the mid 1940's. The standards rested primarily on ensuring the integrity of the radioactive materials packaging. AEC, then NRC and DOT, followed the ICC lead, supplementing the licensing rules for casks with a series of performance or stress tests. At no time did these agencies require special trains or special routing for rail casks. Mandatory special trains have too many disadvantages without any proven safety benefit to be worth their high cost to the shipper. The ICC, in a series of litigated cases, found that given the strength of the casks, mandatory special trains were wasteful transportation and an unreasonable railroad practice

  17. Equality in the distribution of health material and human resources in Guangxi: evidence from Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this study was to assess the equality in the distribution of health material and human resources in Guangxi, and put forward proposal to improve the equality status of the health material and human resources. We used concentration index to evaluate the degree of income-related equality of health material and human resources. The concentration index values of the five resources ranged from -0.0847 to 0.1416 from 2011 to 2015. Health institution was concentrated among the poorer populations, while other four resources were concentrated among the richer populations. Overall, the equality status of health institutions, health care beds, health technical personnel, and certified nurses got better from 2011 to 2015. However, the equality status of practicing physicians has got worse since 2014.

  18. Multiplex PCR for specific and robust detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum in pure culture and infected plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, John; Aritua, V.; Mortensen, Carmen Nieves

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed a pathovar-specific PCR for the detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), the cause of banana xanthomonas wilt, by amplification of a 265-bp region of the gene encoding the general secretion pathway protein D (GspD). A distinct DNA fragment......-specific PCR was successfully multiplexed with internal control primers targeting 16S rDNA for application on DNA from bacterial cultures and with primers targeting plant mitochondrial 26S rDNA for application on DNA extracted from plant material. Diagnostic discrimination of healthy and infected plants...

  19. Gas chromatographic study of degradation phenomena concerning building and cultural heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaxa, E.; Agelakopoulou, T.; Bassiotis, I.; Karagianni, Ch.; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F.

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution influences all aspects of social and economical life nowadays. In order to investigate the impact of air pollution on materials of works of art, the method of Reversed Flow-Inverse Gas Chromatography has been selected. The presence of various atmospheric pollutants is studied on marbles, oxides-building materials and samples of authentic statues from the Greek Archaeological Museums of Kavala and of Philippi. The method leads to the determination of several physicochemical quantities and the characterization of the heterogeneous surfaces of these solids. Moreover, the influence of a second pollutant (synergistic effect) is examined. The structure, the properties and the behavior of the materials are examined by X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. Therefore, the precise measurement of the above mentioned quantities form the scientific basis for elucidation of the mechanism of the whole phenomenon of the degradation, thus providing a scientific platform to conservation procedures.

  20. Novel Aspects of Materials Processing by Ultrafast Lasers: From Electronic to Biological and Cultural Heritage Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotakis, C; Zorba, V; Stratakis, E; Athanassiou, A; Tzanetakis, P; Zergioti, I; Papagoglou, D G; Sambani, K; Filippidis, G; Farsari, M; Pouli, V; Bounos, G; Georgiou, S

    2007-01-01

    Materials processing by ultrafast lasers offers several distinct possibilities for micro/nano scale applications. This is due to the unique characteristics of the laser-matter interactions involved, when sub-picosecond pulses are employed. Prospects arising will be discussed in the context of surface and in bulk laser induced modifications. In particular, examples of diverse applications including the development and functionalization of laser engineered surfaces, the laser transfer of biomolecules and the functionalization of 3D structures constructed by three-photon stereolithography will be presented. Furthermore, the removal of molecular substrates by ultrafast laser ablation will be discussed with emphasis placed on assessing the photochemical changes induced in the remaining bulk material. The results indicate that in femtosecond laser processing of organic materials, besides the well acknowledged morphological advantages, a second fundamental factor responsible for its success pertains to the selective chemical effects. This is crucial for the laser cleaning of sensitive painted artworks

  1. Evidence for Effective Uses of Dynamic Visualisations in Science Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Kevin W.; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic visualisations capture aspects of scientific phenomena that are difficult to communicate in static materials and benefit from well-designed scaffolds to succeed in classrooms. We review research to clarify the impacts of dynamic visualisations and to identify instructional scaffolds that mediate their success. We use meta-analysis to…

  2. Evidence for resonant bonding in phase-change materials studied by IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shportko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phase-change materials (PCM attract attention due to their unique properties. This remarkable portfolio also makes them promising for applications in novel data storage devices. In this study, we discuss differences in the optical properties of PCM and non-PCM in the IR caused by presence or absence of resonant bonding.

  3. Bioengineering of cultured epidermis from adult epidermal stem cells using Mebio gel sutable as autologous graft material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmana K Yerneni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Closure of burn wound is the primary requirement in order to reduce morbidity and mortality that are otherwise very high due to non-availability of permanent wound covering materials. Sheets of cultured epidermis grown from autologous epidermal keratinocyte stem cells are accepted world over as one of the best wound covering materials. In a largely populated country like ours where burn casualties occur more frequently due to inadequate safety practices, there is a need for indigenous research inputs to develop such methodologies. The technique to culturing epidermal sheets in vitro involves the basic Reheinwald-Green method with our own beneficial inputs. The technique employs attenuated 3T3 cells as feeders for propagating keratinocyte stem cells that are isolated from the epidermis of an initial skin biopsy of about 5 cm2 from the patient. The cultures are then maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium strengthened with Ham's F12 formula, bovine fetal serum and various specific growth-promoting agents and factors in culture flasks under standard culture conditions. The primary cultures thus established would be serially passaged to achieve the required expansion. Our major inputs are into the establishment of (1 an efficient differential trypsinization protocol to isolate large number epidermal keratinocytes from the skin biopsy, (2 a highly specific, unique and foolproof attenuation protocol for 3T3 cells and (3 a specialized and significant decontamination protocol. The fully formed epidermal sheet as verified by immuno-histochemical and light & electron microscopic studies, is lifted on to paraffin gauze by incubating in a neutral protease. The graft is then ready to be transported to the operating theatre for autologous application. We have a capability of growing cultured epidermal sheets sufficient enough to cover 40 per cent burn wound in 28 days. The preliminary small area clinical applications undertaken so far revealed

  4. Material and cultural assets. Part of radiation protection of the environment?; Sach- und Kulturgueter. Teil eines Strahlenschutzes der Umwelt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, R.G. [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Loebner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Since several years the protection of the environment has been discussed at various international levels as part of radiation protection. ICRP has published a number of recommendations which relate primarily to the evaluation of radiation exposures to non-human species. Nevertheless, not least because of the declaratory mention of the environment in national legislative documents, the question arises how the environment can be integrated into the radiation protection or whether the radiation protection must be even expanded to new fields. A less discussed aspect here covers material and cultural assets that are classified in environmental law as objects worthy of protection. The paper describes some issues that arise in this context and outlines a framework for the consideration of material assets in radiation protection.

  5. Output Price Risk, Material Input Price Risk, and Price Margins: Evidence from the US Catfish Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - To develop a conceptual model for analyzing the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins. Design/methodology/approach - To analyze the combined effect of output price risk and material input risk on price margins, we use a series of comparative static analyses, GARCH models, and data ranging from 1990/01 to 2012/12. Findings - The theoretical results indicate that the impact of output price risk and the impact of material input price risk on price margins are ambiguous and, to a great extent, hinge on the correlation between output price and material input price. The empirical results show that whole frozen catfish price risk and live catfish price risk negatively affect the price margin for frozen catfish. The empirical results, however, indicate that the risk of the price of live catfish affects markedly the price margin for frozen whole catfish in contrast to the impact of the risk of the price of frozen whole catfish. Research implications/limitations - The empirical results have significant implications for managerial decision-making especially when crafting strategies for improving price margins. Accordingly, in order to beef up the price margin for frozen whole catfish, catfish processors may consider engaging in vertical integration. This paper has some limitations: first, it assumes that firms operate in competitive markets; second, it assumes that firms produce and sell a single product. Originality/value/contribution - Unlike earlier studies that focused solely on the effect of output price risk on price margins, this paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the impact of output price risk and material input price risk on price margins.

  6. The PRIDE (Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education) Toolkit: Development and Evaluation of Novel Literacy and Culturally Sensitive Diabetes Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kathleen; Chambers, Laura; Bumol, Stefan; White, Richard O; Gregory, Becky Pratt; Davis, Dianne; Rothman, Russell L

    2016-02-01

    Patients with low literacy, low numeracy, and/or linguistic needs can experience challenges understanding diabetes information and applying concepts to their self-management. The authors designed a toolkit of education materials that are sensitive to patients' literacy and numeracy levels, language preferences, and cultural norms and that encourage shared goal setting to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. The Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education (PRIDE) toolkit was developed to facilitate diabetes self-management education and support. The PRIDE toolkit includes a comprehensive set of 30 interactive education modules in English and Spanish to support diabetes self-management activities. The toolkit builds upon the authors' previously validated Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit (DLNET) by adding a focus on shared goal setting, addressing the needs of Spanish-speaking patients, and including a broader range of diabetes management topics. Each PRIDE module was evaluated using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument to determine the material's cultural appropriateness and its sensitivity to the needs of patients with low literacy and low numeracy. Reading grade level was also assessed using the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, and SMOG formulas. The average reading grade level of the materials was 5.3 (SD 1.0), with a mean SAM of 91.2 (SD 5.4). All of the 30 modules received a "superior" score (SAM >70%) when evaluated by 2 independent raters. The PRIDE toolkit modules can be used by all members of a multidisciplinary team to assist patients with low literacy and low numeracy in managing their diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Formation of nano iridium oxide: material properties and neural cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In-Seop; Whang, Chung-Nam; Lee, Young-Hee; Hwan Lee, Gun; Park, Bong-Joo; Park, Jong-Chul; Seo, Won-Seon; Cui Fuzhai

    2005-01-01

    Iridium film with the thickness of 30 and 60 nm were formed on both Si wafer and commercially pure (CP) Ti by electron beam evaporation. The thin iridium film showed the identical charge injection capability with the bulk Ir. However, the charge injection value of iridium film was decreased with continuous potential cycling when the deposited iridium became depleted due to the formation of oxide. The number of cycles at which the charge injection value decreased was 800 and 1600 cycles for the 30- and 60-nm-thick Ir film, respectively. FE-SEM observations on the cross section of Ir film clearly showed the thicker iridium oxide was formed with the more potential cycling. Ar ion beam etching to substrates before deposition certainly improved the adhesion strength of Ir film enough to resist to the strain induced by the larger volume occupation of iridium oxide. Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts culture on Ir and Ir oxide showed no cytotoxicity. Also, embryonic cortical neural cell culture on electrode indicated neurons adhered and survived by the formation of neurofilament

  8. Humic Acid-Like Material from Sewage Sludge Stimulates Culture Growth of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hršelová, Hana; Soukupová, Lucie; Gryndler, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2007), s. 627-630 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/06/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes * sewage sludge * humic-acid-like materials Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  9. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of pre-incubated blood culture material for the rapid diagnosis of histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto Moreira; da Silva Neto, João Ricardo; Santos, Carla Silvana; Cruz, Kátia Santana; Frickmann, Hagen; Poppert, Sven; Koshikene, Daniela; de Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2015-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been shown to be useful for the detection of Candida and Cryptococcus species in blood culture materials. FISH procedures for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum have not been reported so far. This study describes the development and evaluation of fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeting FISH probes to detect and identify H. capsulatum in blood cultures. All three analyzed H. capsulatum reference strains and clinical isolates showed positive signals with the newly designed specific oligonucleotide probes for H. capsulatum, whereas negative reactions were observed for all three nontarget yeast species and the two nontarget bacteria. The assay was also successfully applied for detections of H. capsulatum cells in pre-incubated blood culture samples of patients with clinical suspicion of histoplasmosis (n = 33). The described FISH-based assay was shown to be easy to apply, sensitive, and specific (compared to polymerase chain reaction) for the detection and identification of H. capsulatum in this proof-of-principle analysis. Larger multicentric assessments are recommended for a thorough diagnostic evaluation of the procedure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Systematic Transcreation of Self-Help Smoking Cessation Materials for Hispanic/Latino Smokers: Improving Cultural Relevance and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; Díaz, Diana R; Monsalve, Luis M; Martínez, Úrsula; Meade, Cathy D; Meltzer, Lauren R; Brandon, Karen O; Unrod, Marina; Brandon, Thomas H; Simmons, Vani N

    2018-01-01

    Smoking-related illnesses are the leading causes of death among Hispanics/Latinos. Yet, there are few smoking cessation interventions targeted for this population. The goal of this study was to "transcreate" an existing, previously validated, English language self-help smoking cessation intervention, titled Forever Free ® : Stop Smoking for Good, for Spanish-speaking smokers. Rather than simply translating the materials, our transcreation process involved culturally adapting the intervention to enhance acceptability and receptivity of the information. We utilized a multiphase qualitative approach (focus groups and learner verification interviews) to develop a linguistically and culturally relevant intervention for the diverse sub-ethnic groups of Hispanic/Latino smokers. Focus group findings indicated a need to underscore several additional cultural characteristics and themes such as the need to address familism and unique stressors faced by immigrants and to provide information regarding nicotine replacement therapy. Learner verification findings indicated a need to further emphasize financial and social benefits of quitting smoking and to discuss how family and friends can support the quit attempt. These steps led to the development of a Spanish-language smoking cessation intervention titled, Libre del cigarillo, por mi familia y por mí: Guía para dejar de fumar, that is currently being tested in a national randomized controlled trial.

  11. What works for wellbeing in culture and sport? Report of a DELPHI process to support coproduction and establish principles and parameters of an evidence review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; Mansfield, Louise; Payne, Annette; Kay, Tess; Meads, Catherine; D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Burnett, Adele; Dolan, Paul; Julier, Guy; Longworth, Louise; Tomlinson, Alan; Testoni, Stefano; Victor, Christina

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing recognition of the ways in which culture and sport can contribute to wellbeing. A strong evidence base is needed to support innovative service development and a 3-year research programme is being undertaken to capture best evidence of wellbeing impacts and outcomes of cultural and sporting activities in order to inform UK policy and practice. This article provides an overview of methods and findings from an initial coproduction process with key stakeholders that sought to explore and agree principles and parameters of the evidence review for culture, sport and wellbeing (CSW). A two-stage DELPHI process was conducted with a purposeful sample of 57 stakeholders between August and December 2015. Participants were drawn from a range of culture and sport organisations and included commissioners and managers, policy makers, representatives of service delivery organisations (SDOs) and scholars. The DELPHI 1 questionnaire was developed from extensive consultation in July and August 2015. It explored definitions of wellbeing, the role of evidence, quality assessment, and the culture and sport populations, settings and interventions that are most likely to deliver wellbeing outcomes. Following further consultation, the results, presented as a series of ranked statements, were sent back to participants (DELPHI 2), which allowed them to reflect on and, if they wished, express agreement or disagreement with the emerging consensus. A total of 40 stakeholders (70.02%) responded to the DELPHI questionnaires. DELPHI 1 mapped areas of agreement and disagreement, confirmed in DELPHI 2. The exercise drew together the key priorities for the CSW evidence review. The DELPHI process, in combination with face-to-face deliberation, enabled stakeholders to engage in complex discussion and express nuanced priorities while also allowing the group to come to an overall consensus and agree outcomes. The results will inform the CSW evidence review programme until its

  12. Quasi-appropriation of dialectical materialism: a critical reading of Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in Cultural Studies of Science Education, that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By closely examining these categories ("thesis, antithesis and synthesis," "unity of analysis," "History," "revolution," "materialism") we expect to enrich the general discussion about the possible contributions of Marxism to science education. We perceive part of science education practice as orientating toward positivism, which reduces human beings—teachers, learners and researchers—to isolated individuals who construct knowledge by themselves. The very same approach aggravates the inner contradiction of the capitalist society demanding commitments from researchers to continually build innovative science education from human praxis. Nevertheless, it is necessary to situate ourselves beyond a formal commitment with dialectical materialism and hence reach the heart of this method. Besides understanding the researchers' commitments, we question the extent to which the respective research helps to radically refresh the current view on science, science education practice, and research in science education.

  13. EVIDENCE FOR ASYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Santiago; Anderson, Joseph; Marchi, Sebastian; Gutierrez, Claudia; Hamuy, Mario; Cartier, Regis [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-01

    We study the properties of low-velocity material in the line of sight toward nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that have measured late phase nebular velocity shifts (v{sub neb}), thought to be an environment-independent observable. We have found that the distribution of equivalent widths of narrow blended Na I D1 and D2 and Ca II H and K absorption lines differs significantly between those SNe Ia with negative and positive v{sub neb}, with generally stronger absorption for SNe Ia with v{sub neb} {>=} 0. A similar result had been found previously for the distribution of colors of SNe Ia, which was interpreted as a dependence of the temperature of the ejecta with viewing angle. Our work suggests that (1) a significant part of these differences in color should be attributed to extinction, (2) this extinction is caused by an asymmetric distribution of circumstellar material (CSM), and (3) the CSM absorption is generally stronger on the side of the ejecta opposite to where the ignition occurs. Since it is difficult to explain (3) via any known physical processes that occur before explosion, we argue that the asymmetry of the CSM is originated after explosion by a stronger ionizing flux on the side of the ejecta where ignition occurs, probably due to a stronger shock breakout and/or more exposed radioactive material on one side of the ejecta. This result has important implications for both progenitor and explosion models.

  14. Reasons for the fall: Written sources and Material evidence for the collapse of Great Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Betti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-examines the causes of the fall of Great Moravia, traditionally associated with the expansion of the Magyars into the Danube basin between the end of the ninth and the beginning of the tenth century. It first analyses the written sources, and in particular the Annals of Fulda, which it is argued describe the gradual marginalisation of the polity’s political influence and agency in the region. Second, on the basis of archaeological evidence, the paper attempts to demonstrate that Moravia’s political crisis was closely tied to its fragile socio-economic foundations.

  15. Integrin expression by human osteoblasts cultured on degradable polymeric materials applicable for tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Saadiq F; Attawia, Mohamed; Lu, Helen H; Shah, Asist K; Chang, Richard; Hickok, Noreen J; Tuan, Rocky S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-01-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers in the field of orthopaedic surgery has gained increased popularity, as surgical pins and screws, and as potential biological scaffolds for repairing cartilage and bone defects. One such group of polymers that has gained considerable attention are the polyesters, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA), because of their minimal tissue inflammatory response, favorable biocompatibility and degradation characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate human osteoblastic cell adherence and growth on PLAGA and PLA scaffolds by examining integrin receptor (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1) expression. Primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone adhered efficiently to both PLAGA and PLA, with the rate of adherence on PLAGA comparable to that of control tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and significantly higher than on PLA polymers at 3, 6 and 12 h. Human osteoblastic phenotypic expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was positive on both degradable matrices, whereas osteocalcin levels were significantly higher on cells grown on PLAGA than on PLA composites. Interestingly, the integrin subunits, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1 were all expressed at higher levels by osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than those on PLA as analyzed by westerns blots and by flow cytometry. Among the integrins, alpha2, beta5 and beta1 showed the greatest difference in levels between the two surfaces. Thus, both PLA and PLAGA support osteoblastic adhesion and its accompanying engagement of integrin receptor and expression of osteocalcin and ALP. However PLAGA consistently appeared to be a better substrate for osteoblastic cells based on these parameters. This study is one of the first to investigate the ability of primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone to adhere to the biodegradable polymers PLAGA and PLA, and to examine the expression of their key

  16. Biomimetic poly(amidoamine hydrogels as synthetic materials for cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenardi Cristina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly(amidoamines (PAAs are synthetic polymers endowed with many biologically interesting properties, being highly biocompatible, non toxic and biodegradable. Hydrogels based on PAAs can be easily modified during the synthesis by the introduction of functional co-monomers. Aim of this work is the development and testing of novel amphoteric nanosized poly(amidoamine hydrogel film incorporating 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine moieties to create RGD-mimicking repeating units for promoting cell adhesion. Results A systematic comparative study of the response of an epithelial cell line was performed on hydrogels with agmatine and on non-functionalized amphoteric poly(amidoamine hydrogels and tissue culture plastic substrates. The cell adhesion on the agmatine containing substrates was comparable to that on plastic substrates and significantly enhanced with respect to the non-functionalized controls. Interestingly, spreading and proliferation on the functionalized supports are slower than on plastic exhibiting the possibility of an easier control of the cell growth kinetics. In order to favor the handling of the samples, a procedure for the production of bi-layered constructs was also developed by means the deposition via spin coating of a thin layer of hydrogel on a pre-treated cover slip. Conclusion The obtained results reveal that PAAs hydrogels can be profitably functionalized and, in general, undergo physical and chemical modifications to meet specific requirements. In particular the incorporation of agmatine warrants good potential in the field of cell culturing and the development of supported functionalized hydrogels on cover glass are very promising substrates for applications in cell screening devices.

  17. Are osseous artefacts a window to perishable material culture? Implications of an unusually complex bone tool from the Late Pleistocene of East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S; Robertson, G; Aplin, K P

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of an unusually complex and regionally unique bone artefact in a Late Pleistocene archaeological assemblage (c. 35 ka [thousands of years ago]) from the site of Matja Kuru 2 on the island of Timor, in Wallacea. The artefact is interpreted as the broken butt of a formerly hafted projectile point, and it preserves evidence of a complex hafting mechanism including insertion into a shaped or split shaft, a complex pattern of binding including lateral stabilization of the cordage within a bilateral series of notches, and the application of mastic at several stages in the hafting process. The artefact provides the earliest direct evidence for the use of this combination of hafting technologies in the wider region of Southeast Asia, Wallacea, Melanesia and Australasia, and is morphologically unparallelled in deposits of any age. By contrast, it bears a close morphological resemblance to certain bone artefacts from the Middle Stone Age of Africa and South Asia. Examination of ethnographic projectile technology from the region of Melanesia and Australasia shows that all of the technological elements observed in the Matja Kuru 2 artefact were in use historically in the region, including the unusual feature of bilateral notching to stabilize a hafted point. This artefact challenges the notion that complex bone-working and hafting technologies were a relatively late innovation in this part of the world. Moreover, its regional uniqueness encourages us to abandon the perception of bone artefacts as a discrete class of material culture, and to adopt a new interpretative framework in which they are treated as manifestations of a more general class of artefacts that more typically were produced on perishable raw materials including wood. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is There Such a Thing as School Quality Culture? In Search of Conceptual Clarity and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of "school quality management culture" in relation to the general notion of "school organizational culture" and to review empirical studies that scrutinised the relation between organisational culture and quality management practices in education and business.…

  19. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiations. Evidence of effect of pre-irradiation of culture medium on subsequent growth in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus lividus in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conter, A.; Planel, H.

    1986-01-01

    In order to distinguish the direct effects of low dose of ionizing radiations at the cellular level from those indirect through the culture medium, we have compared proliferation of Synechococcus lividus grown in pre-irradiated medium to proliferation of cultures grown in non-irradiated medium. A stimulation of growth was observed at the 7th day in cultures inoculated with cells selected in deceleration phase, while an inhibition occured in cultures inoculated with exponential growing cells. Addition of catalase (100 U/ml) counteracted the stimulating effect but did not change the inhibiting effect induced by pre-irradiated medium. Results demonstrated the indirect effect of low dose of irradiation, implying hydrogen peroxide, but let us to think that others radioproduced products could be also involved in the mechanism [fr

  20. A plant culture system for producing food and recycling materials with sweetpotato in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Yano, Sachiko; Hirai, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    The long term human life support in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the bio-regenerative life support system such as space farming with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. We are developing a sweetpotato culture system for producing tuberous roots as a high-calorie food and fresh edible leaves and stems as a nutritive functional vegetable food in space. In this study, we investigated the ability of food production, CO2 to O2 conversion through photosynthesis, and clean water production through transpiration in the sweetpotato production system. The biomass of edible parts in the whole plant was almost 100%. The proportion of the top (leaves and stems) and tuberous roots was strongly affected by environmental variables even when the total biomass production was mostly the same. The production of biomass and clean water was controllable especially by light, atmospheric CO2 and moisture and gas regimes in the root zone. It was confirmed that sweetpotato can be utilized for the vegetable crop as well as the root crop allowing a little waste and is a promising functional crop for supporting long-duration human activity in space.

  1. Iconic Native Culture Cues Inhibit Second Language Production in a Non-immigrant Population: Evidence from Bengali-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Kesaban S; Prasad, Seema G; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2016-01-01

    We examined if iconic pictures belonging to one's native culture interfere with second language production in bilinguals in an object naming task. Bengali-English bilinguals named pictures in both L1 and L2 against iconic cultural images representing Bengali culture or neutral images. Participants named in both "Blocked" and "Mixed" language conditions. In both conditions, participants were significantly slower in naming in English when the background was an iconic Bengali culture picture than a neutral image. These data suggest that native language culture cues lead to activation of the L1 lexicon that competed against L2 words creating an interference. These results provide further support to earlier observations where such culture related interference has been observed in bilingual language production. We discuss the results in the context of cultural influence on the psycholinguistic processes in bilingual object naming.

  2. Textiles as social texts: syphilis, material culture and gender in golden age Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    Whereas traditional social and health histories have viewed the garments of early modern patients accessing hospital care as evidence of their poverty, this article reinterprets the meaning of patient clothing in the context of a venereal disease hospital in Toledo, Spain, in the seventeenth century. Patients carefully selected what they wore as they entered the hospital to produce certain effects on local audiences. Thus, these choices can be understood as body scripts meant to be read in certain ways rather than mere reflections of actual social status. In a context of gendered and social pressures associated with women's sexuality, female syphilitic patients wore garments meant to emphasize respectability and thereby avoid a loss of reputation.

  3. Evidence for CNO processed material in the accretion disk of GP Comae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, T.R.; Horne, K.; Rosen, S.

    1991-01-01

    NIR spectroscopic observations of GP Com are reported. Data obtained using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope at La Palma during April and June 1988 and with the 5-m Hale reflector at Palomar Observatory during January 1983 are presented in tables and sample spectra and discussed in detail. Number ratios H/He less than 0.00001, N/O = about 50, and N/C greater than 100 are calculated under the assumption of a uniform optically thin slab of gas in LTE. From the N overabundance it is inferred that the material observed is being extracted by Roche-lobe overflow from the secondary's H-exhausted core, at a time after most C and O have been converted to N in the CNO cycle. 33 refs

  4. Time resolved XANES illustrates a substrate-mediated redox process in Prussian blue cultural heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, Claire; Moretti, Giulia; Lanquille, Marie-Angélique; Réguer, Solenn

    2016-01-01

    The pigment Prussian blue is studied in heritage science because of its capricious fading behavior under light exposure. We show here that XANES can be used to study the photosensitivity of Prussian blue heritage materials despite X-ray radiation damage. We used an original approach based on X-ray photochemistry to investigate in depth the redox process of Prussian blue when it is associated with a cellulosic substrate, as in cyanotypes and watercolors. By modifying cation and proton contents of the paper substrate, we could tune both rate and extent of Prussian blue reduction. These results demonstrate that the photoreduction and fading of Prussian blue is principally mediated by the substrate and its interaction with the oxygen of the environment. (paper)

  5. The in vitro viability and growth of fibroblasts cultured in the presence of different bone grafting materials (NanoBone and Straumann Bone Ceramic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, E; Rumpel, E; Fanghänel, J; Bayerlein, T; Gedrange, T; Proff, P

    2006-02-01

    Different clinical applications, including dentistry, are making increasing demands on bone grafting material. In the present study we have analysed the viability, proliferation and growth characteristics of fibroblasts cultured in vitro together with two different bone grafting materials, NanoBone and Straumann Bone Ceramic, over a period of 24 and 28 days respectively. Viability was measured at least every 72 hours by using the alamarBlue assay, a test that measures quantitatively cell proliferation and viability but does not require cell fixation or extraction. After one week of culture fibroblast viability was as high as in controls for both grafting materials and remained high (> 90%) for the duration of the experiment. Cell growth was evaluated microscopically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a dense fibroblast growth at the surface of both bone grafting materials after three weeks of in vitro culture. Generally, our in vitro analyses contribute to further insights into cell - scaffold interactions.

  6. Lightning under water: Diverse reactive environments and evidence of synergistic effects for material treatment and activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Igor; Bazaka, Kateryna; Baranov, Oleg; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Nomine, Alexandre; Belmonte, Thierry; Xu, Shuyan

    2018-06-01

    This focused review aims to reveal and illustrate some unique features of processes triggered by high-density energy applied to liquids and gas-liquid interfaces and to highlight a wide spectrum of their technological applications capable of producing various advantageous effects, ranging from nanosynthesis to biological and medical applications. Plasma, electric discharges, laser, and ultrasound power effects were selected as representative examples of high-density energy and liquid interactions, yet the available possibilities are not limited by these quite different types of power and thus the reader could extrapolate the outlined features and effects to other kinds of powerful impacts. The basic physical mechanisms are briefly reviewed with the aim to familiarize the readers with the potential capabilities of high-density energy processes in liquids. These will be of direct interest to researchers tasked with the development, optimization, and characterization of processes and highly reactive environments for highly controlled transformation of matter in abiotic and biological systems. It could also be highly useful for under- and post-graduate students specializing in the related fields and general physical audience involved in various plasma, materials, energy conversion, and other concurrent research activities.

  7. Oriental Elements in the Material Culture of Azaq and the Problem of Migrations of the Golden Horde Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslovskiy Andrey N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the emergence of new Oriental material culture elements in the city of Azaq, such as new housing and pottery types, characteristic of the mid-14th-century Golden Horde cities of the Lower Volga region, are provided in the article. Particular attention is paid to the appearance of new types of dwellings with the kang-based system of heating. They make up about 10 per cent of all residential complexes studied in Azaq: mostly ground dwellings, as semi-subterranean dwellings with kangs are rarely met. It has been suggested that in the mid-14th century a considerable group of residents of the Golden Horde Lower Volga towns had migrated to Azaq. The reasons for this relocation can be discussed only hypothetically.

  8. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  10. Toxicokinetics and toxicological effects of single oral dose of fumonisin B1 containing Fusarium verticillioides culture material in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkin, P; Direito, G; Simas, M M S; Mallmann, C A; Corrêa, B

    2010-05-14

    Toxicokinetics and the toxicological effects of culture material containing fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) were studied in male weaned piglets by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. The animals received a single oral dose of 5 mg FB(1)/kg of body weight, obtained from Fusarium verticillioides culture material. FB(1) was detected by HPLC in plasma collected at 1-h intervals up to 6h and at 12-h intervals up to 96 h. FB(1) eliminated in feces and urine was quantified over a 96-h period and in liver samples collected 96 h post-intoxication. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment to determine serum enzyme activity, total bilirubin, cholesterol, sphinganine (Sa), sphingosine (So) and the Sa/So ratio. FB(1) was detected in plasma between 30 min and 36 h after administration. The highest concentration of FB(1) was observed after 2 h, with a mean concentration of 282 microg/ml. Only 0.93% of the total FB(1) was detected in urine between 75 min and 41 h after administration, the highest mean concentration (561 microg/ml) was observed during the interval after 8 at 24 h. Approximately 76.5% of FB(1) was detected in feces eliminated between 8 and 84 h after administration, with the highest levels observed between 8 and 24 h. Considering the biochemical parameters, a significant increase only occurred in cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In plasma and urine, the highest Sa and Sa/So ratios were obtained at 12 and 48 h, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organizational Culture in the Financial Sector: Evidence from a Cross-Industry Analysis of Employee Personal Values and Career

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoorn, Andre

    2015-01-01

    We assess the organizational culture in the finance industry in relation to the global financial crisis (GFC) and consider the potential of cultural change to improve the financial sector. To avoid (response) biases, we build on the person-organization (P-O) fit literature and develop a novel, indirect method for assessing organizational culture that revolves around relationships between employees’ personal traits and their career success in the industry or organization under study. We analyz...

  12. Evidence for the incorporation of lead into barite from waste rock pile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURTIN-NOMADE, ALEXANDRA; SOUBRAND-COLIN, MARILYNE; MARCUS, MATTHEW A.; FAKRA, SIRINE .C

    2008-01-21

    Because Pb is one of the most toxic elements and is found as a major contaminant in mining environments, this study aims to identify the distribution of this element in host phases issued from the alteration of mine wastes. The sampling location was a former mine near Oakland, California (USA). This mine was once a source of sulfide minerals from which sulfuric acid was made. The material discussed in this paper was collected in iron hardpans that were formed within the waste rock pile resulting from the excavation work. In most contaminated environments (soils, mine waste), secondary metal-bearing phases arising from alteration processes are usually fine-grained (from 10 {micro}m to less than 1 {micro}m) and highly heterogeneous, requiring the use of micron-scale techniques. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy, microscanning X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and microextended X-ray near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the relationships between Pb and a Ba/Fe-rich host phase. Micro-Raman spectroscopy suggests that Pb is preferentially incorporated into barite rather than goethite. Results from micro-Raman experiments show the high sensitivity of this analytical tool to the incorporation of Pb into barite by being especially sensitive to the variations of the S-O bond and showing the characteristic bands due to the contribution of Pb. This association is confirmed and is well-illustrated by micro-SXRD mineral species maps showing the correlation between Pb and barite. Microfocused XANES indicates that Pb is present as Pb{sup 2+}, agreeing with the in situ physicochemical parameters.

  13. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann B; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2013-04-01

    Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE: The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include (1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; (2) assess the population, need, and context; (3) evaluate the intervention to be adapted with attention to

  14. Written Evidence Submitted to the House of Commons-Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee’s Inquiry on Fake News

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Executive Summary This submission provides evidence on four aspects: 1. What do we know about fake news, fake profiles/accounts, and fake attention on social media? 2. What are the causes of fake news, political bots and fake social media accounts? 3. What are the problems and impacts of fake news, political bots and fake accounts? 4. What can be done against fake news culture? This submission gives special attention to the role of online advertising in fake news culture. (§§1.1-1.16) Reports...

  15. Environmental controls on the boron and strontium isotopic composition of aragonite shell material of cultured Arctica islandica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-W. Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, the decrease in ocean pH associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, is likely to impact marine organisms, particularly those that produce carbonate skeletons or shells. Therefore, it is important to investigate how environmental factors (seawater pH, temperature and salinity influence the chemical compositions in biogenic carbonates. In this study we report the first high-resolution strontium (87Sr / 86Sr and δ88 / 86Sr and boron (δ11B isotopic values in the aragonite shell of cultured Arctica islandica (A. islandica. The 87Sr / 86Sr ratios from both tank water and shell samples show ratios nearly identical to the open ocean, which suggests that the shell material reflects ambient ocean chemistry without terrestrial influence. The 84Sr–87Sr double-spike-resolved shell δ88 / 86Sr and Sr concentration data show no resolvable change throughout the culture period and reflect no theoretical kinetic mass fractionation throughout the experiment despite a temperature change of more than 15 °C. The δ11B records from the experiment show at least a 5‰ increase through the 29-week culture season (January 2010–August 2010, with low values from the beginning to week 19 and higher values thereafter. The larger range in δ11B in this experiment compared to predictions based on other carbonate organisms (2–3‰ suggests that a species-specific fractionation factor may be required. A significant correlation between the ΔpH (pHshell − pHsw and seawater pH (pHsw was observed (R2 = 0.35, where the pHshell is the calcification pH of the shell calculated from boron isotopic composition. This negative correlation suggests that A. islandica partly regulates the pH of the extrapallial fluid. However, this proposed mechanism only explains approximately 35% of the variance in the δ11B data. Instead, a rapid rise in δ11B of the shell material after week 19, during the summer, suggests that the boron uptake changes when a thermal

  16. A generative inference framework for analysing patterns of cultural change in sparse population data with evidence for fashion trends in LBK culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2015-12-06

    Cultural change can be quantified by temporal changes in frequency of different cultural artefacts and it is a central question to identify what underlying cultural transmission processes could have caused the observed frequency changes. Observed changes, however, often describe the dynamics in samples of the population of artefacts, whereas transmission processes act on the whole population. Here we develop a modelling framework aimed at addressing this inference problem. To do so, we firstly generate population structures from which the observed sample could have been drawn randomly and then determine theoretical samples at a later time t2 produced under the assumption that changes in frequencies are caused by a specific transmission process. Thereby we also account for the potential effect of time-averaging processes in the generation of the observed sample. Subsequent statistical comparisons (e.g. using Bayesian inference) of the theoretical and observed samples at t2 can establish which processes could have produced the observed frequency data. In this way, we infer underlying transmission processes directly from available data without any equilibrium assumption. We apply this framework to a dataset describing pottery from settlements of some of the first farmers in Europe (the LBK culture) and conclude that the observed frequency dynamic of different types of decorated pottery is consistent with age-dependent selection, a preference for 'young' pottery types which is potentially indicative of fashion trends. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model

  18. Organizational culture in the financial sector : evidence from a cross-industry analysis of employee personal values and career success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André

    2017-01-01

    We assess the organizational culture in the finance industry in relation to the global financial crisis (GFC) and consider the potential of cultural change to improve the financial sector. To avoid (response) biases, we build on the person-organization (P-O) fit literature and develop a novel,

  19. Influence of Organisational Culture on Total Quality Management Implementation and Firm Performance: Evidence from the Vietnamese Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panuwatwanich Kriengsak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between organisational culture (OC and Total Quality Management (TQM, and the influence of TQM implementation on organisational performance improvement within the context of the Vietnamese construction industry. A survey was conducted with 104 respondents from Vietnamese construction firms, using validated survey instruments developed in past research. Analysis techniques include cluster analysis and Structural Equation Modelling. Findings showed that Vietnamese construction firms are dominated by clan and hierarchy cultures rather than adhocracy and market cultures according to Competing Value Framework (CVF of OC classification. Furthermore, it was found that organisations dominated by either clan or adhocracy cultures could provide a favourable environment for successful TQM implementation, whereas this is not the case for those dominated by both market and hierarchy cultures. This study also confirmed the significant and positive relationship between TQM implementation and organisational performance improvement.

  20. Suppression of in vitro primary immune response by L1210 cells and their culture supernatant: evidence for cytotoxic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.P.; Flad, H.D.; Opitz, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    L1210 cells and their culture supernatants were found to inhibit the generation of PFC in the in vitro primary immune response of spleen cells to SRBC. As few as 1 percent of L1210 cells and 1 percent of culture fluid were inhibitory. Inhibition of DNA or protein synthesis of L1210 cells did not abolish their immunosuppressive activity, excluding exhaustion of culture medium as a possible mechanism of inhibition of PFC. Heating of the supernatant completely abrogated the suppressive effect and resulted in a marked increase of PFC. Daily evaluation of cell viability in the cultures revealed that, in the presence of L1210 and supernatants, the fraction of surviving cells is markedly reduced. We conclude that a direct cytotoxic effect on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages is the predominant immunosuppressive mechanism of L1210 cells and their culture supernatants

  1. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Rzasa, J. [Akademia Rolnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10{sup -7} M or 2x10{sup -7} M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively), and E2 (272.5 pg/10{sup 5} cells, 10.6 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10{sup 5} cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10{sup 5} cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle `in vivo`. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  2. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  3. Teaching Cross-Cultural Psychology: Providing the Missing Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushner, Kenneth H.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of materials designed to facilitate the teaching of cross-cultural psychology to students who are internationally and interculturally naive. The materials consist of 100 cross-cultural incidents contained in 18 essays. Two incidents are described and evaluative evidence is presented.…

  4. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  5. Evolution of triiodothyronine nuclear binding sites in hypothalamic serum-free cultures: evidence for their presence in neurons and astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puymirat, J.; Faivre-Bauman, A.

    1986-01-01

    ( 125 I)Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) nuclear binding was studied in hypothalamic cultures from fetal mouse grown in serum-free medium. In enriched neuronal cultures, the apparent dissociation constant of the binding does not change with time in vitro (7 x 10 -11 M), but the maximum binding capacity (MBC) doubles between day 7 and day 14 in vitro. We show here for the first time that homologous astrocyte cell cultures, devoid of neurons as checked by tetanus toxin binding, also display T 3 nuclear binding, with the same affinity as neuronal cultures. However, their MBC is 3 times lower than that of neurons after a week in vitro, and increases more quickly thereafter (Author)

  6. Pilot outcome results of culturally adapted evidence-based substance use disorder treatment with a Southwest Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla L. Venner

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that culturally adapted EBTs yield significant improvements in alcohol use, psychological distress, and legal problems among AI/ANs. Future research using RCT methodology is needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness.

  7. Air pollution, cardiovascular endpoints and susceptibility by stress and material resources: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina H; Feeser, Karla R; Sarnat, Jeremy A; O'Neill, Marie S

    2017-06-14

    Evidence shows that both the physical and social environments play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this systematic review is two-fold: First, we summarize research from the past 12 years from the growing number of studies focused on effect modification of the relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes by socioeconomic position (SEP) and; second, we identify research gaps throughout the published literature on this topic and opportunities for addressing these gaps in future study designs. We identified 30 articles that examined the modifying effects of either material resources or psychosocial stress (both related to SEP) on associations between short and long-term air pollution exposure and CVD endpoints. Although 18 articles identified at least one interaction between an air pollutant and material resource indicator, 11 others did not. Support for susceptibility to air pollution by psychosocial stress was weaker; however, only three articles tested this hypothesis. Further studies are warranted to investigate how air pollution and SEP together may influence CVD. We recommend that such research include thorough assessment of air pollution and SEP correlations, including spatial correlation; investigate air pollution indices or multi-pollutant models; use standardized metrics of SEP to enhance comparability across studies; and evaluate potentially susceptible populations.

  8. The Challenges and Enhancing Opportunities of Global Project Management: Evidence from Chinese and Dutch Cross-Cultural Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Marquis, Christopher G; Filippov, Sergey; Haasnoot, Henk-Jan; van der Steen, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national and organisational culture in day-to-day activities of multinational project teams, specifically focusing on differences between Chinese and Dutch project managers. We rely on fieldwork observation and interviews with representatives from a diverse set of organizations in China and the Netherlands. Analyses focus on the impact of cultural differences on five project management processes – (1) project planning, (2) cost and quality management, (3) r...

  9. Cultural capital and self-rated health in low income women: evidence from the Urban Health Study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Marwan; Mowafi, Mona

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and mental health status and cultural capital were obtained using chi (2) tests and odds ratios from binary logistic regression models. Cultural capital had significant associations with self-perceived general and mental health status net of the effects of social capital, SES, demographics, community and health risk factors. For example, the odds ratios for poor general and mental health associated with low cultural capital were 4.5 (CI: 2.95-6.95) and 2.9 (CI: 2.09-4.05), respectively, as compared to participants with high cultural capital. As expected, health risk factors were significantly associated with both measures of health status. However, demographic and community variables were associated with general health but not with mental health status. The findings pertaining to social capital and measures of SES were mixed. Cultural capital was a powerful and significant predictor of self-perceived general and mental health among women living in poor urban communities.

  10. Adolescent Students' Intercultural Awareness When Using Culture-Based Materials in the English Class (La conciencia intercultural de estudiantes adolescentes al usar materiales con contenido cultural en la clase de inglés)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Usaquén, Mireya Esther

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative and interpretative case study conducted at a high school located in the southeast of Bogotá. The case is comprised of a group of fifty-one eighth graders who had had little contact with English. It aimed at exploring how these adolescents made sense of the culture-based materials implemented in the English…

  11. Media and Cultural Consumption by Young Students in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: Evidences of Digital Divide, Possibilities of Cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Bekesas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial findings of a Brazilian project, which is part of an international research group, studying youth cultures in the age of globalization. It aims to develop a comparative study from the cultural perspective of globalization on the construction of aesthetic cosmopolitanism among young people from France, Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Our aim here specifically is to understand the cultural consumption of young students from São Paulo and their uses of different media for this matter, in hybrid forms (mainly digital. The analysis of empirical data presented is built upon 52 exploratory questionnaires and 40 interviews conducted with young students (from 18 to 24 year old living in São Paulo, Brazil. In order to understand the Brazilian context in this analysis, we performed a triangulation with secondary data from “Brazilian digital youth” by IBOPE (2012 and “Connected youth” by Telefonica Foundation/USP (2014. Based on the analysis, we reflect on two central topics: 1 evidence of a digital divide, according to their socio-economic profile and their access to information/entertainment, and 2 possibilities of cosmopolitan encounters, through the consumption of international cultural products and the search of information regarding other countries and cultures.

  12. Investigation of Endophytic Bacterial Community in Supposedly Axenic Cultures of Pineapple and Orchids with Evidence on Abundant Intracellular Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Polesi, Natalia Pimentel; de Abreu-Tarazi, Monita Fiori; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; Tsai, Siu Mui; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2017-01-01

    Asepsis, defined as the absence of microbial contamination, is one of the most important requirements of plant micropropagation. In long-term micropropagated cultures, there may occasionally occur scattered microorganism growth in the culture medium. These microorganisms are common plant components and are known as latent endophytes. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the presence of endophytic bacteria in asymptomatic pineapple and orchid microplants, which were cultivated in three laboratories for 1 year. Isolation and characterization of bacterial isolates, PCR-DGGE from total genomic DNA of microplants and ultrastructural analysis of leaves were performed. In the culture-dependent technique, it was only possible to obtain bacterial isolates from pineapple microplants. In this case, the bacteria genera identified in the isolation technique were Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Methylobacterium. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) analyses revealed the presence of endophytic bacteria in intracellular spaces in the leaves of pineapple and orchid microplants, independent of the laboratory or cultivation protocol. Our results strongly indicate that there are endophytic bacterial communities inhabiting the microplants before initiation of the in vitro culture and that some of these endophytes persist in their latent form and can also grow in the culture medium even after long-term micropropagation, thus discarding the concept of "truly axenic plants."

  13. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-14

    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gifts for Ottoman army: A contribution to the material culture of Belgrade in the 16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gift-giving and gift-receiving, as an expressions of suzerainty, patronage and favor on one hand and gratitude and loyalty on the other hand, were deeply rooted in Ottoman society. This practice had extraordinary significance in the relation ruler - army, especially in wartime. At the end of the 16th century, during the Long War 1593-1606, a shipment of over fifty different sorts of objects was sent from Belgrade Treasury to Istanbul to be distributed to the army after the campaign. The list of the sent items (military equipment, armory, carpets, fabrics, cushions, kitchenware and others, which is housed today in the Archive of the Topkapı Sarayı, is one of the rarely preserved Ottoman documents that originated in Serbia and as such, it offers a unique insight to material culture of Belgrade and its surroundings. This paper examines gifts from Belgrade Treasury with the aim of revealing one fragment of the town daily life and indicating the routes of international trade that reached to our territory.

  15. Science Education and the Material Culture of the Nineteenth-Century Classroom: Physics and Chemistry in Spanish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Josep; Cuenca-Lorente, Mar

    2012-02-01

    Although a large number of Spanish secondary schools have preserved an important scientific heritage, including large scientific instrument collections, this heritage has never been officially protected. Their current state is very diverse, and although several research projects have attempted to initiate their recovery and use, their lack of coordination and wide range of methodological approaches has limited their impact. This paper presents a case-study integrated in a new project supported by the Catalan Scientific Instrument Commission (COMIC) whose final aim is the establishment of a research hub for the preservation, study and use of Spanish scientific instrument collections. Major aims in this project are promoting a better coordination of Spanish projects in this field, and furthering international research on science pedagogy and the material culture of science. The major focus of COMIC is currently the recovery of secondary school collections. This paper provides first, a historical account of the development of secondary education in Spain, and the contemporary establishment of physics and chemistry school collections. Second, we focus on a case-study of three Spanish schools (Valencia, Castellón, and Alicante). Finally, we provide a brief overview of current projects to preserve Spanish school collections, and discuss how COMIC can contribute to help to coordinate them, and to take a step forward interdisciplinary research in this context.

  16. The Impact of Latino Values and Cultural Beliefs on Brain Donation: Results of a Pilot Study to Develop Culturally Appropriate Materials and Methods to Increase Rates of Brain Donation in this Under-Studied Patient Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbrey, Ann Choryan; Humber, Marika B; Plowey, Edward D; Garcia, Iliana; Chennapragada, Lakshmi; Desai, Kanchi; Rosen, Allyson; Askari, Nusha; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the number of Latino persons with dementia who consent to brain donation (BD) upon death is an important public health goal that has not yet been realized. This study identified the need for culturally sensitive materials to answer questions and support the decision-making process for the family. Information about existing rates of BD was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Several methods of data collection (query NACC database, contacting Centers, focus groups, online survey, assessing current protocol and materials) were used to give the needed background to create culturally appropriate BD materials. A decision was made that a brochure for undecided enrollees would be beneficial to discuss BD with family members. For those needing further details, a step-by-step handout would provide additional information. Through team collaboration and engagement of others in the community who work with Latinos with dementia, we believe this process allowed us to successfully create culturally appropriate informational materials that address a sensitive topic for Hispanic/Latino families. Brain tissue is needed to further knowledge about underlying biological mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases, however it is a sensitive topic. Materials assist with family discussion and facilitate the family's follow-through with BD.

  17. Silk, porcelain and lacquer : China and Japan and their trade with Western Europe and the New World, 1500-1644. A survey of documentary and material evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan

  18. New evidence for variation in colonisation, cultural transmission, and subsistence from Lapita (2900 BP) to the historic period in southwest Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, E.E.; Rivera-Collazo, I.C.; Walsh, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fiji was colonised approximately 3000 BP by populations with intricately decorated Lapita pottery. At nearly the same time, culturally related populations also colonised nearby Tonga and Samoa and the archaeology of each archipelago indicates continued contact, but also cultural divergence over time. Previous research in the far western islands of Fiji has also identified late Lapita colonisation deposits and subsequent cultural changes that have raised further questions about regional variation in the Fijian archaeological record. Here we present results of the first survey, excavation, and archaeological analyses from the islands of southwestern Fiji and interpret these findings relative to current research on the colonisation of Fiji-West Polynesia, changes in the spatial scale of cultural transmission in the region, and changes in foraging practices and environments. Survey and test excavations identified eleven sites and pushed back the colonisation of the far western islands to 2900 BP. Preliminary analyses of cultural materials from these sites indicate a complexly structured colonising population in Fiji-West Polynesia, variation over time in the frequency of contact between populations in Fiji, and subsistence practices likely influenced by environmental change and human competition. (author). 47 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Festive culture in pre-reformation rural Suffolk

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Katharine Louise

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the relationship between festive culture and rural communities in the pre-Reformation period. Using a wide range of evidence, both material and documentary, it uses the county of Suffolk as a case-study. This thesis argues against the prevailing view that festive culture constituted a distinct break from everyday life. It demonstrates that festive culture was an important part of the quotidian working routine and, as such, takes as its starting point evidence of fest...

  20. Reduced ratings of physical and relational aggression for youths with a strong cultural identity: evidence from the Naskapi people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tara; Iarocci, Grace; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Burack, Jacob A

    2011-08-01

    Minority youth in general, and Aboriginal youth in particular, are at increased statistical risk for being perpetrators or victims of aggression. We examined the potential protective aspect of cultural identity in relation to peer ratings of physical and relational aggression and factors typically associated with each among almost the entire cohort of Naskapi youths from Kawawachikamach, Québec. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that a strong identity with their own Native culture predicted less perceived physical and social aggression by their peers. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of a positive affiliation with ancestral culture for the diminishment of adolescent aggression and for general adaptive development and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glocalization and Religious Communication in the Roman Empire : Two Case Studies to Reconsider the Local and the Global in Religious Material Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alten, D.C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Over the period in which the ancient Roman empire grew to its greatest extent, religion in the provinces underwent change. In this article, the author argues that glocalization as an explicit modern conceptual framework has added value to the analysis of religious material culture. First, the

  2. Acceleration of direct identification of S.aureus versus Coagulase Negative Staphylococci from blood culture material: a comparison of six bacterial DNA extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. C.A. Bruggeman; Drs H. Kreeftenberg; Dr. Ir. P.F.G. Wolffs; Drs A.J.M. Loonen; Dr. A.J.C. van den Brule, van den; Drs A.R. Jansz

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS), this study aimed to compare six different DNA extraction methods from 2 commonly used blood culture materials, i.e. BACTEC and Bact/ALERT. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of reduced blood

  3. Soft material-based microculture system having air permeable cover sheet for the protoplast culture of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jong Il; Ko, Jung-Moon; Kim, So Hyeon; Baek, Ju Yeoul; Cha, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2006-08-01

    In plant cell culture, the delivery of nutrition and gas (mainly oxygen) to the cells is the most important factor for viability. In this paper, we propose a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microculture system that is designed to have good aeration. PDMS is known to have excellent air permeability, and through the experimental method, we investigated the relation between the degree of air delivery and the thickness of the PDMS sheet covering the culture chamber. We determined the proper thickness of the cover sheet, and cultured protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum in a culture chamber covered with a PDMS sheet having thickness of 400 microm. The cells were successfully divided, and lived well inside the culture chamber for 10 days. In addition, protoplasts were cultured inside the culture chambers covered with the cover glass and the PDMS sheet, respectively, and the microcolonies were formed well inside the PDMS covered chamber after 10 days.

  4. The gene expression profile of non-cultured, highly purified human adipose tissue pericytes: Transcriptomic evidence that pericytes are stem cells in human adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo da, E-mail: lindolfomeirelles@gmail.com [Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CEPID/FAPESP), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, PPGBioSaúde, Lutheran University of Brazil, Av. Farroupilha 8001, 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara de; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Bonini Palma, Patrícia Viana [Center for Cell-Based Therapy (CEPID/FAPESP), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Araújo, Amélia Goes; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre [Laboratory of Large-Scale Functional Biology (LLSFBio), Regional Center for Hemotherapy of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Rua Tenente Catão Roxo 2501, 14051-140 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); and others

    2016-12-10

    Pericytes (PCs) are a subset of perivascular cells that can give rise to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) when culture-expanded, and are postulated to give rise to MSC-like cells during tissue repair in vivo. PCs have been suggested to behave as stem cells (SCs) in situ in animal models, although evidence for this role in humans is lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of highly purified, non-cultured adipose tissue (AT)-derived PCs (ATPCs) to detect gene expression changes that occur as they acquire MSC characteristics in vitro, and evaluated the hypothesis that human ATPCs exhibit a gene expression profile compatible with an AT SC phenotype. The results showed ATPCs are non-proliferative and express genes characteristic not only of PCs, but also of AT stem/progenitor cells. Additional analyses defined a gene expression signature for ATPCs, and revealed putative novel ATPC markers. Almost all AT stem/progenitor cell genes differentially expressed by ATPCs were not expressed by ATMSCs or culture-expanded ATPCs. Genes expressed by ATMSCs but not by ATPCs were also identified. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that PCs are SCs in vascularized tissues, highlight gene expression changes they undergo as they assume an MSC phenotype, and provide new insights into PC biology. - Highlights: • Non-cultured adipose tissue-derived human pericytes (ncATPCs) exhibit a distinctive gene expression signature. • ncATPCs express key adipose tissue stem cell genes previously described in vivo in mice. • ncATPCs express message for anti-proliferative and antiangiogenic molecules. • Most ncATPC-specific transcripts are absent in culture-expanded pericytes or ATMSCs • Gene expression changes ncATPCs undergo as they acquire a cultured ATMSC phenotype are pointed out.

  5. The gene expression profile of non-cultured, highly purified human adipose tissue pericytes: Transcriptomic evidence that pericytes are stem cells in human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo da; Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara de; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Bonini Palma, Patrícia Viana; Araújo, Amélia Goes; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes (PCs) are a subset of perivascular cells that can give rise to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) when culture-expanded, and are postulated to give rise to MSC-like cells during tissue repair in vivo. PCs have been suggested to behave as stem cells (SCs) in situ in animal models, although evidence for this role in humans is lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of highly purified, non-cultured adipose tissue (AT)-derived PCs (ATPCs) to detect gene expression changes that occur as they acquire MSC characteristics in vitro, and evaluated the hypothesis that human ATPCs exhibit a gene expression profile compatible with an AT SC phenotype. The results showed ATPCs are non-proliferative and express genes characteristic not only of PCs, but also of AT stem/progenitor cells. Additional analyses defined a gene expression signature for ATPCs, and revealed putative novel ATPC markers. Almost all AT stem/progenitor cell genes differentially expressed by ATPCs were not expressed by ATMSCs or culture-expanded ATPCs. Genes expressed by ATMSCs but not by ATPCs were also identified. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that PCs are SCs in vascularized tissues, highlight gene expression changes they undergo as they assume an MSC phenotype, and provide new insights into PC biology. - Highlights: • Non-cultured adipose tissue-derived human pericytes (ncATPCs) exhibit a distinctive gene expression signature. • ncATPCs express key adipose tissue stem cell genes previously described in vivo in mice. • ncATPCs express message for anti-proliferative and antiangiogenic molecules. • Most ncATPC-specific transcripts are absent in culture-expanded pericytes or ATMSCs • Gene expression changes ncATPCs undergo as they acquire a cultured ATMSC phenotype are pointed out.

  6. Cultural and Molecular Evidence of Legionella spp. Colonization in Dental Unit Waterlines: Which Is the Best Method for Risk Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Savina; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Ricciardi, Elisa; Zotti, Carla M

    2016-02-06

    Legionella spp. are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and water distribution systems, including dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Legionella in DUWLs and tap water samples using PMA-qPCR and standard culture methods. The total viable counts (TVCs) of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in the samples were also determined. Legionella spp. were detected and quantified using the modified ISO 11731 culture method. Extracted genomic DNA was analysed using the iQ-Check Quanti Legionella spp. kit, and the TVCs were determined according to the ISO protocol 6222. Legionella spp. were detected in 100% of the samples using the PMA-qPCR method, whereas these bacteria were detected in only 7% of the samples using the culture method. The number of colony forming units (CFUs) of the TVCs in the DUWL and tap water samples differed, with the bacterial load being significantly lower in the tap water samples (p-value = 0). The counts obtained were within the Italian standard range established for potable water in only 5% of the DUWL water samples and in 77% of the tap water samples. Our results show that the level of Legionella spp. contamination determined using the culture method does not reflect the true scale of the problem, and consequently we recommend testing for the presence of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria based on the assumption that Legionella spp. are components of biofilms.

  7. Meeting the Challenges of Teaching in a Different Cultural Environment--Evidence from Graduate Management Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainzbauer, Astrid; Hunt, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the efforts of foreign university teachers in graduate schools in Thailand as they incorporate cultural knowledge into their classroom teaching styles and methodology. Through in-depth semi-structured interviews we have gathered qualitative data on the teachers' concerns, mindsets and their proposed solutions. We build up…

  8. Cultured Construction: Global Evidence of the Impact of National Values on Piped-to-Premises Water Infrastructure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2016-07-19

    In 2016, the global community undertook the Sustainable Development Goals. One of these goals seeks to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all people by the year 2030. In support of this undertaking, this paper seeks to discover the cultural work done by piped water infrastructure across 33 nations with developed and developing economies that have experienced change in the percentage of population served by piped-to-premises water infrastructure at the national level of analysis. To do so, I regressed the 1990-2012 change in piped-to-premises water infrastructure coverage against Hofstede's cultural dimensions, controlling for per capita GDP, the 1990 baseline level of coverage, percent urban population, overall 1990-2012 change in improved sanitation (all technologies), and per capita freshwater resources. Separate analyses were carried out for the urban, rural, and aggregate national contexts. Hofstede's dimensions provide a measure of cross-cultural difference; high or low scores are not in any way intended to represent better or worse but rather serve as a quantitative way to compare aggregate preferences for ways of being and doing. High scores in the cultural dimensions of Power Distance, Individualism-Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance explain increased access to piped-to-premises water infrastructure in the rural context. Higher Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance scores are also statistically significant for increased coverage in the urban and national aggregate contexts. These results indicate that, as presently conceived, piped-to-premises water infrastructure fits best with spatial contexts that prefer hierarchy and centralized control. Furthermore, water infrastructure is understood to reduce uncertainty regarding the provision of individually valued benefits. The results of this analysis identify global trends that enable engineers and policy makers to design and manage more culturally appropriate

  9. The role of traditional confinement practices in determining postpartum depression in women in Chinese cultures: a systematic review of the English language evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine; Fisher, Jane

    2009-08-01

    The Chinese postpartum custom of "confinement" or "doing-the-month" involves formalised social support and recognition of the status of motherhood and has been presumed in anthropological literature to protect mothers of newborns from postpartum depression. The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence about the relationship between confinement practices and postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. A systematic search of the English-language literature. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. It was found that the role of confinement in postpartum depression is complex: eight studies concluded that it had a protective role; four that it increased risk of postpartum mood disturbance and four studies had inconclusive findings. Aspects of the confinement practice that could contribute to or fail to protect against postpartum depression include the generally diminished social support in contemporary society, conflict with a mother-in-law and the tension experienced by modern women as they work to balance traditional with contemporary values. Methodological differences limit meaningful comparisons between the reviewed studies and generalizations from them. There is little consistent evidence that confinement practices reduce postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. Specific components of confinement practices might reduce psychological distress in Chinese mothers of newborns, but these cannot be discerned from the existing evidence. Confinement cannot be presumed to be available to, welcomed by or effective for all Chinese women or to be a substitute for health service provision.

  10. Radiation safety and culture of prevention in the use of radioactive materials in industry : criteria and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, Walter Adrian

    2008-01-01

    As time goes by and experience is gained, modernization and technological development show the need to implement more complex programs and procedures to ensure a high level of compliance with radiation safety, particularly in those activities in which radioactive material is used in industry. A relevant aspect of present technology is the concern to introduce mechanisms to prevent radiological accidents or incidents, to ensure early detection of failures. This includes systems that either individually or as a whole, increase the level of responsibility of the different disciplines involved, so as to avoid a situation that could lead to loss of control of the facility or part of it. The prevention of an abnormal situation, overexposure of workers or unwanted risks, should be considered in the level of vulnerability of the facility, a concept drawn from international protection systems and which is applied directly in radiation safety. Preventive management, risk communication and proposals for change or improvement along with the detection of risks and training, constitute all the factors contained within prevention policies. Dose limitation, optimization and justification, old tools used for decades, could not be replaced by other modern concepts and criteria. ALARA culture (including performance indicators) should be considered. The atmosphere at work, working under pressure as well as other factors such as quality issues, ethics of prevention, etc. align with this idea of prevention and safety, besides changes in attitude, towards risk prevention (methods, reports, intervention guides, working instructions, and any other helpful tool), are followed by preventive, as well as predictive and corrective maintenance, applied to minimize the dose absorbed by workers. A clear policy of prevention is needed as well as an appropriate level of radiation safety which should be taken into account since the very beginning of the development of a given practice. All these

  11. Radiation Safety and Culture of Prevention in the Use of Radioactive Materials in Industry. Criteria and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    As time goes by and experience is gained, modernization and technological development show the need to implement more complex programs and procedures to ensure a high level of compliance with radiation safety, particularly in those activities in which radioactive material is used in industry. A relevant aspect of present technology is the concern to introduce mechanisms to prevent radiological accidents or incidents, to ensure early detection of failures. This includes systems that either individually or as a whole, increase the level of responsibility of the different disciplines involved, so as to avoid a situation that could lead to loss of control of the facility or part of it. The prevention of an abnormal situation, overexposure of workers or unwanted risks, should be considered in the level of vulnerability of the facility, a concept drawn from international protection systems and which is applied directly in radiation safety. Preventive management, risk communication and proposals for change or improvement along with the detection of risks and training, constitute all the factors contained within prevention policies. Dose limitation, optimization and justification, old tools used for decades, could not be replaced by other modern concepts and criteria. ALARA culture (including performance indicators) should be considered. The atmosphere at work, working under pressure as well as other factors such as quality issues, ethics of prevention, etc. align with this idea of prevention and safety, besides changes in attitude, towards risk prevention (methods, reports, intervention guides, working instructions, and any other helpful tool), are followed by preventive, as well as predictive and corrective maintenance, applied to minimize the dose absorbed by workers. A clear policy of prevention is needed as well as an appropriate level of radiation safety which should be taken into account since the very beginning of the development of a given practice. All these

  12. Effectiveness of an Evidence-Based Quality Improvement Approach to Cultural Competence Training: The Veterans Affairs' "Caring for Women Veterans" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Annie B; Hamilton, Alison B; Frayne, Susan M; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Carney, Diane; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Goldstein, Karen M; Romodan, Yasmin; Sadler, Anne G; Yano, Elizabeth M; Yee, Ellen F; Vogt, Dawne

    2016-01-01

    Although providing culturally sensitive health care is vitally important, there is little consensus regarding the most effective strategy for implementing cultural competence trainings in the health care setting. Evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI), which involves adapting evidence-based practices to meet local needs, may improve uptake and effectiveness of a variety of health care innovations. Yet, to our knowledge, EBQI has not yet been applied to cultural competence training. To evaluate whether EBQI could enhance the impact of an evidence-based training intended to improve veterans affairs health care staff gender sensitivity and knowledge (Caring for Women Veterans; CWV), we compared the reach and effectiveness of EBQI delivery versus standard web-based implementation strategies of CWV and assessed barriers and facilitators to EBQI implementation. Workgroups at four diverse veterans affairs health care sites were randomized to either an EBQI or standard web-based implementation condition (SI). All EBQI sites selected a group-based implementation strategy. Employees (N = 84) completed pretraining and posttraining assessments of gender sensitivity and knowledge, and focus groups/interviews were conducted with leadership and staff before and after implementation. Reach of CWV was greater in the EBQI condition versus the SI condition. Whereas both gender sensitivity and knowledge improved in the EBQI condition, only gender sensitivity improved in the SI condition. Qualitative analyses revealed that the EBQI approach was well received, although a number of barriers were identified. Findings suggest that EBQI can enhance the uptake and effectiveness of employee trainings. However, the decision to pursue EBQI must be informed by a consideration of available resources.

  13. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.

    2007-03-01

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  14. The impact of socio-cultural context on young people's condom use: evidence from two Pacific Island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather

    2011-03-01

    Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples' condom use in two Pacific Island nations. The data show a marked disjuncture between attitudes and practice with regard to condoms. This paper discusses factors underpinning that inconsistency and directs attention to the effect of social and cultural influences on young people's condom use. The authors conclude that individual-level approaches to improving rates of condom use will be inadequate unless they are informed by an understanding of the role of identity, culture and tradition in young peoples' decisions around condom use. The findings also underline the need for country-specific approaches to condom promotion efforts in the Pacific.

  15. Assessing organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. Methodological evidence from studies in nuclear power plant maintenance organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.

    2007-03-15

    Failures in industrial organizations dealing with hazardous technologies can have widespread consequences for the safety of the workers and the general population. Psychology can have a major role in contributing to the safe and reliable operation of these technologies. Most current models of safety management in complex sociotechnical systems such as nuclear power plant maintenance are either non-contextual or based on an overly-rational image of an organization. Thus, they fail to grasp either the actual requirements of the work or the socially-constructed nature of the work in question. The general aim of the present study is to develop and test a methodology for contextual assessment of organizational culture in complex sociotechnical systems. This is done by demonstrating the findings that the application of the emerging methodology produces in the domain of maintenance of a nuclear power plant (NPP). The concepts of organizational culture and organizational core task (OCT) are operationalized and tested in the case studies

  16. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. III. Genetic evidence for utilization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, O.; Nishijima, M.; Akamatsu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    We reported that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells contain two different serine-exchange enzymes (I and II) which catalyze the base-exchange reaction of phospholipid(s) with serine and that a phosphatidylserine-requiring mutant (strain PSA-3) of CHO cells is defective in serine-exchange enzyme I and lacks the ability to synthesize phosphatidylserine. In this study, we examined precursor phospholipids for phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO cells. When mutant PSA-3 and parent (CHO-K1) cells were cultured with [ 32 P]phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine in the parent accumulated radioactivity while that in the mutant was not labeled significantly. On the contrary, when cultured with [ 32 P]phosphatidylethanolamine, the mutant incorporated the label into phosphatidylserine more efficiently than the parent. Furthermore, we found that mutant PSA-3 grew normally in growth medium supplemented with 30 microM phosphatidylethanolamine as well as phosphatidylserine and that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine in the mutant was normal when cells were cultured in the presence of exogenous phosphatidylethanolamine. The simplest interpretation of these findings is that phosphatidylserine in CHO cells is biosynthesized through the following sequential reactions: phosphatidylcholine----phosphatidylserine----phosphatidylethanolamine--- - phosphatidylserine. The three reactions are catalyzed by serine-exchange enzyme I, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, and serine-exchange enzyme II, respectively

  17. Acceleration of the direct identification of Staphylococcus aureus versus coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood culture material: a comparison of six bacterial DNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonen, A J M; Jansz, A R; Kreeftenberg, H; Bruggeman, C A; Wolffs, P F G; van den Brule, A J C

    2011-03-01

    To accelerate differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), this study aimed to compare six different DNA extraction methods from two commonly used blood culture materials, i.e. BACTEC and BacT/ALERT. Furthermore, we analysed the effect of reduced blood culture incubation for the detection of staphylococci directly from blood culture material. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) duplex assay was used to compare the six different DNA isolation protocols on two different blood culture systems. Negative blood culture material was spiked with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Bacterial DNA was isolated with automated extractor easyMAG (three protocols), automated extractor MagNA Pure LC (LC Microbiology Kit M(Grade)), a manual kit MolYsis Plus and a combination of MolYsis Plus and the easyMAG. The most optimal isolation method was used to evaluate reduced bacterial incubation times. Bacterial DNA isolation with the MolYsis Plus kit in combination with the specific B protocol on the easyMAG resulted in the most sensitive detection of S. aureus, with a detection limit of 10 CFU/ml, in BacT/ALERT material, whereas using BACTEC resulted in a detection limit of 100 CFU/ml. An initial S. aureus or CNS load of 1 CFU/ml blood can be detected after 5 h of incubation in BacT/ALERT 3D by combining the sensitive isolation method and the tuf LightCycler assay.

  18. IAEA/USDOE senior management workshop on promotion of safety culture for the NPPS with RBMK reactors. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The current workshop, co-sponsored by the IAEA and USDOE, was a continuation of the previous effort for further promotion of safety culture at RBMK NPPs. The objective of the workshop was to provide a forum for senior managers from governmental organizations and operating organizations to further exchange experience in understanding the factors influencing safety culture, in assessing safety culture at their own organizations and developing safety culture at RBMK NPPs. The workshop consisted of a broad scope of presentations to review the basic concepts and major elements of safety culture (ownership, accountability, pride, job satisfaction, trust, openness, etc.), to identify and discuss the various approaches used in different countries in attaining a strong safety culture, and to explain, through the use of practical examples, what the benefits of a strong safety culture are; how to improve the behavior of people, how to gain trust and openness, how to overcome difficulties in changing staff`s attitudes, and how to manage safety culture. 2 figs.

  19. IAEA/USDOE senior management workshop on promotion of safety culture for the NPPS with RBMK reactors. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The current workshop, co-sponsored by the IAEA and USDOE, was a continuation of the previous effort for further promotion of safety culture at RBMK NPPs. The objective of the workshop was to provide a forum for senior managers from governmental organizations and operating organizations to further exchange experience in understanding the factors influencing safety culture, in assessing safety culture at their own organizations and developing safety culture at RBMK NPPs. The workshop consisted of a broad scope of presentations to review the basic concepts and major elements of safety culture (ownership, accountability, pride, job satisfaction, trust, openness, etc.), to identify and discuss the various approaches used in different countries in attaining a strong safety culture, and to explain, through the use of practical examples, what the benefits of a strong safety culture are; how to improve the behavior of people, how to gain trust and openness, how to overcome difficulties in changing staff's attitudes, and how to manage safety culture. 2 figs

  20. Influence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the extracellular matrix, material properties, and gene expression of long-term articular chondrocyte cultures: loss of chondrocyte stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, David A; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Carlson, Cathy S; Lewis, Jack L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on articular chondrocyte tissues grown as monolayers in vitro for up to 8 weeks. Articular chondrocytes were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits and plated in monolayer cultures. The cultures were supplemented with 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 for up to 8 weeks and the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, material properties, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were analyzed. mRNA expression of cartilage-specific genes, type II collagen, and aggrecan showed that BMP-2 enhanced chondrocyte stability for up to 3 weeks. After 3 weeks in culture, there was substantially more type I collagen expression and more osteopontin and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2 than in controls. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin 5) were upregulated in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2, coinciding with a loss of ECM density, collagen, and proteoglycan. Eight-week tissue stimulated with BMP-2 was more fragile and tore more easily when removed from the culture dish as compared to controls, suggesting temporal limitations to the effectiveness of BMP-2 in monolayer systems and perhaps other models to enhance the generation of a cartilage-like tissue for tissue engineering purposes.

  1. From Governmental Accounting into National Accounts: Adjustments Diversity and Materiality with Evidence from the Iberian Countries’ Central Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antónia Jorge de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a context where governments around the world acknowledge a need for more informative governmental financial reporting to improve financial sustainability, the European Council is proposing that EU member states adopt International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs—which are recognized as also allowing improved reliability of government finance statistics—in all subsectors of the General Government Sector (GGS. Consequently, the Governmental Accounting (GA role of running and reporting on governments’ budgets for purposes of decisionmaking and accountability is changing to include being part of the EU budgetary and monetary policy, specifically within the Euro zone. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to start a debate in the literature about the ability of GA as it stands across Europe to meet the European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA requirements concerning GGS data. This assumes particular relevance in a context where the two systems have to coexist, but given that budgetary reporting (GA is the main input to ESA reporting (NA, reconciliation between the two systems is required. The second objective is of a more technical nature—empirically demonstrating the diversity and materiality of the main adjustments to be made when converting GGS data from GA into NA. This is done by using evidence for Portugal and Spain, focusing on Central Government data for the period 2006–2009 and measuring their quantitative impact on the public (budgetary deficit. We conclude that GA systems as they are across EU do not meet ESA requirements, and further alignment is therefore needed to reduce adjustments as much as possible when translating data from GA into NA. Additionally, in the case of Portugal and Spain, the main findings show that the adjustments from GA into NA present great diversity for both of these Iberian countries. As for materiality, their impact is greater in Spain, but still

  2. A Socio-Cultural Analysis of Practitioner Perspectives on Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; Davis, Carol A.; Blum, Grace; Greenway, Rosanne; Hackett, Jacob; Kidwell, James; Liberty, Lisa; McCollow, Megan; Patish, Yelena; Pierce, Jennifer; Schulze, Maggie; Smith, Maya M.; Peck, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the central role "evidence-based practice" (EBP) plays in special education agendas for both research and policy, it is widely recognized that achieving "implementation" of EBPs remains an elusive goal. In an effort to better understand this problem, we interviewed special education practitioners in four school…

  3. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program to Sustain a Culture of Inquiry for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Melnyk and Eileen Fineout-Overholt, who graciously and consistently support military nursing science. Building a Unit-Level Mentored Program...Rosenberg W, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ. 1996;312(7023):71-72.doi: http

  4. The spillover effect of disclosure rules and materiality thresholds: Evidence from profit warnings issued in Hong Kong market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencheng Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dual-listed firms simultaneously follow the relevant rules in their home country and in their cross-listed country. In contrast, other firms only listed in the cross-listed country are only subject to the local regulations. Previous literature has found evidence that cross-listing can improve firms’ information transparency because of more stringent listing rules in the cross-listed country. The existing research, however, has not paid enough attention to the potential influence of dual-listed firms and their home country institutional factors (e.g. unique disclosure policies on other firms only listed in the cross-listed country (i.e. spillover effect. In the Hong Kong market, Chinese dual-listed firms are under the mandatory profit warning regulation of mainland China, but other firms listed only in Hong Kong only need to follow the voluntary disclosure rule of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Such a setting provides us with the opportunity to investigate a spillover effect, i.e. whether these Chinese dual-listed firms influence their peers only listed in Hong Kong to release profit warnings. We find that firms only listed in Hong Kong are more likely to issue profit warnings if their Chinese dual-listed peers have also issued warnings. We further find that this spillover effect increases with the market capitalization of Chinese dual-listed firms and increases with the market share of these firms before they dominate the industry. Lastly, due to an underlying duty to disclose material information in Hong Kong, the spillover effect is weaker for firms with large earnings surprises.

  5. Investigating the cross-cultural validity of DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder: evidence from Finnish and UK samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Charman, Tony; Puura, Kaija; Skuse, David

    2014-01-01

    The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) reformulation of autism spectrum disorder has received empirical support from North American and UK samples. Autism spectrum disorder is an increasingly global diagnosis, and research is needed to discover how well it generalises beyond North America and the United Kingdom. We tested the applicability of the DSM-5 model to a sample of Finnish young people with autism spectrum disorder (n = 130) or the broader autism phenotype (n = 110). Confirmatory factor analysis tested the DSM-5 model in Finland and compared the fit of this model between Finnish and UK participants (autism spectrum disorder, n = 488; broader autism phenotype, n = 220). In both countries, autistic symptoms were measured using the Developmental, Diagnostic and Dimensional Interview. Replicating findings from English-speaking samples, the DSM-5 model fitted well in Finnish autism spectrum disorder participants, outperforming a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) model. The DSM-5 model fitted equally well in Finnish and UK autism spectrum disorder samples. Among broader autism phenotype participants, this model fitted well in the United Kingdom but poorly in Finland, suggesting that cross-cultural variability may be greatest for milder autistic characteristics. We encourage researchers with data from other cultures to emulate our methodological approach, to map any cultural variability in the manifestation of autism spectrum disorder and the broader autism phenotype. This would be especially valuable given the ongoing revision of the International Classification of Diseases-11th Edition, the most global of the diagnostic manuals.

  6. Does an early socialization into a food culture condition lifelong food preferences? Evidence from a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrob, Mircea-Lucian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of early formed dietary practices on food choices and preferences during adulthood has often been assumed but rarely adequately demonstrated given the difficulty of studying the subject matter with conventional laboratory or observational research designs. This article examines this assumption by analyzing the information from 31 structured interviews on the respondents' current preferences for combinations of six side dishes with bread or mămăligă (boiled cornmeal mush, similar to polenta). All the respondents had consumed mămăligă in their childhood but in their adulthood had switched to bread following the social and economic upheavals from 1960s Romania. The results show that a) for specific combinations, physiological factors and/or cultural norms that defined bread as a 'prestigious' food have been capable of overriding the effects of early socialization with mămăligă as the accompanying food and b) that consumers continue to prefer certain side dishes with mămăligă even after decades of predominant consumption of bread although confounding factors might account for such preferences. These findings qualify the expectation that an early familiarization with healthy eating habits will promote this desired lifestyle during adulthood by showing that physiological and socio-cultural factors are capable of overriding its effects on hedonic preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is a structured, manualized, evidence-based treatment protocol culturally competent and equivalently effective among American Indian parents in child welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David; Bigfoot, Dolores Subia; Maher, Erin J

    2012-08-01

    In a statewide implementation, the manualized SafeCare home-based model was effective in reducing child welfare recidivism and producing high client satisfaction. Concerns about the effectiveness and acceptability of structured, manualized models with American Indians have been raised in the literature, but have rarely been directly tested. This study tests recidivism reduction equivalency and acceptability among American Indian parents. A subpopulation of 354 American Indian parents was drawn from a larger trial that compared services with versus without modules of the SafeCare model. Outcomes were 6-year recidivism, pre/post/follow-up measures of depression and child abuse potential, and posttreatment consumer ratings of working alliance, service satisfaction, and cultural competency. Recidivism reduction among American Indian parents was found to be equivalent for cases falling within customary SafeCare inclusion criteria. When extended to cases outside customary inclusion boundaries, there was no apparent recidivism advantage or disadvantage. Contrary to concerns, SafeCare had higher consumer ratings of cultural competency, working alliance, service quality, and service benefit. Findings support using SafeCare with American Indians parents who meet customary SafeCare inclusion criteria. Findings do not support concerns in the literature that a manualized, structured, evidence-based model might be less effective or culturally unacceptable for American Indians.

  8. [Plants' materials and synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors use as a substitute of Marihuana, appearing in a current forensic toxicology practice of evidence materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Florek, Ewa; Zaba, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis sativa species Indica (Marihuana) is nowadays one of the most common plant drug, with psychoactive activity, presently appearing on the illegal market in Poland. It is reported that frequency of securing evidential materials so called substitute of Marihuana, is growing rapidly during the last few years. The substitutes of Marihuana occurring on the market are of natural or synthetic origins, for example different species of raw plants' materials having action similar to Cannabis or raw plants' materials with no psychoactive properities but with an addition of components so called synthetic cannabinoids. The review presents recent developments in drug market and current problems of forensic toxicology on the example of Marihuana.

  9. Ineffable Cultures or Material Devices: What Valuation Studies can Learn from the Disappearance of Ensured Solidarity in a Health Care Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teun Zuiderent-Jerak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Valuation studies addresses how values are made in valuation practices. A next - or rather previous - question becomes: what then makes valuation practices? Two oppositional replies are starting to dominate how that question can be answered: a more materially oriented focus on devices of valuation and a more sociologically inclined focus on ineffable valuation cultures. The debate between proponents of both approaches may easily turn into the kind of leapfrog debates that have dominated many previous discussions on whether culture or materiality would play a decisive role in driving history. This paper explores a less repetitive reply. It does so by analyzing the puzzling case of the demise of solidarity as a core value within the recent Dutch health care system of regulated competition. While "solidarity among the insured" was both a strong cultural value within the Dutch welfare-based health system, and a value that was built into market devices by health economists, within a fairly short time "fairness" became of lesser importance than "competition". This makes us call for a more historical, relational, and dynamic understanding of the role of economists, market devices, and of culture in valuation studies.

  10. Analysis of teaching materials of civic education is characterized by the value of character in building an anti-corruption culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Suyanto, Totok; Nadiroh, Ulin

    2018-01-01

    In general, corruption is very harmful to society. One of the efforts in preventing corruption is by the culture of Anti-Corruption Education in the young generation through teaching materials in schools. The research method used is qualitative description. The sample in this research is 60 junior high school teachers of Citizenship Education in Surabaya. Data analysis technique used in this research is descriptive statistic with percentage technique. The result of this research is that it is very important that the value of the character of anti-corruption education in teaching materials to grow in the young generation.

  11. The cultural effects of job mobility and the belief in a fixed world: evidence from performance forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Chiu, Chi-yue; Chan, S Fiona

    2009-11-01

    Results from 5 studies illustrate how perception of and experiences with low job mobility can shape culture-characteristic pattern of judgments and behaviors. Although both Americans and some Asian groups (e.g., Chinese, Asian Americans) consider having successful practitioners' personality traits (role personalities) to be important to job performance, the Asian groups place heavier emphasis on possessing role personalities when making performance forecast than do Americans (Studies 1-3). Moreover, even among Americans, a brief subjective experience with low job mobility can increase the perceived importance of possessing role personalities in performance forecast (Study 4), and a brief direct experience with low job mobility can increase job applicants' tendency to claim possession of role personality traits in job applications (Study 5). Furthermore, the belief in a fixed world mediates the relationship between perception of low job mobility and perceived importance of possessing role personalities in performance forecast (Study 2).

  12. Nitric oxide is a mediator of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity. In vitro evidence from primary cultures of mesencephalic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, P; Cerruti, C; Ali, S; Cadet, J L

    1996-10-31

    METH is a monoaminergic toxic that destroys dopamine terminals in vivo. Oxidative mechanisms associated with DA metabolism are thought to play an important role in its toxic effects. These ideas were supported by the demonstration that CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) transgenic mice were protected against the toxic effects of the drug. In the present study, we sought to determine if nitric oxide (NO) production was also involved in METH-induced neurotoxicity using primary cultures obtained from fetal rat mesencephalon. METH caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in vitro. Blockade of nitric oxide (NO) formation with several nitric oxide (NO) synthase blockers attenuated METH-mediated toxicity. Moreover, inhibition of ADP-ribosylation with nicotinamide and benzamide also provided protection against the toxicity of the drug. These results, together with our previous results in transgenic mice, support a role for free radicals in METH-induced toxic effects.

  13. Does Worksite Culture of Health (CoH) Matter to Employees? Empirical Evidence Using Job-Related Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngbum; Marzec, Mary L

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the relationships between the workplace culture of health (CoH), job satisfaction, and turnover intention. We also examined the moderating effect of job classification. Structural equation modeling analysis was performed on data from employees of a Korean life insurance company (N = 880). Workplace CoH directly influenced job satisfaction (β = 0.32; P Job satisfaction was directly associated with intention to leave (β = -0.42; P job satisfaction and intention to leave was stronger for managerial employees than for non-managerial employees. This study showed that a workplace CoH is related to job satisfaction and intention to leave. Supporting health at the workplace has implications beyond health that benefit both employees and the organization.

  14. Validating the cross-cultural factor structure and invariance property of the Insomnia Severity Index: evidence based on ordinal EFA and CFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Yi; Yang, Chien-Ming; Morin, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) across samples recruited from different countries. We tried to identify the most appropriate factor model for the ISI and further examined the measurement invariance property of the ISI across samples from different countries. Our analyses included one data set collected from a Taiwanese sample and two data sets obtained from samples in Hong Kong and Canada. The data set collected in Taiwan was analyzed with ordinal exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to obtain the appropriate factor model for the ISI. After that, we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), which is a special case of the structural equation model (SEM) that concerns the parameters in the measurement model, to the statistics collected in Canada and Hong Kong. The purposes of these CFA were to cross-validate the result obtained from EFA and further examine the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the ISI. The three-factor model outperforms other models in terms of global fit indices in Taiwan's population. Its external validity is also supported by confirmatory factor analyses. Furthermore, the measurement invariance analyses show that the strong invariance property between the samples from different cultures holds, providing evidence that the ISI results obtained in different cultures are comparable. The factorial validity of the ISI is stable in different populations. More importantly, its invariance property across cultures suggests that the ISI is a valid measure of the insomnia severity construct across countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for deterministic chaos in aperiodic oscillations of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in long-term culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrou, George I.; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Vlahopoulos, Spiros; Moschovi, Maria; Chrousos, George P.

    Biological systems are dynamic and possess properties that depend on two key elements: initial conditions and the response of the system over time. Conceptualizing this on tumor models will influence conclusions drawn with regard to disease initiation and progression. Alterations in initial conditions dynamically reshape the properties of proliferating tumor cells. The present work aims to test the hypothesis of Wolfrom et al., that proliferation shows evidence for deterministic chaos in a manner such that subtle differences in the initial conditions give rise to non-linear response behavior of the system. Their hypothesis, tested on adherent Fao rat hepatoma cells, provides evidence that these cells manifest aperiodic oscillations in their proliferation rate. We have tested this hypothesis with some modifications to the proposed experimental setup. We have used the acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM, as it provides an excellent substrate for modeling proliferation dynamics. Measurements were taken at time points varying from 24h to 48h, extending the assayed populations beyond that of previous published reports that dealt with the complex dynamic behavior of animal cell populations. We conducted flow cytometry studies to examine the apoptotic and necrotic rate of the system, as well as DNA content changes of the cells over time. The cells exhibited a proliferation rate of nonlinear nature, as this rate presented oscillatory behavior. The obtained data have been fit in known models of growth, such as logistic and Gompertzian growth.

  16. Comparison of the Osteogenic Potential of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Endosequence Root Repair Material in a 3-dimensional Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifaey, Hisham S; Villa, Max; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Safavi, Kamran; Chen, I-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The ability to promote osteoblast differentiation is a desirable property of root-end filling materials. Several in vitro studies compare the cytotoxicity and physical properties between mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Endosequence root repair material (ERRM), but not their osteogenic potential. Three-dimensional cultures allow cells to better maintain their physiological morphology and better resemble in vivo cellular response than 2-dimensional cultures. Here we examined the osteogenic potential of MTA and ERRM by using a commercially available 3-dimensional Alvetex scaffold. Mandibular osteoblasts were derived from 3-week-old male transgenic reporter mice where mature osteoblasts express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by a 2.3-kilobase type I collagen promoter (Col(I)-2.3). Mandibular osteoblasts were grown on Alvetex in direct contact with MTA, ERRM, or no material (negative control) for 14 days. Osteoblast differentiation was evaluated by expression levels of osteogenic genes by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and by the spatial dynamics of Col(I)-2.3 GFP-positive mature osteoblasts within the Alvetex scaffolds by using 2-photon microscopy. ERRM significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and bone sialoprotein (Bsp) expression compared with MTA and negative control groups. Both MTA and ERRM increased osterix (Osx) mRNA significantly compared with the negative control group. The percentage of Col(I)-2.3 GFP-positive cells over total cells within Alvetex was the highest in the ERRM group, followed by MTA and by negative controls. ERRM promotes osteoblast differentiation better than MTA and controls with no material in a 3-dimensional culture system. Alvetex scaffolds can be used to test endodontic materials. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Boosting Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Culture makes up an indispensable part of our lives, just like material comfort. It is thought of as an important source of a nation’s vitality and creativity, and constitutes a key factor uniting the nation,while making it distinctive from other countries. It is also said culture is a productiv

  18. Cross-Cultural Evidence for Multimodal Motherese: Asian-Indian Mothers’ Adaptive Use of Synchronous Words and Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganti, Madhavilatha; Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    2014-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental study, twenty-four Asian-Indian mothers were asked to teach novel (target) names for two objects and two actions to their children of three different levels of lexical-mapping development, pre-lexical (5–8 months), early-lexical (9–17 months), and advanced-lexical (20–43 months). Target (N = 1482) and non-target (other, N = 2411) naming was coded for synchronous spoken words and object motion (multimodal motherese) and other naming styles. Indian mothers abundantly used multimodal motherese with target words to highlight novel word-referent relations, paralleling earlier findings from American mothers (Gogate, Bahrick, & Watson, 2000). They used it with target words more often for pre-lexical infants than advanced-lexical children, and to name target actions later into children’s development. Unlike American mothers, Indian mothers also abundantly used multimodal motherese to name target objects later into children’s development. Finally, monolingual mothers who spoke a verb-dominant Indian language used multimodal motherese more often than bilingual mothers who also spoke noun-dominant English to their child. The findings suggest that within a dynamic and reciprocal mother-infant communication system, multimodal motherese adapts to unify novel words and referents across cultures. It adapts to children’s level of lexical development and to ambient language-specific lexical-dominance hierarchies. PMID:25285369

  19. Cross-cultural evidence for multimodal motherese: Asian Indian mothers' adaptive use of synchronous words and gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Lakshmi; Maganti, Madhavilatha; Bahrick, Lorraine E

    2015-01-01

    In a quasi-experimental study, 24 Asian Indian mothers were asked to teach novel (target) names for two objects and two actions to their children of three different levels of lexical mapping development: prelexical (5-8 months), early lexical (9-17 months), and advanced lexical (20-43 months). Target naming (n=1482) and non-target naming (other, n=2411) were coded for synchronous spoken words and object motion (multimodal motherese) and other naming styles. Indian mothers abundantly used multimodal motherese with target words to highlight novel word-referent relations, paralleling earlier findings from American mothers. They used it with target words more often for prelexical infants than for advanced lexical children and to name target actions later in children's development. Unlike American mothers, Indian mothers also abundantly used multimodal motherese to name target objects later in children's development. Finally, monolingual mothers who spoke a verb-dominant Indian language used multimodal motherese more often than bilingual mothers who also spoke noun-dominant English to their children. The findings suggest that within a dynamic and reciprocal mother-infant communication system, multimodal motherese adapts to unify novel words and referents across cultures. It adapts to children's level of lexical development and to ambient language-specific lexical dominance hierarchies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrous Oxide (N2O production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris microalgae cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guieysse

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO, the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38–10.1 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  1. Evidence for ligand and/or receptor-specific mechanisms of internalization and processing in cultured H35 hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.I.; Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Total cell associated (TC) and intracellularly accumulated (IC) 125 I-labeled insulin (INS) or α-2-macroglobulin (α2M) were assessed in cultured H35 hepatoma cells which were preincubated with various agents. Cytochalasin D or sodium azide, which affect microfilament- or energy-dependent receptor internalization, had no significant effects on INS TC or IC but each decreased α2M TC and IC to 50-75% of control. Monensin and chloroquine, acidotrophic agents, each increased INS TC and IC to 150-300% of control yet decreased TC and IC of α2M to 20-50% of control. Only leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, caused an increase in both INS and α2M TC and IC. These data suggest significant differences exist in the biochemical regulation or structural routes of INS and α2M receptors and/or receptor-ligand complexes in their (1) internalization, (2) processing in acidic organelles, (3) recycling to the cell surface or in combinations of the above. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies are being performed on the H35 hepatoma cell which will characterize the processing of INS and α2M receptors and provide an explanation for the differences observed

  2. Representations of Material Culture and Gender in Award-Winning Children's Books: A 20-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Peter B.; Marciano, Deb L.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children's books accurately reflect the gender-based division of labor in the culture and historical period in which they were published. A content analysis was performed on illustrations in books that won the Caldecott Medal or Honor between 1990 and 2009. The final sample included 490 illustrations in 68 of…

  3. A NATIONAL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT UTILIZING TELEVISED MATERIALS FOR THE FORMAL EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUKERJI, ROSE; AND OTHERS

    TO SUPPLY DISADVANTAGED PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH CULTURALLY STIMULATING EXPERIENCES, A TV SERIES, "ROUNDABOUT," WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN WASHINGTON, D.C. INNER-CITY PRESCHOOL AND DAY CARE CENTERS. THE 15-MINUTE PROGRAMS WERE TO INTRODUCE NEW EXPERIENCES AND SUPPLEMENT REGULAR ACTIVITIES. IT WAS HOPED THAT THE CHILDREN WOULD IDENTIFY…

  4. Materializing Multiculturalism: Deconstruction and Cumulation in Teaching Language, Culture, and (Non) Identity Reflections on Roth and Kellogg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Katherine Richardson

    2009-01-01

    As a multicultural teacher educator, the author spends a lot of time talking about cultural and linguistic "difference." Doing this work in Iowa means that many of the students she talks with come from communities that, they say, have not prepared them to have this conversation. "Everyone was just like me," they claim.…

  5. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in oil palm elite planting materials propagated by tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Lan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. RESULTS: In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569 outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN. PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection

  6. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate

  7. Evidence-based practice center network and health technology assessment in the United States: bridging the cultural gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarría-Santamera, Antonio; Matchar, David B; Westermann-Clark, Emma V; Patwardhan, Meenal B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the Evidence-Based Practice Center (EPC) network participants' perceptions of the characteristics of the EPC process and the relationship of the process to the success of EPC reports. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the three groups involved in the EPC: EPC staff, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) staff, and representatives of partner organizations. The analysis of the coded transcripts revealed three related major themes, which form the conceptual basis for the interpretation presented here: the definition of a successful report, the determinants of a successful report, and the role of AHRQ in the process. A successful report is a report that is used. The ultimate success of the core health technology assessment objective, moving from research to policy, depends on balancing two values: excellence and relevance. Our findings are consistent with the "two communities thesis," which postulates the existence of two camps that confer different values to excellence and relevance, with resulting tension. A promising model for approaching this tension is integration or collaboration, which requires linking researchers and policy makers, promoting productive dialogues about the formulation and timing of analysis, and early consideration of how the resulting analysis will be used. This effort suggests that actively blurring the frontiers between these two groups will enhance their interaction. Furthermore, enhancing the role of the AHRQ as scientific broker will maximize the potential of the EPC network.

  8. Evidence for the involvement of tetrahydrofolate in the demethylation of nicotine by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell-suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnard, François; Roscher, Albrecht; Garlick, Andrew P; Girard, Sandrine; Baguet, Evelyne; Arroo, Randolf R J; Lebreton, Jacques; Robins, Richard J; Ratcliffe, GeorgeR

    2002-04-01

    The conversion of nicotine to nornicotine by Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. cells was investigated by analysing the redistribution of label during feeding experiments with (R,S)-[2H- methyl]nicotine, (R,S)-[13C- methyl]nicotine and (R,S)-[14C- methyl]nicotine, and the results show that the N-methyl group of nicotine can be recycled into primary metabolism. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of ethanolic extracts of cells grown in the presence of (R,S)-[13C- methyl]nicotine, using 1H-13C correlation spectroscopy (HMQC, HMBC), revealed the presence of [3-13C]serine and [13C- methyl]methionine. Label was also identified in a cysteinyl derivative and in several methoxylated compounds, but no evidence was obtained with either NMR or ion-trap mass spectrometry for the presence of any intermediate between nicotine and nornicotine. However, experiments with (R,S)-[14C- methyl]nicotine indicated that 70-75% of the metabolised label was released as carbon dioxide. These results are consistent with a pathway in which the oxidative hydrolysis of the nicotine methyl produces an unstable intermediate, N'-hydroxymethylnornicotine, that breaks down spontaneously to nornicotine and formaldehyde, with the formaldehyde being metabolised either directly to formate and carbon dioxide, or through the tetrahydrofolate-mediated pathways of one-carbon metabolism. However since the key intermediate, N-hydroxymethylnornicotine, could not be detected, the possibility of a direct methyl group transfer to tetrahydrofolate cannot be excluded.

  9. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  10. Do material e do simbólico : capitalismo, imagem e a intermediação cultural pós-modernista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Valente Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have a main goal to give relevant clues on the framing of images in the cultural logic of post-modernism. At the same time, we will give space to a brief description on the relation between post-modernism and flexible accumulation, primary support from where our object comes from. Along with this, we conceptualize central dimensions such as the imagetic transmutation, the primacy of image and the effect of dematerialization induced by the image in the perception of social relations. In this way, a conceptual chain is constituted with the purpose of connecting phenomena and social processes only apparently fragmented such as the productive basis of contemporary capitalism, its cultural reality and the place of image in all that wide framing. From an epistemological point of view, one must highlight that all the theoretical work developed here points out to a parallel relation between material and symbolical domains

  11. Results of a survey regarding irradiation of internal mammary chain in patients with breast cancer: practice is culture driven rather than evidence based.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghian, Alphonse; Jagsi, Reshma; Makris, Andreas; Goldberg, Saveli; Ceilley, Elizabeth; Grignon, Laurent; Powell, Simon

    2004-11-01

    To examine the self-reported practice patterns of radiation oncologists in North America and Europe regarding radiotherapy to the internal mammary lymph node chain (IMC) in breast cancer patients. A survey questionnaire was sent in 2001 to physician members of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology regarding their management of breast cancer. Respondents were asked whether they would treat the IMC in several clinical scenarios. A total of 435 responses were obtained from European and 702 responses from North American radiation oncologists. Respondents were increasingly likely to report IMC irradiation in scenarios with greater axillary involvement. Responses varied widely among different European regions, the United States, and Canada (p variation in attitudes regarding treatment of the IMC. The international patterns of variation mirror the divergent conclusions of studies conducted in the different regions, indicating that physicians may rely preferentially on evidence from local studies when making difficult treatment decisions. These variations in self-reported practice patterns indicate the need for greater data in this area, particularly from international cooperative trials. The cultural predispositions documented in this study are important to recognize, because they may continue to affect physician attitudes and practices, even as greater evidence accumulates.

  12. MICRO ALGAE CULTURE FROM RAWA GAMBUT: INTRODUCTION STUDY OF MICRO ALGAE POTENTIAL AS BIO DIESEL RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Jumiarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production of renewable energy is being a crucial problem, since fuel demand in Indonesia rises annually while the production decreases. Microalgae have been suggested as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This research was a preliminary study to identified microalgal culture from water of peat swamp, and probe its potential as biodiesel feedstock.  Microalgal identification was conducted by morphological observation using microscope, while potential as biodiesel was probed by detection using Nile Red staining and supported by literature study. This research has identified 19 species of microalgae from culture, which were consisting of 16 species were Chlorophyceae and 3 species were Bacillariophyceae. Microalgae that  potentially to be developed biodiesel feedstock were Cyclotella atomus, Cyclotella sp, Nitzschia sp, Chlorella sp, Desmodesmus sp, Chlorella ellipsoida and Chlorella vulgaris.

  13. Unpacking the Black Box: A Formative Research Approach to the Development of Theory-Driven, Evidence-Based, and Culturally Safe Text Messages in Mobile Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Toth, Zsolt; Barron, Marcia; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Perkins, Nancy; Sleeth, Jessica; Wabano, Mary Jo; Williamson, Pamela; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-22

    Mobile-cellular subscriptions have increased steadily over the past decade. The accessibility of SMS messages over existing mobile networks is high and has almost universal availability even on older and unsophisticated mobile phones and in geographic settings where wireless coverage is weak. There is intensive exploration of this inexpensive mobile telecommunication technology to improve health services and promote behavior change among vulnerable populations. However, a neglected area of research is the documentation and critical analysis of the formative research process required in the development and refinement of effective SMS messages. The objective of this qualitative research study was to identify major factors that may impact on the effectiveness of evidence-based SMS messages designed to reduce health inequities in hypertension management in low resource settings, including Aboriginal populations in high-income countries and rural populations in low-income countries. Specifically, we were interested in uncovering the range of mediators that impact on appropriate message content transmission and, ultimately, on health behavior improvements in a range of these sociocultural settings. Collaborative qualitative research with Canadian Aboriginal and Tanzanian participants was conducted to deconstruct the content and transmission of evidence-based health information contained in SMS messages in the context of an international research project designed to address health inequalities in hypertension, and to develop a grounded theory of the major factors that mediate the effectiveness of this communication. We also examined the interrelationship of these mediators with the three essential conditions of the behavior system of the Behavioral Change Wheel model (capability, opportunity, and motivation) and cultural safety. Four focus groups with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Our grounded theory research revealed how discrepancies develop between the

  14. The effect of perfusion culture on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on biocorrodible bone replacement material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farack, J.; Wolf-Brandstetter, C.; Glorius, S.; Nies, B.; Standke, G.; Quadbeck, P.; Worch, H.; Scharnweber, D.

    2011-01-01

    Biocorrodible iron foams were coated with different calcium phosphate phases (CPP) to obtain a bioactive surface and controlled degradation. Further adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of SaOs-2 and human mesenchymal stem cells were investigated under both static and dynamic culture conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HA; [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 OH 2 ]) coated foams released 500 μg/g iron per day for Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) and 250 μg/g iron per day for McCoys, the unmodified reference 1000 μg/g iron per day for DMEM and 500 μg/g iron per day for McCoys, while no corrosion could be detected on brushite (CaHPO 4 ) coated foams. Using a perfusion culture system with conditions closer to the in vivo situation, cells proliferated and differentiated on iron foams coated with either brushite or HA while in static cell culture cells could proliferate only on Fe-brushite. We conclude that the degradation behaviour of biocorrodible iron foams can be varied by different calcium phosphate coatings, offering opportunities for design of novel bone implants. Further studies will focus on the influence of different modifications of iron foams on the expression of oxidative stress enzymes. Additional information about in vivo reactions and remodelling behaviour are expected from testing in implantation studies.

  15. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  16. [Corynebacterium imitans isolated from blood culture in a patient with suspected bacteremia - the first isolation from human clinical material in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    JeŽek, Petr; Zavadilová, Jana; Kolínská, Renáta; Švec, Pavel; Guttwirth, Jiří; Petráš, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The current view of the clinical importance of nondiphtherial corynebacteria recovered from human clinical material has changed considerably in recent decades; in many cases, a direct etiological role is assumed or has already been demonstrated. Presented is a case of suspected bacteremia in a hospitalized elderly woman with isolation of the very rare species Corynebacterium imitans from blood culture. However, the etiological significance of the isolated microorganism remains unclear. The aim was not to demonstrate the etiological significance of the isolated C. imitans strain but to report the occurrence of this very rare species which is considered to be the first isolation from humans in the Czech Republic.

  17. Dr. Hans Chang, Director, Physics Research Committee, Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), Dr. Joris Van Enst, Head of Science Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Culture and S cience, Dr. Jan Bezemer, NL Delegate CERN, Netherlands

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Hans Chang, Director, Physics Research Committee, Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), Dr. Joris Van Enst, Head of Science Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Culture and S cience, Dr. Jan Bezemer, NL Delegate CERN, Netherlands

  18. Evidence of the Current Collector Effect: Study of the SOFC Cathode Material Ca3Co4O9+d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolle, A.; Thoréton, V.; Rozier, P.; Capoen, E.; Mentré, O.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Daviero-Minaud, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of the performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes, the possible influence of the applied current collector is often not mentioned or recognized. In this article, as part of an optimization study of the potentially attractive Ca3Co4O9+δ cathode material (Ca349), special

  19. A new environmental Kuznets curve? Relationship between direct material input and income per capita. Evidence from industrialised countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas, Angela; Ferrao, Paulo; Conceicao, Pedro [IN+-Centre for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IST-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-09-01

    Many studies have focused on the quantification of the input of materials into the economy. However, the insights provided by those studies have generally been limited. This paper attempts to bring analytical value to the discussion on 'dematerialization' considering direct material input (DMI) per capita as the dependent variable in a test of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The explanatory variable is, as usual, gross domestic product per capita. The quadratic and cubic versions of the EKC are tested econometrically, using panel data ranging from 1960 to 1998 for 16 industrialised countries. The results indicate a strong and robust support for both the quadratic and cubic EKC relationships between material input and income, in industrialised economies. While the statistical support to both types of evolution may seem contradictory, it suggests that as industrialised economies grow, the intensity of material consumption first increases, but eventually starts exhibiting a decreasing trend after a certain income threshold is reached. The inverted-U, or quadratic, relationship is confirmed, even though for the ranges of income considered in this study, the trend is mostly on the increasing part of the inverted-U curve. However, the statistical support to the cubic specification suggests that these results need to be regarded with caution. Overall, the statistically stronger models are the quadratic and cubic models with country random effects, and the cubic model with country and year fixed effects.

  20. Ideology versus evidence: Investigating the claim that the literature on e-cigarettes is undermined by material conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Anastasi, Natasha

    2016-04-01

    A review of the health effects of e-cigarettes (EC) by Pisinger and Dossing concluded that any reassuring the evidence on the contents of e-cigarettes cannot be trusted because 'A substantial number of studies were funded or otherwise supported by manufacturers of ECs' and the relevant literature is influenced by 'severe conflicts of interest' (A). The review also asserts that 'Conflict of interest seems to influence the conclusions of these papers' (BC). These claims have been embraced and magnified by EC opponents. The Pisinger and Dossing review included 76 studies and considered 26 (34%) to be 'funded or otherwise supported' by the industry. As the review identifies the 'conflicted' studies, such a claim can be checked. In summary, only 10 (13%) of articles covered by the review were sponsored by the industry and only 5 are published studies. Claim 'A' is misleading. Regarding claim 'B', it appears to have been conceived independent of any empirical support. Recently, anti-EC activists and media started to use conflict of interest accusations to disparage the validity of empirical evidence showing that vaping is much safer than smoking. Evidence needs to be considered on its merits rather than from the perspective of preconceived ideological positions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Squaramide-based supramolecular materials for three-dimensional cell culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, Ciqing; Liu, Tingxian; Saez Talens, Victorio; Noteborn, Willem E.M.; Sharp, Thomas H.; Hendrix, Marco M.R.M.; Voets, Ilja K.; Mummery, Christine L.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Kieltyka, Roxanne E.

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic hydrogel materials can recapitulate the natural cell microenvironment; however, it is equally necessary that the gels maintain cell viability and phenotype while permitting reisolation without stress, especially for use in the stem cell field. Here, we describe a family of synthetically

  2. A novel co-culture model of murine K12 osteosarcoma cells and S. aureus on common orthopedic implant materials: 'the race to the surface' studied in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConda, David B; Karnes, Jonathan M; Hamza, Therwa; Lindsey, Brock A

    2016-07-01

    Infection is a major cause of orthopedic implant failure. There are few studies assessing both tissue cell and bacterial adherence on common orthopedic implant materials in a co-culture environment. An in vitro co-culture model was created using K12 osteosarcoma cells and Staphylococcus aureus in a medium incubated over metal disks for 48 h. The results showed that, in the presence of S. aureus, there were fewer osteosarcoma cells attached to the disks for all substrata tested. There were significantly more osteosarcoma cells adhering to the cobalt chrome than the stainless steel and titanium disks. Overall, in the presence of osteosarcoma cells, there were more bacteria adhering to the disks for all the substrata tested, with significantly more bacteria adhering to the stainless steel disks compared to cobalt chrome and titanium disks. Scanning electron microscopy verified that osteosarcoma cells and bacteria were adherent to the metal disks after incubation for 48 h. Furthermore, the observation that more bacteria were in the co-culture than in the control sample suggests that the osteosarcoma cells serve as a nutrient source for the bacteria. Future models assessing the interaction of osteogenic cells with bacteria on a substratum would be improved if the model accounted for the role of the immune system in secondary bone healing.

  3. A comparison of atom and ion induced SSIMS - evidence for a charge induced damage effect in insulator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Berg, J.A. van den; Vickerman, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS) study of two very low conductivity materials, polystyrene and niobium pentoxide, using on the one hand a primary ion beam with electron neutralisation, and on the other, atom bombardment, shows that whilst the initial spectra obtained were quite similar, subsequent damage effects were much greater under ion impact conditions. For an equivalent flux density the half-life of the polystyrene surface structure was four times longer under atom bombardment. Significant reduction of the niobium surface was observed under ion bombardment whereas an equivalent atom flux had little apparent effect on the surface oxidation state. These data suggest that the requirement to dissipate the charge delivered to the sample by the primary ion beam contributes significantly to the damage mechanisms in electrically insulating materials. (author)

  4. Evidence for metalsupport interactions in Au modified TiO_{x}/SBA-15 materials prepared by photodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Bastian; Wiktor, Christian; Turner, Stuart; Pougin, Anna; Tendeloo, Van, Gustaaf; Fischer, Roland A.; Muhler, Martin; Strunk, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been efficiently photodeposited onto titanate-loaded SBA-15 (Ti(x)/SBA-15) with different titania coordination. Transmission electron microscopy shows that relatively large Au nanoparticles are photodeposited on the outer surface of the Ti(x)/SBA-15 materials and that TiOx tends to form agglomerates in close proximity to the Au nanoparticles, often forming coreshell Au/TiOx structures. This behavior resembles typical processes observed due to strong-metal sup...

  5. A simple and efficient feeder-free culture system to up-scale iPSCs on polymeric material surface for use in 3D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chui-Wei; Chen, You-Tzung; Chien, Chung-Liang; Yu, Tien-Yu; Rwei, Syang-Peng; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The 3D bioprinting and cell/tissue printing techniques open new possibilities for future applications. To facilitate the 3D bioprinting process, a large amount of living cells are required. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a promising cell source for bioprinting. However, the maintenance and expansion of undifferentiated iPSCs are expensive and time consuming. Therefore, in this study a culture method to obtain a sufficient amount of healthy and undifferentiated iPSCs in a short-term period was established. The iPSCs could be passaged for twice on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dish with the conditional medium and could adapt to the feeder-free environment. Feeder-free dishes were further prepared from chitosan, chitosan-hyaluronan, silk fibroin, and polyurethane (PU1 and PU2) two-dimensional substrates. The iPSCs cultured on the chitosan substrates showed a higher proliferation rate without losing the stemness feature. Among the different materials, PU2 could be prepared as a thermoresponsive hydrogel, which was a potential ink for 3D bioprinting. The iPSCs cultured on PU2 substrates well survived when further embedded in PU2 hydrogel. Moreover, PU2 hydrogel printed with iPSCs remained structural integrity. The use of PU2 hydrogel to embed iPSCs reduced the injury to iPSCs by shear stress. These results indicate that iPSCs could be expanded on chitosan or PU2 membranes without the feeder layer and then printed in PU2 hydrogel. The combination of these steps could offer a new possibility for future applications of iPSC-based 3D bioprinting in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Response of Weeping Lantana (Lantana montevidensis to Compost-Based Growing Media and Electrical Conductivity Level in Soilless Culture: First Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cristiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common substrate for potted ornamental plants is prepared with Sphagnum peat; however, the cost and declining availability of high-quality peat, due to environmental constraints, make it necessary to investigate for alternative organic materials. The present study aimed to determine the effects of partial compost replacement with peat and the optimum electrical conductivity (EC level of the nutrient solution in potted weeping lantana [L. montevidensis (Spreng. Briq.] under a recirculating soilless system. Three compost-based substrates were prepared by mixing peat (Pe with sewage sludge-based compost (Co. at a rate of 0% (Pe90Co0Pu10, control, 30% (Pe60Co30Pu10, or 60% (Pe30Co60Pu10, respectively. The soilless recirculated closed system was equipped with two different EC levels (high and low of nutrient solution. Growing media main characteristics and plant bio-morphometric parameters were evaluated. Our first evidence clearly demonstrates that the replacement of peat with compost at doses of 30% and 60% gave the poorest results for plant diameter, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fresh and dry mass, probably indicating that the physical characteristics of the compost based substrates may be the major factor governing plant growth rate. Compost media pH and EC values, too, showed negative effects on plant growth. Considering the effect of EC level, all morphological traits were significantly improved by high EC compared to low EC in weeping lantana. Thus, based on first evidence, further research is needed on organic materials for the establishment of ecological substrates with optimal physicochemical characteristics for the growth of weeping lantana.

  7. Development and testing of culturally sensitive patient information material for Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migrants with depression or chronic low back pain (KULTINFO): study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Zill, Jördis M; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bermejo, Isaac

    2014-07-04

    Many of the approximately 15 million people with a migration background living in Germany (19% of the population) are inadequately reached by existing healthcare provision. In the literature, the necessity for cultural adaptation of information material for patients with a migration background is often cited as a measure for improving healthcare.In this study, culturally sensitive information material will be developed and evaluated for patients with a migration background and depression or chronic low back pain. In this respect, it will be examined whether culturally sensitive information material is judged as more useful by the patients than standard translated patient information without cultural adaptation. The implementation and evaluation of culturally sensitive patient information material will occur in the framework of a double-blind randomized controlled parallel-group study in four study centres in Germany. Primary care patients with a Turkish, Polish, Russian or Italian migration background with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or chronic low back pain will be included and randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. In the intervention group, culturally sensitive patient information will be handed to the patient at the end of the physician consultation, while in the control group, standard translated patient information material will be provided. The patients will be surveyed by means of questionnaires following the consultation as well as after 8 weeks and 6 months. In addition to the primary outcome (subjective usefulness), several patient- and physician-rated secondary outcomes will be considered. The study will provide an empirical answer to the question of whether persons with a migration background perceive culturally sensitive patient information material as more useful than translated information material without cultural adaptation. Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS-ID) DRKS00004241 and Universal Trial Number

  8. Evidence for nano-Si clusters in amorphous SiO anode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Kodzuka, M.; Yamamura, H.; Saito, T.; Iba, H.; Hono, K.

    2013-01-01

    Atom probe tomography and high resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown the presence of nano-sized amorphous Si clusters in non-disproportionated amorphous SiO powders are under consideration for anode materials in Li-ion batteries. After Li insertion/extraction, no change was found in the chemistry and structure of the Si clusters. However, Li atoms were found to be trapped at the amorphous SiO phase after Li insertion/extraction, which may be attributed to the large capacity fade after the first charge/discharge cycle

  9. Conservation study of the stone material used in the Culture House of Almirante Oquendo, in San Sebastian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Maribona, L.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The historical heritage of our country is mainly made up of masonry, playing the sandstones an important role. However, because of the effect of environmental conditions and pollution, these materials can loose their cement, and eventually disintegrate. Chemical consolidants can be applied in order to prevent and stop these decay process, which, when there is a lack of cement, fix the stone grains, enhancing the strength and durability of the In order to ensure the success of the application of these products in restoration works, preliminary studies should he carried out, so as to define the suitability of their use, and select the most appropriate consolidant for each specific case, as the reliability of these products is mainly determined by the microstructure of the stone material under study. This paper describes a study which was carried out on Igueldo sandstone from the main façade of the Casa de Cultura del Almirante Oquendo, in San Sebastian, which aimed at establishing the most suitable consolidation technique for the stone degradation processes observed. Firstly, the study dealt with the diagnosis of the pathologies which affected the stone from this building. Furthermore, 6 commercial consolidants were tested on quarry stone. Finally, the results were validated applying these products in real work conditions, what enabled us to select the most appropriate treatment for the restoration of the main façade of the building.

    El Patrimonio Histórico-Artístico de nuestro país, está constituido, principalmente, por edificios de piedra de sillería, en los que las areniscas juegan un papel muy importante. Sin embargo, debido, fundamentalmente, a las condiciones medioambientales y a la contaminación, estos materiales pueden perder su matriz cementante y sufrir una desintegración. Para prevenir y frenar estos fenómenos de deterioro, se pueden emplear productos consolidantes que, en ausencia de matriz cementante, fijan los

  10. THE CULTURE OF ASIMINA TRILOBA (L. DUNAL SEEDLINGS WITH A VIEW TOWARD THEIR DEVELOPMENT AS PLANTING MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Agneta Szilagyi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, an exotic North American temperate-climate species, is little known or appreciated in Europe, especially in Romania. This work, with its goal of remodeling green spaces in Baia Mare by introducing the decorative species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, proposes to test seedlings of the species in forced cultivation for producing vigorous dendrological material in a reduced time frame. Thus, in the course of experiments that took place from January to May 2014, the ecological valences of Asimina triloba were measured. The pedoclimatic conditions experienced were favorable to the growth and development of the plant in question.

  11. Prendas-Ngangas-Enquisos: turbulence and the influence of the dead in Cuban-Kongo material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Todd Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Cuban-Kongo praise of the dead in Havana turns insistently around complex agglomerations of materials called "prendas,"ngangas," and "enquisos." This article addresses the ontological status of "prendas-ngangas-enquisos," which practitioners of Cuban-Kongo affliction practices care for as entities that determine the very possibility of their healing and harming craft. Cuban-Kongo societies of affliction, in Havana collectively referred to as "Palo," stake their claim to influence others in and through these entities. In this essay I seek to position the influence generated in prendas-ngangas-enquisos as a problem for Euro-American materialism, to be addressed not through symbolic or representational solutions but, rather, by refocusing the problem itself via alternate distributions of its epistemological, historical, and ethnographic elements. Contextualized within ethnographic description, I first propose that prendas-ngangas-enquisos do not conform to dialectical logic, and should thus be positioned conceptually as something other than "objects" or "fetishes." From there, I consider Creole turns on the term prenda and explore scholarly accounts of 19th-century Cuban slavery and manumission, which I place alongside what is known about pawn slavery among BaKongo people prior to and during the Atlantic slave trade. Having established a basic series of conceptual and historiographic coordinates, I then suggest ethnographically how prendas-ngangas-enquisos come to command others, thereby guaranteeing Cuban-Kongo healing and harming sovereignty in Cuba today.

  12. Deacetylation of Chitosan: Material Characterization and in vitro Evaluation via Albumin Adsorption and Pre-Osteoblastic Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel D. Bumgardner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Degree of deacetylation (DDA and molecular weight (MW of chitosans are important to their physical and biological properties. In this study, two chitosans, HS (DDA = 73.3% and AT (DDA = 76.8%, were deacetylated with 45% sodium hydroxide under nitrogen atmosphere at 80 °C or 90 °C for up to 120 min, to obtain two series of chitosans. The polymers produced were characterized for MW by gel permeation chromatography, DDA by titration and UV-vis methods, and crystallinity, hydrophilicity and thermal stability by X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry respectively. Films, made by solution casting in dilute acetic acid at ambient conditions, were evaluated for biological activity by albumin adsorption and the attachment and growth of a pre-osteoblast cell line. Chitosans with between 80–93% DDA’s (based on titration were reproducibly obtained. Even though deacetylation under nitrogen was supposed to limit chain degradation during decetylation, MW decreased (by maximum of 37.4% of HS and 63.0% for AT with increasing deacetylation reaction time and temperature. Crystallinity and decomposition temperature increased and water contact angles decreased with processing to increase DDA. Significantly less albumin was absorbed on films made with 93% DDA chitosans as compared with the original materials and the AT chitosans absorbed less than the HS chitosans. The cells on higher DDA chitosan films grew faster than those on lower DDA films. In conclusion, processing conditions increased DDA and influenced physicochemical and biological properties. However, additional studies are needed to unambiguously determine the influence of DDA or MW on in vitro and in vivo performance of chitosan materials for bone/implant applications.

  13. Mine, thine, and ours: collaboration and co-authorship in the material culture of the mid-twentieth century chemical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Mary Jo

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of collaboration and co-authorship in chemical science from the 1920s to the 1960s are examined with an eye to frequency of co-authorship and differences in allocation of credit during a period of increasing team research and specialization within chemical research groups. Three research leaders in the cross-disciplinary and cutting edge field of X-ray crystallography and molecular structure are the focus of this historical study within a framework of sociological literature on different collaborative patterns followed by eminent scientists. The examples of Michael Polanyi in Berlin and Manchester, Linus Pauling in Pasadena, and Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in Oxford demonstrate the need to de-centre historical narrative from the heroic 'he' or 'she' to the collaborative 'they.' These cases demonstrate, too, the roles of disciplinary apprenticeships, local conditions, and individual personalities for historical explanation that transcends universal generalizations about scientific practice, material culture, and sociological trends.

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the modified FRESNO Test to evaluate the competence in evidence based practice by physical therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Modified Fresno Test was developed to assess knowledge and skills of both physical therapy (PT) professionals and students to use evidence-based practice (EBP). OBJECTIVES: To translate the Modified Fresno Test into Brazilian-Portuguese and to evaluate the test's reproducibility. METHOD: The first step consisted of adapting the instrument into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Then, a total of 57 participants, including PT students, PT professors and PT practitioners, completed the translated instrument. The responses from the participants were used to evaluate reproducibility of the translated instrument. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables, and the Kappa coefficient (K) for categorical variables. The agreement was assessed using the standard error of the measurement (SEM). RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation process was appropriate, providing an adequate Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument. The internal consistency was good (α=0.769). The reliability for inter- and intra-rater assessment were ICC=0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93); for evaluator 1 was ICC=0.85 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93); and for evaluator 2 was ICC=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). The SEM was 13.04 points for inter-rater assessment, 12.57 points for rater 1 and 4.59 points for rater 2. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese language version of the Modified Fresno Test showed satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility. The Modified Fresno Test will allow physical therapy professionals and students to be evaluated on the use of understanding EBP. PMID:26786079

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the modified FRESNO Test to evaluate the competence in evidence based practice by physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anderson M; Costa, Lucíola C M; Comper, Maria L; Padula, Rosimeire S

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Fresno Test was developed to assess knowledge and skills of both physical therapy (PT) professionals and students to use evidence-based practice (EBP). To translate the Modified Fresno Test into Brazilian-Portuguese and to evaluate the test's reproducibility. The first step consisted of adapting the instrument into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Then, a total of 57 participants, including PT students, PT professors and PT practitioners, completed the translated instrument. The responses from the participants were used to evaluate reproducibility of the translated instrument. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables, and the Kappa coefficient (K) for categorical variables. The agreement was assessed using the standard error of the measurement (SEM). The cross-cultural adaptation process was appropriate, providing an adequate Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument. The internal consistency was good (α=0.769). The reliability for inter- and intra-rater assessment were ICC=0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93); for evaluator 1 was ICC=0.85 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93); and for evaluator 2 was ICC=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). The SEM was 13.04 points for inter-rater assessment, 12.57 points for rater 1 and 4.59 points for rater 2. The Brazilian-Portuguese language version of the Modified Fresno Test showed satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility. The Modified Fresno Test will allow physical therapy professionals and students to be evaluated on the use of understanding EBP.

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the modified FRESNO Test to evaluate the competence in evidence based practice by physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson M. Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Modified Fresno Test was developed to assess knowledge and skills of both physical therapy (PT professionals and students to use evidence-based practice (EBP. OBJECTIVES: To translate the Modified Fresno Test into Brazilian-Portuguese and to evaluate the test's reproducibility. METHOD: The first step consisted of adapting the instrument into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Then, a total of 57 participants, including PT students, PT professors and PT practitioners, completed the translated instrument. The responses from the participants were used to evaluate reproducibility of the translated instrument. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for continuous variables, and the Kappa coefficient (K for categorical variables. The agreement was assessed using the standard error of the measurement (SEM. RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation process was appropriate, providing an adequate Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument. The internal consistency was good (α=0.769. The reliability for inter- and intra-rater assessment were ICC=0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93; for evaluator 1 was ICC=0.85 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93; and for evaluator 2 was ICC=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99. The SEM was 13.04 points for inter-rater assessment, 12.57 points for rater 1 and 4.59 points for rater 2. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese language version of the Modified Fresno Test showed satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility. The Modified Fresno Test will allow physical therapy professionals and students to be evaluated on the use of understanding EBP.

  17. Elemental images of Spain in 18th Century French culture: from material culture to public opinion Imagenes elementales de España en la cultura francesa del siglo XVIII: de la cultura material a la opinión pública Images elementaires de l’Espagne dans la culture française du XVIIIème siècle: de la culture materielle à l’opinion publique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Henri PAGEAUX

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to illustrate certain possibilities of adaptation of literary studies to the field of «material history» as defined in the work of Fernand Braudel («material civilization» and particularly Jean-Marie Pesez in the collective work coordinated by J. Le Goff, La nouvelle histoire (1998. It thus traces, with commentary, certain elemental images of Spain (plants, fruit, wool, horses, wine, not to mention the symbolic product, gold that may have gone through a process of literaturization, but above all, of «socialization», in «literary» works and texts (ranging from the article in the Encyclopedie to the descriptive poetry so much in vogue during the Enlightenment. In spite of the fragmentation of the inquiry, a gradual reformulation of the essential bases of a «social imagery» is being made that should serve a broader study of (French «public opinion» when faced with a foreign culture (Spanish culture.Este trabajo pretende ejemplificar unas posibilidades de adaptación del estudio literario al campo de la «historia material» tal como lo han definido los trabajos de Fernand Braudel («civilización material» y sobre todo Jean-Marie Pesez en la obra colectiva coordinada por J. Le Goff, La nouvelle histoire (1988. Se trata pues de rastrear comentándolas unas pocas imágenes elementales de España (plantas, fruta, lana, caballo, vino, sin olvidar el producto símbolo el oro que han podido pasar por un proceso de literaturización pero ante todo de «socialización» en obras y textos «literarios» (desde el artículo de la Encyclopedie a la poesía descriptiva que tanto fue de moda durante la Ilustración. A pesar de lo fragmentario de las encuestas, se van reformulando las bases esenciales de un «imaginario social» que ha de servir a un estudio más amplio de la «opinión pública» (francesa frente a una cultura extranjera (la española.Cet article vise à illustrer certaines possibilités d'adaptation des

  18. Red Roses and Gift Chocolates Are Judged More Positively in the U.S. Near Valentine's Day: Evidence of Naturally Occurring Cultural Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Vivian; Pandey, Gayathri; Tabak, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes are not static, but constructed at the moment of the evaluation, incorporating temporary contextual influences. How do meaningful events that naturally occur within a culture, such as a national holiday, shape evaluative judgments of objects related to the holiday? We focused on evaluations of red roses and gift chocolates, which are everyday objects, but also iconic of Valentine's Day in the U.S. We reasoned that if cultural events shape evaluations, then roses and chocolates would be evaluated differently near Valentine's Day. Using a large and diverse U.S. sample, we found that as Valentine's Day neared, evaluations of roses and chocolates (but not a comparison object) were evaluated more positively. Increases in positivity of roses and chocolates covaried with their increased cultural relevance, as quantified by the volume of web search queries involving these terms. These findings provide a demonstration of naturally occurring cultural priming by which the salience of cultural events shape evaluations.

  19. Comparing a Mobile Decision Support System Versus the Use of Printed Materials for the Implementation of an Evidence-Based Recommendation: Protocol for a Qualitative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Jhon; Medina Ch, Ana María; Landis-Lewis, Zach; Douglas, Gerald; Boyce, Richard

    2018-04-13

    The distribution of printed materials is the most frequently used strategy to disseminate and implement clinical practice guidelines, although several studies have shown that the effectiveness of this approach is modest at best. Nevertheless, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of other strategies. Recent research has shown that the use of computerized decision support presents a promising approach to address some aspects of this problem. The aim of this study is to provide qualitative evidence on the potential effect of mobile decision support systems to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based recommendations included in clinical practice guidelines. We will conduct a qualitative study with two arms to compare the experience of primary care physicians while they try to implement an evidence-based recommendation in their clinical practice. In the first arm, we will provide participants with a printout of the guideline article containing the recommendation, while in the second arm, we will provide participants with a mobile app developed after formalizing the recommendation text into a clinical algorithm. Data will be collected using semistructured and open interviews to explore aspects of behavioral change and technology acceptance involved in the implementation process. The analysis will be comprised of two phases. During the first phase, we will conduct a template analysis to identify barriers and facilitators in each scenario. Then, during the second phase, we will contrast the findings from each arm to propose hypotheses about the potential impact of the system. We have formalized the narrative in the recommendation into a clinical algorithm and have developed a mobile app. Data collection is expected to occur during 2018, with the first phase of analysis running in parallel. The second phase is scheduled to conclude in July 2019. Our study will further the understanding of the role of mobile decision support systems in the implementation

  20. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.