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Sample records for culture independent methods

  1. Diversity of endophytic bacteria of Dendrobium officinale based on culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

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    Cong Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were compared and evaluated in the study of the endophytic diversity of Dendrobium officinale. Culture-independent methods consisted of polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and metagenome methods. According to the results, differences were found between the three methods. Three phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were detected using the culture-dependent method, and two phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were detected by the DGGE method. Using the metagenome method, four major phyla were determined, including Proteobacteria (76.54%, Actinobacteria (18.56%, Firmicutes (2.27%, and Bacteroidetes (1.56%. A distinct trend was obtained at the genus level in terms of the method and the corresponding number of genera determined. There were 449 genera and 16 genera obtained from the metagenome and DGGE methods, respectively, and only 7 genera were obtained through the culture-dependent method. By comparison, all the genera from the culture-dependent and DGGE methods were contained in the members determined using the metagenome method. Overall, culture-dependent methods are limited to ‘finding’ endophytic bacteria in plants. DGGE is an alternative to investigating primary diversity patterns; however, the metagenome method is still the best choice for determining the endophytic profile in plants. It is essential to use multiphasic approaches to study cultured and uncultured microbes.

  2. Towards a culturally independent participatory design method: Fusing game elements into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Nakatani, Momoko; Ohno, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent ...... imply that the introduction of game elements allows PD to be effectively utilized in culturally diverse settings.......Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent PD...... method called the ICT Service Design Game to ease the prevailing concern that PD has limited applicability in other cultural settings. We conduct four experiments on ICT Service Design Game in Scandinavia and Asia to evaluate its feasibility. The experiments identify some differences in the PD process...

  3. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

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    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  4. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

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    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  5. Determination of lactic microflora of kefir grains and kefir beverage by using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

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    Kesmen, Zülal; Kacmaz, Nazife

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages collected from different regions of Turkey by using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. In the culture-independent detection, 10 different species of bacteria were detected in total by using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Among these species, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the most dominant one in the kefir grains, while Lactococcus lactis was found to be significantly prevalent in the kefir beverages. In the culture-dependent detection, the primary differentiation and grouping of the isolates from kefir beverages and kefir grains were performed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting, and the results were validated by 16S rDNA full-length sequencing. According to the results of culture-dependent methods, the most frequently isolated species were L. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus kefiri, respectively. Only 3 species, which are L. lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus, were detected with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This study showed that the combination of both methods is necessary for a detailed and reliable investigation of microbial communities in kefir grains and kefir beverages. Due to their artisan- and region-dependent microflora, kefir products can be a source of interesting lactic acid bacteria, either new taxa or strains with specific functional properties, which might be used for the development of new starter cultures and innovative food products. Therefore, an increasing demand exists for new strains that show desirable effects on the product characteristics Artisan dairy products are a candidate source of such microorganisms. For this reason, in this study, the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages obtained from

  6. Characterization of microbes in prosthetic joint specimens by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Simonsen, Ole

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging complications of joint alloplasty. Formation of biofilm is a prominent feature of PJIs and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study was to inves......Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging complications of joint alloplasty. Formation of biofilm is a prominent feature of PJIs and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study...... was to investigate the microbial diversity in surgical samples (eg. synovial fluid, periprosthetic tissue, removed prosthesis) from 22 prosthetic patients using a range of culture-independent molecular methods including broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR, cloning, phylogeny, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescence...

  7. Bacterial diversity associated with the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex determined by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

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    Ishino, Ryota; Iehata, Shunpei; Nakano, Miyo; Tanaka, Reiji; Yoshimatsu, Takao; Maeda, Hiroto

    2012-03-01

    The bacterial communities associated with rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis sp. complex) and their culture water were determined using culture-dependent and -independent methods (16S rRNA gene clone library). The bacterial communities determined by the culture-independent method were more diverse than those determined by the culture-dependent method. Although the culture-dependent method indicated the bacterial community of rotifers was relatively similar to that of the culture water, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses revealed a great difference between the two microbiotas. Our results suggest that most bacteria associated with rotifers are not easily cultured using conventional methods, and that the microbiota of rotifers do not correspond with that of the culture water completely.

  8. Bacterial diversity determination using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

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    M. Ghiasian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are taken into consideration by geologists and oil industry experts have given their association with oil and gas reserves and methane greenhouse gas production in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Gomishan mud volcano phenomenon in the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, given its oil and gas resources, has been studied by some geologists in terms of geology and tectonics but not in terms of microbiology. Accordingly, it seems necessary to study this phenomenon from the perspective of microbiology in order to identify prokaryotes living in this area. Prokaryotes diversity in Mud volcano has been studied by cultivation techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. Total cell abundance in the mud volcano from 1×101-6×101per milliliter was determined by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole direct count. The detectable proportion of Archaea to Bacteria in the community by FISH was one to five. High viable counts (1 – 3 × 106 were obtained in culture media. A total of 122 isolates were obtained, 46 colonies were selected based on primarily morphological and physiological traits, and their 16S rRNA sequences were determined. The isolated genera included Halomonas (20%, Arthrobacter (5%, Kocuria (5%, Thalassobacillus (5%, Marinobacter (20%, Paracoccus (5%, Roseovarius (5%, Jeotgalicoccus (5%, Bacillus (15%, and Staphylococcus (15%. Regarding DGGE analysis, selected bands were obtained from the gels, reamplified and sequenced. Overall, 75% of the bacterial sequences were related to Rahnella and 25% related to Serratia.

  9. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequenci...

  10. Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

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    Chen, Hsi-Chia; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2008-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in different original kefir grains were first assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) by a culture-dependent way, and were further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated that a combined method of cultivation with PCR-DGGE and subsequent DNA sequencing could successfully identify four LAB strains from three kefir grains from Taiwan (named Hsinchu, Mongolia and Ilan). Lactobacillus kefiri accounted, in the three kefir grains, for at least half of the isolated colonies while Lb. kefiranofaciens was the second most frequently isolated species. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was less frequently found but still in the three kefir grains conversely to Lactococcus lactis which based on culture-dependent isolation was only found in two of the kefir grains. It was interesting to find that all three kefir grains contain similar LAB species. Furthermore, the DGGE as a culture-independent method was also applied to detect the LAB strains. Results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens was found in all three kefir grains, whereas Lb. kefiri was only observed in Hsinchu kefir grain and Lc. lactis was found in both Mongolia and Ilan samples. Two additional strains, Pseudomonas spp. and E. coli, were also detected in kefir grains.

  11. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

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    Makonde, Huxley M; Boga, Hamadi I; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the future taxonomy of the group mainly on well

  12. Diversity of Termitomyces associated with fungus-farming termites assessed by cultural and culture-independent methods.

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    Huxley M Makonde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. METHODOLOGY: Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs. However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is

  13. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

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    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples ( P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first controlled laboratory clinical hand study to have compared traditional hand hygiene test methods with newer culture-independent characterization methods typically used by skin microbiologists. This study resulted in recommendations for hand hygiene product testing, development of methods, and future hand skin microbiome research. It also demonstrated the importance of inclusion of skin physiological metadata in

  14. The bacteriology of chronic venous leg ulcer examined by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Trine R; Aasholm, Martin S; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial microbiota plays an important role in the prolonged healing of chronic venous leg ulcers. The present study compared the bacterial diversity within ulcer material from 14 skin graft operations of chronic venous leg ulcers using culture-based methods and molecular biological methods...

  15. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, J.; Henley, J.; Tittl, J.; De Nardo, E.; Butler, M.; Griggs, R.; Fierer, N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research. PMID:28351915

  16. Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

  17. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  18. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  19. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zapka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one’s own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water. We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P < 0.001; we were unable to detect changes with glove-based samples. Bacterial cell counts significantly decreased with use of the ABHS (P < 0.05 and ethanol control (P < 0.05. Skin hydration at baseline correlated with bacterial abundances, bacterial community composition, pH, and redness across subjects. The importance of the method choice was substantial. These findings are important to ensure improvement of hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research.

  20. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Trends in culture-independent methods for assessing dairy food quality and safety: emerging metagenomic tools.

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    Yeung, Marie

    2012-12-01

    Enhancing the quality and safety of dairy food is critical to maintaining the competitiveness of dairy products in the food and beverage market and in reinforcing consumer confidence in the dairy industry. Raw milk quality has a significant effect on finished product quality. Several microbial groups found in raw milk have been shown to adversely affect the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Current microbiological criteria used to define milk quality are based primarily on culture-dependent methods, some of which are perceived to lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. To supplement traditional methods, culture-independent methods are increasingly being used to identify specific species or microbial groups, and to detect indicator genes or proteins in raw milk or dairy products. Some molecular subtyping techniques have been developed to track the transmission of microbes in dairy environments. The burgeoning "-omics" technologies offer new and exciting opportunities to enhance our understanding of food quality and safety in relation to microbes. Metagenomics has the potential to characterize microbial diversity, detect nonculturable microbes, and identify unique sequences or other factors associated with dairy product quality and safety. In this review, fluid milk will be used as the primary example to examine the adequacy and validity of conventional methods, the current trend of culture-independent methods, and the potential applications of metagenomics in dairy food research. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation of the Pseudomonas community structure on oak leaf lettuce during storage detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

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    Nübling, Simone; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Agnes

    2016-01-04

    The genus Pseudomonas plays an important role in the lettuce leaf microbiota and certain species can induce spoilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of Pseudomonas spp. on oak leaf lettuce and to follow their community shift during a six day cold storage with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. In total, 21 analysed partial Pseudomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences matched closely (> 98.3%) to the different reference strain sequences, which were distributed among 13 different phylogenetic groups or subgroups within the genus Pseudomonas. It could be shown that all detected Pseudomonas species belonged to the P. fluorescens lineage. In the culture-dependent analysis, 73% of the isolates at day 0 and 79% of the isolates at day 6 belonged to the P. fluorescens subgroup. The second most frequent group, with 12% of the isolates, was the P. koreensis subgroup. This subgroup was only detected at day 0. In the culture-independent analysis the P. fluorescens subgroup and P. extremaustralis could not be differentiated by RFLP. Both groups were most abundant and amounted to approximately 46% at day 0 and 79% at day 6. The phytopathogenic species P. salmonii, P. viridiflava and P. marginalis increased during storage. Both approaches identified the P. fluorescens group as the main phylogenetic group. The results of the present study suggest that pseudomonads found by plating methods indeed represent the most abundant part of the Pseudomonas community on oak leaf lettuce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods to Investigate the Predominant Microorganisms Associated with Wet Processed Coffee.

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    Feng, Xiaomin; Dong, Honghong; Yang, Pan; Yang, Ruijuan; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie; Sheng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation process of Yunnan arabica coffee is a typical wet fermentation. Its excellent quality is closely related to microbes in the process of fermentation. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms in the wet method of coffee processing in Yunnan Province, China. Microbial community structure and dominant bacterial species were evaluated by traditional cultivated separation method and PCR-DGGE technology, and were further analyzed in combination with the changes of organic acid content, activity of pectinase, and physical parameters (pH and temperature). A large number of microorganisms which can produce pectinase were found. Among them, Enterobacter cowanii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, and Rahnella aquatilis were the predominant gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus cereus was the predominant gram-positive bacterium, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pichia fermentans were the predominant yeasts, and all those are pectinase-producing microorganisms. As for the contents of organic acids, oxalic was the highest, followed by acetic and lactic acids. Butyrate and propionate, which were unfavorable during the fermentation period, were barely discovered.

  3. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the sixteen iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and Uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR. This further discriminated Bacillus subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality and improved shelf life.

  4. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  5. Molecular profiling of fungal communities in moisture damaged buildings before and after remediation--a comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkäranta, Miia; Meklin, Teija; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Lignell, Ulla; Rintala, Helena

    2011-10-21

    Indoor microbial contamination due to excess moisture is an important contributor to human illness in both residential and occupational settings. However, the census of microorganisms in the indoor environment is limited by the use of selective, culture-based detection techniques. By using clone library sequencing of full-length internal transcribed spacer region combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 69 fungal species or assay groups and cultivation, we have been able to generate a more comprehensive description of the total indoor mycoflora. Using this suite of methods, we assessed the impact of moisture damage on the fungal community composition of settled dust and building material samples (n = 8 and 16, correspondingly). Water-damaged buildings (n = 2) were examined pre- and post- remediation, and compared with undamaged reference buildings (n = 2). Culture-dependent and independent methods were consistent in the dominant fungal taxa in dust, but sequencing revealed a five to ten times higher diversity at the genus level than culture or qPCR. Previously unknown, verified fungal phylotypes were detected in dust, accounting for 12% of all diversity. Fungal diversity, especially within classes Dothideomycetes and Agaricomycetes tended to be higher in the water damaged buildings. Fungal phylotypes detected in building materials were present in dust samples, but their proportion of total fungi was similar for damaged and reference buildings. The quantitative correlation between clone library phylotype frequencies and qPCR counts was moderate (r = 0.59, p environments. However, making conclusions concerning the effect of building conditions on building mycobiota using this methodology was complicated by the wide natural diversity in the dust samples, the incomplete knowledge of material-associated fungi fungi and the semiquantitative nature of sequencing based methods.

  6. Microbiological characterization of traditional dough fermentation starter (Jiaozi) for steamed bread making by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Li, Haifeng; Bian, Ke

    2016-10-03

    In this study, the microbial composition of two types of Jiaozi (a dough fermentation starter in making steamed bread) was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) methods. The numbers of the cultivable bacteria on MRS at 30°C and yeast on YPD at 28°C in the maize flour Jiaozi (MFJ) were 9.21±0.16 Log CFU/g and 9.18±0.05 Log CFU/g, respectively, which were higher than that in the rice flour Jiaozi (RFJ) (Pyeasts were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rRNA gene and ITS region. The culture-dependent method showed that Acetobacter tropicalis and Enterococcus durans were the predominant bacteria strains in MFJ, and accounted for 45.7% and 25.7% of the bacteria, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus represented 12.8% and 8.6%. In the RFJ sample, the most prominent isolate was P. pentosaceus (38.6%), followed by L. plantarum (24.3%), A. tropicalis (22.8%), and E. durans (5.7%). P. pentosaceus and L. plantarum were also detected in both starters by PCR-DGGE, while some bacteria species such as A. tropicalis and E. durans, recovered as pure cultures, were not detected by direct PCR-DGGE. On the other hand, Lactobacillus brevis, Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus alimentarius detected by PCR-DGGE were not recovered in any of the media and conditions used. In the MFJ sample, the isolated main yeast species were identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus (67.2%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (27.9%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (4.9%). In addition to S. cerevisiae (42.9%), W. anomalus (27.0%) and T. delbrueckii (7.9%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was also identified as the predominant isolate in RFJ samples and accounted for 22.2%. PCR-DGGE also indicated the presence of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae in both MFJ and RFJ starters and S. fibuligera was also detected in RFJ, but T. delbrueckii was not detected in both samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular profiling of fungal communities in moisture damaged buildings before and after remediation - a comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auvinen Petri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor microbial contamination due to excess moisture is an important contributor to human illness in both residential and occupational settings. However, the census of microorganisms in the indoor environment is limited by the use of selective, culture-based detection techniques. By using clone library sequencing of full-length internal transcribed spacer region combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR for 69 fungal species or assay groups and cultivation, we have been able to generate a more comprehensive description of the total indoor mycoflora. Using this suite of methods, we assessed the impact of moisture damage on the fungal community composition of settled dust and building material samples (n = 8 and 16, correspondingly. Water-damaged buildings (n = 2 were examined pre- and post- remediation, and compared with undamaged reference buildings (n = 2. Results Culture-dependent and independent methods were consistent in the dominant fungal taxa in dust, but sequencing revealed a five to ten times higher diversity at the genus level than culture or qPCR. Previously unknown, verified fungal phylotypes were detected in dust, accounting for 12% of all diversity. Fungal diversity, especially within classes Dothideomycetes and Agaricomycetes tended to be higher in the water damaged buildings. Fungal phylotypes detected in building materials were present in dust samples, but their proportion of total fungi was similar for damaged and reference buildings. The quantitative correlation between clone library phylotype frequencies and qPCR counts was moderate (r = 0.59, p Conclusions We examined a small number of target buildings and found indications of elevated fungal diversity associated with water damage. Some of the fungi in dust were attributable to building growth, but more information on the material-associated communities is needed in order to understand the dynamics of microbial communities between

  8. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture dependent and independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Michela; Cristani, Caterina; Giovannetti, Manuela; Agnolucci, Monica

    2017-06-05

    Sourdough fermentation has been increasingly used worldwide, in accordance with the demand of consumers for tasty, natural and healthy food. The high diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species, detected in sourdoughs all over the world, may affect nutritional, organoleptic and technological traits of leavened baked goods. A wide regional variety of traditional sourdough breads, over 200 types, has been recorded in Italy, including special types selected as worthy of either Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) or Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), whose sourdough microbiota has been functionally and molecularly characterized. As, due to the very recent designation, the microbiota of Tuscan bread sourdough has not been investigated so far, the aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize the species composition of LAB and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture-independent and dependent methods. A total of 130 yeasts from WLN medium and 193 LAB from both mMRS and SDB media were isolated and maintained to constitute the germplasm bank of PDO Tuscan bread. Ninety six LAB from mMRS medium and 68 yeasts from WLN medium were randomly selected and molecularly identified by ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) and PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS region, respectively, and sequencing. The yeast identity was confirmed by 26S D1/D2 sequencing. All bacterial isolates showed 99% identity with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, 65 yeast isolates were identified as Candida milleri, and 3 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular characterization of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by PCR-DGGE confirmed such data. The distinctive tripartite species association, detected as the microbiota characterizing the sourdough used to produce PDO Tuscan bread, encompassed a large number of L. sanfranciscensis and C. milleri strains, along with a few of S. cerevisiae. The relative composition and specific physiological characteristics of such microbiota

  9. Use of a culture independent method to analyze the diversity of soil fungi surrounding Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Shouxian; Yin, Yonggang

    2012-01-01

    habitat to facilitate its large-scale cultivation. A culture-independent molecular approach—a powerful technology for microbiological ecology studies—was used to investigate the diversity of soil fungal communities in samples surrounding C. rutilus from the Beijing region of China. Metagenomic DNA...... was isolated from soil samples collected around C. rutilus, and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene library was constructed. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HinfI, HaeIII, MspI, TaqI, or MboI. Clones were selected and sequenced based on their restriction fragment...... length polymorphisms. The diversity of the fungi represented by their ITS sequences was analyzed. Our results indicate the presence of numerous fungi in the C. rutilus habitat. This study is the first demonstration of the fungal ecology surrounding C. rutilus using a culture independent method...

  10. Independence and Interdependence in Diverse Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the individualistic-collectivistic dichotomy results in mislabeling both cultures and individuals. Discusses ways in which individualistic concerns with independence and collectivistic concerns with interdependence coexist in Western and non-Western cultures. Outlines a theoretical framework explaining the coexistence of diverse social…

  11. Cultural Relativism: Occupation and Independence Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Gail Elizabeth; Wilcock, Ann Allart

    2000-01-01

    A study focused on the experiences of 22 occupational therapy students working with people from different social and cultural backgrounds in New Zealand over a 3-year period. Results highlight issues about how occupation and independence are conceptualized across cultures. (Contains 102 references.) (JOW)

  12. OSART Independent Safety Culture Assessment (ISCA) Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture is understood as an important part of nuclear safety performance. This has been demonstrated by the analysis of significant events such as Chernobyl, Davis Besse, Vandellos II, Asco, Paks, Mihamma and Forsmark, among others. In order to enhance safety culture, one essential activity is to perform assessments. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-3, The Management System for Facilitites and Activities, states requirements for continuous improvement of safety culture, of which self, peer and independent safety culture assessments constitute an essential part. In line with this requirement, the Independent Safety Culture Assessment (ISCA) module is offered as an add-on module to the IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme. The OSART programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants during commissioning and operation. By including the ISCA module in an OSART mission, the receiving organization benefits from the synergy between the technical and the safety culture aspects of the safety review. The joint operational safety and safety culture assessment provides the organization with the opportunity to better understand the interactions between technical, human, organizational and cultural aspects, helping the organization to take a systemic approach to safety through identifying actions that fully address the root causes of any identified issue. Safety culture assessments provide insight into the fundamental drivers that shape organizational patterns of behaviour, safety consciousness and safety performance. The complex nature of safety culture means that the analysis of the results of such assessments is not as straightforward as for other types of assessment. The benefits of the results of nuclear safety culture assessments are maximized only if appropriate tools and guidance for these assessments is used; hence, this comprehensive guideline has been developed. The methodology explained

  13. Application of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods for the identification of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in microbial consortia present in kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Maria Fernanda; Londero, Alejandra; Medrano, Micaela; Vercammen, Elisabeth; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Garrote, Graciela L; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Abraham, Analía G

    2013-12-01

    The biological and technological characteristics of kefiran as well as its importance in grain integrity led us to analyze the microbial kefir grain consortium with focus on Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The presence of L. kefiranofaciens in the nine kefir grains studied was demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. By culture dependent methods applying a methodology focused on the search of this species, 22 isolates with typical morphology were obtained and identified applying a combination of SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins, (GTG)5-PCR and sequence analysis of the housekeeping gene encoding the α-subunit of bacterial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS). This polyphasic approach allowed the reliable identification of 11 L. kefiranofaciens, 5 Lactobacillus paracasei, 4 Lactobacillus kefiri and 2 Lactobacillus parakefiri isolates. Isolated L. kefiranofaciens strains produced polysaccharide in strain-dependent concentrations and EPS produced by them also differed in the degree of polymerization. The isolation and accurate identification of L. kefiranofaciens is relevant taking into account the important role of this microorganism in the grain ecosystem as well as its potential application as starter in food fermentations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of microbial diversity in the pilot-scale beer brewing process by culture-dependent and culture-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Kita, Y; Kusaka, K; Mizuno, A; Goto-Yamamoto, N

    2015-02-01

    In the brewing industry, microbial management is very important for stabilizing the quality of the product. We investigated the detailed microbial community of beer during fermentation and maturation, to manage beer microbiology in more detail. We brewed a beer (all-malt) and two beerlike beverages (half- and low-malt) in pilot-scale fermentation and investigated the microbial community of them using a next-generation sequencer (454 GS FLX titanium), quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and a culture-dependent method. From 28 to 88 genera of bacteria and from 9 to 38 genera of eukaryotic micro-organisms were detected in each sample. Almost all micro-organisms died out during the boiling process. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacillus, Polaromonas, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Tepidimonas and Tissierella were detected at the early and middle stage of fermentation, even though their cell densities were low (below approx. 10(3) cells ml(-1) ) and they were not almost detected at the end of fermentation. We revealed that the microbial community of beer during fermentation and maturation is very diverse and several bacteria possibly survive during fermentation. In this study, we revealed the detailed microbial communities of beer using next-generation sequencing. Some of the micro-organisms detected in this study were found in beer brewing process for the first time. Additionally, the possibility of growth of several bacteria at the early and middle stage of fermentation was suggested. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Burgdorf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM. Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p < 0.05 from the untreated control. PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05. The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.

  16. A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, R J; Laing, M D; Morris, C D; Jamal-Ally, S F

    2014-01-01

    Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05). The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.

  17. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and

  18. Independent Learning Crossing Cultures: Learning Cultures and Shifting Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jane; Henderson, Juliet; Clifford, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    This paper contrasts the notion of "independent learning" as perceived by two informant groups at a UK institution of higher education: (1) teachers, educators and providers of education and (2) their students or "consumers" of education. Both informant groups are staff and students studying in a culture different to that of…

  19. Effects of chitosan oligosaccharides on microbiota composition of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) determined by culture-dependent and independent methods during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shiliang; Liu, Xiaochang; Huang, Zhan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-03-02

    This study evaluated the effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on the changes in quality and microbiota of silver carp fillets stored at 4 °C. During storage, 1% (w/v) COS treated samples maintained good quality, as evidenced by retarding sensory deterioration, inhibiting microbial growth, attenuating the production of total volatile basic nitrogen, putrescine, cadaverine and hypoxanthine, and delaying degradation of inosine monophosphate and hypoxanthine ribonucleotide. Meanwhile, variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples was investigated by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of silver carp fillets was 4 days for the control and 6 days for COS treated samples. Meanwhile, Pseudomonas, followed by Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, and Shewanella were dominated in the control samples at day 4 and contributed to fish spoilage at day 6. However, COS inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Shewanella significantly. Consequently, Acinetobacter followed by Pseudomonas became the predominant microbiota in COS treated samples at day 6. With the growth of Pseudomonas, COS treated samples were spoiled at day 8. Therefore, COS improved the quality of fillets and prolonged the shelf life of silver carp fillets by 2 days during chilled storage, which was mainly due to their modulating effects on microbiota. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial diversity analysis of larvae and adult midgut microflora using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in lab-reared and field-collected Anopheles stephensi-an Asian malarial vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adak Tridibesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts for numerous disease causing organisms. Vector control is one of the most investigated strategy for the suppression of mosquito-borne diseases. Anopheles stephensi is one of the vectors of malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. The parasite undergoes major developmental and maturation steps within the mosquito midgut and little is known about Anopheles-associated midgut microbiota. Identification and characterization of the mosquito midgut flora is likely to contribute towards better understanding of mosquito biology including longevity, reproduction and mosquito-pathogen interactions that are important to evolve strategies for vector control mechanisms. Results Lab-reared and field-collected A. stephensi male, female and larvae were screened by "culture-dependent and culture-independent" methods. Five 16S rRNA gene library were constructed form lab and field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes and a total of 115 culturable isolates from both samples were analyzed further. Altogether, 68 genera were identified from midgut of adult and larval A. stephensi, 53 from field-caught and 15 from lab-reared mosquitoes. A total of 171 and 44 distinct phylotypes having 85 to 99% similarity with the closest database matches were detected among field and lab-reared A. stephensi midgut, respectively. These OTUs had a Shannon diversity index value of 1.74–2.14 for lab-reared and in the range of 2.75–3.49 for field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes. The high species evenness values of 0.93 to 0.99 in field-collected adult and larvae midgut flora indicated the vastness of microbial diversity retrieved by these approaches. The dominant bacteria in field-caught adult male A. stephensi were uncultured Paenibacillaceae while in female and in larvae it was Serratia marcescens, on the other hand in lab-reared mosquitoes, Serratia marcescens and Cryseobacterium meninqosepticum bacteria were found to be abundant. Conclusion

  1. Culture-independent discovery of natural products from soil metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Micah; Hover, Bradley M; Brady, Sean F

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial natural products have proven to be invaluable starting points in the development of many currently used therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, traditional culture-based methods for natural product discovery have been deemphasized by pharmaceutical companies due in large part to high rediscovery rates. Culture-independent, or "metagenomic," methods, which rely on the heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (eDNA), have the potential to provide access to metabolites encoded by a large fraction of the earth's microbial biosynthetic diversity. As soil is both ubiquitous and rich in bacterial diversity, it is an appealing starting point for culture-independent natural product discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of the history of soil metagenome-driven natural product discovery studies and elaborates on the recent development of new tools for sequence-based, high-throughput profiling of environmental samples used in discovering novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. We conclude with several examples of these new tools being employed to facilitate the recovery of novel secondary metabolite encoding gene clusters from soil metagenomes and the subsequent heterologous expression of these clusters to produce bioactive small molecules.

  2. Interactions between contemporary American independent cinema and popular music culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many American independent films have become increasingly engaged with popular music culture and have used various forms of pop music in their soundtracks to various effects. Disparate films from a variety of genres use different forms of popular music in different ways, however these negotiations with pop music and its cultural surroundings have one true implication: that the 'independentness' (or 'indieness') of these movies is informed, anchored and embellished by their rel...

  3. Culture independent PCR: an alternative enzyme discovery strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jonas; Lydolph, Magnus; Lange, Lene

    2005-01-01

    Degenerate primers were designed for use in a culture-independent PCR screening of DNA from composite fungal communities, inhabiting residues of corn stovers and leaves. According to similarity searches and alignments amplified clone sequences affiliated with glycosyl hydrolase family 7 and glyco...... the value of culture-independent PCR in microbial diversity studies and could add to development of a new enzyme screening technology....

  4. Culture-Independent Molecular Tools for Soil and Rhizosphere Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer M. Schenk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health and soil quality. Researchers have developed a wide range of methods for studying the structure, diversity, and activity of microbes to better understand soil biology and plant-microbe interactions. Functional microbiological analyses of the rhizosphere have given new insights into the role of microbial communities in plant nutrition and plant protection against diseases. In this review, we present the most commonly used traditional as well as new culture-independent molecular methods to assess the diversity and function of soil microbial communities. Furthermore, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and provide a perspective on emerging technologies for soil microbial community profiling.

  5. Deployment of independent method of culture to detect bacteria and archaean domains in drainage basin under the influence of uranium mining - ore treatment unit, Caldas/MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Azevedo, Heliana de; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Bortolan reservoir (BR), part of the Ribeirao das Antas Hydrographic Sub-Basin, is a dam located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau region and characterized by the reception of industrial and domestic residue discharge from the city of Pocos de Caldas. Another important dam, found within the same hydrographic sub-basin and the focus of many studies as well, is Antas reservoir (AR), situated on the proximities of a uranium mine (Brazilian Nuclear Industries Ore Treatment Unit - UTM/INB), and the receiver of treated radioactive effluents originated there. The UTM/INB Pit Mine (PM) is an artificial pond characterized by its acidity and elevated electrical conductivity, besides the presence of radioactive and stable metals. The focus of this study is to determine the phylogenetic classification of the Bacteria and Archaea domains, in addition to quantify the bacterial community at points PM, BR and AR, seeking to compare the data to results from other analyzed water bodies. These microorganisms can be determined with the use of molecular techniques that allow their phylogenetic identification, such as the Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) that detects the presence of specific organisms' DNA or RNA. In the FISH method, probes produced from each domain's DNA fragments are used (EUB338 and ARC915), allowing the identification of oligonucleotide sequences with a higher degree of similarity. The bacterial cells quantification is verified by the use of the DAPI (4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) stain, allowing the density calculation of the bacteria found in the samples from AR and BR, as well as from the PM. (author)

  6. Healing in Herero culture and Namibian African independent churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaelo T. Kgatla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current phenomenon of Namibian African Independent Churches (NAICs draws attention from various people in civil society in Namibia. Although the ministries of NAICs are engaged with activities which are unusual for Christian churches, such as healing the people, fighting against evil spirits and power, performing certain rituals, prophesying and leading the worship services with African Traditional Religion (ATR as a frame of reference in 21st century, they do have a very big influence on various aspects of society in Namibia, which cannot be ignored. This is because those activities are familiar to the everyday lives of Africans and in touch with their culture. With regards to this, this article focuses on the causes of integration or harmony between the Herero culture and the NAICs.

  7. Combined culture-based and culture-independent approaches provide insights into diversity of jakobids, an extremely plesiomorphic eukaryotic lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ePánek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to discover diversity and ecology of anaerobic jakobids (Excavata: Jakobida, an overlooked, deep-branching lineage of free-living nanoflagellates related to Euglenozoa. Jakobids are among a few lineages of nanoflagellates frequently detected in anoxic habitats by PCR-based studies, however only two strains of a single jakobid species have been isolated from those habitats. We recovered 712 environmental sequences and cultured 21 new isolates of anaerobic jakobids that collectively represent at least ten different species in total, from which four are uncultured. Two cultured species have never been detected by environmental, PCR-based methods. Surprisingly, culture-based and culture-independent approaches were able to reveal a relatively high proportion of overall species diversity of anaerobic jakobids - 60 % or 80 %, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and six protein-coding genes showed that anaerobic jakobids constitute a clade of morphologically similar, but genetically and ecologically diverse protists – Stygiellidae fam. nov. Our investigation combines culture-based and environmental molecular-based approaches to capture a wider extent of species diversity and shows Stygiellidae as a group that ordinarily inhabits anoxic, sulfide- and ammonium-rich marine habitats worldwide.

  8. Culture-dependent and -independent investigations of microbial diversity on urinary catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Moser, Claus Ernst; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is caused by bacteria, which ascend the catheter along its external or internal surface to the bladder and subsequently develop into biofilms on the catheter and uroepithelium. Antibiotic-treated bacteria and bacteria residing in biofilm can be difficult...... to culture. In this study we used culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based culture-independent methods (fingerprinting, cloning, and pyrosequencing) to determine the microbial diversity of biofilms on 24 urinary catheters. Most of the patients were catheterized for...

  9. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  10. Metagenomics: The Next Culture-Independent Game Changer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D. Forbes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs including nucleic acid and antigen-based assays for acute gastroenteritis is leaving public health agencies without laboratory evidence to link clinical cases to each other and to food or environmental substances. This limits the efficacy of public health epidemiology and surveillance as well as outbreak detection and investigation. Foodborne outbreaks have the potential to remain undetected or have insufficient evidence to support source attribution and may inadvertently increase the incidence of foodborne diseases. Next-generation sequencing of pure culture isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories has the potential to revolutionize the fields of food safety and public health. Metagenomics and other ‘omics’ disciplines could provide the solution to a cultureless future in clinical microbiology, food safety and public health. Data mining of information obtained from metagenomics assays can be particularly useful for the identification of clinical causative agents or foodborne contamination, detection of AMR and/or virulence factors, in addition to providing high-resolution subtyping data. Thus, metagenomics assays may provide a universal test for clinical diagnostics, foodborne pathogen detection, subtyping and investigation. This information has the potential to reform the field of enteric disease diagnostics and surveillance and also infectious diseases as a whole. The aim of this review will be to present the current state of CIDTs in diagnostic and public health laboratories as they relate to foodborne illness and food safety. Moreover, we will also discuss the diagnostic and subtyping utility and concomitant bias limitations of

  11. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Results Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 103 to 5.5 × 108 CFU g-1. The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 103 to 5.8 × 105 CFU g-1. Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by

  12. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colin R; Randolph, Kevin C; Osborn, Shelly L; Tyler, Heather L

    2013-12-01

    Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 10(3) to 5.5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1). The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 10(3) to 5.8 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by traditional

  13. Definition and dynamic control of a continuous chromatography process independent of cell culture titer and impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowski, Rebecca A; Mathiasson, Linda; Blom, Hans; Go, Daniel; Ehring, Hanno; Khan, Heera; Li, Hong; Cutler, Collette; Lacki, Karol; Tugcu, Nihal; Roush, David

    2017-12-01

    Advances in cell culture technology have enabled the production of antibody titers upwards of 30g/L. These highly productive cell culture systems can potentially lead to productivity bottlenecks in downstream purification due to lower column loadings, especially in the primary capture chromatography step. Alternative chromatography solutions to help remedy this bottleneck include the utilization of continuous processing systems such as periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC). Recent studies have provided methods to optimize and improve the design of PCC for cell culture titers up to about 3g/L. This paper defines a continuous loading strategy for PCC that is independent of cell culture background and encompasses cell culture titers up to about 31g/L. Initial experimentation showed a challenge with determining a difference in change in UV280nm signal (ie. ΔUV) between cell culture feed and monoclonal antibody (mAb) concentration. Further investigation revealed UV280nm absorbance of the cell culture feedstock without antibody was outside of the linear range of detection for a given cell pathlength. Additional experimentation showed the difference in ΔUV for various cell culture feeds can be either theoretically predicted by Beer's Law given a known absorbance of the media background and impurities or experimentally determined using various UV280nm cell pathlengths. Based on these results, a 0.35mm pathlength at UV280nm was chosen for dynamic control to overcome the background signal. The pore diffusion model showed good agreement with the experimental frontal analysis data, which resulted in definition of a ΔUV setpoint range between 20 and 70% for 3C-PCC experiments. Product quality of the elution pools was acceptable between various cell culture feeds and titers up to about 41g/L. Results indicated the following ΔUV setpoints to achieve robust dynamic control and maintain 3C-PCC yield: ∼20-45% for titers greater than 10g/L depending on UV absorbance of

  14. Making Mavericks: Preparing Musicians for Independent Artistic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores the role that maverick qualities--"independent or unorthodox behaviour" ("The Oxford Dictionary," 2015)--play in developing and sustaining musician employability. Whilst career education for musicians often highlights new career models (Bridgstock, 2005), there is limited evidence of how these concepts work…

  15. Culture-independent quantification of Salmonella enterica in carcass gauze swabs by flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Schelin, Jenny; Norling, Börje

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate quantitative risk assessment in the meat production chain, there is a need for culture-independent quantification methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of flotation, a non-destructive sample preparation method based on traditional buoyant density centrifugation...

  16. Platform-independent method for computer aided schematic drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vell, Jeffrey L [Slingerlands, NY; Siganporia, Darius M [Clifton Park, NY; Levy, Arthur J [Fort Lauderdale, FL

    2012-02-14

    A CAD/CAM method is disclosed for a computer system to capture and interchange schematic drawing and associated design information. The schematic drawing and design information are stored in an extensible, platform-independent format.

  17. Biodeterioration of epoxy resin: a microbial survey through culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangallo, Domenico; Bučková, Maria; Kraková, Lucia; Puškárová, Andrea; Šaková, Nikoleta; Grivalský, Tomaš; Chovanová, Katarina; Zemánková, Milina

    2015-02-01

    During the 20th century, synthetic polymers were greatly used in the field of art. In particular, the epoxy resins were used for both conservation and for creating sculptures. The biodeterioration of these polymers has not been adequately studied. The aim of this investigation was to examine the microflora responsible for the deterioration of an epoxy statue exposed to outdoor conditions. Fungal and bacterial microflora were isolated from the art object, clustered by fluorescence-ITS (internal transcribed spacer), identified by ITS and 16S rRNA sequencing and tested for their lipolytic abilities by three agar assays. Different algal, bacterial, cyanobacterial and fungal clone libraries were constructed. The surrounding airborne microflora was analyzed using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The results indicated the presence, on the statue surface, of an interesting and differentiate microbial community composed of rock-inhabiting members, algal photobionts (Trebouxia spp., Chloroidium ellipsoideum and Chlorella angustoellipsoidea), Cyanobacteria (Leptolyngbya sp., Phormidium sp., Cylindrospermum stagnale, Hassallia byssoidea and Geitlerinema sp.), black yeasts related to the species Friedmanniomyces endolithicus, Pseudotaeniolina globosa, Phaeococcomyces catenatus and Catenulostroma germanicum and several plant-associated fungi. This investigation provides new information on the potential microfloral inhabitants of epoxy resin discovering a new ecological niche, occupied mainly by several members of rock-colonizing microbial species. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Multiple independent identification decisions: a method of calibrating eyewitness identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryke, Sean; Lindsay, R C L; Dysart, Jennifer E; Dupuis, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Two experiments (N = 147 and N = 90) explored the use of multiple independent lineups to identify a target seen live. In Experiment 1, simultaneous face, body, and sequential voice lineups were used. In Experiment 2, sequential face, body, voice, and clothing lineups were used. Both studies demonstrated that multiple identifications (by the same witness) from independent lineups of different features are highly diagnostic of suspect guilt (G. L. Wells & R. C. L. Lindsay, 1980). The number of suspect and foil selections from multiple independent lineups provides a powerful method of calibrating the accuracy of eyewitness identification. Implications for use of current methods are discussed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  19. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. INDICATORS AND DIAGNOSTICS OF INDEPENDENT WORK CULTURE FORMATION IN FUTURE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Соя

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of research of formation the culture of independent work of future mathematics teachers, indicating the effectiveness of selected theoretically grounded and practically implemented pedagogical conditions of its formation. Its semantic components that are interconnected and interdependent unity of cognitive, procedural, technological and motivational components were singled out on the basis of definition of independent work culture of future mathematics teachers. The system of indicators, which assessed the degree of mastering by students the culture of independent work by value-orientation, content-effective, reflective, constructive and operationally-activity criteria is reviewed.

  1. Model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1984-07-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented.

  2. Methods for safety culture improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    New IAEA publication concerning the problems of safety assurance covering different aspects beginning from terminology applied and up to concrete examples of well and poor safety culture development at nuclear facilities is discussed. The safety culture is defined as such set of characteristics and specific activities of institutions and individual persons which states that safety problems of a nuclear facility are given the attention determined by their importance as being of highest priority. The statements of the new document have recommended, not mandatory character. It is emphasized that the process of safety culture improvement at nuclear facilities should be integral component of management procedure, not a bolt on extra

  3. Halo-independent methods for inelastic dark matter scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Schwetz, Thomas; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Zupan, Jure

    2013-01-01

    We present halo-independent methods to analyze the results of dark matter direct detection experiments assuming inelastic scattering. We focus on the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and present three different halo-independent tests. First, we compare it to the upper limit on the unmodulated rate from XENON100 using (a) the trivial requirement that the amplitude of the annual modulation has to be smaller than the bound on the unmodulated rate, and (b) a bound on the annual modulation amplitude based on an expansion in the Earth's velocity. The third test uses the special predictions of the signal shape for inelastic scattering and allows for an internal consistency check of the data without referring to any astrophysics. We conclude that a strong conflict between DAMA/LIBRA and XENON100 in the framework of spin-independent inelastic scattering can be established independently of the local properties of the dark matter halo

  4. The frequency-independent control method for distributed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderi, Siamak; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Gao, Wenzhong David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG are contr......In this paper a novel frequency-independent control method suitable for distributed generation (DG) is presented. This strategy is derived based on the . abc/. αβ transformation and . abc/. dq transformation of the ac system variables. The active and reactive currents injected by the DG...

  5. Culture-Independent Identification of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis in Ovine Tissues: Comparison with Bacterial Culture and Histopathological Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal R. Acharya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease is a chronic debilitating enteropathy of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Current abattoir surveillance programs detect disease via examination of gross lesions and confirmation by histopathological and/or tissue culture, which is time-consuming and has relatively low sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate whether a high-throughput quantitative PCR (qPCR test is a viable alternative for tissue testing. Intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were sourced from sheep experimentally infected with MAP and the DNA extracted using a protocol developed for tissues, comprised enzymatic digestion of the tissue homogenate, chemical and mechanical lysis, and magnetic bead-based DNA purification. The extracted DNA was tested by adapting a previously validated qPCR for fecal samples, and the results were compared with culture and histopathology results of the corresponding tissues. The MAP tissue qPCR confirmed infection in the majority of sheep with gross lesions on postmortem (37/38. Likewise, almost all tissue culture (61/64 or histopathology (52/58 positives were detected with good to moderate agreement (Cohen’s kappa statistic and no significant difference to the reference tests (McNemar’s Chi-square test. Higher MAP DNA quantities corresponded to animals with more severe histopathology (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.60, 2.07. Culture-independent strain typing on tissue DNA was successfully performed. This MAP tissue qPCR method had a sensitivity equivalent to the reference tests and is thus a viable replacement for gross- and histopathological examination of tissue samples in abattoirs. In addition, the test could be validated for testing tissue samples intended for human consumption.

  6. Evidence for a Cultural Influence on Field-Independence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hwan Cui; Milne, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Field-independence, or weak central coherence, is a recognised phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is also evidence of cultural variation in this perceptual style, as neurotypical individuals from Western nations are more field-independent than neurotypical individuals from East-Asian nations. The majority of research on perceptual…

  7. A simple transformation independent method for outlier definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Martin Berg; Christensen, Peter Astrup

    2018-04-10

    Definition and elimination of outliers is a key element for medical laboratories establishing or verifying reference intervals (RIs). Especially as inclusion of just a few outlying observations may seriously affect the determination of the reference limits. Many methods have been developed for definition of outliers. Several of these methods are developed for the normal distribution and often data require transformation before outlier elimination. We have developed a non-parametric transformation independent outlier definition. The new method relies on drawing reproducible histograms. This is done by using defined bin sizes above and below the median. The method is compared to the method recommended by CLSI/IFCC, which uses Box-Cox transformation (BCT) and Tukey's fences for outlier definition. The comparison is done on eight simulated distributions and an indirect clinical datasets. The comparison on simulated distributions shows that without outliers added the recommended method in general defines fewer outliers. However, when outliers are added on one side the proposed method often produces better results. With outliers on both sides the methods are equally good. Furthermore, it is found that the presence of outliers affects the BCT, and subsequently affects the determined limits of current recommended methods. This is especially seen in skewed distributions. The proposed outlier definition reproduced current RI limits on clinical data containing outliers. We find our simple transformation independent outlier detection method as good as or better than the currently recommended methods.

  8. Development of the KINS Safety Culture Maturity Model for Self and Independent Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, C.; Choi, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture of an organization is cultivated and affected not only by societal and regulatory environment of the organization, but by its philosophies, policies, events and activities experienced in the process of accomplishing its mission. The safety culture would be continuously changed by the interactions between its members along with time as an organic entity. In order to perform a systematic self- or independent assessment of safety culture, a safety culture assessment model (SCAM) properly reflecting cultural characteristics should be necessary. In addition, a SCAM should be helpful not only to establish correct directions, goals, and strategies for safety culture development, but should anticipating obstacles against safety culture development in the implementation process derived from the assessment. In practical terms, a SCAM should be useful for deriving effective guidelines and implementing of corrective action programs for the evaluated organization. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performed a research project for six years to develop a SCAM satisfying the above prerequisites for self- and independent assessment. The KINS SCAM was developed based on the five stage safety culture maturity model proposed by Professor Patrick Hudson and was modified into four stages to reflect existing safety culture assessment experiences at Korean nuclear power plants. In order to define the change mechanism of safety culture for development and reversion, the change model proposed by Prochaska and DiClemente was introduced into KINS SCAM and developed into the Spiral Change Model.

  9. The Method of Culture Contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine; Motzkau, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    -cultural research can be argued to rest on what has been called implicit comparisons (Nader 1994) of such categorisations. We assume that research of local activities, such as schooling and higher education, is influenced by the researcher's emic and etic categorisations. To get beyond the risk of reproducing...... and surprising challenges of the researcher's emic categorisations. We illustrate the case with examples of different understandings of three terms, hierarchy, family, and sexual harassment, in the Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map (UPGEM) project....

  10. Systems and Methods for Gravity-Independent Gripping and Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Frost, Matthew A. (Inventor); Thatte, Nitish (Inventor); King, Jonathan P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for gravity independent gripping and drilling are described. The gripping device can also comprise a drill or sampling devices for drilling and/or sampling in microgravity environments, or on vertical or inverted surfaces in environments where gravity is present. A robotic system can be connected with the gripping and drilling devices via an ankle interface adapted to distribute the forces realized from the robotic system.

  11. Effects of transfer of embryos independently cultured in essential and sequential culture media on pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Bossi, Renata; Guimarães, Fernando; Valle, Marcello; Sampaio, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    Several culture media are available to be used in ART. However it is uncertain whether embryos would preferably benefit from one type of medium or the association of different media. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of simultaneous transfer of embryos independently cultured in two distinct culture media, on pregnancy outcome. A total of 722 couples who underwent infertility treatment were sequentially allocated into three groups: those who had half of the embryos individually cultured in MEM and the other half cultured in sequential media (MEM + Seq Group) (n = 243); those who had all embryos cultured only in sequential medium (Seq Group) (n = 239); and those who had all embryos cultured only in MEM (MEM Group) (n = 240). The pregnancy rate was higher in the MEM + Seq group (51.8 %) than the Seq group (36.7 %) (p < 0.001). However the pregnancy rate observed in the MEM group was similar to the others (44.2 %). When a logistic regression test was applied it demonstrated that the number of transferred embryos did not interfere in the pregnancy rates. Our results suggests that offering different culture conditions for sibling embryos with subsequent transfer of embryos that were kept in distinct culture media, might increase pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

  12. Capture of cell culture-derived influenza virus by lectins: strain independent, but host cell dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Lars; Zimmermann, Anke; Lehmann, Sylvia; Genzel, Yvonne; Lübben, Holger; Reichl, Udo; Wolff, Michael W

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to control influenza outbreaks are focused mainly on prophylactic vaccination. Human influenza vaccines are trivalent blends of different virus subtypes. Therefore and due to frequent antigenic drifts, strain independent manufacturing processes are required for vaccine production. This study verifies the strain independency of a capture method based on Euonymus europaeus lectin-affinity chromatography (EEL-AC) for downstream processing of influenza viruses under various culture conditions propagated in MDCK cells. A comprehensive lectin binding screening was conducted for two influenza virus types from the season 2007/2008 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005, B/Malaysia/2506/2004) including a comparison of virus-lectin interaction by surface plasmon resonance technology. EEL-AC resulted in a reproducible high product recovery rate and a high degree of contaminant removal in the case of both MDCK cell-derived influenza virus types demonstrating clearly the general applicability of EEL-AC. In addition, host cell dependency of EEL-AC was studied with two industrial relevant cell lines: Vero and MDCK cells. However, the choice of the host cell lines is known to lead to different product glycosylation profiles. Hence, altered lectin specificities have been observed between the two cell lines, requiring process adaptations between different influenza vaccine production systems.

  13. Fast and accurate methods of independent component analysis: A survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Koldovský, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2011), s. 426-438 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Blind source separation * artifact removal * electroencephalogram * audio signal processing Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/tichavsky-fast and accurate methods of independent component analysis a survey.pdf

  14. Distribution-independent hierarchicald N-body methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluru, S.

    1994-01-01

    The N-body problem is to simulate the motion of N particles under the influence of mutual force fields based on an inverse square law. The problem has applications in several domains including astrophysics, molecular dynamics, fluid dynamics, radiosity methods in computer graphics and numerical complex analysis. Research efforts have focused on reducing the O(N 2 ) time per iteration required by the naive algorithm of computing each pairwise interaction. Widely respected among these are the Barnes-Hut and Greengard methods. Greengard claims his algorithm reduces the complexity to O(N) time per iteration. Throughout this thesis, we concentrate on rigorous, distribution-independent, worst-case analysis of the N-body methods. We show that Greengard's algorithm is not O(N), as claimed. Both Barnes-Hut and Greengard's methods depend on the same data structure, which we show is distribution-dependent. For the distribution that results in the smallest running time, we show that Greengard's algorithm is Ω(N log 2 N) in two dimensions and Ω(N log 4 N) in three dimensions. We have designed a hierarchical data structure whose size depends entirely upon the number of particles and is independent of the distribution of the particles. We show that both Greengard's and Barnes-Hut algorithms can be used in conjunction with this data structure to reduce their complexity. Apart from reducing the complexity of the Barnes-Hut algorithm, the data structure also permits more accurate error estimation. We present two- and three-dimensional algorithms for creating the data structure. The multipole method designed using this data structure has a complexity of O(N log N) in two dimensions and O(N log 2 N) in three dimensions

  15. Why are price stability and statutory independence of central banks negatively correlated? : the role of culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Eelke de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates whether in OECD-countries the negative relation between central bank independence and inflation is related to culture, in the sense of common values and norms. It appears that inflation is lower in countries where people dislike uncertainty. The tolerance in a society with

  16. Culture-independent molecular approaches reveal a mostly unknown high diversity of active nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with Pennisetum purpureum—a bioenergy crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videira, Sandy Sampaio; de Cássia Pereira e Silva, Michele; Galisa, Pericles de Souza; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Nissinen, Riitta; Baldani Divan, Vera Lucia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Baldani, Jose Ivo; Salles, Joana Falcao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that elephant grass is colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacterial species; however, these results were based on culture-dependent methods, an approach that introduces bias due to an incomplete assessment of the microbial community. In this study, we used culture-independent

  17. Pole orientation of 16 Psyche by two independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Taylor, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen new lightcurves of 16 Psyche are presented along with a pole orientation derived using two independent methods, namely, photometric astrometry and magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect. The pole orientations found using these two methods agree to within 4 deg. The results from applying photometric astrometry were prograde rotation, a sidereal period of 0.1748143 days + or - 0.0000003 days, and a pole at longitude 223 deg and latitude +37 deg, with an uncertainty of 10 deg, and, from applying magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect a pole at 220 + or - 1 deg, +40 + or - 4 deg, and a modeled triaxial ellipsoid shape (a greater than b greater than c) and a/b = 1.33 + or - 0.07. The discrepancy between the high-pole latitude found here and the low latitudes reported by Lupishko et al. (1982) and Zhou and Yang (1982) is discussed.

  18. Cultural orientations, parental beliefs and practices, and latino adolescents' autonomy and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M; Caughy, Margaret O; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Dittus, Patricia J; Franzini, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents' cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the study's parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents' supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents' cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43% of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21%), bilingual/bicultural (15%), English-speaking/bicultural (15%), or US (6%) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youth's behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents' development.

  19. A review of the public health management of shigellosis in Australia in the era of culture-independent diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Alex Y C; Easton, Marion; Encena, Jess; Rotty, Jessica; Valcanis, Mary; Howden, Benjamin P; Slota-Kan, Simon; Gregory, Joy

    2016-12-01

    To review the national case definition for shigellosis following the introduction of culture independent diagnostic testing by clinical laboratories and provide evidence to reform jurisdictional public health practices for the management shigellosis., . A review of all Australian jurisdictional public health guidelines for shigellosis was conducted. Victorian 2014 shigellosis data were analysed: demographics and risk factors for cases identified by conventional culture or culture-independent diagnostic methods were described. There was considerable variation in reporting of cases to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) by the eight Australian jurisdictions, with an array of classifications based on diagnostic testing methodologies. Analysis of Victorian 2014 shigellosis data found that culture positive cases were more likely to have reported men who have sex with men (MSM) as a risk factor than PCR positive only cases (p<0.0001) and less likely to have reported overseas travel during their incubation period (p<0.0001). Over a 10-year period (2005 to 2014), only two of 86 cases who were employed in high-risk occupations had ongoing positive faecal cultures after appropriate treatment. The national surveillance case definition for shigellosis should be reviewed to facilitate standardised reporting across Australia. All jurisdictions must consider the public health significance of PCR positive only results in their surveillance risk assessments to inform management of shigellosis cases. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Independence and totalness of subspaces in phase space methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A.

    2018-04-01

    The concepts of independence and totalness of subspaces are introduced in the context of quasi-probability distributions in phase space, for quantum systems with finite-dimensional Hilbert space. It is shown that due to the non-distributivity of the lattice of subspaces, there are various levels of independence, from pairwise independence up to (full) independence. Pairwise totalness, totalness and other intermediate concepts are also introduced, which roughly express that the subspaces overlap strongly among themselves, and they cover the full Hilbert space. A duality between independence and totalness, that involves orthocomplementation (logical NOT operation), is discussed. Another approach to independence is also studied, using Rota's formalism on independent partitions of the Hilbert space. This is used to define informational independence, which is proved to be equivalent to independence. As an application, the pentagram (used in discussions on contextuality) is analysed using these concepts.

  1. Culture-independent investigation of the microbiome associated with the nematode Acrobeloides maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Baquiran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Symbioses between metazoans and microbes are widespread and vital to many ecosystems. Recent work with several nematode species has suggested that strong associations with microbial symbionts may also be common among members of this phylu. In this work we explore possible symbiosis between bacteria and the free living soil bacteriovorous nematode Acrobeloides maximus. METHODOLOGY: We used a soil microcosm approach to expose A. maximus populations grown monoxenically on RFP labeled Escherichia coli in a soil slurry. Worms were recovered by density gradient separation and examined using both culture-independent and isolation methods. A 16S rRNA gene survey of the worm-associated bacteria was compared to the soil and to a similar analysis using Caenorhabditis elegans N2. Recovered A. maximus populations were maintained on cholesterol agar and sampled to examine the population dynamics of the microbiome. RESULTS: A consistent core microbiome was extracted from A. maximus that differed from those in the bulk soil or the C. elegans associated set. Three genera, Ochrobactrum, Pedobacter, and Chitinophaga, were identified at high levels only in the A. maximus populations, which were less diverse than the assemblage associated with C. elegans. Putative symbiont populations were maintained for at least 4 months post inoculation, although the levels decreased as the culture aged. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using probes specific for Ochrobactrum and Pedobacter stained bacterial cells in formaldehyde fixed nematode guts. CONCLUSIONS: Three microorganisms were repeatedly observed in association with Acrobeloides maximus when recovered from soil microcosms. We isolated several Ochrobactrum sp. and Pedobacter sp., and demonstrated that they inhabit the nematode gut by FISH. Although their role in A. maximus is not resolved, we propose possible mutualistic roles for these bacteria in protection of the host against pathogens and

  2. Revisiting a model-independent dark energy reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sendra, Irene [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    In this work we offer new insights into the model-independent dark energy reconstruction method developed by Daly and Djorgovski (Astrophys. J. 597:9, 2003; Astrophys. J. 612:652, 2004; Astrophys. J. 677:1, 2008). Our results, using updated SNeIa and GRBs, allow to highlight some of the intrinsic weaknesses of the method. Conclusions on the main dark energy features as drawn from this method are intimately related to the features of the samples themselves, particularly for GRBs, which are poor performers in this context and cannot be used for cosmological purposes, that is, the state of the art does not allow to regard them on the same quality basis as SNeIa. We find there is a considerable sensitivity to some parameters (window width, overlap, selection criteria) affecting the results. Then, we try to establish what the current redshift range is for which one can make solid predictions on dark energy evolution. Finally, we strengthen the former view that this model is modest in the sense it provides only a picture of the global trend and has to be managed very carefully. But, on the other hand, we believe it offers an interesting complement to other approaches, given that it works on minimal assumptions. (orig.)

  3. AN IMPROVED INTERFEROMETRIC CALIBRATION METHOD BASED ON INDEPENDENT PARAMETER DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric SAR is sensitive to earth surface undulation. The accuracy of interferometric parameters plays a significant role in precise digital elevation model (DEM. The interferometric calibration is to obtain high-precision global DEM by calculating the interferometric parameters using ground control points (GCPs. However, interferometric parameters are always calculated jointly, making them difficult to decompose precisely. In this paper, we propose an interferometric calibration method based on independent parameter decomposition (IPD. Firstly, the parameters related to the interferometric SAR measurement are determined based on the three-dimensional reconstruction model. Secondly, the sensitivity of interferometric parameters is quantitatively analyzed after the geometric parameters are completely decomposed. Finally, each interferometric parameter is calculated based on IPD and interferometric calibration model is established. We take Weinan of Shanxi province as an example and choose 4 TerraDEM-X image pairs to carry out interferometric calibration experiment. The results show that the elevation accuracy of all SAR images is better than 2.54 m after interferometric calibration. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain the accuracy of DEM products better than 2.43 m in the flat area and 6.97 m in the mountainous area, which can prove the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed IPD based interferometric calibration method. The results provide a technical basis for topographic mapping of 1 : 50000 and even larger scale in the flat area and mountainous area.

  4. An Improved Interferometric Calibration Method Based on Independent Parameter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Zuo, X.; Li, T.; Chen, Q.; Geng, X.

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric SAR is sensitive to earth surface undulation. The accuracy of interferometric parameters plays a significant role in precise digital elevation model (DEM). The interferometric calibration is to obtain high-precision global DEM by calculating the interferometric parameters using ground control points (GCPs). However, interferometric parameters are always calculated jointly, making them difficult to decompose precisely. In this paper, we propose an interferometric calibration method based on independent parameter decomposition (IPD). Firstly, the parameters related to the interferometric SAR measurement are determined based on the three-dimensional reconstruction model. Secondly, the sensitivity of interferometric parameters is quantitatively analyzed after the geometric parameters are completely decomposed. Finally, each interferometric parameter is calculated based on IPD and interferometric calibration model is established. We take Weinan of Shanxi province as an example and choose 4 TerraDEM-X image pairs to carry out interferometric calibration experiment. The results show that the elevation accuracy of all SAR images is better than 2.54 m after interferometric calibration. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain the accuracy of DEM products better than 2.43 m in the flat area and 6.97 m in the mountainous area, which can prove the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed IPD based interferometric calibration method. The results provide a technical basis for topographic mapping of 1 : 50000 and even larger scale in the flat area and mountainous area.

  5. Protocol independent transmission method in software defined optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuze; Li, Hui; Hou, Yanfang; Qiu, Yajun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of big data and cloud computing technology, the traditional software-defined network is facing new challenges (e.i., ubiquitous accessibility, higher bandwidth, more flexible management and greater security). Using a proprietary protocol or encoding format is a way to improve information security. However, the flow, which carried by proprietary protocol or code, cannot go through the traditional IP network. In addition, ultra- high-definition video transmission service once again become a hot spot. Traditionally, in the IP network, the Serial Digital Interface (SDI) signal must be compressed. This approach offers additional advantages but also bring some disadvantages such as signal degradation and high latency. To some extent, HD-SDI can also be regard as a proprietary protocol, which need transparent transmission such as optical channel. However, traditional optical networks cannot support flexible traffics . In response to aforementioned challenges for future network, one immediate solution would be to use NFV technology to abstract the network infrastructure and provide an all-optical switching topology graph for the SDN control plane. This paper proposes a new service-based software defined optical network architecture, including an infrastructure layer, a virtualization layer, a service abstract layer and an application layer. We then dwell on the corresponding service providing method in order to implement the protocol-independent transport. Finally, we experimentally evaluate that proposed service providing method can be applied to transmit the HD-SDI signal in the software-defined optical network.

  6. Bacterial diversity of Taxus rhizosphere: culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Ge, Guang Bo; Yang, Ling

    2008-07-01

    The regional variability of Taxus rhizosphere bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of three large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the Taxus rhizosphere in different regions of China (subtropical and temperate regions). One hundred and forty-six clones were screened for three libraries. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was higher in the library from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region compared with the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. On the other hand, Acidobacteria was more abundant in libraries from the subtropical Taxus mairei rhizosphere. Richness estimates and diversity indices of three libraries revealed major differences, indicating a higher richness in the Taxus rhizosphere bacterial communities of the subtropical region and considerable variability in the bacterial community composition within this region. By enrichment culture, a novel Actinobacteria strain DICP16 was isolated from the T. xmedia rhizosphere of the temperate region and was identified as Leifsonia shinshuensis sp. via 16S rRNA gene and gyrase B sequence analyses. DICP16 was able to remove the xylosyl group from 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylbaccatin III and 7-xylosyl-10-deacetylpaclitaxel, thereby making the xylosyltaxanes available as sources of 10-deacetylbaccatin III and the anticancer drug paclitaxel. Taken together, the present studies provide, for the first time, the knowledge of the biodiversity of microorganisms populating Taxus rhizospheres.

  7. On the number of independent cultural traits carried by individuals and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Laurent; Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-02-12

    In species subject to individual and social learning, each individual is likely to express a certain number of different cultural traits acquired during its lifetime. If the process of trait innovation and transmission reaches a steady state in the population, the number of different cultural traits carried by an individual converges to some stationary distribution. We call this the trait-number distribution. In this paper, we derive the trait-number distributions for both individuals and populations when cultural traits are independent of each other. Our results suggest that as the number of cultural traits becomes large, the trait-number distributions approach Poisson distributions so that their means characterize cultural diversity in the population. We then analyse how the mean trait number varies at both the individual and population levels as a function of various demographic features, such as population size and subdivision, and social learning rules, such as conformism and anti-conformism. Diversity at the individual and population levels, as well as at the level of cultural homogeneity within groups, depends critically on the details of population demography and the individual and social learning rules.

  8. Is perceived emotional support beneficial? Well-being and health in independent and interdependent cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yukiko; Kitayama, Shinobu; Mesquita, Batja; Reyes, Jose Alberto S; Morling, Beth

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies show there is little or no association between perceived emotional support and well-being in European American culture. The authors hypothesized that this paradoxical absence of any benefit of perceived support is unique to cultural contexts that privilege independence rather than interdependence of the self. Study 1 tested college students and found, as predicted, that among Euro-Americans a positive effect of perceived emotional support on subjective well-being (positive affect) was weak and, moreover, it disappeared entirely once self-esteem was statistically controlled. In contrast, among Asians in Asia (Japanese and Filipinos) perceived emotional support positively predicted subjective well-being even after self-esteem was controlled. Study 2 extended Study 1 by testing both Japanese and American adults in midlife with respect to multiple indicators of well-being and physical health. Overall, the evidence underscores the central significance of culture as a moderator of the effectiveness of perceived emotional support.

  9. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Miyamoto, Yuri; Markus, Hazel Rose; Rigotti, Attilio; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Coe, Christopher L; Love, Gayle D; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-10-01

    Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the United States and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the United States, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using nonmeat food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Furthermore, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the United States and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Scattering in an intense radiation field: Time-independent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1977-01-01

    The standard time-independent formulation of nonrelativistic scattering theory is here extended to take into account the presence of an intense external radiation field. In the case of scattering by a static potential the extension is accomplished by the introduction of asymptotic states and intermediate-state propagators which account for the absorption and induced emission of photons by the projectile as it propagates through the field. Self-energy contributions to the propagator are included by a systematic summation of forward-scattering terms. The self-energy analysis is summarized in the form of a modified perturbation expansion of the type introduced by Watson some time ago in the context of nuclear-scattering theory. This expansion, which has a simple continued-fraction structure in the case of a single-mode field, provides a generally applicable successive approximation procedure for the propagator and the asymptotic states. The problem of scattering by a composite target is formulated using the effective-potential method. The modified perturbation expansion which accounts for self-energy effects is applicable here as well. A discussion of a coupled two-state model is included to summarize and clarify the calculational procedures

  11. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of potentially functional biphenyl-degrading bacterial community in response to extracellular organic matter from Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yin-Dong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Ding, Lin-Xian; Shen, Chao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Biphenyl (BP)-degrading bacteria were identified to degrade various polychlorinated BP (PCB) congers in long-term PCB-contaminated sites. Exploring BP-degrading capability of potentially useful bacteria was performed for enhancing PCB bioremediation. In the present study, the bacterial composition of the PCB-contaminated sediment sample was first investigated. Then extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Micrococcus luteus was used to enhance BP biodegradation. The effect of the EOM on the composition of bacterial community was investigated by combining with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The obtained results indicate that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were predominant community in the PCB-contaminated sediment. EOM from M. luteus could stimulate the activity of some potentially difficult-to-culture BP degraders, which contribute to significant enhancement of BP biodegradation. The potentially difficult-to-culture bacteria in response to EOM addition were mainly Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria respectively. This study provides new insights into exploration of functional difficult-to-culture bacteria with EOM addition and points out broader BP/PCB degrading, which could be employed for enhancing PCB-bioremediation processes. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Culture-Independent Evaluation of the Appendix and Rectum Microbiomes in Children with and without Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Katherine P.; Fraser, Claire M.; Sandler, Anthony D.; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The function of the appendix is largely unknown, but its microbiota likely contributes to function. Alterations in microbiota may contribute to appendicitis, but conventional culture studies have not yielded conclusive information. We conducted a pilot, culture-independent 16S rRNA-based microbiota study of paired appendix and rectal samples. Methods We collected appendix and rectal swabs from 21 children undergoing appendectomy, six with normal appendices and fifteen with appendicitis (nine perforated). After DNA extraction, we amplified and sequenced 16S rRNA genes and analyzed sequences using CLoVR. We identified organisms differing in relative abundance using ANOVA (pappendicitis vs. normal), and disease severity (perforated vs. non-perforated). Results We identified 290 taxa in the study's samples. Three taxa were significantly increased in normal appendices vs. normal rectal samples: Fusibacter (p = 0.009), Selenomonas (p = 0.026), and Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.049). Five taxa were increased in abundance in normal vs. diseased appendices: Paenibacillaceae (p = 0.005), Acidobacteriaceae GP4 (p = 0.019), Pseudonocardinae (p = 0.019), Bergeyella (p = 0.019) and Rhizobium (p = 0.045). Twelve taxa were increased in the appendices of appendicitis patients vs. normal appendix: Peptostreptococcus (p = 0.0003), Bilophila (p = 0.0004), Bulleidia (p = 0.012), Fusobacterium (p = 0.018), Parvimonas (p = 0.003), Mogibacterium (p = 0.012), Aminobacterium (p = 0.019), Proteus (p = 0.028), Actinomycineae (p = 0.028), Anaerovorax (p = 0.041), Anaerofilum (p = 0.045), Porphyromonas (p = 0.010). Five taxa were increased in appendices in patients with perforated vs. nonperforated appendicitis: Bulleidia (p = 0.004), Fusibacter (p = 0.005), Prevotella (p = 0.021), Porphyromonas (p = 0.030), Dialister (p = 0.035). Three taxa were increased in rectum samples of patients with

  13. Polyphony: superposition independent methods for ensemble-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William R; Montalvão, Rinaldo W; Blundell, Tom L

    2014-09-30

    Structure-based drug design is an iterative process, following cycles of structural biology, computer-aided design, synthetic chemistry and bioassay. In favorable circumstances, this process can lead to the structures of hundreds of protein-ligand crystal structures. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations are increasingly being used to further explore the conformational landscape of these complexes. Currently, methods capable of the analysis of ensembles of crystal structures and MD trajectories are limited and usually rely upon least squares superposition of coordinates. Novel methodologies are described for the analysis of multiple structures of a protein. Statistical approaches that rely upon residue equivalence, but not superposition, are developed. Tasks that can be performed include the identification of hinge regions, allosteric conformational changes and transient binding sites. The approaches are tested on crystal structures of CDK2 and other CMGC protein kinases and a simulation of p38α. Known interaction - conformational change relationships are highlighted but also new ones are revealed. A transient but druggable allosteric pocket in CDK2 is predicted to occur under the CMGC insert. Furthermore, an evolutionarily-conserved conformational link from the location of this pocket, via the αEF-αF loop, to phosphorylation sites on the activation loop is discovered. New methodologies are described and validated for the superimposition independent conformational analysis of large collections of structures or simulation snapshots of the same protein. The methodologies are encoded in a Python package called Polyphony, which is released as open source to accompany this paper [http://wrpitt.bitbucket.org/polyphony/].

  14. DNA-based culture-independent analysis detects the presence of group a streptococcus in throat samples from healthy adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Aikawa, Chihiro; Nozawa, Takashi; Murase, Kazunori; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2016-10-11

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) causes a range of mild to severe infections in humans. It can also colonize healthy persons asymptomatically. Therefore, it is important to study GAS carriage in healthy populations, as carriage of it might lead to subsequent disease manifestation, clonal spread in the community, and/or diversification of the organism. Throat swab culture is the gold standard method for GAS detection. Advanced culture-independent methods provide rapid and efficient detection of microorganisms directly from clinical samples. We investigated the presence of GAS in throat swab samples from healthy adults in Japan using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Two throat swab samples were collected from 148 healthy volunteers. One was cultured on selective medium, while total DNA extracted from the other was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified with two GAS-specific primer pairs: one was a newly designed 16S rRNA-specific primer pair, the other a previously described V-Na + -ATPase primer pair. Although only 5 (3.4 %) of the 148 samples were GAS-positive by the culture-dependent method, 146 (98.6 %) were positive for the presence of GAS DNA by the culture-independent method. To obtain serotype information by emm typing, we performed nested PCR using newly designed emm primers. We detected the four different emm types in 25 (16.9 %) samples, and these differed from the common emm types associated with GAS associated diseases in Japan. The different emm types detected in the healthy volunteers indicate that the presence of unique emm types might be associated with GAS carriage. Our results suggest that culture-independent methods should be considered for profiling GAS in the healthy hosts, with a view to obtaining better understanding of these organisms. The GAS-specific primers (16S rRNA and V-Na + -ATPase) used in this study can be used to estimate the maximum potential GAS carriage in people.

  15. A method to identify dependencies between organizational factors using statistical independence test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, C.H.; Kim, C.; Jae, M.; Jung, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on organizational factors in nuclear power plants have been made especially in recent years, most of which have assumed organizational factors to be independent. However, since organizational factors characterize the organization in terms of safety and efficiency etc. and there would be some factors that have close relations between them. Therefore, from whatever point of view, if we want to identify the characteristics of an organization, the dependence relationships should be considered to get an accurate result. In this study the organization of a reference nuclear power plant in Korea was analyzed for the trip cases of that plant using 20 organizational factors that Jacobs and Haber had suggested: 1) coordination of work, 2) formalization, 3) organizational knowledge, 4) roles and responsibilities, 5) external communication, 6) inter-department communications, 7) intra-departmental communications, 8) organizational culture, 9) ownership, 10) safety culture, 11) time urgency, 12) centralization, 13) goal prioritization, 14) organizational learning, 15) problem identification, 16) resource allocation, 17) performance evaluation, 18) personnel selection, 19) technical knowledge, and 20) training. By utilizing the results of the analysis, a method to identify the dependence relationships between organizational factors is presented. The statistical independence test for the analysis result of the trip cases is adopted to reveal dependencies. This method is geared to the needs to utilize many kinds of data that has been obtained as the operating years of nuclear power plants increase, and more reliable dependence relations may be obtained by using these abundant data

  16. Bringing the banjo back to life: The field of dutch independent folk music as participatory culture

    OpenAIRE

    Poecke, Niels; Michael, Janna

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate factors underlying the production of independent folk music (indie folk) in the Netherlands. By studying the creation, distribution and reception of indie folk music through in-depth interviewing, we argue that the social production of indie folk music is affected by a shift towards 'participatory culture' brought about by the rise of the Internet and Web 2.0. We note how Web 2.0 helps musicians to educate themselves and to develop careers in music. Se...

  17. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) moderates cultural difference in independent versus interdependent social orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Yoon, Carolyn; Tompson, Steve; Huff, Sarah; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    Prior research suggests that cultural groups vary on an overarching dimension of independent versus interdependent social orientation, with European Americans being more independent, or less interdependent, than Asians. Drawing on recent evidence suggesting that the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) plays a role in modulating cultural learning, we predicted that carriers of DRD4 polymorphisms linked to increased dopamine signaling (7- or 2-repeat alleles) would show higher levels of culturally dominant social orientations, compared with noncarriers. European Americans and Asian-born Asians (total N = 398) reported their social orientation on multiple scales. They were also genotyped for DRD4. As in earlier work, European Americans were more independent, and Asian-born Asians more interdependent. This cultural difference was significantly more pronounced for carriers of the 7- or 2-repeat alleles than for noncarriers. Indeed, no cultural difference was apparent among the noncarriers. Implications for potential coevolution of genes and culture are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Low Fluid Shear Culture of Staphylococcus Aureus Represses hfq Expression and Induces an Attachment-Independent Biofilm Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, S. L.; Nickerson, C. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, experiences fluctuations in fluid shear during infection and colonization of a human host. Colonization frequently occurs at mucus membrane sites such as in the gastrointestinal tract where the bacterium may experience low levels of fluid shear. The response of S. aureus to low fluid shear remains unclear. Methods: S. aureus was cultured to stationary phase using Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors which produce a physiologically relevant low fluid shear environment. The bacterial aggregates that developed in the RWV were evaluated by electron microscopy as well as for antibiotic resistance and other virulence-associated stressors. Genetic expression profiles for the low-shear cultured S. aureus were determined by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Planktonic S. aureus cultures in the low-shear environment formed aggregates completely encased in high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. In addition, these aggregates demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance indicating attachment-independent biofilm formation. Carotenoid production in the low-shear cultured S. aureus was significantly decreased, and these cultures displayed an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and killing by whole blood. The hfq gene, associated with low-shear growth in Gram negative organisms, was also found to be down-regulated in S. aureus. Conclusions: Collectively, this data suggests that S. aureus decreases virulence characteristics in favor of a biofilm-dwelling colonization phenotype in response to a low fluid shear environment. Furthermore, the identification of an Hfq response to low-shear culture in S. aureus, in addition to the previously reported responses in Gram negative organisms, strongly suggests an evolutionarily conserved response to mechanical stimuli among structurally diverse prokaryotes.

  19. Culture-independent diagnostic testing: have we opened Pandora's box for good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon A

    2014-11-01

    The ability to accurately and quickly identify microbial agents associated with infectious diseases has been a longstanding and continuous goal of diagnostic microbiology laboratories. Over the course of several decades, technology and testing methodologies in this field have gradually evolved from traditional- or classic-based culture and identification approaches to antigen capture systems and more molecular-oriented applications. Recently, these molecular-based applications have signaled a new era in clinical diagnostic microbiology with the commercial introduction of culture-independent diagnostic testing (CIDT) systems. The first major commercial venture into the CIDT arena involves the detection of acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Several commercial products are now on the market globally with at least 4 Food and Drug Administration approved since January of 2013. These new systems offer the direct detection of a variety of enteropathogens quickly without the need for traditional culture. In Greek mythology, Pandora opened a "jar" or "box" out of curiosity thereby releasing all of humanity's evils most notably diseases and plagues according to Hesiod's Theogony. While not ill-intentioned the only thing left in the box was Hope. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-level method with coarse space size independent convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, P.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Tezaur, R.; Krizkova, J. [UWB, Plzen (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The basic disadvantage of the standard two-level method is the strong dependence of its convergence rate on the size of the coarse-level problem. In order to obtain the optimal convergence result, one is limited to using a coarse space which is only a few times smaller than the size of the fine-level one. Consequently, the asymptotic cost of the resulting method is the same as in the case of using a coarse-level solver for the original problem. Today`s two-level domain decomposition methods typically offer an improvement by yielding a rate of convergence which depends on the ratio of fine and coarse level only polylogarithmically. However, these methods require the use of local subdomain solvers for which straightforward application of iterative methods is problematic, while the usual application of direct solvers is expensive. We suggest a method diminishing significantly these difficulties.

  1. Culture-independent analysis of aerosol microbiology in a metropolitan subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles E; Baumgartner, Laura K; Harris, J Kirk; Peterson, Kristen L; Stevens, Mark J; Frank, Daniel N; Pace, Norman R

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the composition and diversity of microorganisms associated with bioaerosols in a heavily trafficked metropolitan subway environment. We collected bioaerosols by fluid impingement on several New York City subway platforms and associated sites in three sampling sessions over a 1.5-year period. The types and quantities of aerosolized microorganisms were determined by culture-independent phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences by using both Sanger (universal) and pyrosequencing (bacterial) technologies. Overall, the subway bacterial composition was relatively simple; only 26 taxonomic families made up ~75% of the sequences determined. The microbiology was more or less similar throughout the system and with time and was most similar to outdoor air, consistent with highly efficient air mixing in the system. Identifiable bacterial sequences indicated that the subway aerosol assemblage was composed of a mixture of genera and species characteristic of soil, environmental water, and human skin commensal bacteria. Eukaryotic diversity was mainly fungal, dominated by organisms of types associated with wood rot. Human skin bacterial species (at 99% rRNA sequence identity) included the Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis (the most abundant and prevalent commensal of the human integument), S. hominis, S. cohnii, S. caprae, and S. haemolyticus, all well-documented human commensal bacteria. We encountered no organisms of public health concern. This study is the most extensive culture-independent survey of subway microbiota so far and puts in place pre-event information required for any bioterrorism surveillance activities or monitoring of the microbiological impact of recent subway flooding events.

  2. Mental health service user participation in Chinese culture: a model of independence or interdependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Pui-Shan; Tse, Samson Shu-Ki; Davidson, Larry; Cheng, Patrick

    2017-12-22

    Current models of user participation in mental health services were developed within Western culture and thus may not be applicable to Chinese communities. To present a new model of user participation, which emerged from research within a Chinese community, for understanding the processes of and factors influencing user participation in a non-Western culture. Multiple qualitative methods, including focus groups, individual in-depth interviews, and photovoice, were applied within the framework of constructivist grounded theory and collaborative research. Diverging from conceptualizations of user participation with emphasis on civil rights and the individual as a central agent, participants in the study highlighted the interpersonal dynamics between service users and different players affecting the participation intensity and outcomes. They valued a reciprocal relationship with their caregivers in making treatment decisions, cooperated with staff to observe power hierarchies and social harmony, identified the importance of peer support in enabling service engagement and delivery, and emphasized professional facilitation in advancing involvement at the policy level. User participation in Chinese culture embeds dynamic interdependence. The proposed model adds this new dimension to the existing frameworks and calls for attention to the complex local ecology and cultural consistency in realizing user participation.

  3. Cross-cultural validation of the Persian version of the Functional Independence Measure for patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Raji, Parvin; Shamili, Aryan; Amini, Malek; Hasson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) into the Persian language and to test the reliability and validity of the Persian FIM (PFIM) in patients with stroke. In this cross-sectional study carried out in an outpatient stroke rehabilitation center, 40 patients with stroke (mean age 60 years) were participated. A standard forward-backward translation method and expert panel validation was followed to develop the PFIM. Two experienced occupational therapists (OTs) assessed the patients independently in all items of the PFIM in a single session for inter-rater reliability. One of the OTs reassessed the patients after 1 week for intra-rater reliability. There were no floor or ceiling effects for the PFIM. Excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability was noted for the PFIM total score, motor and cognitive subscales (ICC(agreement)0.88-0.98). According to the Bland-Altman agreement analysis, there was no systematic bias between raters and within raters. The internal consistency of the PFIM was with Cronbach's alpha from 0.70 to 0.96. The principal component analysis with varimax rotation indicated a three-factor structure: (1) self-care and mobility; (2) sphincter control and (3) cognitive that jointly accounted for 74.8% of the total variance. Construct validity was supported by a significant Pearson correlation between the PFIM and the Persian Barthel Index (r = 0.95; p Persian patients with stroke. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is an outcome measure for disability based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The FIM was cross-culturally adapted and validated into Persian language. The Persian version of the FIM (PFIM) is reliable and valid for assessing functional status of patients with stroke. The PFIM can be used in Persian speaking countries to assess the limitations in activities of daily living of patients with stroke.

  4. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches establish the complexity of a PAH-degrading microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, M.; Sabate, J.; Solanas, A.M. [Barcelona Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Guasp, C.; Lalucat, J. [Illes Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. of Biology

    2005-11-15

    Microbial consortia are used in the decontamination of polluted environmental sites. A microbial consortium obtained by batch enrichment culture is a closed system with controlled conditions in which micro-organisms with a potentially high growth rate are selected and become dominant. The aim of this study was to identify the members of consortium AM, in which earlier batch enrichment work had shown high biodegradation rates of the aromatic fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The AM consortium was obtained by sequential enrichment in liquid culture with a PAH mixture of 3- and 4- ringed PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy. The consortium was examined using a triple approach method based on various cultivation strategies, denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and the screening of 16S and 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Eleven different sequences by culture-dependent techniques and 7 by both DGGE and clone libraries were obtained, yielding 19 different microbial components. Proteobacteria were the dominant group, representing 83 per cent of the total, while the Cytophaga-Flexibactor-Bacteroides group (CFB) was 11 per cent, and Ascomycota fungi were 6 per cent. It was determined that {beta}-Proteobacteria were predominant in the DGGE and clone library methods, whereas they were a minority in culturable strains. The highest diversity and number of noncoincident sequences was achieved by the cultivation method that showed members of the {alpha},{beta}, and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, CFB bacterial group, and Ascomycota fungi. Only 6 of the 11 strains isolated showed PAH-degrading capability. The bacterial strain (AMS7) and the fungal strain (AMF1) achieved the greatest PAH depletion. Results indicated that polyphasic assessment is necessary for a proper understanding of the composition of a microbial consortium. It was concluded that microbial consortia are more complex than previously realized. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Application of Canonical Effective Methods to Background-Independent Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukcam, Umut

    Effective formalisms play an important role in analyzing phenomena above some given length scale when complete theories are not accessible. In diverse exotic but physically important cases, the usual path-integral techniques used in a standard Quantum Field Theory approach seldom serve as adequate tools. This thesis exposes a new effective method for quantum systems, called the Canonical Effective Method, which owns particularly wide applicability in backgroundindependent theories as in the case of gravitational phenomena. The central purpose of this work is to employ these techniques to obtain semi-classical dynamics from canonical quantum gravity theories. Application to non-associative quantum mechanics is developed and testable results are obtained. Types of non-associative algebras relevant for magnetic-monopole systems are discussed. Possible modifications of hypersurface deformation algebra and the emergence of effective space-times are presented. iii.

  6. Model-independent determination of dissociation energies: method and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Manuel; Hansen, Klavs; Herlert, Alexander; Schweikhard, Lutz

    2003-01-01

    A number of methods are available for the purpose of extracting dissociation energies of polyatomic particles. Many of these techniques relate the rate of disintegration at a known excitation energy to the value of the dissociation energy. However, such a determination is susceptible to systematic uncertainties, mainly due to the unknown thermal properties of the particles and the potential existence of 'dark' channels, such as radiative cooling. These problems can be avoided with a recently developed procedure, which applies energy-dependent reactions of the decay products as an uncalibrated thermometer. Thus, it allows a direct measurement of dissociation energies, without any assumption on properties of the system or on details of the disintegration process. The experiments have been performed in a Penning trap, where both rate constants and branching ratios have been measured. The dissociation energies determined with different versions of the method yield identical values, within a small uncertainty

  7. Revisiting bovine pyometra-New insights into the disease using a culture-independent deep sequencing approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi

    2015-01-01

    -independent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial diversity in most environments is underestimated in culture-based studies. Consequently, fastidious pyometra-associated pathogens may have been overlooked. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of bacteria in the uterus......The bacteria present in the uterus during pyometra have previously been studied using bacteriological culturing. These studies identified Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes as the major contributors to the pathogenesis of pyometra. However, an increasing number of culture...... of cows with pyometra by using culture-independent 16S rRNA PCR combined with next generation sequencing. We investigated the microbial composition in the uterus of 21 cows with pyometra, which were obtained from a Danish slaughterhouse. Similar to the observations from the culture studies...

  8. The Independent Evolution Method Is Not a Viable Phylogenetic Comparative Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi H Griffin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs use data on species traits and phylogenetic relationships to shed light on evolutionary questions. Recently, Smaers and Vinicius suggested a new PCM, Independent Evolution (IE, which purportedly employs a novel model of evolution based on Felsenstein's Adaptive Peak Model. The authors found that IE improves upon previous PCMs by producing more accurate estimates of ancestral states, as well as separate estimates of evolutionary rates for each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Here, we document substantial theoretical and computational issues with IE. When data are simulated under a simple Brownian motion model of evolution, IE produces severely biased estimates of ancestral states and changes along individual branches. We show that these branch-specific changes are essentially ancestor-descendant or "directional" contrasts, and draw parallels between IE and previous PCMs such as "minimum evolution". Additionally, while comparisons of branch-specific changes between variables have been interpreted as reflecting the relative strength of selection on those traits, we demonstrate through simulations that regressing IE estimated branch-specific changes against one another gives a biased estimate of the scaling relationship between these variables, and provides no advantages or insights beyond established PCMs such as phylogenetically independent contrasts. In light of our findings, we discuss the results of previous papers that employed IE. We conclude that Independent Evolution is not a viable PCM, and should not be used in comparative analyses.

  9. Culture, Interface Design, and Design Methods for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Pyo

    Aesthetic differences and similarities among cultures are obviously one of the very important issues in cultural design. However, ever since products became knowledge-supporting tools, the visible elements of products have become more universal so that the invisible parts of products such as interface and interaction are getting more important. Therefore, the cultural design should be extended to the invisible elements of culture like people's conceptual models beyond material and phenomenal culture. This chapter aims to explain how we address the invisible cultural elements in interface design and design methods by exploring the users' cognitive styles and communication patterns in different cultures. Regarding cultural interface design, we examined users' conceptual models while interacting with mobile phone and website interfaces, and observed cultural difference in performing tasks and viewing patterns, which appeared to agree with cultural cognitive styles known as Holistic thoughts vs. Analytic thoughts. Regarding design methods for culture, we explored how to localize design methods such as focus group interview and generative session for specific cultural groups, and the results of comparative experiments revealed cultural difference on participants' behaviors and performance in each design method and led us to suggest how to conduct them in East Asian culture. Mobile Observation Analyzer and Wi-Pro, user research tools we invented to capture user behaviors and needs especially in their mobile context, were also introduced.

  10. Identifying the bacterial community on the surface of Intralox belting in a meat boning room by culture-dependent and culture-independent 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Gale; Boerema, Jackie; Mills, John; Mowat, Eilidh; Pulford, David

    2006-05-25

    We examined the bacterial community present on an Intralox conveyor belt system in an operating lamb boning room by sequencing the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of bacteria extracted in the presence or absence of cultivation. RFLP patterns for 16S rDNA clone library and cultures were generated using HaeIII and MspI restriction endonucleases. 16S rDNA amplicons produced 8 distinct RFLP pattern groups. RFLP groups I-IV were represented in the clone library and RFLP groups I and V-VIII were represented amongst the cultured isolates. Partial DNA sequences from each RFLP group revealed that all group I, II and VIII representatives were Pseudomonas spp., group III were Sphingomonas spp., group IV clones were most similar to an uncultured alpha proteobacterium, group V was similar to a Serratia spp., group VI with an Alcaligenes spp., and group VII with Microbacterium spp. Sphingomonads were numerically dominant in the culture-independent clone library and along with the group IV alpha proteobacterium were not represented amongst the cultured isolates. Serratia, Alcaligenes and Microbacterium spp. were only represented with cultured isolates. Pseudomonads were detected by both culture-dependent (84% of isolates) and culture-independent (12.5% of clones) methods and their presence at high frequency does pose the risk of product spoilage if transferred onto meat stored under aerobic conditions. The detection of sphingomonads in large numbers by the culture-independent method demands further analysis because sphingomonads may represent a new source of meat spoilage that has not been previously recognised in the meat processing environment. The 16S rDNA collections generated by both methods were important at representing the diversity of the bacterial population associated with an Intralox conveyor belt system.

  11. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of microbial assemblages associated with high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphan, V J; Taylor, L T; Hafenbradl, D; Delong, E F

    2000-02-01

    Recent investigations of oil reservoirs in a variety of locales have indicated that these habitats may harbor active thermophilic prokaryotic assemblages. In this study, we used both molecular and culture-based methods to characterize prokaryotic consortia associated with high-temperature, sulfur-rich oil reservoirs in California. Enrichment cultures designed for anaerobic thermophiles, both autotrophic and heterotrophic, were successful at temperatures ranging from 60 to 90 degrees C. Heterotrophic enrichments from all sites yielded sheathed rods (Thermotogales), pleomorphic rods resembling Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermococcus-like isolates. The predominant autotrophic microorganisms recovered from inorganic enrichments using H(2), acetate, and CO(2) as energy and carbon sources were methanogens, including isolates closely related to Methanobacterium, Methanococcus, and Methanoculleus species. Two 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) libraries were generated from total community DNA collected from production wellheads, using either archaeal or universal oligonucleotide primer sets. Sequence analysis of the universal library indicated that a large percentage of clones were highly similar to known bacterial and archaeal isolates recovered from similar habitats. Represented genera in rDNA clone libraries included Thermoanaerobacter, Thermococcus, Desulfothiovibrio, Aminobacterium, Acidaminococcus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Desulfomicrobium. The archaeal library was dominated by methanogen-like rDNAs, with a lower percentage of clones belonging to the Thermococcales. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that sulfur-utilizing and methane-producing thermophilic microorganisms have a widespread distribution in oil reservoirs and the potential to actively participate in the biogeochemical transformation of carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur in situ.

  12. Investigating the diversity of Pseudomonas spp. in soil using culture dependent and independent techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Bergmark, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Less than 1% of bacterial populations present in environmental samples are culturable, meaning that cultivation will lead to an underestimation of total cell counts and total diversity. However, it is less clear whether this is also true for specific well-defined groups of bacteria for which sele...... selective culture media is available. In this study, we use culture dependent and independent techniques to describe whether isolation of Pseudomonas spp. on selective nutrient-poor NAA 1: 100 agar-medium can reflect the full diversity, found by ...

  13. In vitro culture method of powdery mildew (Oidium heveae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELOHO

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... A method for culturing powdery mildew (Oidium heveae) from isolated leaves of ... solution; d, Colour phase leaves with nutrient solution in culture dish; e, in vitro ... Plant and fungus materials .... same change trend during whole culture period. ... consistent with the field resistance identification results of.

  14. A method for culturing human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1981-01-01

    For the first time a method for culturing human hair follicle cells is described. The bovine eye lens capsule, a basement membrane-like structure, is used as the substrate for the cultures. In a culture medium supplemented with hydrocortisone and insulin about 70% of the original follicles will form growing colonies of diploid keratinocytes.

  15. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H V; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  16. Exploring the sources of bacterial spoilers in beefsteaks by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Filippis

    Full Text Available Microbial growth on meat to unacceptable levels contributes significantly to change meat structure, color and flavor and to cause meat spoilage. The types of microorganisms initially present in meat depend on several factors and multiple sources of contamination can be identified. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbial diversity in beefsteaks before and after aerobic storage at 4°C and to investigate the sources of microbial contamination by examining the microbiota of carcasses wherefrom the steaks originated and of the processing environment where the beef was handled. Carcass, environmental (processing plant and meat samples were analyzed by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The microbiota of carcass swabs was very complex, including more than 600 operational taxonomic units (OTUs belonging to 15 different phyla. A significant association was found between beef microbiota and specific beef cuts (P<0.01 indicating that different cuts of the same carcass can influence the microbial contamination of beef. Despite the initially high complexity of the carcass microbiota, the steaks after aerobic storage at 4°C showed a dramatic decrease in microbial complexity. Pseudomonas sp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta were the main contaminants, and Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae were also found. Comparing the relative abundance of OTUs in the different samples it was shown that abundant OTUs in beefsteaks after storage occurred in the corresponding carcass. However, the abundance of these same OTUs clearly increased in environmental samples taken in the processing plant suggesting that spoilage-associated microbial species originate from carcasses, they are carried to the processing environment where the meat is handled and there they become a resident microbiota. Such microbiota is then further spread on meat when it is handled and it represents the starting microbial association

  17. Novel co-culture plate enables growth dynamic-based assessment of contact-independent microbial interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Moutinho

    Full Text Available Interactions between microbes are central to the dynamics of microbial communities. Understanding these interactions is essential for the characterization of communities, yet challenging to accomplish in practice. There are limited available tools for characterizing diffusion-mediated, contact-independent microbial interactions. A practical and widely implemented technique in such characterization involves the simultaneous co-culture of distinct bacterial species and subsequent analysis of relative abundance in the total population. However, distinguishing between species can be logistically challenging. In this paper, we present a low-cost, vertical membrane, co-culture plate to quantify contact-independent interactions between distinct bacterial populations in co-culture via real-time optical density measurements. These measurements can be used to facilitate the analysis of the interaction between microbes that are physically separated by a semipermeable membrane yet able to exchange diffusible molecules. We show that diffusion across the membrane occurs at a sufficient rate to enable effective interaction between physically separate cultures. Two bacterial species commonly found in the cystic fibrotic lung, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, were co-cultured to demonstrate how this plate may be implemented to study microbial interactions. We have demonstrated that this novel co-culture device is able to reliably generate real-time measurements of optical density data that can be used to characterize interactions between microbial species.

  18. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  19. Mapping axillary microbiota responsible for body odours using a culture-independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troccaz, Myriam; Gaïa, Nadia; Beccucci, Sabine; Schrenzel, Jacques; Cayeux, Isabelle; Starkenmann, Christian; Lazarevic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Human axillary odour is commonly attributed to the bacterial degradation of precursors in sweat secretions. To assess the role of bacterial communities in the formation of body odours, we used a culture-independent approach to study axillary skin microbiota and correlated these data with olfactory analysis. Twenty-four Caucasian male and female volunteers and four assessors showed that the underarms of non-antiperspirant (non-AP) users have significantly higher global sweat odour intensities and harboured on average about 50 times more bacteria than those of AP users. Global sweat odour and odour descriptors sulfury-cat urine and acid-spicy generally increased from the morning to the afternoon sessions. Among non-AP users, male underarm odours were judged higher in intensity with higher fatty and acid-spicy odours and higher bacterial loads. Although the content of odour precursors in underarm secretions varied widely among individuals, males had a higher acid: sulfur precursor ratio than females did. No direct correlations were found between measured precursor concentration and sweat odours. High-throughput sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA genes of underarm bacteria collected from 11 non-AP users (six females and five males) confirmed the strong dominance of the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with 96% of sequences assigned to the genera Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium. The proportion of several bacterial taxa showed significant variation between males and females. The genera Anaerococcus and Peptoniphilus and the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from Staphylococcus haemolyticus and the genus Corynebacterium were more represented in males than in females. The genera Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium were correlated and anti-correlated, respectively, with body odours. Within the genus Staphylococcus, different OTUs were either positively or negatively correlated with axillary odour. The relative abundance of five OTUs (three

  20. Ethos of independence across regions in the United States: the production-adoption model of cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C

    2010-09-01

    Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries, breed strong values of independence, which in turn guide the production of new practices that encourage self-promotion and focused, competitive work. Faced with few significant threats to survival, residents in traditional areas are likely to seek social prestige by adopting existing practices of other, higher status groups. Because of both the massive economic success of the frontier and the official endorsement of the frontier by the federal government, eastern residents of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries may have actively adopted the frontier practices of independence, thus incorporating the frontier ethos of independence to form the contemporary U.S. national culture. Available evidence is reviewed, and implications for further research on cultural change are suggested. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology.

  2. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology

  3. Explaining the Effectiveness of the Contrast Culture Method for Managing Interpersonal Interactions across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Hanako; Pusina, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of intercultural education comes from the limited availability of training efficacy studies. The present study focused on explaining the effectiveness of the Contrast Culture Method (CCM) as an intercultural education method for managing interpersonal interactions across cultures between graduate…

  4. Institutionalisation without internalisation. The cultural dimension of French-German conflicts on European Central Bank independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, F.A.W.J. van; Jong, E. de

    2013-01-01

    When accepting the Maastricht treaty, the members of the Euro-zone agreed on the establishment of a very independent European Central Bank (ECB). Over the years, however, French political leaders systematically brought forward proposals undermining the ECB’s independence, much to the dismay of their

  5. Trophic Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chondrocyte Co-Cultures are Independent of Culture Conditions and Cell Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ling; Prins, H.J.; Helder, M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Earlier, we have shown that the increased cartilage production in pellet co-cultures of chondrocytes and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) is due to a trophic role of the MSC in stimulating chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production rather than MSCs actively undergoing

  6. Trophic effects of mesenchymal stem cells in chondrocyte co-cultures are independent of culture conditions and cell sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Prins, H.J.; Helder, M.N.; van Blitterswijk, C.A.; Karperien, M.

    2012-01-01

    Earlier, we have shown that the increased cartilage production in pellet co-cultures of chondrocytes and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) is due to a trophic role of the MSC in stimulating chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production rather than MSCs actively undergoing

  7. Application of culture dependent and cultural-independent techniques to investigate the dynamics of microorganisms during industrial cheese making of a Gouda type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Perolari, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the microbial dynamic in a Gouda type cheese applying a comparison between culture-dependent technique, plate count, and culture-independent technique as PCR-DGGE. The study was also focus on the analyse of the efficiency of the pasteurizer, and its cleaning steps. The study was conducted analysing 4 batches for each of the two days of production, Monday and Friday. Between batch 16 and 17 there was a quick cleaning, and between batch 32 and batch 1, of th...

  8. A hanging drop culture method to study terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Lindeboom, Fokke; Ferreira, Rita; Drissen, Roy; Grosveld, Frank; Whyatt, David; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2005-10-01

    To design a culture method allowing the quantitative and qualitative analysis of terminal erythroid differentiation. Primary erythroid progenitors derived either from mouse tissues or from human umbilical cord blood were differentiated using hanging drop cultures and compared to methylcellulose cultures. Cultured cells were analyzed by FACS to assess differentiation. We describe a practical culture method by adapting the previously described hanging drop culture system to conditions allowing terminal differentiation of primary erythroid progenitors. Using minimal volumes of media and small numbers of cells, we obtained quantitative terminal erythroid differentiation within two days of culture in the case of murine cells and 4 days in the case of human cells. The established methods for ex vivo culture of primary erythroid progenitors, such as methylcellulose-based burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) assays, allow the detection of committed erythroid progenitors but are of limited value to study terminal erythroid differentiation. We show that the application of hanging drop cultures is a practical alternative that, in combination with clonogenic assays, enables a comprehensive assessment of the behavior of primary erythroid cells ex vivo in the context of genetic and drug-induced perturbations.

  9. On the number of independent cultural traits carried by individuals and populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Laurent; Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    In species subject to individual and social learning, each individual is likely to express a certain number of different cultural traits acquired during its lifetime. If the process of trait innovation and transmission reaches a steady state in the population, the number of different cultural traits carried by an individual converges to some stationary distribution. We call this the trait-number distribution. In this paper, we derive the trait-number distributions for both individuals and pop...

  10. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette

    2008-01-01

    the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption....... These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture....

  11. Spheroid Culture of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Reveals an Important Role of EGFR Signalling in Anchorage Independent Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunholz, Diana; Saki, Mohammad; Niehr, Franziska; Öztürk, Merve; Borràs Puértolas, Berta; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix. The HNSCC cell lines FaDu, SCC-9 and UT-SCC-9 (UT-SCC-9P) as well as its cetuximab (CTX)-resistant sub-clone (UT-SCC-9R) were forced to grow in an anchorage-independent manner by coating culture dishes with the anti-adhesive polymer poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA). The extent of apoptosis, clonogenic survival and EGFR signalling under such culture conditions was evaluated. The potential of spheroid formation in suspension culture was found to be positively correlated with the proliferation rate of HNSCC cell lines as well as their basal EGFR expression levels. CTX and gefitinib blocked, whereas the addition of EGFR ligands promoted anchorage-independent cell survival and spheroid formation. Increased spheroid formation and growth were associated with persistent activation of EGFR and its downstream signalling component (MAPK/ERK). Importantly, HNSCC cells derived from spheroid cultures retained their clonogenic potential in the absence of cell-matrix contact. Addition of CTX under these conditions strongly inhibited colony formation in CTX-sensitive cell lines but not their resistant subclones. Altogether, EGFR activation was identified as crucial factor for anchorage-independent survival of HNSCC cells. Targeting EGFR in CTC cluster formation might represent an attractive anti

  12. An alternative method for Plasmodium culture synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, J; Berry, A; Benoit-Vical, F

    2005-03-01

    Since the synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum has become an essential tool in research, we have investigated the use of a commercial gelatine solution, Plasmion, to replace Plasmagel, which is now difficult to obtain. This method also avoids the use of techniques based on Percoll-glucose gradients. The Plasmion-based technique proved to be a good method and could become an alternative to Plasmagel.

  13. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the U.S. and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S.; Miyamoto, Yuri; Markus, Hazel Rose; Rigotti, Attilio; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Coe, Christopher L.; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the U.S. and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the U.S, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Further, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the U.S. and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions. PMID:27516421

  14. A model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C.

    1984-01-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented. (orig.)

  15. An independent accurate reference method for the determination of chromium in biological materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwaard, A.; Woittiez, J.R.W.; de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A method for the determination of Cr in biological materials with high accuracy is reported for use as an independent reference method. It is based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) in combination with an individual yield determination based on the online yield principle. A

  16. 'It's a cultural expectation...' The pressure on medical trainees to work independently in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Regehr, Glenn; Baker, G Ross; Lingard, Lorelei A

    2009-07-01

    Medical trainees demonstrate a reluctance to ask for help unless they believe it is absolutely necessary, a situation which could impact on the safety of patients. This study aimed to develop a theoretical exploration of the pressure on medical trainees to be independent and to generate theory-based approaches to the implications for patient safety of this pressure towards independent working. In Phase 1, 88 teaching team members from internal and emergency medicine were observed during clinical activities (216 hours), and 65 participants completed brief interviews. In Phase 2, 36 in-depth interviews were conducted using video vignettes. Data collection and analysis employed grounded theory methodology. Participants conceived that the pressure towards independence in clinical work originated in trainees' desire to lay claim to the identity of a doctor (as a member of a group of autonomous high achievers), and in organisational issues such as heavy workloads and constant evaluations. The identity and organisational issues related to the pressure towards independence were explored through the lenses of established theories from education and psychology. Consideration of Lave and Wenger's situated learning theory suggests that giving attention to the 'independent doctor' ideal, through measures such as involving trainees when their supervisors ask for help, could impact the safety of teaching team practice. Amalberti et al.'s migration model explains how pressures to maximise productivity and individual gain may cause teaching teams to migrate beyond the boundaries of safe practice and suggests that managing triggers (such as workload and high-stakes evaluations) for violations of safe practice might improve safety. Implementation and evaluation of these theory-based approaches to the safety of teaching team practice would contribute to a better understanding of the links between trainee independence and patient safety.

  17. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  18. Bringing the banjo back to life: The field of dutch independent folk music as participatory culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Poecke (Niels); J.M. Michael (Janna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate factors underlying the production of independent folk music (indie folk) in the Netherlands. By studying the creation, distribution and reception of indie folk music through in-depth interviewing, we argue that the social production of indie folk music is

  19. Cultural self-construals of Mexican, Spanish, and Danish college students: Beyond independent and interdependent self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santamaría, Andrés; de la Mata, Manuel L.; Hansen, Tia G. B.

    2010-01-01

    De sidste par tiår har tværkulturel forskning vist vigtige forskelle i selvbegribelse. En dybere forståelse forudsætter imidlertid inddragelse af flere kulturer. Modsat Markus og Kitayamas distinktion mellem independent og interdependent selv, har forfattere som Kagitcibasi m.fl. argumenteret for...

  20. The effect of Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of the Montessori Method on teaching was investigated among children to discover their artistic development in Zaria, Kaduna State. The problem of the study is that the Montessori Method on teaching cultural and creative arts is not adequately explored in the primary schools, while other teaching methods used, ...

  1. Statistical adjustment of culture-independent diagnostic tests for trend analysis in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Dutta, Vikrant; Patrick, Mary; Bruce, Beau B; Geissler, Aimee; Huang, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Collette; Henao, Olga

    2018-03-19

    Culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) are increasingly used to diagnose Campylobacter infection in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Because CIDTs have different performance characteristics compared with culture, which has been used historically and is still used to diagnose campylobacteriosis, adjustment of cases diagnosed by CIDT is needed to compare with culture-confirmed cases for monitoring incidence trends. We identified the necessary parameters for CIDT adjustment using culture as the gold standard, and derived formulas to calculate positive predictive values (PPVs). We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to examine the variability in CIDT performance and Campylobacter prevalence applicable to FoodNet sites. We then developed a Monte Carlo method to estimate test-type and site-specific PPVs with their associated uncertainties. The uncertainty in our estimated PPVs was largely derived from uncertainty about the specificity of CIDTs and low prevalence of Campylobacter in tested samples. Stable CIDT-adjusted incidences of Campylobacter cases from 2012 to 2015 were observed compared with a decline in culture-confirmed incidence. We highlight the lack of data on the total numbers of tested samples as one of main limitations for CIDT adjustment. Our results demonstrate the importance of adjusting CIDTs for understanding trends in Campylobacter incidence in FoodNet.

  2. Method to Increase Undergraduate Laboratory Student Confidence in Performing Independent Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton E. Kempton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of an undergraduate laboratory course should be not only to introduce the students to biology methodologies and techniques, but also to teach them independent analytical thinking skills and proper experiment design.  This is especially true for advanced biology laboratory courses that undergraduate students typically take as a junior or senior in college.  Many courses achieve the goal of teaching techniques, but fail to approach the larger goal of teaching critical thinking, experimental design, and student independence.  Here we describe a study examining the application of the scaffolding instructional philosophy in which students are taught molecular techniques with decreasing guidance to force the development of analytical thinking skills and prepare undergraduate students for independent laboratory research. This method was applied to our advanced molecular biology laboratory class and resulted in an increase of confidence among the undergraduate students in their abilities to perform independent research.

  3. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    ) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture...

  4. Culture-independent bacterial community analysis of the salty-fermented fish paste products of Thailand and Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARUI, Junichiro; BOULOM, Sayvisene; PANTHAVEE, Wanchai; MOMMA, Mari; KUSUMOTO, Ken-Ichi; NAKAHARA, Kazuhiko; SAITO, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial community analysis, using a culture-independent method (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), detected 17 species of bacteria including species of the genera Tetragenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Weissella Halanaerobium, Clostridium, and Sphingomonas in a traditional salty-fermented fish paste known as pla-ra or pa-daek in Thailand and Laos, which is used as a storage-stable multi-purpose seasoning. The representative genus of lactic acid bacteria seemed to vary in the 10 products collected from Thailand and Laos. Tetragenococci were common in products from central Thailand and Vientiane in Laos which had salinities of not less than 11% and pH values ranging from 5.6 to 6.1. However, lactobacilli were common in products from northern Thailand which had the lowest salinities (8.3–8.6%) and pH values (4.5–4.8) of all the samples examined. Two Lactobacillus and one Tetragenococcus species were detected in one product from northeastern Thailand containing 10% salt. These results suggest that salinity in pla-ra/pa-daek is an important determinant of the representative genus of lactic acid bacteria such as, Tetragenococcus or Lactobacillus. Additionally, differences in the acidity between these two groups seemed to be related to the production of d-/l-lactic acid in the lactic acid bacteria in each product. This is the first study to report a correlation between bacterial community structure and taste components in pla-ra/pa-daek products from various regions. This scientific work on a traditional fermented food will be useful in helping local producers meet differing consumer preferences in various regions. PMID:25918672

  5. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix [DESY, Notkestraße 85,D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wild, Sebastian [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-20

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  6. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  7. Green close-quote s function method with energy-independent vertex functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay Tzeng, S.Y.; Kuo, T.T.; Tzeng, Y.; Geyer, H.B.; Navratil, P.

    1996-01-01

    In conventional Green close-quote s function methods the vertex function Γ is generally energy dependent. However, a model-space Green close-quote s function method where the vertex function is manifestly energy independent can be formulated using energy-independent effective interaction theories based on folded diagrams and/or similarity transformations. This is discussed in general and then illustrated for a 1p1h model-space Green close-quote s function applied to a solvable Lipkin many-fermion model. The poles of the conventional Green close-quote s function are obtained by solving a self-consistent Dyson equation and model space calculations may lead to unphysical poles. For the energy-independent model-space Green close-quote s function only the physical poles of the model problem are reproduced and are in satisfactory agreement with the exact excitation energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. A simple method for multiday imaging of slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Armin H; Rubel, Edwin W

    2010-01-01

    The organotypic slice culture (Stoppini et al. A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue. 1991;37:173-182) has become the method of choice to answer a variety of questions in neuroscience. For many experiments, however, it would be beneficial to image or manipulate a slice culture repeatedly, for example, over the course of many days. We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the auditory brainstem of P3 and P4 mice and kept them in vitro for up to 4 weeks. Single cells in the auditory brainstem were transfected with plasmids expressing fluorescent proteins by way of electroporation (Haas et al. Single-cell electroporation for gene transfer in vivo. 2001;29:583-591). The culture was then placed in a chamber perfused with oxygenated ACSF and the labeled cell imaged with an inverted wide-field microscope repeatedly for multiple days, recording several time-points per day, before returning the slice to the incubator. We describe a simple method to image a slice culture preparation during the course of multiple days and over many continuous hours, without noticeable damage to the tissue or photobleaching. Our method uses a simple, inexpensive custom-built insulator constructed around the microscope to maintain controlled temperature and uses a perfusion chamber as used for in vitro slice recordings. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Role of non-governmental organizations in formation of non-proliferation culture in new independent countries (NIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevchik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of the report is demonstrate the non-governmental organizations (NGO) role in formation of non-proliferation culture in former Soviet Union. Activity of Center of Non-proliferation Problems Investigation (CNPI) of Monterey Institute of International Investigations and its collaboration with existing in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) non-governmental organizations is considered as example. Brief information about CNPI and reasons for it representatives opening of in Kazakhstan and in other CIS-countries, as well as cooperation of NGO in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine for creation on Central Asia zone free from nuclear weapon ia given. Some measures which could promote to formation of non-proliferation culture in region are suggested

  10. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells independent of their detergent effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkspoor, J H; Yoshida, T; Lee, S P

    1998-01-01

    1. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium. We have investigated whether this stimulatory effect is due to a detergent effect of bile salts. 2. The bile salts taurocholic acid (TC) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC) and the detergents Triton X-100 (12.5-400 microM) and Tween-20 (0.1-3.2 mM) were applied to monolayers of cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-labelled glycoprot...

  11. Nerve-independent and ectopically additional induction of taste buds in organ culture of fetal tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kotaro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    An improved organ culture system allowed to observe morphogenesis of mouse lingual papillae and taste buds relatively for longer period, in which fetal tongues were analyzed for 6 d. Taste cells were defined as eosinophobic epithelial cells expressing CK8 and Sox2 within lingual epithelium. Addition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitor CHIR99021 induced many taste cells and buds in non-gustatory and gustatory stratified lingual epithelium. The present study clearly demonstrated induction of taste cells and buds ectopically and without innervation.

  12. Comparison of Nested-PCR technique and culture method in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Comparison of ... The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of nested PCR in genitourinary ... method. Based on obtained results, the positivity rate of urine samples in this study was 5.0% by using culture and PCR methods and 2.5% for acid fast staining.

  13. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted

  14. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-07-21

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted.

  15. Slifers revisited: a method for determining yields independent of radiochemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    It would be very desirable if an independent method other than radiochemical measurement were available to determine the yields of low-yield events in the alluviums and tuffs of areas 2, 9, and 10 at the Nevada Test Site. The successful application of slifers to the measurement of yields from high-yield events suggests that under some conditions they may also be usable with low-yield events. This view is supported by the evidence discussed here, which is based on direct experience with slifer yield measurements for low-yield events in porous media. Suggested methods for improving slifer yield determinations and a method for determining yields independent of radiochemical measurements are offered

  16. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    to calculate independently the strain and temperature are presented in the article, together with a measurement resolution study. This multi-parameter measurement method was applied to an epoxy tensile specimen, tested in a unidirectional tensile test machine with a temperature controlled cabinet. A full......A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  17. Cultural adaptation and translation of measures: an integrated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Guruge, Sepali; Miranda, Joyal; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Differences in the conceptualization and operationalization of health-related concepts may exist across cultures. Such differences underscore the importance of examining conceptual equivalence when adapting and translating instruments. In this article, we describe an integrated method for exploring conceptual equivalence within the process of adapting and translating measures. The integrated method involves five phases including selection of instruments for cultural adaptation and translation; assessment of conceptual equivalence, leading to the generation of a set of items deemed to be culturally and linguistically appropriate to assess the concept of interest in the target community; forward translation; back translation (optional); and pre-testing of the set of items. Strengths and limitations of the proposed integrated method are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Estimation of effective lens position using a method independent of preoperative keratometry readings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of a keratometry (K)-independent method of estimating effective lens position (ELP) before phacoemulsification cataract surgery. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. METHODS: The anterior chamber diameter and corneal height in eyes scheduled for cataract surgery were measured with a rotating Scheimpflug camera. Corneal height and anterior chamber diameter were used to estimate the ELP in a K-independent method (using the SRK\\/T [ELP(rs)] and Holladay 1 [ELP(rh)] formulas). RESULTS: The mean ELP was calculated using the traditional (mean ELP(s) 5.59 mm +\\/- 0.52 mm [SD]; mean ELP(h) 5.63 +\\/- 0.42 mm) and K-independent (mean ELP(rs) 5.55 +\\/- 0.42 mm; mean ELP(rh) +\\/- SD 5.60 +\\/- 0.36 mm) methods. Agreement between ELP(s) and ELP(rs) and between ELP(h) and ELP(rh) were represented by Bland-Altman plots, with mean differences (+\\/- 1.96 SD) of 0.06 +\\/- 0.65 mm (range -0.59 to +0.71 mm; P=.08) in association with ELP(rs) and -0.04 +\\/- 0.39 mm (range -0.43 to +0.35 mm; P=.08) in association with ELP(rh). The mean absolute error for ELP(s) versus ELP(rs) estimation and for ELP(h) versus ELP(rh) estimation was 0.242 +\\/- 0.222 mm (range 0.001 to 1.272 mm) and 0.152 +\\/- 0.137 mm (range 0.001 to 0.814 mm), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that the K-independent ELP estimation method is comparable to traditional K-dependent methods and may be useful in post-refractive surgery patients.

  19. Culture-independent identification and quantification of Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) by real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chong; Robles, Francisco; Ramirez, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium is a genus within the family Pasteurellaceae characterized by a high level of phenotypic and genetic diversity. No diagnostic method has yet been described, which allows species-specific identification of Gallibacterium anatis. The aim of this study was to develop a real...... published conventional PCR method and culture-based identification, respectively. The detection rates were 97%, 78% and 34% for the current qPCR, the conventional PCR and the culture-based identification method, respectively. The qPCR assay was able to detect the gene gyrB in serial dilutions of 10......-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method allowing species-specific identification and quantification of G. anatis. A G. anatis specific DNA sequence was identified in the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) and used to design a TaqMan probe and corresponding primers. The specificity of the assay was tested on 52 bacterial...

  20. Characteristics of ovulation method acceptors: a cross-cultural assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, H; Labbok, M; Barker, D

    1988-01-01

    Five programs of instruction in the ovulation method (OM) in diverse geographic and cultural settings are described, and characteristics of approximately 200 consecutive OM acceptors in each program are examined. Major findings include: the religious background and family size of acceptors are variable, as is the level of previous contraceptive use. Acceptors are drawn from a wide range of socioeconomic and religious backgrounds; however, family planning intention was similarly distributed in all five countries. In sum, the ovulation method is accepted by persons from a variety of backgrounds within and between cultural setting.

  1. Independent Study: The Culture of Mentored Undergraduate Research at The College of Wooster (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Judge, S.; Wiles, G. C.; Wilson, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The foundation of a Wooster education is the Independent Study (I.S.) program. Established in 1947, the I.S. program is widely recognized as an exemplary undergraduate research experience (AAC&U; US News and World Report; College that Change Lives by Loren Pope). I.S. requires every Wooster student to complete an original research project. This presentation describes the details of the Wooster I.S. and, based on our experiences, gives strategies for a successful mentored undergraduate research program. Overall, the I.S. process resembles a graduate research project. Students typically begin their work in the spring of their junior year when they review the literature, learn techniques, and write a proposal for their Senior I.S. research. Many students conduct field and lab work over the following summer, although this is not a requirement of the program. In their senior year, students work one-on-one with faculty members and sometimes in small (~4 person) research groups to drive their projects forward with an increasing sense of independence. I.S. culminates in a written thesis and oral defense. Most of our students present their work at national meetings and many projects are published in peer-reviewed journals. The success of the I.S. program is largely the result of two key components: (1) the integration of undergraduate research into the curriculum, and (2) the focus on student mentoring. We have thoughtfully structured our courses so that, as students move toward I.S., they progress from concrete to abstract concepts, and from simple to complex skills. The College also recognizes the value of I.S by assigning it credit; Students earn a full course credit for each semester of I.S. (3 courses total) and there is some credit in the faculty teaching load for I.S. advising. Advisors are really mentors who are invested in their students' academic and scholarly success. As mentors, we emphasize collaboration, provide guidance and support, and hold students

  2. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  3. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells independent of their detergent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkspoor, J H; Yoshida, T; Lee, S P

    1998-05-15

    1. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium. We have investigated whether this stimulatory effect is due to a detergent effect of bile salts. 2. The bile salts taurocholic acid (TC) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC) and the detergents Triton X-100 (12.5-400 microM) and Tween-20 (0.1-3.2 mM) were applied to monolayers of cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins. We also attempted to alter the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells through extraction of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin (2.5-15 mM). The effect on TUDC-induced mucin secretion was studied. Cell viability was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage or 51Cr release. 3. In contrast with the bile salts, the detergents were not able to cause an increase in mucin secretion without causing concomitant cell lysis. Concentrations of detergent that increased mucin release (>100 microM Triton X-100, >0.8 mM Tween-20), caused increased LDH release. Incubation with beta-cyclodextrin resulted in effective extraction of cholesterol without causing an increase in 51Cr release. However, no effect of the presumed altered membrane fluidity on TUDC (10 mM)-induced mucin secretion was observed. 4. The stimulatory effect of bile salts on mucin secretion by gallbladder epithelial cells is not affected by the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells and also cannot be mimicked by other detergents. We conclude that the ability of bile salts to cause mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium is not determined by their detergent properties.

  4. Student Engagement in an Independent Research Project: The Influence of Cohort Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Jerusha O.

    2009-01-01

    Student engagement is widely viewed as an important antecedent to learning and achievement; however, research finds that engagement declines sharply as students advance through school. This article uses a mixed-methods approach to examine the engagement of high school seniors working on the IB Diploma Program's extended essay. Average engagement…

  5. Quantification of Iodine-123-FP-CIT SPECT with a resolution-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbeleir, A.A.; Ham, H.R.; Hambye, A.E.; Vervaet, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate quantification of small-sized objects by SPECT is hampered by the partial volume effect. The present work evaluates the magnitude of this phenomenon with Iodine- 123 in phantom studies, and presents a resolution- independent method to quantify striatal I-123 FP-CIT uptake in patients. At first five syringes with internal diameters varying between 9 and 29mm and an anthropomorphic striatal phantom were filled with known concentrations of Iodine-123 and imaged by SPECT using different collimators and radii of rotation. Data were processed with and without scatter correction. From the measured activities, calibration factors were calculated for each specific collimator. Then a resolution-independent method for FP-CIT quantification using large regions of interest was developed and validated in 34 human studies (controls and patients) acquired in 2 different hospitals, by comparing its results to those obtained by a semi- quantitative striatal-to-occipital analysis. Taking the injected activity and decay into account, the measured counts/volume could be converted into absolute tracer concentrations. For the fan-beam, high resolution and medium energy collimators, the measured maximum activity in comparison to the 29 mm-diameter syringe was respectively 38%, 16% and 9% for the 9 mm-diameter syringe and 82%, 80% and 30% for the 16 mm syringe, and not significantly modified after scatter correction. For the anthropomorphic phantom, the error in measurement in % of the true concentration ranged between 0.3-9.5% and was collimator dependent. Medium energy collimators yielded the most homogeneous results. In the human studies, inter- observer variability was 11.4% for the striatal-to-occipital ratio and 3.1% for the resolution-independent method, with correlation coefficients >0.8 between both. The resolution- independent method was 89%-sensitive and 100%-specific to separate the patients without and with abnormal FP-CIT uptake (accuracy: 94%). Also the

  6. Simple method for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Testudinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Silva, M I A; Venancio, L P R; Zago, C E S; Moscheta, V A G; Lima, A V B; Vizotto, L D; Santos, J R; Bonini-Domingos, C R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2011-12-06

    We developed and optimized a simple, efficient and inexpensive method for in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Brazilian tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria (Testudinidae), testing various parameters, including culture medium, mitogen concentration, mitotic index, culture volume, incubation time, and mitotic arrest. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the costal vein of four couples. The conditions that gave a good mitotic index were lymphocytes cultured at 37°C in minimum essential medium (7.5 mL), with phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen (0.375 mL), plus streptomycin/penicillin (0.1 mL), and an incubation period of 72 h. Mitotic arrest was induced by 2-h exposure to colchicine (0.1 mL), 70 h after establishing the culture. After mitotic arrest, the cells were hypotonized with 0.075 M KCl for 2 h and fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3:1). The non-banded mitotic chromosomes were visualized by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number of C. carbonaria was found to be 52 in females and males, and sex chromosomes were not observed. We were able to culture peripheral blood lymphocytes of a Brazilian tortoise in vitro, for the preparation of mitotic chromosomes.

  7. Dialectical Method and the Critical Political Economy of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Nixon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the quality that defines critical political economy is its critical method. Definitions of the critical political economy of culture are considered and shown to focus on specific theoretical concerns while not fully addressing the fundamental issue of method. Method is here discussed in terms of the way human reason is used to produce knowledge. A critical method for Marx is a historical materialist dialectical method, thus this paper argues for a deeper consideration of the Marxist dialectical method in relation to critical political-economic theorizing. Sources for methodological consideration from Marx to 20th-century Western Marxists are outlined. The potential contribution of the Marxist dialectical method in the continued development of the critical political economy of culture is demonstrated by showing the possibility of developing a complementary critical political economy of consciousness. Smythe’s theorizing of audiences as workers is considered as a useful starting point, and its potential development through incorporation of the work of other critical scholars of media and culture is outlined.

  8. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in micro-blood cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinwen; Wang Lianzhi; Yang Cangzhen; Yao Yanyu

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in micro-blood cultures. The observations on detection induced micronuclei of different doses of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation and spontaneous micronucleus of different ages were performed with CB method in comporison with conventional micronucleus (CM) method. The results showed that with direct peripheral micro-blood cultures the cytoknesis-block micronuclei is also obtained. Using CB method, the micronuclei fequency of different ages was linear relationship, Y = 1.62 + 0.74 D, the spontaneous micronuclei frequency of different ages was 4.14%, the induced micronuclei also was a linear relationship, Y = 6.01 + 0.692 D. Using CM method, it showed that the induced micronuclei was a linear relationship, Y = 0.486 D - 1.968, but there is no significant difference between the micronuclei frequency of different ages. Comparison with CM and direct blood smear methods confirmed that the cytokinesis-block method of micro-blood cultures is more sensitive and precise

  9. Sponge cell culture? A molecular identification method for sponge cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociated sponge cells are easily confused with unicellular organisms. This has been an obstacle in the development of sponge-cell lines. We developed a molecular detection method to identify cells of the sponge Dysidea avara in dissociated cell cultures. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene from a Dysidea

  10. Effect of integration of cultural, botanical, and chemical methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted from November 2011 to June 2013 to evaluate the effects of botanical, cultural, and chemical methods on termite colony survival, crop and wooden damage, and other biological activities in Ghimbi district of western Ethiopia. The termite mounds were dug and the following treatments were ...

  11. A comparative study to investigate burnup in research reactor fuel using two independent experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehmood, T.; Ayazuddin, S.K.; Salahuddin, A.; Pervez, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two independent experimental methods have been used for the comparative study of fuel burnup measurement in low enriched uranium, plate type research reactor. In the first method a gamma ray activity ratio method was employed. An experimental setup was established for gamma ray scanning using prior calibrated high purity germanium detector. The computer software KORIGEN gave the theoretical support. In the second method reactivity difference technique was used. At the same location in the same core configuration the fresh and burned fuel element's reactivity worth was estimated. For theoretical estimated curve, group cross-sections were generated using computer code WIMS-D/4, and three dimensional modeling was made by computer code CITATION. The measured burnup of different fuel elements using these methods were found to be in good agreement

  12. A method for independent component graph analysis of resting-state fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Paula, Demetrius Ribeiro; Ziegler, Erik; Abeyasinghe, Pubuditha M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Independent component analysis (ICA) has been extensively used for reducing task-free BOLD fMRI recordings into spatial maps and their associated time-courses. The spatially identified independent components can be considered as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of non-contiguou......Introduction Independent component analysis (ICA) has been extensively used for reducing task-free BOLD fMRI recordings into spatial maps and their associated time-courses. The spatially identified independent components can be considered as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of non......-contiguous regions. To date, the spatial patterns of the networks have been analyzed with techniques developed for volumetric data. Objective Here, we detail a graph building technique that allows these ICNs to be analyzed with graph theory. Methods First, ICA was performed at the single-subject level in 15 healthy...... parcellated regions. Third, between-node functional connectivity was established by building edge weights for each networks. Group-level graph analysis was finally performed for each network and compared to the classical network. Results Network graph comparison between the classically constructed network...

  13. A Novel Method for Surface Defect Detection of Photovoltaic Module Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method for surface defect detection of photovoltaic module based on independent component analysis (ICA reconstruction algorithm. Firstly, a faultless image is used as the training image. The demixing matrix and corresponding ICs are obtained by applying the ICA in the training image. Then we reorder the ICs according to the range values and reform the de-mixing matrix. Then the reformed de-mixing matrix is used to reconstruct the defect image. The resulting image can remove the background structures and enhance the local anomalies. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively detect the presence of defects in periodically patterned surfaces.

  14. Model-independent separation of poorly resolved hypperfine split spectra by a linear combination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, D.L.; Dengler, J.; Ritter, G.

    1988-01-01

    A model-independent evaluation of the components of poorly resolved Moessbauer spectra based on a linear combination method is possible if there is a parameter as a function of which the shape of the individual components do not but their intensities do change and the dependence of the intensities on this parameter is known. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated on the example of low temperature magnetically split spectra of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 (Cu 0.9 Fe 0 .1 ) 3 O 7-y . (author)

  15. Characterization of polarization-independent phase modulation method for practical plug and play quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-01-01

    We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation. (paper)

  16. Salesperson Self-Regulation of Pride: Effects on Adaptability, Effort, and Citizenship Behaviors between Independent-Based and Interdependent-Based Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagozzi, R.P.; Belschak, F.; Verbeke, W.; Gavino, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate and compare how salespersons within an independent-based culture (the Netherlands) and an interdependent-based culture (the Philippines) experience and self-regulate pride that is evoked through praise and recognition by their managers. This self-regulation differentially influences

  17. Determining the potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT) by a potentiostatic method using the Avesta Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnvig, P.E.; Bisgard, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a potentiostatic method for determining the potential independent Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) using the Avesta Cell is presented. The new potentiostatic method has been used to determine the CPT for austenitic stainless steels. The precision of the potentiostatic method of approximately ±2 C is close to that of the traditional potentiodynamic method. The time required to determine a CPT is much shorter than when using the potentiodynamic method. A CPT is obtained within 1.5 to 3 hours for each specimen. The influence of various experimental parameters such as electrochemical potential, evaluation criteria for the CPT, test area, stabilization time prior to polarization and inert gas purging is described. The lack of sensitivity towards many of these parameters as well as the high reproducibility obtained is associated with fundamentals of the pitting process. It is argued that the potential independent CPT characterizes the stable propagating pitting event as opposed to the potential dependent CPT or pitting potentials, which to a larger extent are affected by the nucleation part of the pitting process

  18. Dispatch Method for Independently Owned Hydropower Plants in the Same River Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Krajcar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a coexistence model for two independent companies both operating hydropower plants in the same river flow, based on a case study of the Cetina river basin in Croatia. Companies are participants of the day-ahead electricity market. The incumbent company owns the existing hydropower plants and holds concessions for the water. The new company decides to build a pump storage hydropower plant that uses one of the existing reservoirs as its lower reservoir. Meeting reservoir water balance is affected by decisions by both companies which are independently seeking maximal profit. Methods for water use settlement and preventing of spillage are proposed. A mixed-integer linear programming approach is used. Head effects on output power levels are also considered. Existences of dispatches that satisfy both companies are shown.

  19. Time-independent lattice Boltzmann method calculation of hydrodynamic interactions between two particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    The time-independent lattice Boltzmann algorithm (TILBA) is developed to calculate the hydrodynamic interactions between two particles in a Stokes flow. The TILBA is distinguished from the traditional lattice Boltzmann method in that a background matrix (BGM) is generated prior to the calculation. The BGM, once prepared, can be reused for calculations for different scenarios, and the computational cost for each such calculation will be significantly reduced. The advantage of the TILBA is that it is easy to code and can be applied to any particle shape without complicated implementation, and the computational cost is independent of the shape of the particle. The TILBA is validated and shown to be accurate by comparing calculation results obtained from the TILBA to analytical or numerical solutions for certain problems.

  20. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  1. Culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses reveal no prokaryotic community shifts or recovery of Serratia marcescens in Acropora palmata with white pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Michael P; Jarett, Jessica K

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the etiological agent of white pox (WP) disease, also known as acroporid serratiosis, in the endangered coral Acropora palmata is the enteric bacterium Serratia marcescens with the source being localized sewage release onto coastal coral reef communities. Here, we show that both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches could not recover this bacterium from samples of tissue and mucus from A. palmata colonies affected by WP disease in the Bahamas, or seawater collected adjacent to A. palmata colonies. Additionally, a metagenetic 16S rRNA pyrosequencing study shows no significant difference in the bacterial communities of coral tissues with and without WP lesions. As recent studies have shown for other coral diseases, S. marcescens cannot be identified in all cases of WP disease in several geographically separated populations of A. palmata with the same set of signs. As a result, its identification as the etiological agent of WP disease, and cause of a reverse zoonosis, cannot be broadly supported. However, the prevalence of WP disease associated with S. marcescens does appear to be associated with proximity to population centers, and research efforts should be broadened to examine this association, and to identify other causes of this syndrome. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CULTURE-INDEPENDENT, LIBRARY-INDEPENDENT GENOTYPIC METHODS OF FECAL SOURCE TRACKING. (R827639)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  4. Generalist palliative care in hospital - Cultural and organisational interactions. Results of a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbaek, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-oriented treatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactions that occur is sparse. To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, if possible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies: a quantitative study, in which three independent datasets were triangulated to study the organisation and evaluation of generalist palliative care, and a qualitative, ethnographic study exploring the culture of generalist palliative nursing care in medical departments. A Danish regional hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Two overall themes emerged: (1) 'generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital', suggesting contrasting issues regarding prioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) 'knowledge and use of generalist palliative care clinical guideline', suggesting that the guideline had not reached all levels of the organisation. Contrasting issues in the hospital's provision of generalist palliative care at different organisational levels seem to hamper the interactions between organisation and culture - interactions that appear to be necessary for the provision of integrated palliative care in the hospital. The implementation of palliative care is also hindered by the main focus being on disease-oriented treatment, which is reflected at all the organisational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Method-independent, Computationally Frugal Convergence Testing for Sensitivity Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, J.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing complexity and runtime of environmental models lead to the current situation that the calibration of all model parameters or the estimation of all of their uncertainty is often computationally infeasible. Hence, techniques to determine the sensitivity of model parameters are used to identify most important parameters. All subsequent model calibrations or uncertainty estimation procedures focus then only on these subsets of parameters and are hence less computational demanding. While the examination of the convergence of calibration and uncertainty methods is state-of-the-art, the convergence of the sensitivity methods is usually not checked. If any, bootstrapping of the sensitivity results is used to determine the reliability of the estimated indexes. Bootstrapping, however, might as well become computationally expensive in case of large model outputs and a high number of bootstraps. We, therefore, present a Model Variable Augmentation (MVA) approach to check the convergence of sensitivity indexes without performing any additional model run. This technique is method- and model-independent. It can be applied either during the sensitivity analysis (SA) or afterwards. The latter case enables the checking of already processed sensitivity indexes. To demonstrate the method's independency of the convergence testing method, we applied it to two widely used, global SA methods: the screening method known as Morris method or Elementary Effects (Morris 1991) and the variance-based Sobol' method (Solbol' 1993). The new convergence testing method is first scrutinized using 12 analytical benchmark functions (Cuntz & Mai et al. 2015) where the true indexes of aforementioned three methods are known. This proof of principle shows that the method reliably determines the uncertainty of the SA results when different budgets are used for the SA. The results show that the new frugal method is able to test the convergence and therefore the reliability of SA results in an

  6. Improvement in the independence of relaxation method-based particle tracking velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, P; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y

    2013-01-01

    New techniques are developed to improve the independence of relaxation method-based particle tracking velocimetry (RM-PTV). Firstly, Delaunay tessellation (DT) is employed to form clusters of neighboring particles with similar motion in the same frame; and then a bidirectional calculation concept is adopted to improve the way of particle pairing. These new techniques are tested with both self-defined particle images and the particle image velocimetry standard synthetic particle images. The results indicate that the DT method performs well and efficiently in determining the particle clusters, and the particle pairing process is well optimized by the bidirectional calculation concept. With these methods, three computation parameters are eliminated, which makes RM-PTV more autonomous in applications. (paper)

  7. Transformation-based spherical cloaks designed by an implicit transformation-independent method: theory and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, C-W; Zouhdi, Said

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of the cloak generating function, we propose an implicit transformation-independent method for the required parameters of spherical cloaks without knowing the needed coordinate transformation beforehand. A non-ideal discrete model is used to calculate and optimize the total scattering cross-sections of different profiles of the generating function. A bell-shaped quadratic spherical cloak is found to be the best candidate, which is further optimized by controlling the design parameters involved. Such improved invisibility is steady even when the model is highly discretized.

  8. Computing physical properties with quantum Monte Carlo methods with statistical fluctuations independent of system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.

  9. Methods to Improve Cultural Communication Skills in Special Operations Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wise, J

    1998-01-01

    .... Three culture-specific templates were developed, each describing a culture and identifying culture-specific behaviors that were prioritized through focus groups of cultural informants and clustering analysis...

  10. Stable expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in cultured preadipocytes impairs adipogenesis program independently of endogenous prostanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Chowdhury, Abu Asad; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Nishimura, Kohji [Department of Molecular and Functional Genomics, Center for Integrated Research in Science, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Jisaka, Mitsuo; Nagaya, Tsutomu [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Shono, Fumiaki [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima-shi, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Yokota, Kazushige, E-mail: yokotaka@life.shimane-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    . -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cultured preadipocytes were transfected with sense lipocalin-type PGD synthase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned transfectants had a higher ability to synthesize PGD{sub 2} and PGJ{sub 2} series. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sustained expression of sense L-PGDS hampered the storage of fats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipogenesis program was suppressed independently of endogenous prostanoids.

  11. Considerations for the independent reaction times and step-by-step methods for radiation chemistry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with the water molecules of the tissues mostly by ionizations and excitations, which result in the formation of the radiation track structure and the creation of radiolytic species such as H.,.OH, H2, H2O2, and e-aq. After their creation, these species diffuse and may chemically react with the neighboring species and with the molecules of the medium. Therefore radiation chemistry is of great importance in radiation biology. As the chemical species are not distributed homogeneously, the use of conventional models of homogeneous reactions cannot completely describe the reaction kinetics of the particles. Actually, many simulations of radiation chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, which is a very fast technique to calculate radiochemical yields but which do not calculate the positions of the radiolytic species as a function of time. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time-consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. The SBS and IRT methods are both based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). In this paper, several sampling algorithms of the GFDE and for the IRT method are presented. We show that the IRT and SBS methods are exactly equivalent for 2-particles systems for diffusion and partially diffusion-controlled reactions between non-interacting particles. We also show that the results obtained with the SBS simulation method with periodic boundary conditions are in agreement with the predictions by classical reaction kinetics theory, which is an important step towards using this method for modelling of biochemical networks and metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress. Finally, the first simulation results obtained with the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) are presented.

  12. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness.

  13. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness

  14. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A. L., E-mail: a.vasiliev56@gmail.com; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  15. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient "nanotechnologies"; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  16. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  17. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay: Rapid, Sensitive and Culture-Independent Identification of Bacteria and Candida in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Richard E.; Peterson, Stephen; Carroll, Karen C.; Zhang, Sean X.; Avornu, Gideon D.; Rounds, Megan A.; Carolan, Heather E.; Toleno, Donna M.; Moore, David; Hall, Thomas A.; Massire, Christian; Richmond, Gregory S.; Gutierrez, Jose R.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J.; Blyn, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) and sepsis are rising in incidence throughout the developed world. The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms presents increasing challenges to treatment. Surviving BSI is dependent on rapid and accurate identification of causal organisms, and timely application of appropriate antibiotics. Current culture-based methods used to detect and identify agents of BSI are often too slow to impact early therapy and may fail to detect relevant organisms in many positive cases. Existing methods for direct molecular detection of microbial DNA in blood are limited in either sensitivity (likely the result of small sample volumes) or in breadth of coverage, often because the PCR primers and probes used target only a few specific pathogens. There is a clear unmet need for a sensitive molecular assay capable of identifying the diverse bacteria and yeast associated with BSI directly from uncultured whole blood samples. We have developed a method of extracting DNA from larger volumes of whole blood (5 ml per sample), amplifying multiple widely conserved bacterial and fungal genes using a mismatch- and background-tolerant PCR chemistry, and identifying hundreds of diverse organisms from the amplified fragments on the basis of species-specific genetic signatures using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). We describe the analytical characteristics of the IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay and compare its pre-clinical performance to current standard-of-care methods in a collection of prospectively collected blood specimens from patients with symptoms of sepsis. The assay generated matching results in 80% of culture-positive cases (86% when common contaminants were excluded from the analysis), and twice the total number of positive detections. The described method is capable of providing organism identifications directly from uncultured blood in less than 8 hours. Disclaimer: The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay is not available in the United States. PMID:27384540

  18. A method for online verification of adapted fields using an independent dose monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Jina; Norrlinger, Bernhard D.; Heaton, Robert K.; Jaffray, David A.; Cho, Young-Bin; Islam, Mohammad K.; Mahon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical implementation of online adaptive radiotherapy requires generation of modified fields and a method of dosimetric verification in a short time. We present a method of treatment field modification to account for patient setup error, and an online method of verification using an independent monitoring system.Methods: The fields are modified by translating each multileaf collimator (MLC) defined aperture in the direction of the patient setup error, and magnifying to account for distance variation to the marked isocentre. A modified version of a previously reported online beam monitoring system, the integral quality monitoring (IQM) system, was investigated for validation of adapted fields. The system consists of a large area ion-chamber with a spatial gradient in electrode separation to provide a spatially sensitive signal for each beam segment, mounted below the MLC, and a calculation algorithm to predict the signal. IMRT plans of ten prostate patients have been modified in response to six randomly chosen setup errors in three orthogonal directions.Results: A total of approximately 49 beams for the modified fields were verified by the IQM system, of which 97% of measured IQM signal agree with the predicted value to within 2%.Conclusions: The modified IQM system was found to be suitable for online verification of adapted treatment fields

  19. Quantification of self pollution from two diesel school buses using three independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Liu, L.-J.; Phuleria, Harish C.; Webber, Whitney; Davey, Mark; Lawson, Douglas R.; Ireson, Robert G.; Zielinska, Barbara; Ondov, John M.; Weaver, Christopher S.; Lapin, Charles A.; Easter, Michael; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Larson, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    We monitored two Seattle school buses to quantify the buses' self pollution using the dual tracers (DT), lead vehicle (LV), and chemical mass balance (CMB) methods. Each bus drove along a residential route simulating stops, with windows closed or open. Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents were monitored in the bus and from a LV. We collected source samples from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions using an on-board dilution tunnel. Concentrations of PM 1, ultrafine particle counts, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) were higher on the bus than the LV. The DT method estimated that the tailpipe and the crankcase emissions contributed 1.1 and 6.8 μg m -3 of PM 2.5 inside the bus, respectively, with significantly higher crankcase self pollution (SP) when windows were closed. Approximately two-thirds of in-cabin PM 2.5 originated from background sources. Using the LV approach, SP estimates from the EC and the active personal DataRAM (pDR) measurements correlated well with the DT estimates for tailpipe and crankcase emissions, respectively, although both measurements need further calibration for accurate quantification. CMB results overestimated SP from the DT method but confirmed crankcase emissions as the major SP source. We confirmed buses' SP using three independent methods and quantified crankcase emissions as the dominant contributor.

  20. A Fourier-series-based kernel-independent fast multipole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Huang Jingfang; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun Xiaobai

    2011-01-01

    We present in this paper a new kernel-independent fast multipole method (FMM), named as FKI-FMM, for pairwise particle interactions with translation-invariant kernel functions. FKI-FMM creates, using numerical techniques, sufficiently accurate and compressive representations of a given kernel function over multi-scale interaction regions in the form of a truncated Fourier series. It provides also economic operators for the multipole-to-multipole, multipole-to-local, and local-to-local translations that are typical and essential in the FMM algorithms. The multipole-to-local translation operator, in particular, is readily diagonal and does not dominate in arithmetic operations. FKI-FMM provides an alternative and competitive option, among other kernel-independent FMM algorithms, for an efficient application of the FMM, especially for applications where the kernel function consists of multi-physics and multi-scale components as those arising in recent studies of biological systems. We present the complexity analysis and demonstrate with experimental results the FKI-FMM performance in accuracy and efficiency.

  1. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study: Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Blair, Steven; Church, Tim; Espeland, Mark A.; Gill, Thomas M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McDermott, Mary M.; Miller, Michael E.; Nayfield, Susan; Newman, Anne B.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bonds, Denise; Romashkan, Sergei; Hadley, Evan; Pahor, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Background. As the number of older adults in the United States rises, maintaining functional independence among older Americans has emerged as a major clinical and public health priority. Older people who lose mobility are less likely to remain in the community; demonstrate higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations; and experience a poorer quality of life. Several studies have shown that regular physical activity improves functional limitations and intermediate functional outcomes, but definitive evidence showing that major mobility disability can be prevented is lacking. A Phase 3 randomized controlled trial is needed to fill this evidence gap. Methods. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase 3 multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to compare a supervised moderate-intensity physical activity program with a successful aging health education program in 1,600 sedentary older persons followed for an average of 2.7 years. Results. LIFE's primary outcome is major mobility disability, defined as the inability to walk 400 m. Secondary outcomes include cognitive function, serious fall injuries, persistent mobility disability, the combined outcome of major mobility disability or death, disability in activities of daily living, and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions. Results of this study are expected to have important public health implications for the large and growing population of older sedentary men and women. PMID:21825283

  2. Three-dimensional vision enhances task performance independently of the surgical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, O J; Hagen, M; Kurmann, A; Horgan, S; Candinas, D; Vorburger, S A

    2012-10-01

    Within the next few years, the medical industry will launch increasingly affordable three-dimensional (3D) vision systems for the operating room (OR). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D visualization on surgical skills and task performance. In this study, 34 individuals with varying laparoscopic experience (18 inexperienced individuals) performed three tasks to test spatial relationships, grasping and positioning, dexterity, precision, and hand-eye and hand-hand coordination. Each task was performed in 3D using binocular vision for open performance, the Viking 3Di Vision System for laparoscopic performance, and the DaVinci robotic system. The same tasks were repeated in 2D using an eye patch for monocular vision, conventional laparoscopy, and the DaVinci robotic system. Loss of 3D vision significantly increased the perceived difficulty of a task and the time required to perform it, independently of the approach (P robot than with laparoscopy (P = 0.005). In every case, 3D robotic performance was superior to conventional laparoscopy (2D) (P < 0.001-0.015). The more complex the task, the more 3D vision accelerates task completion compared with 2D vision. The gain in task performance is independent of the surgical method.

  3. Understanding Global / Local Cultural Leadership : Issues and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Cultural leaders sail between the Scylla and Charibdis of aggregated trans- and supranational cultural-political discourses and the cultural needs of local communities. How do these dynamics influence the work of cultural leaders? How can we understand the work of cultural leaders to connect

  4. Comparison of PCR method with the culture method for identification of gonococci from endocervical swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonococcal infection remains still a major cause of morbidity among sexually active individuals. Diagnosis of the infection in a female case is more difficult than that in a male. This was a prospective study among 269 female commercial sex workers (CSWs to screen them for gonococcal infection, comparing the rapid method of identification of gonococci by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with the selective culture method. A total of 92 (34.2% CSWs were identified positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by combination of the two methods. The PCR method identified 87 of the specimens to harbour cppB gene of N. gonorrhoeae, whereas culture method identified 83 specimens showing colonies of gonococci. Taking into consideration of the total positive cases (92, the PCR method showed a sensitivity of 94.57%, whereas sensitivity of culture method was 90.22%. The selective culture method appears to be the most applicable in the identification of gonococci from clinical specimens, particularly in the less resourceful countries like Bangladesh.

  5. Culture, Method, and the Content of Self-Concepts: Testing Trait, Individual-Self-Primacy, and Cultural Psychology Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, Alicia M; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Miramontes, Lilia G; Whitty, Monica; Curtis, Guy J; de Jesús Vargas-Flores, José; Ibáñez-Reyes, Joselina; Ortiz, Fernando A; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2007-12-01

    Three theoretical perspectives on cultural universals and differences in the content of self-concepts were tested in individualistic (United States, n = 178; Australia, n = 112) and collectivistic (Mexico, n = 157; Philippines, n = 138) cultures, using three methods of self-concept assessment. Support was found for both trait perspectives and the individual-self-primacy hypothesis. In contrast, support for cultural psychology hypotheses was limited because traits and other personal attributes were not more salient, or social attributes less salient, in individualistic cultures than collectivistic cultures. The salience of some aspects of self-concept depended on the method of assessment, calling into question conclusions based on monomethod studies.

  6. Features of method of medical physical culture at insufficiency of aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kalmykov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic approaches are considered to application of facilities of medical physical education at aortic insufficiency on the stages of physical rehabilitation. An analysis is conducted more than 20 literary sources. The mechanisms of medical action of physical exercises are specified - restorative influence, forming of temporal indemnifications, trophic action, normalization of the broken functions. It is set that task, forms, facilities, the methods of medical physical culture depend on the degree of weight of disease, degree of cardio-vascular insufficiency and stage of physical rehabilitation. Engaged in a medical physical culture conducted in form morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, independent employments, dosed walks, walking on steps, mobile and sporting games. It is marked that sparing training and training the motive modes are instrumental in the gradual training of the cardio-vascular system. Recommended the dosed walking to lead to a to 5-8 km on the sparing training and to 8-12 km on training modes.

  7. A safety culture assessment by mixed methods at a public maternity and infant hospital in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listyowardojo TA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tita Alissa Listyowardojo,1 Xiaoling Yan,2,3 Stephen Leyshon,1 Bobbie Ray-Sannerud,1 Xin Yan Yu,4 Kai Zheng,4 Tao Duan2,3 1Life Sciences Program, Group Technology and Research, DNV GL, Hovik, Norway; 2Quality and Safety Department, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, 3Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 4Healthcare Department, Business Assurance, DNV GL, Beijing, China Objective: To assess safety culture at a public maternity hospital in Shanghai, China, using a sequential mixed methods approach. The study was part of a bigger study looking at the application of the mixed methods approach to assess safety culture in health care in different organizations and countries.Methodology: A mixed methods approach was utilized by first distributing the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire measuring six safety culture dimensions and five independent items to all hospital staff (n=1482 working in 18 departments at a single hospital. Afterward, semistructured interviews were conducted using convenience sampling, where 48 hospital staff from nine departments at the same hospital were individually interviewed.Results: The survey received a response rate of 96%. The survey findings show significant differences between the hospital departments in almost all safety culture dimensions and independent items. Similarly, the interview findings revealed that there were different, competing priorities between departments perceived to result in a reduced quality of collaboration and bottlenecks in care delivery. Another major finding was that staff who worked more hours per week would perceive working conditions significantly more negatively. Issues related to working conditions were also the most common concerns discussed in the interviews, especially the issue on high workload. High workload was also reflected in the fact that 91.45% of survey respondents reported that they worked 40 hours or longer per week. Finally, interview findings complemented

  8. A new method to culture sweetpotato in space farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, I.; Ishii, Y.; Oda, M.; Kitaya, Y.; Mori, G.

    Sweetpotato production in space has many advantages over that of other crops; the plant has a higher growth rate and a higher yield with less fertilizer and less water, and functions as an efficient CO_2/O_2 converter. In a limited space in space farming, however, it is not favorable that sweetpotato shoots develop vigorously while the roots have not enlarged yet, because the sweetpotato organ of interest is not the shoot but the tuberous root. Cuttings of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. "Beniazuma") were used in this study. Each cutting was cut off from the 2nd - 10th nodes from the apices of mother branches and consisted of one expanded leaf, one node and five cm long stem. The cuttings were cultured suboptimally on a mixed soil (peat-moss:vermiculite=1:1 in volume) in a greenhouse under sunlight. Growth characteristics of the cuttings removed axillary buds were compared with cuttings with axillary buds in the first experiment. The cuttings without axillary buds started tuberous root bulking about 30 days after the onset of the experiment. The harvest index (tuberous root dry mass/total dry mass) was 0.5 after 70 days. Whereas, the control plant with an axillary bud developed a lateral shoot and formed no tuberous root during 70 days in the experiment. It was necessary to remove the axillary buds in order to form the tuberous roots in this method. To evaluate the effect of light intensity on tuberous root formation, cuttings without axillary buds were shaded with cheesecloth having 43% of light transmittance in the second experiment. The tuberous root formation was retarded 50 days in shaded cuttings compared with control cuttings. The tuberous roots were quickly formed and the large harvest index was ensured in this method with cuttings without axillary buds. Therefore the method is expected to be advantageous to culture sweetpotato at a high density with rapid turn over in a limited culture space in space farming.

  9. Preservation of live cultures of basidiomycetes - recent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Ladislav

    2014-02-01

    Basidiomycetes are used in industrial processes, in basic or applied research, teaching, systematic and biodiversity studies. Efficient work with basidiomycete cultures requires their reliable source, which is ensured by their safe long-term storage. Repeated subculturing, frequently used for the preservation, is time-consuming, prone to contamination, and does not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance. Various storage methods have been developed in order to eliminate these disadvantages. Besides lyophilization (unsuitable for the majority of basidiomycetes), cryopreservation at low temperatures seems to be a very efficient way to attain this goal. Besides survival, another requirement for successful maintenance of fungal strains is the ability to preserve their features unchanged. An ideal method has not been created so far. Therefore it is highly desirable to develop new or improve the current preservation methods, combining advantages and eliminate disadvantages of individual techniques. Many reviews on preservation of microorganisms including basidiomycetes have been published, but the progress in the field requires an update. Although herbaria specimens of fungi (and of basidiomycetes in particular) are very important for taxonomic and especially typological studies, this review is limited to live fungal cultures. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The hydrogen tunneling splitting in malonaldehyde: A full-dimensional time-independent quantum mechanical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Feng; Ren, Yinghui; Bian, Wensheng, E-mail: bian@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-21

    The accurate time-independent quantum dynamics calculations on the ground-state tunneling splitting of malonaldehyde in full dimensionality are reported for the first time. This is achieved with an efficient method developed by us. In our method, the basis functions are customized for the hydrogen transfer process which has the effect of greatly reducing the size of the final Hamiltonian matrix, and the Lanczos method and parallel strategy are used to further overcome the memory and central processing unit time bottlenecks. The obtained ground-state tunneling splitting of 24.5 cm{sup −1} is in excellent agreement with the benchmark value of 23.8 cm{sup −1} computed with the full-dimensional, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach on the same potential energy surface, and we estimate that our reported value has an uncertainty of less than 0.5 cm{sup −1}. Moreover, the role of various vibrational modes strongly coupled to the hydrogen transfer process is revealed.

  11. A platform-independent method for detecting errors in metagenomic sequencing data: DRISEE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Keegan

    Full Text Available We provide a novel method, DRISEE (duplicate read inferred sequencing error estimation, to assess sequencing quality (alternatively referred to as "noise" or "error" within and/or between sequencing samples. DRISEE provides positional error estimates that can be used to inform read trimming within a sample. It also provides global (whole sample error estimates that can be used to identify samples with high or varying levels of sequencing error that may confound downstream analyses, particularly in the case of studies that utilize data from multiple sequencing samples. For shotgun metagenomic data, we believe that DRISEE provides estimates of sequencing error that are more accurate and less constrained by technical limitations than existing methods that rely on reference genomes or the use of scores (e.g. Phred. Here, DRISEE is applied to (non amplicon data sets from both the 454 and Illumina platforms. The DRISEE error estimate is obtained by analyzing sets of artifactual duplicate reads (ADRs, a known by-product of both sequencing platforms. We present DRISEE as an open-source, platform-independent method to assess sequencing error in shotgun metagenomic data, and utilize it to discover previously uncharacterized error in de novo sequence data from the 454 and Illumina sequencing platforms.

  12. Participatory Methods and UCA Project: understanding technologies as culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Pischetola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the complex and changing context of digital culture, the media become an important space of relation, as they have the crucial role of articulating new cultural logics that lead to disruptions in the school environment. To understand this change, new methods of analysis and research have been created, the so-called Participatory Methodologies. They are action research strategies aimed at intervening in a given social situation. In the analysis proposed here, such methodologies will help us to address the challenge of involving digital technologies in school culture, through the participation of different individuals involved. Two qualitative case studies about the project Um Computador por Aluno – the Brazilian One Laptop per Child -, carried out in 2012 in the schools of Santa Catarina and Bahia, are the first of two phases of the research presented. The results concern a "vertical" form of technology insertion in schools, which led to frustration and de-motivation at several levels. Starting from these considerations, the second stage of research proposes a pedagogical intervention in one of four schools in the field. The methodologies of participatory video and photography are chosen as possibilities of action-reflection-action on the sociocultural reality of students through the experience of sharing. The results show the importance of carrying out creative activities, appropriate to a social conception of learning, as well as the centrality of children and youth as agency and a broader need to redefine the relationship between teacher and student, in a more "horizontal" perspective process of teaching and learning. Keywords: Projeto UCA. Participatory Research Method. Innovative teaching-learning.

  13. Prognostic breast cancer signature identified from 3D culture model accurately predicts clinical outcome across independent datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Katherine J.; Patrick, Denis R.; Bissell, Mina J.; Fournier, Marcia V.

    2008-10-20

    One of the major tenets in breast cancer research is that early detection is vital for patient survival by increasing treatment options. To that end, we have previously used a novel unsupervised approach to identify a set of genes whose expression predicts prognosis of breast cancer patients. The predictive genes were selected in a well-defined three dimensional (3D) cell culture model of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis as down-regulated during breast epithelial cell acinar formation and cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the ability of this gene signature (3D-signature) to predict prognosis in three independent breast cancer microarray datasets having 295, 286, and 118 samples, respectively. Our results show that the 3D-signature accurately predicts prognosis in three unrelated patient datasets. At 10 years, the probability of positive outcome was 52, 51, and 47 percent in the group with a poor-prognosis signature and 91, 75, and 71 percent in the group with a good-prognosis signature for the three datasets, respectively (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, p<0.05). Hazard ratios for poor outcome were 5.5 (95% CI 3.0 to 12.2, p<0.0001), 2.4 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.6, p<0.0001) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.2, p = 0.016) and remained significant for the two larger datasets when corrected for estrogen receptor (ER) status. Hence the 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome in both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, though individual genes differed in their prognostic ability in the two subtypes. Genes that were prognostic in ER+ patients are AURKA, CEP55, RRM2, EPHA2, FGFBP1, and VRK1, while genes prognostic in ER patients include ACTB, FOXM1 and SERPINE2 (Kaplan-Meier p<0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis in the largest dataset showed that the 3D-signature was a strong independent factor in predicting breast cancer outcome. The 3D-signature accurately predicts breast cancer outcome across multiple datasets and holds prognostic

  14. A new computational method of a moment-independent uncertainty importance measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiao; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-01-01

    For a risk assessment model, the uncertainty in input parameters is propagated through the model and leads to the uncertainty in the model output. The study of how the uncertainty in the output of a model can be apportioned to the uncertainty in the model inputs is the job of sensitivity analysis. Saltelli [Sensitivity analysis for importance assessment. Risk Analysis 2002;22(3):579-90] pointed out that a good sensitivity indicator should be global, quantitative and model free. Borgonovo [A new uncertainty importance measure. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(6):771-84] further extended these three requirements by adding the fourth feature, moment-independence, and proposed a new sensitivity measure, δ i . It evaluates the influence of the input uncertainty on the entire output distribution without reference to any specific moment of the model output. In this paper, a new computational method of δ i is proposed. It is conceptually simple and easier to implement. The feasibility of this new method is proved by applying it to two examples.

  15. Microseismic imaging using a source-independent full-waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen

    2016-09-06

    Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate microseismic and image microseismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, waveform inversion of microseismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source location (space) and function (time). We develop a source independent FWI of microseismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with the observed and modeled data to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for source wavelet in z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also the angle gather is calculated to see if the velocity model is correct. By inverting for all the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for part of the SEG overthrust model.

  16. LEA Detection and Tracking Method for Color-Independent Visual-MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Eun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication performance in the color-independent visual-multiple input multiple output (visual-MIMO technique is deteriorated by light emitting array (LEA detection and tracking errors in the received image because the image sensor included in the camera must be used as the receiver in the visual-MIMO system. In this paper, in order to improve detection reliability, we first set up the color-space-based region of interest (ROI in which an LEA is likely to be placed, and then use the Harris corner detection method. Next, we use Kalman filtering for robust tracking by predicting the most probable location of the LEA when the relative position between the camera and the LEA varies. In the last step of our proposed method, the perspective projection is used to correct the distorted image, which can improve the symbol decision accuracy. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the possibility of robust detection and tracking of the LEA, which results in a symbol error rate (SER performance improvement.

  17. Microseismic imaging using a source-independent full-waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen

    2016-01-01

    Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate microseismic and image microseismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, waveform inversion of microseismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source location (space) and function (time). We develop a source independent FWI of microseismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with the observed and modeled data to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for source wavelet in z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also the angle gather is calculated to see if the velocity model is correct. By inverting for all the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for part of the SEG overthrust model.

  18. Geodetic Mass Balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield from 2000 to 2012 Using Two Independent Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Dussaillant

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We compare two independent estimates of the rate of elevation change and geodetic mass balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield (NPI between 2000 (3,856 km2 and 2012 (3,740 km2 from space-borne data. The first is obtained by differencing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM from February 2000 and a Satellite pour l'Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 DEM from March 2012. The second is deduced by fitting pixel-based linear elevation trends over 118 DEMs calculated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo images acquired between 2000 and 2012. Both methods lead to similar and strongly negative icefield-wide mass balance rates of −1.02 ± 0.21 and −1.06 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr−1 respectively, which is in agreement with earlier studies. Contrasting glacier responses are observed, with individual glacier mass balance rates ranging from −0.15 to −2.30 m w.e. yr−1 (standard deviation = 0.49 m w.e. yr−1; N = 38. For individual glaciers, the two methods agree within error bars, except for small glaciers poorly sampled in the SPOT5 DEM due to clouds. Importantly, our study confirms the lack of penetration of the C-band SRTM radar signal into the NPI snow and firn except for a region above 2,900 m a.s.l. covering <1% of the total area. Ignoring penetration would bias the mass balance by only 0.005 m w.e. yr−1. A strong advantage of the ASTER method is that it relies only on freely available data and can thus be extended to other glacierized areas.

  19. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanchen; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    At the heart of micro-seismic event measurements is the task to estimate the location of the source micro-seismic events, as well as their ignition times. The accuracy of locating the sources is highly dependent on the velocity model. On the other hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate and image micro-seismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source locations (space) and functions (time). We developed a source function independent full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with these observed and modeled to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for the source wavelet in Z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also, angle gathers is calculated to assess the quality of the long wavelength component of the velocity model. By inverting for the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model simultaneously, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for synthetic examples used here, like those corresponding to the Marmousi model and the SEG/EAGE overthrust model.

  20. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen

    2018-03-26

    At the heart of micro-seismic event measurements is the task to estimate the location of the source micro-seismic events, as well as their ignition times. The accuracy of locating the sources is highly dependent on the velocity model. On the other hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate and image micro-seismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source locations (space) and functions (time). We developed a source function independent full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with these observed and modeled to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for the source wavelet in Z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also, angle gathers is calculated to assess the quality of the long wavelength component of the velocity model. By inverting for the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model simultaneously, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for synthetic examples used here, like those corresponding to the Marmousi model and the SEG/EAGE overthrust model.

  1. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  2. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  3. Managing Sonchus arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis L. represents an increasing problem in Finland. Options for mechanical and cultural control of S. arvensis were studied in a field experiment on clay soil under organic production. The experiment consisted of different crop sequences: spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2001, oats, Avena sativa L., in 2002 with or without inter-row hoeing and/or stubble cultivation, bare fallow, fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L., and ley with mowing. In 2003 the entire field was sown to spring wheat. Crop plant and Sonchus shoot density and dry mass prior to cereal harvest and crop yield were assessed. The control effect was rated: bare fallow > ley > cereal with or without inter-row hoeing > poor growth fibre hemp. Bare fallow was an effective but costly way to reduce S. arvensis infestation. Introduction of a regularly mown green fallow or silage ley in the crop rotation is advisable. Mechanical weed control by inter-row hoeing in cereals limits S. arvensis growth. Infestation might also be reduced by stubble cultivation in autumn. When managing S. arvensis using mechanical and cultural methods, appropriate options, including a competitive crop, should be chosen for the specific field and rotation.;

  4. Use of the Culture Care Theory and ethnonursing method to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixer, Sandra J

    2008-04-01

    As the world becomes increasingly multicultural, transcultural nursing education is critical to ensuring a culturally competent workforce. This paper presents a comprehensive review of literature and results of an ethnonursing pilot study using the Culture Care Theory (CCT) to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care. The literature revealed that despite 50 years of transcultural nursing knowledge development through theory, research and practice, there remains a lack of formal, integrated culture education in nursing. The importance of faculty providing generic and professional care to nursing students and using an organising framework to teach culture care was discovered. Additionally, care was essential for faculty health and well-being to enable faculty to teach culture care. This unique use of the theory and method demonstrates its usefulness in discovering and describing the complex nature of teaching culture care. Larger scale studies are predicted to further substantiate the CCT, building the discipline of nursing.

  5. The Teaching Methods of Cultural Factors in The Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Mengyang

    2014-01-01

    Culture knowledge plays an important role in linguistic proficiency and currently most teaching activities are stil happened inthe traditionalclassroom. So this paper introducedsome ofthe practicalteachingmethods ofChinese culture inthe Chinese language classroom.

  6. Culture-Independent Techniques for Rapid Detection of Bacteria Associated with Loss of Chloramine Residual in a Drinking Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Daniel; Monis, Paul T.; Grooby, Warwick L.; Andrews, Stuart; Saint, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    Chloramination is often the disinfection regimen of choice for extended drinking water systems. However, this process is prone to instability due to the growth of nitrifying bacteria. This is the first study to use alternative approaches for rapid investigation of chloraminated drinking water system instability in which flow cytometric cell sorting of bacteria with intact membranes (membrane-intact fraction) (BacLight kit) or with active esterases (esterase-active fraction) (carboxyfluorescein diacetate) was combined with 16S rRNA gene-directed PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). No active bacteria were detected when water left the water treatment plant (WTP), but 12 km downstream the chloramine residual had diminished and the level of active bacteria in the bulk water had increased to more than 1 × 105 bacteria ml−1. The bacterial diversity in the system was represented by six major DGGE bands for the membrane-intact fraction and 10 major DGGE bands for the esterase-active fraction. PCR targeting of the 16S rRNA gene of chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and subsequent DGGE and DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of an active Nitrosospira-related species and Nitrosomonas cryotolerans in the system, but no AOB were detected in the associated WTP. The abundance of active AOB was then determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the amoA gene; 3.43 × 103 active AOB ml−1 were detected in the membrane-intact fraction, and 1.40 × 104 active AOB ml−1 were detected in the esterase-active fraction. These values were several orders of magnitude greater than the 2.5 AOB ml−1 detected using a routine liquid most-probable-number assay. Culture-independent techniques described here, in combination with existing chemical indicators, should allow the water industry to obtain more comprehensive data with which to make informed decisions regarding remedial action that may be required either prior to or during an

  7. A Capacity-Restraint Transit Assignment Model When a Predetermination Method Indicates the Invalidity of Time Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical independence of time of every two adjacent bus links plays a crucial role in deciding the feasibility of using many mathematical models to analyze urban transit networks. Traditional research generally ignores the time independence that acts as the ground of their models. Assumption is usually made that time independence of every two adjacent links is sound. This is, however, actually groundless and probably causes problematic conclusions reached by corresponding models. Many transit assignment models such as multinomial probit-based models lose their effects when the time independence is not valid. In this paper, a simple method to predetermine the time independence is proposed. Based on the predetermination method, a modified capacity-restraint transit assignment method aimed at engineering practice is put forward and tested through a small contrived network and a case study in Nanjing city, China, respectively. It is found that the slope of regression equation between the mean and standard deviation of normal distribution acts as the indicator of time independence at the same time. Besides, our modified assignment method performs better than the traditional one with more reasonable results while keeping the property of simplicity well.

  8. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E. (CLS-CI); (Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University); (ECHA Microbiology Ltd.); (Josephine Bay Paul Centre for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution)

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  9. Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Y.; Zheng, X.; Han, B.Z.; Han, J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Chen, J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became

  10. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising surface and the interior of the cheeses diverged. During cheese production pyrosequencing determined Lactococcus as the dominating genus on cheese surfaces, representing on average 94.7%±2.1% of the OTUs. At day 6 Lactococcus spp. declined to 10.0% of the OTUs, whereas Staphylococcus spp. went from 0.0% during cheese production to 75.5% of the OTUs at smearing. During ripening, i.e. from 4 to 18 weeks, Corynebacterium was the dominant genus on the cheese surface (55.1%±9.8% of the OTUs), with Staphylococcus (17.9%±11.2% of the OTUs) and Brevibacterium (10.4%±8.3% of the OTUs) being the second and third most abundant genera. Other detected bacterial genera included Clostridiisalibacter (5.0%±4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented surface ripened semi-hard cheeses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Faria da Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low

  12. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure differs according to the vector genus.

  13. How Can We Overcome the Dichotomy That Western Culture Has Created between the Concepts of Independence and Dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article, inspired by the works of Martin Buber, is to propose an alternative to the inherent dichotomy of Western culture. It may allow Western culture to transcend its fixed nature towards new directions and to suggest challenging solutions for reshaping the questions--what is the role of man in the world, and what is the…

  14. Micro-seismic Imaging Using a Source Independent Waveform Inversion Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen

    2016-04-18

    Micro-seismology is attracting more and more attention in the exploration seismology community. The main goal in micro-seismic imaging is to find the source location and the ignition time in order to track the fracture expansion, which will help engineers monitor the reservoirs. Conventional imaging methods work fine in this field but there are many limitations such as manual picking, incorrect migration velocity and low signal to noise ratio (S/N). In traditional surface survey imaging, full waveform inversion (FWI) is widely used. The FWI method updates the velocity model by minimizing the misfit between the observed data and the predicted data. Using FWI to locate and image microseismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. Use the FWI technique, and overcomes the difficulties of manual pickings and incorrect velocity model for migration. However, the technique of waveform inversion of micro-seismic events faces its own problems. There is significant nonlinearity due to the unknown source location (space) and function (time). We have developed a source independent FWI of micro-seismic events to simultaneously invert for the source image, source function and velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with the observed and modeled data to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. To examine the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model the extended image for source wavelet in z-axis is extracted. Also the angle gather is calculated to check the applicability of the migration velocity. By inverting for the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model simultaneously, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity in the synthetic experiments with both parts of the Marmousi and the SEG

  15. The effects of culture independent diagnostic testing on the diagnosis and reporting of enteric bacterial pathogens in Queensland, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Fiona J; Stafford, Russell J; Carroll, Heidi; Robson, Jennifer Mb; Vohra, Renu; Nimmo, Graeme R; Bates, John; Kirk, Martyn D; Fearnley, Emily J; Polkinghorne, Benjamin G

    2017-09-01

    Changes in diagnostic laboratory testing procedures can impact on the number of cases notified and the public health surveillance of enteric pathogens. Culture independent diagnostic testing using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was introduced for the rapid detection of bacterial enteric pathogens in pathology laboratories in Queensland, Australia, from late 2013 onwards. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study using laboratory data to assess the impact of the introduction of PCR testing on four common enteric pathogens, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Yersinia, in Queensland between 2010 and 2014. The number of stool specimens tested and the proportion positive for each of the four pathogens increased in 2014 after the introduction of culture independent diagnostic testing. Among the specimens tested by both PCR and culture, 12% of Salmonella positive stools, 36% of Campylobacter positive stools, 74% of Shigella / enteroinvasive Escherichia coli positive stools and 65% of Yersinia positive stools were PCR positive only. Including those where culture was not performed, 19% of Salmonella positive stools, 44% of Campylobacter positive stools, 83% of Shigella positive stools and 79% of Yersinia positive stools had no cultured isolate available for further characterisation. The detection and tracking of foodborne and non-foodborne gastrointestinal outbreaks will become more difficult as culture independent diagnostic testing becomes more widespread. Until new techniques for characterisation of pathogens directly from clinical specimens have been developed, we recommend laboratories continue to culture specimens concurrently or reflexively with culture independent diagnostic tests. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your

  16. A bandwidth independent linear method for detection of carrier envelope phase drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerbe, M.

    2006-01-01

    interference fringes is substantially degraded. If one uses unstabilized femtosecond pulses with different CEP interferes with a given pulse, can be experimentally implemented by inserting a ring resonator inside the sample arm of the interferometer. So the reference pulse interferes with the remnants of all the previous (sample) pulses of the pulse train circulating in the ring resonator, each having the inherited CEP drift from the oscillator. Our extended simulations show, that the visibility of the interference fringes depends on the measure of CEP drift as well as on the number of interfering pulses determined by the finesse of the ring resonator. This feature can be used not only for an easy detection of CEP fluctuation but also for CEP stabilization of the pulse train itself. Moreover, please note that this method is inherently independent on the bandwidth of the pulses to be CEP stabilized. This work was supported by OTKA under grant T047078 and NKFP 1/00007/2005.

  17. Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer Y; Henao, Olga L; Griffin, Patricia M; Vugia, Duc J; Cronquist, Alicia B; Hurd, Sharon; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Patrick, Mary E

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric and foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites. This report summarizes preliminary 2015 data and describes trends since 2012. In 2015, FoodNet reported 20,107 confirmed cases (defined as culture-confirmed bacterial infections and laboratory-confirmed parasitic infections), 4,531 hospitalizations, and 77 deaths. FoodNet also received reports of 3,112 positive culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) without culture-confirmation, a number that has markedly increased since 2012. Diagnostic testing practices for enteric pathogens are rapidly moving away from culture-based methods. The continued shift from culture-based methods to CIDTs that do not produce the isolates needed to distinguish between strains and subtypes affects the interpretation of public health surveillance data and ability to monitor progress toward prevention efforts. Expanded case definitions and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates are crucial during this transition period.

  18. Selection of mining method for No.3 uranium ore body in the independent mining area at a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Fulong; Ding Dexin; Ye Yongjun

    2010-01-01

    Mining operation in the existed mining area at a uranium mine is near completion and it is necessary to mine the No.3 uranium ore body in another mining area at the mine. This paper, based on the geological conditions, used analogical method for analyzing the feasible methods and the low cost and high efficiency mining method was suggested for the No.3 ore body in the independent mining area at the uranium mine. (authors)

  19. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of grid independence of finite element method on MHD free convective casson fluid flow with slip effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, R. Srinivasa; Ramesh, K.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the grid independence of finite element method on MHD Casson fluid flow past a vertically inclined plate filled in a porous medium in presence of chemical reaction, heat absorption, an external magnetic field and slip effect has been investigated. For this study of grid independence, a mathematical model is developed and analyzed by using appropriate mathematical technique, called finite element method. Grid study discussed with the help of numerical values of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles in tabular form. avourable comparisons with previously published work on various special cases of the problem are obtained.

  1. Research on fuzzy comprehensive assessment method of nuclear power plant safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yuanyuan; Chen Xukun; Xu Rongbin

    2012-01-01

    Considering the traits of safety culture in nuclear plant, 38 safety culture assessment indexes are established from 4 aspects such as safety values, safety institution, safety behavior and safety sub- stances. Based on it, a comprehensive assessment method for nuclear power plant safety culture is constructed by using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) approach and fuzzy mathematics. The comprehensive assessment method has the quality of high precision and high operability, which can support the decision making of safety culture development. (authors)

  2. Utilizing the Project Method for Teaching Culture and Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Sasha S.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a detailed methodological outline for teaching culture through project work. It is argued that because project work makes it possible to gain transferrable and applicable knowledge and insight, it is the ideal tool for teaching culture with the aim of achieving real intercultural communicative competence (ICC). Preceding the…

  3. The Effect of Culture Methods and Serum Supplementation on Developmental Competence of Bovine Embryos Cultured In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the developmental competence of bovine in vitro fertilized embryos in three different culture methods; microdrop method (50 µl of medium under mineral oil in petri dishes) compared to tube methods (1 ml of medium in tubes) with or without oil overlay, and t...

  4. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helen eImmordino-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior insula (AI maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain’s ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural

  5. Puerto Rican understandings of child disability: methods for the cultural validation of standardized measures of child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Handwerker, W Penn

    2002-12-01

    Validating the cultural context of health is important for obtaining accurate and useful information from standardized measures of child health adapted for cross-cultural applications. This paper describes the application of ethnographic triangulation for cultural validation of a measure of childhood disability, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) for use with children living in Puerto Rico. The key concepts include macro-level forces such as geography, demography, and economics, specific activities children performed and their key social interactions, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and patterns of behavior surrounding independence in children and childhood disability, as well as the definition of childhood disability. Methods utilize principal components analysis to establish the validity of cultural concepts and multiple regression analysis to identify intracultural variation. Findings suggest culturally specific modifications to the PEDI, provide contextual information for informed interpretation of test scores, and point to the need to re-standardize normative values for use with Puerto Rican children. Without this type of information, Puerto Rican children may appear more disabled than expected for their level of impairment or not to be making improvements in functional status. The methods also allow for cultural boundaries to be quantitatively established, rather than presupposed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Method to Increase Undergraduate Laboratory Student Confidence in Performing Independent Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Kempton, Colton E.; Weber, K. Scott; Johnson, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of an undergraduate laboratory course should be not only to introduce the students to biology methodologies and techniques, but also to teach them independent analytical thinking skills and proper experiment design.  This is especially true for advanced biology laboratory courses that undergraduate students typically take as a junior or senior in college.  Many courses achieve the goal of teaching techniques, but fail to approach the larger goal of teaching critical thinking, experim...

  7. Transnational Cultural Leadership as a Situated Practice : Dilemmas and Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal transnational research project, a network of European research institutions and field organisations aims to understand how cultural managers mediate global and local pressures concerning creative autonomy, economy and ideology. Among the research questions are which variables

  8. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  9. Barriers to and facilitators of independent non-medical prescribing in clinical practice: a mixed-methods systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Noblet

    2017-10-01

    Registration: PROSPERO CRD42015017212. [Noblet T, Marriott J, Graham-Clarke E, Rushton A (2017 Barriers to and facilitators of independent non-medical prescribing in clinical practice: a mixed-methods systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 221–234

  10. The evolution of chicken stem cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E

    2017-12-01

    1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.

  11. Feeder-cell-independent culture of the pig-embryonic-stem-cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line, PICM-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation to feeder-independent growth of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line is described. The parental PICM-31 cell line, previously characterized as an exocrine pancreas cell line, was colony-cloned two times in succession resulting in the subclonal cell line, PICM-31A1. P...

  12. A Method of Calculating Functional Independence Measure at Discharge from Functional Independence Measure Effectiveness Predicted by Multiple Regression Analysis Has a High Degree of Predictive Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Susumu; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis is often used to predict the outcome of stroke rehabilitation. However, the predictive accuracy may not be satisfactory. The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictive accuracy of a method of calculating motor Functional Independence Measure (mFIM) at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 505 patients with stroke who were hospitalized in a convalescent rehabilitation hospital. The formula "mFIM at discharge = mFIM effectiveness × (91 points - mFIM at admission) + mFIM at admission" was used. By including the predicted mFIM effectiveness obtained through multiple regression analysis in this formula, we obtained the predicted mFIM at discharge (A). We also used multiple regression analysis to directly predict mFIM at discharge (B). The correlation between the predicted and the measured values of mFIM at discharge was compared between A and B. The correlation coefficients were .916 for A and .878 for B. Calculating mFIM at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis had a higher degree of predictive accuracy of mFIM at discharge than that directly predicted. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple Contexts, Multiple Methods: A Study of Academic and Cultural Identity among Children of Immigrant Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Munoz, Chantico

    2012-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine the academic motivation and cultural identity of a sample of college undergraduates. The children of immigrant parents (CIPs, n = 52) and the children of non-immigrant parents (non-CIPs, n = 42) completed surveys assessing core cultural identity, valuing of cultural accomplishments, academic self-concept,…

  14. Individualism-Collectivism and Power Distance Cultural Dimensions: How Each Influences Parental Disciplinary Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Karen Walker

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a literature review using the Douglas-Widavasky Grid/Group theory as a framework to examine, from a cross cultural perspective, preferred parental disciplinary methods. The four rival cultures defined in the Grid/Group theory mirror the cultural dimensions of individualism-collectivism and power distance described by Geert Hofstede.…

  15. Methods and Techniques of Sampling, Culturing and Identifying of Subsurface Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon

    2010-11-01

    This report described sampling, culturing and identifying of KURT underground bacteria, which existed as iron-, manganese-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The methods of culturing and media preparation were different by bacteria species affecting bacteria growth-rates. It will be possible for the cultured bacteria to be used for various applied experiments and researches in the future

  16. A Method of Approximating Expectations of Functions of Sums of Independent Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Klass, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Let $X_1, X_2, \\cdots$ be a sequence of independent random variables with $S_n = \\sum^n_{i = 1} X_i$. Fix $\\alpha > 0$. Let $\\Phi(\\cdot)$ be a continuous, strictly increasing function on $\\lbrack 0, \\infty)$ such that $\\Phi(0) = 0$ and $\\Phi(cx) \\leq c^\\alpha\\Phi(x)$ for all $x > 0$ and all $c \\geq 2$. Suppose $a$ is a real number and $J$ is a finite nonempty subset of the positive integers. In this paper we are interested in approximating $E \\max_{j \\in J} \\Phi(|a + S_j|)$. We construct a nu...

  17. Organizational Culture and the Deployment of Agile Methods: The Competing Values Model View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivari, Juhani; Iivari, Netta

    A number of researchers have identified organizational culture as a factor that potentially affects the deployment of agile systems development methods. Inspired by the study of Iivari and Huisman (2007), which focused on the deployment of traditional systems development methods, the present paper proposes a number of hypotheses about the influence of organizational culture on the deployment of agile methods.

  18. A 3D multi-mode geometry-independent RMP optimization method and its application to TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossel, J X; Moret, J-M; Martin, Y

    2010-01-01

    Resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) and error field correction (EFC) produced by toroidally and poloidally distributed coil systems can be optimized if each coil is powered with an independent power supply. A 3D multi-mode geometry-independent Lagrange method has been developed and appears to be an efficient way to minimize the parasitic spatial modes of the magnetic perturbation and the coil current requirements while imposing the amplitude and phase of a number of target modes. A figure of merit measuring the quality of a perturbation spectrum with respect to RMP independently of the considered coil system or plasma equilibrium is proposed. To ease the application of the Lagrange method, a spectral characterization of the system, based on a generalized discrete Fourier transform applied in current space, is performed to determine how spectral degeneracy and side-band creation limit the set of simultaneously controllable target modes. This characterization is also useful to quantify the efficiency of the coil system in each toroidal mode number and to know whether optimization is possible for a given number of target modes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated in the special case of a multi-purpose saddle coil system proposed as part of a future upgrade of Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV). This system consists of three rows of eight internal coils, each coil having independent power supplies, and provides simultaneously EFC, RMP and fast vertical position control.

  19. A comparison on parameter-estimation methods in multiple regression analysis with existence of multicollinearity among independent variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hukharnsusatrue, A.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to compare multiple regression coefficients estimating methods with existence of multicollinearity among independent variables. The estimation methods are Ordinary Least Squares method (OLS, Restricted Least Squares method (RLS, Restricted Ridge Regression method (RRR and Restricted Liu method (RL when restrictions are true and restrictions are not true. The study used the Monte Carlo Simulation method. The experiment was repeated 1,000 times under each situation. The analyzed results of the data are demonstrated as follows. CASE 1: The restrictions are true. In all cases, RRR and RL methods have a smaller Average Mean Square Error (AMSE than OLS and RLS method, respectively. RRR method provides the smallest AMSE when the level of correlations is high and also provides the smallest AMSE for all level of correlations and all sample sizes when standard deviation is equal to 5. However, RL method provides the smallest AMSE when the level of correlations is low and middle, except in the case of standard deviation equal to 3, small sample sizes, RRR method provides the smallest AMSE.The AMSE varies with, most to least, respectively, level of correlations, standard deviation and number of independent variables but inversely with to sample size.CASE 2: The restrictions are not true.In all cases, RRR method provides the smallest AMSE, except in the case of standard deviation equal to 1 and error of restrictions equal to 5%, OLS method provides the smallest AMSE when the level of correlations is low or median and there is a large sample size, but the small sample sizes, RL method provides the smallest AMSE. In addition, when error of restrictions is increased, OLS method provides the smallest AMSE for all level, of correlations and all sample sizes, except when the level of correlations is high and sample sizes small. Moreover, the case OLS method provides the smallest AMSE, the most RLS method has a smaller AMSE than

  20. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  1. Transfer matrix method for dynamics modeling and independent modal space vibration control design of linear hybrid multibody system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Bao; Rui, Xiaoting; Lu, Kun; Tao, Ling; Wang, Guoping; Ni, Xiaojun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an efficient method of dynamics modeling and vibration control design of a linear hybrid multibody system (MS) is studied based on the transfer matrix method. The natural vibration characteristics of a linear hybrid MS are solved by using low-order transfer equations. Then, by constructing the brand-new body dynamics equation, augmented operator and augmented eigenvector, the orthogonality of augmented eigenvector of a linear hybrid MS is satisfied, and its state space model expressed in each independent model space is obtained easily. According to this dynamics model, a robust independent modal space-fuzzy controller is designed for vibration control of a general MS, and the genetic optimization of some critical control parameters of fuzzy tuners is also presented. Two illustrative examples are performed, which results show that this method is computationally efficient and with perfect control performance.

  2. CLOUD-BASED INTERACTIVE EDUCATIONAL AND METHODICAL COMPLEX FOR THE COURSE “INFORMATICS” IN INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И Н Куринин

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on the basic materials of the educational and methodical complex of a modern format (cloud-based and interactive, used in the educational process of the course “Informatics”, which significantly expands the share of independent work of students according to the increased number of students’ practical work (laboratory work, educational projects, essays. This workshop focuses on mastering the methods of work with personal mobile and office computers, Office programs, Internet technologies by students and making students receive the competences to solve topical applied problems. Efficiency of students’ independent work is additionally ensured by educational and methodical tutorials (lecture notes and compilations of test tasks, excercises, models and examples of performing all tasks, developed by the authors of the article.

  3. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved

  4. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved.

  5. A Method to Preclude Moisture Condensation in Plated Tissue Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex M. Diner

    1992-01-01

    Excessive condensate normally accumulates in in vitro-illuminated petri dishes containing plant tissue cultures, causing avariety of problems. A dark-colored rubber net-mesh placed over the petri dishes prevented such condensation, even when charcoal-supplemented media are used under high light intensity in a growth chamber.

  6. LABORATORY CULTURE METHODS FOR THE MOTTLED SCULPIN (COTTUS BAIRDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish from the family Cottidae (Sculpin Family) are being researched to determine their sensitivity to various metals in freshwater systems. The ability to culture them in the lab would facilitate species sensitivity comparisons. We collected adult mottled sculpins (C. bairdi) f...

  7. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R

    2003-01-01

    neurons is seen after 3 weeks (2 weeks in ascorbic acid), suggesting that basal lamina production is important even for glial ensheathment in the enteric nervous system. No overgrowth of fibroblasts or other nonneuronal cells was noted in any cultures, and myelination of the peripheral nervous system...

  8. Difference of microbial community stressed in artificial pit muds for Luzhou-flavour liquor brewing revealed by multiphase culture-independent technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhou, R; Niu, M; Zheng, J; Wu, C

    2015-11-01

    Artificial pit muds (APMs) is produced by peats, aged pit muds, yellow and black clays etc. and is one of essential factors for Luzhou-flavour liquor production. The microbial community of APMs significantly influence the quality of Luzhou-flavour liquor. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in bacterial, archaeal and fungal community of APMs, starters and materials. Multiphase culture-independent technology were employed in this study, including nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (nested PCR-DGGE), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results suggested that the microbial diversity significantly changed under environmental stress and different culture patterns during APMs cultivation. The dominant bacteria in APMs mainly fell into Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales and Rhizobiales, Archaea affiliated with Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, and fungi belonged to Saccharomycetales and Eurotiales. Furthermore, the microbial community structures of APMs cultured by ground pile pattern were more similar with that of aged pit muds, meanwhile, the relative bands intensities of microbes, which are the main contributors for liquor brewing, increased with the culture times. Not only the niche selection and biogeochemical properties of APMs, but also the mutual collaboration and constraint between different microbes may result in enriching different liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. APM cultivation technology was necessary to promote enriching functional liquor-brewing microbes into APMs. These results may facilitate understanding the microbial succession during APMs manufacture. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. A new cell primo-culture method for freshwater benthic diatom communities

    OpenAIRE

    Debenest, Timothée; Silvestre, Jérôme; Coste, Michel; Delmas, François; Pinelli, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new cell primo-culture method was developed for the benthic diatom community isolated from biofilm sampled in rivers. The approach comprised three steps: (1) scraping biofilm from river pebbles, (2) diatom isolation from biofilm, and (3) diatom community culture. With a view to designing a method able to stimulate the growth of diatoms, to limit the development of other microorganisms, and to maintain in culture a community similar to the original natural one, different factors were test...

  10. Response margins investigation of piping dynamic analyses using the independent support motion method and PVRC [Pressure Vessel Research Committee] damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Wang, Y.K.; Reich, M.

    1988-03-01

    An evaluation of Independent Support Motion (ISM) response spectrum methods of analysis coupled with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) recommendation for damping, to compute the dynamic component of the seismic response of piping systems, was completed. Response estimates for five piping/structural systems were developed using fourteen variants of the ISM response spectrum method, the Uniform Support Motions response spectrum method and the ISM time history analysis method, all based on the PVRC recommendations for damping. The ISM/PVRC calculational procedures were found to exhibit orderly characteristics with levels of conservatism comparable to those obtained with the ISM/uniform damping procedures. Using the ISM/PVRC response spectrum method with absolute combination between group contributions provided consistently conservative results while using the ISM/PVRC response spectrum method with square root sum of squares combination between group contributions provided estimates of response which were deemed to be acceptable

  11. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2018-01-01

    hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI

  12. Gas Bubbles Investigation in Contaminated Water Using Optical Tomography Based on Independent Component Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Taufiq Mohd Khairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concentration profiles for gas bubble flow in a vertical pipeline containing contaminated water using an optical tomography system. The concentration profiles for the bubble flow quantities are investigated under five different flows conditions, a single bubble, double bubbles, 25% of air opening, 50% of air opening, and 100% of air opening flow rates where a valve is used to control the gas flow in the vertical pipeline. The system is aided by the independent component analysis (ICA algorithm to reconstruct the concentration profiles of the liquid-gas flow. The behaviour of the gas bubbles was investigated in contaminated water in which the water sample was prepared by adding 25 mL of colour ingredients to 3 liters of pure water. The result shows that the application of ICA has enabled the system to detect the presence of gas bubbles in contaminated water. This information provides vital information on the flow inside the pipe and hence could be very significant in increasing the efficiency of the process industries.

  13. Torque Distribution Algorithm for an Independently Driven Electric Vehicle Using a Fuzzy Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The in-wheel electric vehicle is expected to be a popular next-generation vehicle because an in-wheel system can simplify the powertrain and improve driving performance. In addition, it also has an advantage in that it maximizes driving efficiency through independent torque control considering the motor efficiency. However, there is an instability problem if only the driving torque is controlled in consideration of only the motor efficiency. In this paper, integrated torque distribution strategies are proposed to overcome these problems. The control algorithm consists of various strategies for optimizing driving efficiency, satisfying driver demands, and considering tire slip and vehicle cornering. Fuzzy logic is used to determine the appropriate timing of intervention for each distribution strategy. A performance simulator for in-wheel electric vehicles was developed by using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim to validate the control strategies. From simulation results under complex driving conditions, the proposed algorithm was verified to improve both the driving stability and fuel economy of the in-wheel vehicle.

  14. Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Müller, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO2 fertilization effects, produ......-method ensemble, it was possible to quantify ‘method uncertainty’ in addition to model uncertainty. This significantly improves confidence in estimates of climate impacts on global food security.......The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO2 fertilization effects, produce...... similar estimates of temperature impact on wheat yields at global and national scales. With a 1 °C global temperature increase, global wheat yield is projected to decline between 4.1% and 6.4%. Projected relative temperature impacts from different methods were similar for major wheat-producing countries...

  15. In Search of an Alternative Feminist Cinema: Gender, Crisis, and the Cultural Discourse of Nation Building in Chinese Independent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese feminist cinema in the postsocialist era is shaped by the grand narrative of nation building that glamorizes urban professional career women and their contributions to economic marketization and globalization. Such cinematic overemphasis on urban women proves inadequate as it creates a disturbing silence about the diasporic existence of non-urban women. This uneven condition demands the creation of an alternative cinematic feminism that visualizes the diversity of Chinese women and represents the heterogeneity of feminist cinematic expressions and female experiences. Using Li Yu’s 'Lost in Beijing' (2007, 'Pingguo' 苹果 and Li Yang’s 'Blind Mountain' (2007, 'Mang shan' 盲山 as case studies, this essay investigates how Chinese independent films re-negotiate female gender identity and crisis through commercialized visual realism and social intervention while in reality the postsocialist grand narrative of nation building redefines the living conditions of female migrant workers and women of limited resources.

  16. Micro-seismic Imaging Using a Source Independent Waveform Inversion Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen

    2016-01-01

    waveform inversion (FWI) is widely used. The FWI method updates the velocity model by minimizing the misfit between the observed data and the predicted data. Using FWI to locate and image microseismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking

  17. Validation of the implementation of IMRT with three dosimetric methods of independent verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortosa Oliver, R. A.; Chinillach ferrando, N.; Alonso Arrizabalaga, S.; Campayo Esteban, J. M.; Morales Marco, J. C.; Soler Catalan, P.; Andreu Martinez, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The TG119 is a simple and clear framework to verify the implementation of IMRT technique in a radiotherapy service. Verifications of this document recommended tests conducted with the three dosimetric methods listed above, allow to affirm that our Center is within the margins of tolerance considered suitable in the TG119 for the clinical implementation of IMRT. (Author)

  18. Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Müller, Christoph; Ewert, Frank; Elliott, Joshua; Lobell, David B.; Martre, Pierre; Ruane, Alex C.; Wallach, Daniel; Jones, James W.; Supit, Iwan; Wolf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO 2 fertilization effects,

  19. Similar Estimates of Temperature Impacts on Global Wheat Yield by Three Independent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Muller, Christoph; Ewart, Frank; Elliott, Joshua; Lobell, David B.; Martre, Pierre; Ruane, Alex C.; Wallach, Daniel; Jones, James W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO2 fertilization effects, produce similar estimates of temperature impact on wheat yields at global and national scales. With a 1 C global temperature increase, global wheat yield is projected to decline between 4.1% and 6.4%. Projected relative temperature impacts from different methods were similar for major wheat-producing countries China, India, USA and France, but less so for Russia. Point-based and grid-based simulations, and to some extent the statistical regressions, were consistent in projecting that warmer regions are likely to suffer more yield loss with increasing temperature than cooler regions. By forming a multi-method ensemble, it was possible to quantify 'method uncertainty' in addition to model uncertainty. This significantly improves confidence in estimates of climate impacts on global food security.

  20. Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Müller, Christoph; Ewert, Frank; Elliott, Joshua; Lobell, David B.; Martre, Pierre; Ruane, Alex C.; Wallach, Daniel; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Alderman, Phillip D.; Anothai, Jakarat; Basso, Bruno; Biernath, Christian; Cammarano, Davide; Challinor, Andy; Deryng, Delphine; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Doltra, Jordi; Fereres, Elias; Folberth, Christian; Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gayler, Sebastian; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Hunt, Leslie A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jabloun, Mohamed; Jones, Curtis D.; Kersebaum, Kurt C.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Kumar, Soora Naresh; Nendel, Claas; O'Leary, Garry J.; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Ottman, Michael J.; Palosuo, Taru; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Priesack, Eckart; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Reynolds, Matthew; Rezaei, Ehsan E.; Rötter, Reimund P.; Schmid, Erwin; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Shcherbak, Iurii; Stehfest, Elke; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Streck, Thilo; Supit, Iwan; Tao, Fulu; Thorburn, Peter; Waha, Katharina; Wall, Gerard W.; Wang, Enli; White, Jeffrey W.; Wolf, Joost; Zhao, Zhigan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-12-01

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO2 fertilization effects, produce similar estimates of temperature impact on wheat yields at global and national scales. With a 1 °C global temperature increase, global wheat yield is projected to decline between 4.1% and 6.4%. Projected relative temperature impacts from different methods were similar for major wheat-producing countries China, India, USA and France, but less so for Russia. Point-based and grid-based simulations, and to some extent the statistical regressions, were consistent in projecting that warmer regions are likely to suffer more yield loss with increasing temperature than cooler regions. By forming a multi-method ensemble, it was possible to quantify `method uncertainty’ in addition to model uncertainty. This significantly improves confidence in estimates of climate impacts on global food security.

  1. Subject-independent emotion recognition based on physiological signals: a three-stage decision method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yue; Moore, Philip; Dai, Yongqiang; Feng, Lei; Ding, Zhijie

    2017-12-20

    Collaboration between humans and computers has become pervasive and ubiquitous, however current computer systems are limited in that they fail to address the emotional component. An accurate understanding of human emotions is necessary for these computers to trigger proper feedback. Among multiple emotional channels, physiological signals are synchronous with emotional responses; therefore, analyzing physiological changes is a recognized way to estimate human emotions. In this paper, a three-stage decision method is proposed to recognize four emotions based on physiological signals in the multi-subject context. Emotion detection is achieved by using a stage-divided strategy in which each stage deals with a fine-grained goal. The decision method consists of three stages. During the training process, the initial stage transforms mixed training subjects to separate groups, thus eliminating the effect of individual differences. The second stage categorizes four emotions into two emotion pools in order to reduce recognition complexity. The third stage trains a classifier based on emotions in each emotion pool. During the testing process, a test case or test trial will be initially classified to a group followed by classification into an emotion pool in the second stage. An emotion will be assigned to the test trial in the final stage. In this paper we consider two different ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools. A comparative analysis is also carried out between the proposal and other methods. An average recognition accuracy of 77.57% was achieved on the recognition of four emotions with the best accuracy of 86.67% to recognize the positive and excited emotion. Using differing ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools, we found there is a difference in the effectiveness of a classifier on learning each emotion. When compared to other methods, the proposed method demonstrates a significant improvement in recognizing four emotions in the

  2. VALUE-MOTIVATIONAL COMPONENT OF METHODICAL CULTURE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER: THE ESSENCE AND WAYS OF FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nikula

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main conditions of formation of methodological culture of primary school teacher, a factor that encourages the assimilation of effective models of professional and methodical activity is value-motivational component. In order to clearly understand the content of the phenomenon appointed its author selected criteria: system values orientation and professional and personal motivation. The value orientation as a set of values focus on professional and methodological activities which manifest themselves in individual positive attitude of students to it is determined on the base of the analysis of scientific and pedagogical sources. The indicators of value orientations are: human values (truth, goodness, beauty, life and health; personal values of teachers (humanity, justice, diligence, responsibility; teacher professional values (commitment, independence, initiative, organization, value orientation on professional and methodical activities. The essence of professional and personal motivation as individual education teacher's personality, which includes professional and personal motives, interests, needs, formation of which is a clear reference and internal impetus for the formation of methodological culture. The indicators of this criterion are: professional and methodical motivation; methodically-focused orientation teacher; interest in the success in professional and methodical work of the teacher; the need for professional self-realization and self-affirmation; desire career advancement; focus on student mastery of methodological culture. The system measure of the formation of values and motivational component: discussions, exercises, training exercises, collective creative discussion, a role play, a workshop is analysed.

  3. Proteomics of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu): Identification of Extracted Proteins by Three Independent Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Catherine C L; Cociorva, Daniel; Miller, Christine A; Schmidt, Alexander; Monell, Craig; Aebersold, Ruedi; Yates, John R

    2013-02-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) is an excellent organism to generate reference samples for proteomics laboratories because of its moderately sized genome and very little sequence duplication within the genome. We demonstrated a stable and consistent method to prepare proteins in bulk that eliminates growth and preparation as a source of uncertainty in the standard. We performed several proteomic studies in different laboratories using each laboratory's specific workflow as well as separate and integrated data analysis. This study demonstrated that a Pfu whole cell lysate provides suitable protein sample complexity to not only validate proteomic methods, work flows, and benchmark new instruments but also to facilitate comparison of experimental data generated over time and across instruments or laboratories.

  4. Dereplication of plant phenolics using a mass-spectrometry database independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ricardo M; Taujale, Rahil; de Souza, Juliana Santana; de Andrade Bezerra, Thaís; Silva, Eder Lana E; Herzog, Ronny; Ponce, Francesca V; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Edison, Arthur S

    2018-05-29

    Dereplication, an approach to sidestep the efforts involved in the isolation of known compounds, is generally accepted as being the first stage of novel discoveries in natural product research. It is based on metabolite profiling analysis of complex natural extracts. To present the application of LipidXplorer for automatic targeted dereplication of phenolics in plant crude extracts based on direct infusion high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data. LipidXplorer uses a user-defined molecular fragmentation query language (MFQL) to search for specific characteristic fragmentation patterns in large data sets and highlight the corresponding metabolites. To this end, MFQL files were written to dereplicate common phenolics occurring in plant extracts. Complementary MFQL files were used for validation purposes. New MFQL files with molecular formula restrictions for common classes of phenolic natural products were generated for the metabolite profiling of different representative crude plant extracts. This method was evaluated against an open-source software for mass-spectrometry data processing (MZMine®) and against manual annotation based on published data. The targeted LipidXplorer method implemented using common phenolic fragmentation patterns, was found to be able to annotate more phenolics than MZMine® that is based on automated queries on the available databases. Additionally, screening for ascarosides, natural products with unrelated structures to plant phenolics collected from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, demonstrated the specificity of this method by cross-testing both groups of chemicals in both plants and nematodes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Identity and quantity of microorganisms in necrotising fasciitis determined by culture and molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    communities were more common by molecular methods than culture. Correspondence between findings by culture and molecular methods indicates that the latter may be an appropriate method. The advantages of using molecular methods are: 1) identification of the pathogen(s) even when antibiotics have been...... involved in the disease may add to the knowledge of NF pathogenesis and influence the administration of antibiotics, thereby potentially improving the outcome for the patients. In this study the aim was to investigate the applicability of different molecular methods as compared to standard culture......-based methods. We investigated the microbial communities in 21 samples obtained during debridement of NF patients (n=8). Samples were examined by standard bacteriological examination (culture and microscopy) at Rigshospitalet (Copenhagen, Denmark) and a range of molecular methods. The best DNA extraction...

  6. A method for isolating identifying and culturing of rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Su Shibiao; Nie Jihua; Li Bingyan; Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a method for isolating identifying and culturing the rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells. Methods: The rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells were isolated by digestion with pronase and brushing with cell brush, identified using confocul and cultured in entire F12 media with no serum. Results: With this method, cells in high purity and high viability could be obtained, and about 10 6 cells per rat. The cells grow well in entire F12 media with no serum. Conclusion: The method is useful for isolating rate trachea-bronchia epithelial cells and the entire F12 media with no serum is effective for culturing. (authors)

  7. Comparison of serum fractionation methods by data independent label-free proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baiwir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial methods efficiency to raw serum analysis using label-free proteomics. The variability of the protein quantities determined for each process was similar to the unprefractionated serum. A 49% increase in protein identifications and 12.2% of reliable quantification were obtained. A 61 times lower limit of protein quantitation was reached compared to protein concentrations observed in raw serum. The concentrations of detected proteins were confronted to estimated reference values.

  8. Method of independently operating a group of stages within a diffusion cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, M.; Allen, J.F.; Levey, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of operating a group of the diffusion stages of a productive diffusion cascade with counter-current flow is described. The group consists of a top and a bottom stage which isolates the group from the cascade. The diffused gas produced in the top stage is circulated to the feed of the bottom stage, while at the same time undiffused gas from the bottom stage is circulated to the feed of the top stage whereby major changes in inventory distribution within the group of stages are prevented

  9. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, M.Y.; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Andersen, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged......A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification...

  10. Triangulation and the importance of establishing valid methods for food safety culture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen (25% of the 60 samples yielded the expected band size. Of the 15 amplicons sequenced, 12 were exploitable. The remaining 3 had electropherograms with multiple peaks and were unexploitable. Eleven of the 12 exploitable sequences were identified as Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1, CVA3, CVA4, CVA8, CVA20, echovirus 32 (E32, enterovirus 71 (EV71, EVB80, and EVC99. Subsequently, the last exploitable sequence was identified as enterobacteriophage baseplate gene by nucleotide BLAST. The results of this study document the first description of molecular sequence data on CVA1, CVA8, and E32 strains present in Nigeria. The result further showed that species A enteroviruses were more commonly detected in the region when cell-culture bias is bypassed.

  13. A Method Sustaining the Bioelectric, Biophysical, and Bioenergetic Function of Cultured Rabbit Atrial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Noa Kirschner Peretz; Sofia Segal; Limor Arbel-Ganon; Ronen Ben Jehuda; Ronen Ben Jehuda; Yuval Shemer; Yuval Shemer; Binyamin Eisen; Binyamin Eisen; Moran Davoodi; Ofer Binah; Ofer Binah; Yael Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    Culturing atrial cells leads to a loss in their ability to be externally paced at physiological rates and to maintain their shape. We aim to develop a culture method that sustains the shape of atrial cells along with their biophysical and bioenergetic properties in response to physiological pacing. We hypothesize that adding 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM), which inhibits contraction during the culture period, will preserve these biophysical and bioenergetic properties. Rabbit atrial cells w...

  14. A Layered Searchable Encryption Scheme with Functional Components Independent of Encryption Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangchun; Qin, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Searchable encryption technique enables the users to securely store and search their documents over the remote semitrusted server, which is especially suitable for protecting sensitive data in the cloud. However, various settings (based on symmetric or asymmetric encryption) and functionalities (ranked keyword query, range query, phrase query, etc.) are often realized by different methods with different searchable structures that are generally not compatible with each other, which limits the scope of application and hinders the functional extensions. We prove that asymmetric searchable structure could be converted to symmetric structure, and functions could be modeled separately apart from the core searchable structure. Based on this observation, we propose a layered searchable encryption (LSE) scheme, which provides compatibility, flexibility, and security for various settings and functionalities. In this scheme, the outputs of the core searchable component based on either symmetric or asymmetric setting are converted to some uniform mappings, which are then transmitted to loosely coupled functional components to further filter the results. In such a way, all functional components could directly support both symmetric and asymmetric settings. Based on LSE, we propose two representative and novel constructions for ranked keyword query (previously only available in symmetric scheme) and range query (previously only available in asymmetric scheme). PMID:24719565

  15. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO's) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968

  16. Clinical Microbiology Laboratories' Adoption of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests Is a Threat to Foodborne-Disease Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shari; Kubota, Kristy A; Maguire, Hugh; Gladbach, Stephen; Woron, Amy; Atkinson-Dunn, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Miller, Melissa B

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn November 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to state and territorial epidemiologists, state and territorial public health laboratory directors, and state and territorial health officials. In this letter, culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection of enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella" The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used." Large-scale foodborne outbreaks are a continuing threat to public health, and tracking these outbreaks is an important tool in shortening them and developing strategies to prevent them. It is clear that the use of CIDTs for enteric pathogen detection, including both antigen detection and multiplex nucleic acid amplification techniques, is becoming more widespread. Furthermore, some clinical microbiology laboratories will resist the mandate to require submission of culture isolates, since it will likely not improve patient outcomes but may add significant costs. Specimen submission would be less expensive and time-consuming for clinical laboratories; however, this approach would be burdensome for public health laboratories, since those laboratories would need to perform culture isolation prior to typing. Shari Shea and Kristy Kubota from the Association of Public Health Laboratories, along with state public health laboratory officials from Colorado, Missouri, Tennessee, and Utah, will explain the public health laboratories' perspective on why having access to isolates of enteric pathogens is essential for public health surveillance, detection, and tracking of outbreaks and offer potential workable solutions which will allow them to do this. Marc Couturier of

  17. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  18. Perceptions of Organizational Culture of a Multi-Campus Community College District: Mixed Methods in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster Dale, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…

  19. EXPLANTATION OF MESANGIAL CELL HILLOCKS - A METHOD FOR OBTAINING HUMAN MESANGIAL CELLS IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULLER, EW; KIM, Y; MICHAEL, AF; VERNIER, RL; VANDERHEM, GK; VANDERWOUDE, FJ

    A simple method is presented for selective cell culture of human mesangial cells using explanatation of mesangial cell hillocks. Glomeruli which had been incubated with collagenase were explanted on plastic tissue culture flasks. Three to 6 weeks after explantation, a rapidly growing multilayer of

  20. Assessing consumer responses to potential reduced-exposure tobacco products: a review of tobacco industry and independent research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G; Connolly, Gregory N

    2009-12-01

    Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing consumer response, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate potentially reduced exposure tobacco products and new products. Internal industry research reviewed included published articles, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. A model that conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting, domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of potentially reduced-exposure tobacco products and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health.

  1. The comparison of two different embryo culture methods in the course of in vitro fertilization program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocinska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare two different embryo culture methods in the course of in vitro fertilization program by means of fertilization rate, embryo development, total time and cost. 98 patients undergoing assisted reproduction procedures due to infertility were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study: first IVF-ET program, at least 10 MII oocytes, no indications for ICSI. Oocytes were divided into two study groups: group A- open culture (oocytes placed in four-well dishes together, then inseminated and cultured in successive wells and group B - a closed culture (oocytes placed in microdroplets, each embryo cultured separately. The fertilization rate was assessed around 18 hours from insemination. The embryos were classified into four classes. The best embryos were chosen for transfer. In the group A the fertilization rate obtained was lower than in group B (68% vs. 78%, respectively. The microdroplet culture required more time on the insemination day and on the second day of culture, while the four-well dish method required more time on the first day of culture and on the day of transfer. On analyzing the total cost of the above procedures (MI medium and oil costs it occurred that the microdroplet culture was more expensive than the four-well dish method (due to the intake of paraffin oil. However, the difference was of no practical importance. In the conclusion, microdroplet culture gives a higher fertilization rate than four-well dish culture, probably due to a homogenous sperm distribution. Despite the differences in time outside the incubator and laboratory expenses (which are after all insignificant microdroplet culture allows a better control over the embryo development. The embryos of best developmental potential can therefore be chosen for ET.

  2. An Evaluation Method for Team Competencies to Enhance Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, S. M.; Seong, P. H.; Kim, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture has received attention in safety-critical industries, including nuclear power plants (NPPs), due to various prominent accidents such as concealment of a Station Blackout (SBO) of Kori NPP unit 1 in 2012, the Sewol ferry accident in 2014, and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Analysis reports have pointed out that one of the major contributors to the cause of the accidents is ‘the lack of safety culture’. The term, nuclear safety culture, was firstly defined after the Chernobyl accident by the IAEA in INSAG report no. 4, as follows “Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted their significance.” Afterwards, a wide consensus grew among researchers and nuclear-related organizations, that safety culture should be evaluated and managed in a certain manner. Consequently, each nuclear-related organization defined and developed their own safety culture definitions and assessment methods. However, none of these methods provides a way for an individual or a team to enhance the safety culture of an organization. Especially for a team, which is the smallest working unit in NPPs, team members easily overlook their required practices to improve nuclear safety culture. Therefore in this study, we suggested a method to estimate nuclear safety culture of a team, by approaching with the ‘competency’ point of view. The competency is commonly focused on individuals, and defined as, “underlying characteristics of an individual that are causally related to effective or superior performance in a job.” Similar to safety culture, the definition of competency focuses on characteristics and attitudes of individuals. Thus, we defined ‘safety culture competency’ as “underlying characteristics and outward attitudes of individuals that are causally related to a healthy and strong nuclear safety

  3. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  4. Tourismological valorization of intangible cultural heritage of Serbia according to the Hilary du Cros method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The folk artistry of Serbia is rich in spiritual values tied to customs, celebrations, music, song, dance, games, stories and legends, and this kind of cultural heritage is presented through numerous festivals, events and tourist manifestations. In 2012, the network for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage was formed, comprised of the National committee for intangible cultural heritage, the Commission for admission into the registry of intangible cultural heritage, a network of coordinators and the Center for intangible cultural heritage of Serbia. These institutions have chosen 6 elements of intangible cultural heritage, out of 27 suggestions: the slava, the Đurđevdan ritual, the kolo dance, singing accompanied by gusle, Slovakian naive painting, the custom of making and lighting farmers’ candles, Pirot carpet weaving, and Zlakusa pottery as elements of cultural heritage which reflect the national and cultural identity of the Serbian people, and Slavic minorities. These elements of intangible cultural heritage have a certain tourism potential and can represent an important factor in the forming of the tourist brand of Serbia. In order to determine the importance of the 27 suggestions of intangible cultural elements of Serbia, an analysis was conducted, using an adapted form of the Hilary du Cros method of tourist valorization.

  5. Characterization of the Bacterial Community Naturally Present on Commercially Grown Basil Leaves: Evaluation of Sample Preparation Prior to Culture-Independent Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siele Ceuppens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh herbs such as basil constitute an important food commodity worldwide. Basil provides considerable culinary and health benefits, but has also been implicated in foodborne illnesses. The naturally occurring bacterial community on basil leaves is currently unknown, so the epiphytic bacterial community was investigated using the culture-independent techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and next-generation sequencing (NGS. Sample preparation had a major influence on the results from DGGE and NGS: Novosphingobium was the dominant genus for three different basil batches obtained by maceration of basil leaves, while washing of the leaves yielded lower numbers but more variable dominant bacterial genera including Klebsiella, Pantoea, Flavobacterium, Sphingobacterium and Pseudomonas. During storage of basil, bacterial growth and shifts in the bacterial community were observed with DGGE and NGS. Spoilage was not associated with specific bacterial groups and presumably caused by physiological tissue deterioration and visual defects, rather than by bacterial growth.

  6. Method for organotypic tissue culture in the aged animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Schommer

    2017-01-01

    • Our method permits slices from mice as old as 16 months and rabbits as old as years of age to survive ex vivo up to 8 weeks [6–9]. Such a slice system may be relevant to investigating age-related brain diseases.

  7. Preservation of live cultures of basidiomycetes - Recent methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 107-125 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Fungi * Maintenance methods * Long-term preservation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2014

  8. Culture-independent detection and characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. africanum in sputum samples using shotgun metagenomics on a benchtop sequencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Doughty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem. Laboratory diagnostic methods that allow effective, early detection of cases are central to management of tuberculosis in the individual patient and in the community. Since the 1880s, laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has relied primarily on microscopy and culture. However, microscopy fails to provide species- or lineage-level identification and culture-based workflows for diagnosis of tuberculosis remain complex, expensive, slow, technically demanding and poorly able to handle mixed infections. We therefore explored the potential of shotgun metagenomics, sequencing of DNA from samples without culture or target-specific amplification or capture, to detect and characterise strains from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in smear-positive sputum samples obtained from The Gambia in West Africa. Eight smear- and culture-positive sputum samples were investigated using a differential-lysis protocol followed by a kit-based DNA extraction method, with sequencing performed on a benchtop sequencing instrument, the Illumina MiSeq. The number of sequence reads in each sputum-derived metagenome ranged from 989,442 to 2,818,238. The proportion of reads in each metagenome mapping against the human genome ranged from 20% to 99%. We were able to detect sequences from the M. tuberculosis complex in all eight samples, with coverage of the H37Rv reference genome ranging from 0.002X to 0.7X. By analysing the distribution of large sequence polymorphisms (deletions and the locations of the insertion element IS6110 and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, we were able to assign seven of eight metagenome-derived genomes to a species and lineage within the M. tuberculosis complex. Two metagenome-derived mycobacterial genomes were assigned to M. africanum, a species largely confined to West Africa; the others that could be assigned belonged to lineages T, H or LAM within the clade of “modern” M. tuberculosis

  9. Plant management in natural areas: balancing chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  10. A novel method for coral explant culture and micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizel, Maya; Loya, Yossi; Downs, Craig A; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a method for the micropropagation of coral that creates progeny from tissue explants derived from a single polyp or colonial corals. Coral tissue explants of various sizes (0.5-2.5 mm in diameter) were manually microdissected from the solitary coral Fungia granulosa. Explants could be maintained in an undeveloped state or induced to develop into polyps by manipulating environmental parameters such as light and temperature regimes, as well as substrate type. Fully developed polyps were able to be maintained for a long-term in a closed sea water system. Further, we demonstrate that mature explants are also amenable to this technique with the micropropagation of second-generation explants and their development into mature polyps. We thereby experimentally have established coral clonal lines that maintain their ability to differentiate without the need for chemical induction or genetic manipulation. The versatility of this method is also demonstrated through its application to two other coral species, the colonial corals Oculina patigonica and Favia favus.

  11. In Vitro Culturing and Live Imaging of Drosophila Egg Chambers: A History and Adaptable Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathaniel C; Berg, Celeste A

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Drosophila egg chamber encompasses a myriad of diverse germline and somatic events, and as such, the egg chamber has become a widely used and influential developmental model. Advantages of this system include physical accessibility, genetic tractability, and amenability to microscopy and live culturing, the last of which is the focus of this chapter. To provide adequate context, we summarize the structure of the Drosophila ovary and egg chamber, the morphogenetic events of oogenesis, the history of egg-chamber live culturing, and many of the important discoveries that this culturing has afforded. Subsequently, we discuss various culturing methods that have facilitated analyses of different stages of egg-chamber development and different types of cells within the egg chamber, and we present an optimized protocol for live culturing Drosophila egg chambers.We designed this protocol for culturing late-stage Drosophila egg chambers and live imaging epithelial tube morphogenesis, but with appropriate modifications, it can be used to culture egg chambers of any stage. The protocol employs a liquid-permeable, weighted "blanket" to gently hold egg chambers against the coverslip in a glass-bottomed culture dish so the egg chambers can be imaged on an inverted microscope. This setup provides a more buffered, stable, culturing environment than previously published methods by using a larger volume of culture media, but the setup is also compatible with small volumes. This chapter should aid researchers in their efforts to culture and live-image Drosophila egg chambers, further augmenting the impressive power of this model system.

  12. Comparison of Fluorescence Microscopy and Different Growth Media Culture Methods for Acanthamoeba Keratitis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Geffen, Yuval; Socea, Soergiu D; Pastukh, Nina; Graffi, Shmuel

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a potentially blinding infection of the cornea, is caused by a free-living protozoan. Culture and microscopic examination of corneal scraping tissue material is the conventional method for identifying Acanthamoeba. In this article, we compared several methods for AK diagnosis of 32 patients: microscopic examination using fluorescent dye, specific culture on growth media-non-nutrient agar (NNA), culture on liquid growth media-peptone yeast glucose (PYG), and TYI-S-33. AK was found in 14 patients. Thirteen of the specimens were found AK positive by fluorescence microscopic examination, 11 specimens were found AK positive on PYG growth media, and 9 specimens were found AK positive on TYI-S-33 growth media. Only five specimens were found AK positive on NNA growth media. Therefore, we recommend using fluorescence microscopy technique and culture method, especially PYG liquid media. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. An efficient 3-D eddy-current solver using an independent impedance method for transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, Nele; Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Dupre, Luc

    2011-02-01

    In many important bioelectromagnetic problem settings, eddy-current simulations are required. Examples are the reduction of eddy-current artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging and techniques, whereby the eddy currents interact with the biological system, like the alteration of the neurophysiology due to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS has become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. A widely applied method for simulating the eddy currents is the impedance method (IM). However, this method has to contend with an ill conditioned problem and consequently a long convergence time. When dealing with optimal design problems and sensitivity control, the convergence rate becomes even more crucial since the eddy-current solver needs to be evaluated in an iterative loop. Therefore, we introduce an independent IM (IIM), which improves the conditionality and speeds up the numerical convergence. This paper shows how IIM is based on IM and what are the advantages. Moreover, the method is applied to the efficient simulation of TMS. The proposed IIM achieves superior convergence properties with high time efficiency, compared to the traditional IM and is therefore a useful tool for accurate and fast TMS simulations.

  14. Development of quantification methods for the myocardial blood flow using ensemble independent component analysis for dynamic H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kim, Soo Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Choi, Seung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Factor analysis and independent component analysis (lCA) has been used for handling dynamic image sequences. Theoretical advantages of a newly suggested ICA method, ensemble ICA, leaded us to consider applying this method to the analysis of dynamic myocardial H 2 15 O PET data. In this study, we quantified patients, blood flow using the ensemble ICA method. Twenty subjects underwent H 2 15 O PET scans using ECAT EXACT 47 scanner and myocardial perfusion SPECT using Vertex scanner. After transmission scanning, dynamic emission scans were initiated simultaneously with the injection of 555∼740 MBq H 2 15 O. Hidden independent components can be extracted from the observed mixed data (PET image) by means of ICA algorithms. Ensemble learning is a variational Bayesian method that provides an analytical approximation to the parameter posterior using a tractable distribution. Variational approximation forms a lower bound on the ensemble likelihood and the maximization of the lower bound is achieved through minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the true posterior and the variational posterior. In this study, posterior pdf was approximated by a rectified Gaussian distribution to incorporate non-negativity constraint, which is suitable to dynamic images in nuclear medicine. Blood flow was measured in 9 regions - apex, four areas in mid wall, and four areas in base wall. Myocardial perfusion SPECT score and angiography results were compared with the regional blood flow. Major cardiac components were separated successfully by the ensemble ICA method and blood flow could be estimated in 15 among 20 patients. Mean myocardial blood flow was 1.2±0.40 ml/min/g in rest, 1.85±1.12 ml/min/g in stress state. Blood flow values obtained by an operator in two different occasion were highly correlated (r=0.99). In myocardium component image, the image contrast between left ventricle and myocardium was 1:2.7 in average. Perfusion reserve was significantly different between

  15. The Feldenkrais Method(®) can enhance cognitive function in independent living older adults: A case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Gerhild; Williams, Harriet G

    2016-07-01

    Poor cognitive health a major concern of aging individuals, can compromise independent living. More than 16 million people in the United States are affected by cognitive impairment. We have studied the effects of the Feldenkrais Method(®) on cognitive function. In this case series with three participants cognitive function was assessed with the Trail Making Test A and B at baseline and after the Feldenkrais intervention. All participants improved performance on Trail Making Test A and B after completing the Feldenkrais intervention indicating that Feldenkrais lessons may offset age-related decline in cognitive function. The results of this case series warrant larger scale studies on cognitive outcomes of Feldenkrais interventions in clinical and non-clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An independent method for data selection of long-life radionuclides (actinides and fission products) in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, M.; Merceron, T.

    1994-01-01

    An independent method for data selection of long-life radio-nuclides based on the electronegativity equalization principle is proposed to predict the speciation of metal cations as a function of the solution pH. Hydrolysis, condensation and complexation reactions of metal cations in aqueous media are, by this simple model, unified and can be analyzed in terms of electronegativities, oxidation states and coordination numbers with a specific PC software. This paper describes the thermodynamical basis and the underlying concepts of the model in relation to aqueous actinide chemistry of elements such as U and Tc. It is then shown that the model could provide a complementary approach to existing softwares based on thermodynamic data bases allowing to make intelligent and reasonnable choices for the various complexes to consider in complex geochemical codes. (orig.)

  17. A fluorescence anisotropy method for measuring protein concentration in complex cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Radu Constantin; Calvet, Amandine; Ryder, Alan G

    2014-04-22

    The rapid, quantitative analysis of the complex cell culture media used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is of critical importance. Requirements for cell culture media composition profiling, or changes in specific analyte concentrations (e.g. amino acids in the media or product protein in the bioprocess broth) often necessitate the use of complicated analytical methods and extensive sample handling. Rapid spectroscopic methods like multi-dimensional fluorescence (MDF) spectroscopy have been successfully applied for the routine determination of compositional changes in cell culture media and bioprocess broths. Quantifying macromolecules in cell culture media is a specific challenge as there is a need to implement measurements rapidly on the prepared media. However, the use of standard fluorescence spectroscopy is complicated by the emission overlap from many media components. Here, we demonstrate how combining anisotropy measurements with standard total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) provides a rapid, accurate quantitation method for cell culture media. Anisotropy provides emission resolution between large and small fluorophores while TSFS provides a robust measurement space. Model cell culture media was prepared using yeastolate (2.5 mg mL(-1)) spiked with bovine serum albumin (0 to 5 mg mL(-1)). Using this method, protein emission is clearly discriminated from background yeastolate emission, allowing for accurate bovine serum albumin (BSA) quantification over a 0.1 to 4.0 mg mL(-1) range with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13.8 μg mL(-1). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Reproducibility of CSF quantitative culture methods for estimating rate of clearance in cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, Jonathan; Akampurira, Andrew; Rhein, Joshua; Morawski, Bozena M; Kiggundu, Reuben; Nabeta, Henry W; Musubire, Abdu K; Bahr, Nathan C; Williams, Darlisha A; Bicanic, Tihana; Larsen, Robert A; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures provide a measure of disease severity in cryptococcal meningitis. The fungal clearance rate by quantitative cultures has become a primary endpoint for phase II clinical trials. This study determined the inter-assay accuracy of three different quantitative culture methodologies. Among 91 participants with meningitis symptoms in Kampala, Uganda, during August-November 2013, 305 CSF samples were prospectively collected from patients at multiple time points during treatment. Samples were simultaneously cultured by three methods: (1) St. George's 100 mcl input volume of CSF with five 1:10 serial dilutions, (2) AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) method using 1000, 100, 10 mcl input volumes, and two 1:100 dilutions with 100 and 10 mcl input volume per dilution on seven agar plates; and (3) 10 mcl calibrated loop of undiluted and 1:100 diluted CSF (loop). Quantitative culture values did not statistically differ between St. George-ACTG methods (P= .09) but did for St. George-10 mcl loop (Pmethods was high (r≥0.88). For detecting sterility, the ACTG-method had the highest negative predictive value of 97% (91% St. George, 60% loop), but the ACTG-method had occasional (∼10%) difficulties in quantification due to colony clumping. For CSF clearance rate, St. George-ACTG methods did not differ overall (mean -0.05 ± 0.07 log10CFU/ml/day;P= .14) on a group level; however, individual-level clearance varied. The St. George and ACTG quantitative CSF culture methods produced comparable but not identical results. Quantitative cultures can inform treatment management strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Utility of PCR, Culture, and Antigen Detection Methods for Diagnosis of Legionellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Derrick J; Procop, Gary W; Vogel, Sherilynn; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Richter, Sandra S

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the performance of different diagnostic tests for Legionnaires' disease in a clinical setting where Legionella pneumophila PCR had been introduced. Electronic medical records at the Cleveland Clinic were searched for Legionella urinary antigen (UAG), culture, and PCR tests ordered from March 2010 through December 2013. For cases where two or more test methods were performed and at least one was positive, the medical record was reviewed for relevant clinical and epidemiologic factors. Excluding repeat testing on a given patient, 19,912 tests were ordered (12,569 UAG, 3,747 cultures, and 3,596 PCR) with 378 positive results. The positivity rate for each method was 0.4% for culture, 0.8% for PCR, and 2.7% for UAG. For 37 patients, at least two test methods were performed with at least one positive result: 10 (27%) cases were positive by all three methods, 16 (43%) were positive by two methods, and 11 (30%) were positive by one method only. For the 32 patients with medical records available, clinical presentation was consistent with proven or probable Legionella infection in 84% of the cases. For those cases, the sensitivities of culture, PCR, and UAG were 50%, 92%, and 96%, respectively. The specificities were 100% for culture and 99.9% for PCR and UAG. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A DTI-based model for TMS using the independent impedance method with frequency-dependent tissue parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.; Van Hecke, W.; Leemans, A.

    2012-04-01

    Accurate simulations on detailed realistic head models are necessary to gain a better understanding of the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Hitherto, head models with simplified geometries and constant isotropic material properties are often used, whereas some biological tissues have anisotropic characteristics which vary naturally with frequency. Moreover, most computational methods do not take the tissue permittivity into account. Therefore, we calculate the electromagnetic behaviour due to TMS in a head model with realistic geometry and where realistic dispersive anisotropic tissue properties are incorporated, based on T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. This paper studies the impact of tissue anisotropy, permittivity and frequency dependence, using the anisotropic independent impedance method. The results show that anisotropy yields differences up to 32% and 19% of the maximum induced currents and electric field, respectively. Neglecting the permittivity values leads to a decrease of about 72% and 24% of the maximum currents and field, respectively. Implementing the dispersive effects of biological tissues results in a difference of 6% of the maximum currents. The cerebral voxels show limited sensitivity of the induced electric field to changes in conductivity and permittivity, whereas the field varies approximately linearly with frequency. These findings illustrate the importance of including each of the above parameters in the model and confirm the need for accuracy in the applied patient-specific method, which can be used in computer-assisted TMS.

  1. Cultural continuity, traditional Indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Richard T; Grier, Angela; Lightning, Rick; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L

    2014-10-19

    We used an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to study the association between cultural continuity, self-determination, and diabetes prevalence in First Nations in Alberta, Canada. We conducted a qualitative description where we interviewed 10 Cree and Blackfoot leaders (members of Chief and Council) from across the province to understand cultural continuity, self-determination, and their relationship to health and diabetes, in the Alberta First Nations context. Based on the qualitative findings, we then conducted a cross-sectional analysis using provincial administrative data and publically available data for 31 First Nations communities to quantitatively examine any relationship between cultural continuity and diabetes prevalence. Cultural continuity, or "being who we are", is foundational to health in successful First Nations. Self-determination, or "being a self-sufficient Nation", stems from cultural continuity and is seriously compromised in today's Alberta Cree and Blackfoot Nations. Unfortunately, First Nations are in a continuous struggle with government policy. The intergenerational effects of colonization continue to impact the culture, which undermines the sense of self-determination, and contributes to diabetes and ill health. Crude diabetes prevalence varied dramatically among First Nations with values as low as 1.2% and as high as 18.3%. Those First Nations that appeared to have more cultural continuity (measured by traditional Indigenous language knowledge) had significantly lower diabetes prevalence after adjustment for socio-economic factors (p =0.007). First Nations that have been better able to preserve their culture may be relatively protected from diabetes.

  2. [The comparison of different bronchial aspirate culturing methods in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Wojciech; Rybicki, Zbigniew; Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Truszczyński, Andrzej; Guzek, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Although broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) culture and protected specimen brush (PSB) are regarded as the most effective methods in the diagnosis of VAP, a simple endotracheal aspiration (EA) is frequently performed during routine care, because of its simplicity and low cost. We compared the effectiveness of EA with BAL and PSB in VAP patients. Sixty-one adult VAP patients, ventilated for longer than 48 h, were cultured with all three methods. Positive cultures were obtained from 63.9% of patients, with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most common pathogen. There was a high positive correlation between simple aspirates and BAL (k 0.817, CI 0.664-0.840, p aspirates and PSB (k 0.667, CI 0.483-0.871, p aspirate culturing, compared to BAL and PSB, it can be used successfully in most cases.

  3. A Method Sustaining the Bioelectric, Biophysical, and Bioenergetic Function of Cultured Rabbit Atrial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Kirschner Peretz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Culturing atrial cells leads to a loss in their ability to be externally paced at physiological rates and to maintain their shape. We aim to develop a culture method that sustains the shape of atrial cells along with their biophysical and bioenergetic properties in response to physiological pacing. We hypothesize that adding 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM, which inhibits contraction during the culture period, will preserve these biophysical and bioenergetic properties. Rabbit atrial cells were maintained in culture for 24 h in a medium enriched with a myofilament contraction inhibitor, BDM. The morphology and volume of the cells, including their ability to contract in response to 1–3 Hz electrical pacing, was maintained at the same level as fresh cells. Importantly, the cells could be successfully infected with a GFP adenovirus. Action potentials, Ca2+ transients, and local Ca2+ spark parameters were similar in the cultured and in fresh cells. Finally, these cultured cells' flavoprotein autofluorescence was maintained at a constant level in response to electrical pacing, a response similar to that of fresh cells. Thus, eliminating contraction during the culture period preserves the bioelectric, biophysical and bioenergetic properties of rabbit atrial myocytes. This method therefore has the potential to further improve our understanding of energetic and biochemical regulation in the atria.

  4. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  5. FastCloning: a highly simplified, purification-free, sequence- and ligation-independent PCR cloning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of methods and expensive kits are available, molecular cloning can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results Here we report a highly simplified, reliable, and efficient PCR-based cloning technique to insert any DNA fragment into a plasmid vector or into a gene (cDNA in a vector at any desired position. With this method, the vector and insert are PCR amplified separately, with only 18 cycles, using a high fidelity DNA polymerase. The amplified insert has the ends with ~16-base overlapping with the ends of the amplified vector. After DpnI digestion of the mixture of the amplified vector and insert to eliminate the DNA templates used in PCR reactions, the mixture is directly transformed into competent E. coli cells to obtain the desired clones. This technique has many advantages over other cloning methods. First, it does not need gel purification of the PCR product or linearized vector. Second, there is no need of any cloning kit or specialized enzyme for cloning. Furthermore, with reduced number of PCR cycles, it also decreases the chance of random mutations. In addition, this method is highly effective and reproducible. Finally, since this cloning method is also sequence independent, we demonstrated that it can be used for chimera construction, insertion, and multiple mutations spanning a stretch of DNA up to 120 bp. Conclusion Our FastCloning technique provides a very simple, effective, reliable, and versatile tool for molecular cloning, chimera construction, insertion of any DNA sequences of interest and also for multiple mutations in a short stretch of a cDNA.

  6. FEATURES OF METHODS OF FUTURE PHYSICAL CULTURE TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Джуринський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodical approaches and recommendations on implementation of methods of future Physical Culture teachers to physical education of high school students into study process at a higher educational institution. The role of the approbated study discipline “Theory and methods of physical education at high school” has been determined in this research. It has also been defined, that future Physical Culture teacher’s training for physical education of high school students is a system of organizational and educational measures, ensuring the formation of future teacher’s professional knowledge and skills. The article presents the defined tasks, criteria, tools, forms, pedagogical conditions and stages of students’ training for teaching classes of Physical Education to high school students. Approbation of methodical approaches to future Physical Culture teachers’ training for physical education of high school students demonstrated their efficacy

  7. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    OpenAIRE

    Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

    2015-01-01

    Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate ...

  8. Culture methods of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples in Australian bacteriology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are cultured by bacteriology laboratories to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. In Australia, this testing is performed by 6 TGA-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories with samples received from 10 tissue banks. Culture methods of swab and tissue samples employ a combination of solid agar and/or broth media to enhance micro-organism growth and maximise recovery. All six Australian laboratories receive Amies transport swabs and, except for one laboratory, a corresponding biopsy sample for testing. Three of the 6 laboratories culture at least one allograft sample directly onto solid agar. Only one laboratory did not use a broth culture for any sample received. An international literature review found that a similar combination of musculoskeletal tissue samples were cultured onto solid agar and/or broth media. Although variations of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples, culture media and methods are used in Australian and international bacteriology laboratories, validation studies and method evaluations have challenged and supported their use in recovering fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  9. Searching for Innovations and Methods of Using the Cultural Heritage on the Example of Upper Silesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    The basic subject of this paper is historical and cultural heritage of some parts of Upper Silesia, bind by common history and similar problems at present days. The paper presents some selected historical phenomena that have influenced contemporary space, mentioned above, and contemporary issues of heritage protection in Upper Silesia. The Silesian architecture interpretation, since 1989, is strongly covered with some ideological and national ideas. The last 25 years are the next level of development which contains rapidly transformation of the space what is caused by another economical transformations. In this period, we can observe landscape transformations, liquidation of objects and historical structures, loos of regional features, spontaneous adaptation processes of objects and many methods of implementation forms of protection, and using of cultural resources. Some upheaval linked to the state borders changes, system, economy and ethnic transformation caused that former Upper Silesia border area focuses phenomena that exists in some other similar European areas which are abutments of cultures and traditions. The latest period in the history of Upper Silesia gives us time to reflect the character of changes in architecture and city planning of the area and appraisal of efficiency these practices which are connected to cultural heritage perseveration. The phenomena of the last decades are: decrement of regional features, elimination of objects, which were a key feature of the regional cultural heritage, deformation of these forms that were shaped in the history and some trials of using these elements of cultural heritage, which are widely recognized as cultural values. In this situation, it is important to seek creative solutions that will neutralize bad processes resulting from bad law and practice. The most important phenomena of temporary space is searching of innovative fields and methods and use of cultural resources. An important part of the article is

  10. An efficient method for the establishment of cell suspension cultures in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures offers an In vitro system that can be used as a tool for various studies involving mutant selection, mass propagation, protoplast isolation, gene transfer and selection of cell-lines which are resistant to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Research work on the development of cell suspension cultures was carried out to establish the most efficient method in Potato (cv. Desiree). Healthy, well-proliferating tissues from different types of callus cultures (compact, friable, embryogenic or non-embryogenic) were inoculated on various media combinations, i.e., MS, MS2 or AA liquid medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D. A fixed quantity (0.5-1.0 g) of callus tissue from 60-day-old callus cultures was transferred to 10-25 ml of liquid medium in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Cultures were placed on an orbital shaker and agitated at different speeds (75, 100 or 125 rpm) under 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C. Medium was changed after every 3 days and fractionated tissue was filtered after every 6 days through sterile mesh (100-800 micro m) to develop a cell-line by transferring resulting suspension to fresh medium under the same conditions. Results indicated that eight-week-old translucent, friable, off-white callus cultures were an excellent starting material for the initiation of homogeneous cell suspension cultures as compared to other tested sources. Of the three tested media (MS, MS2 or AA medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D), MS2 was found to be a better medium for the initiation of cell suspension cultures. Cell suspension cultures, placed in 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C and agitated at 120 rpm using a gyratory shaker showed excellent results. Several other factors influencing quick establishment of cell suspension cultures in this cultivar are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  11. Model Insensitive and Calibration Independent Method for Determination of the Downstream Neutral Hydrogen Density Through Ly-alpha Glow Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, P.; Judge, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Our knowledge of the various heliospheric phenomena (location of the solar wind termination shock, heliopause configuration and very local interstellar medium parameters) is limited by uncertainties in the available heliospheric plasma models and by calibration uncertainties in the observing instruments. There is, thus, a strong motivation to develop model insensitive and calibration independent methods to reduce the uncertainties in the relevant heliospheric parameters. We have developed such a method to constrain the downstream neutral hydrogen density inside the heliospheric tail. In our approach we have taken advantage of the relative insensitivity of the downstream neutral hydrogen density profile to the specific plasma model adopted. We have also used the fact that the presence of an asymmetric neutral hydrogen cavity surrounding the sun, characteristic of all neutral densities models, results in a higher multiple scattering contribution to the observed glow in the downstream region than in the upstream region. This allows us to approximate the actual density profile with one which is spatially uniform for the purpose of calculating the downstream backscattered glow. Using different spatially constant density profiles, radiative transfer calculations are performed, and the radial dependence of the predicted glow is compared with the observed I/R dependence of Pioneer 10 UV data. Such a comparison bounds the large distance heliospheric neutral hydrogen density in the downstream direction to a value between 0.05 and 0.1/cc.

  12. An independent method for input accountability in reprocessing plants : magnesium tracer technique for the accountability of plutonium (MAGTRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, C.K.; Jain, H.C.; Chitambar, S.A.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    A new technique 'MAGTRAP' for the measurement of the total plutonium in an accountability tank is described which does not require knowledge of either the total volume of solution in the tank or the size of the sample aliquot. The method depends on the addition of natural magnesium as a tracer and the subsequent isotope dilution of an aliquot using a spike with known 26 Mg/ 242 Pu ratio. Using only the isotopic ratios of 26 Mg/ 24 Mg and 239 Pu/ 242 Pu in the mixture, the quantity of the plutonium in the accountability tank can be calculated. In order to correct for magnesium blank, an additional measurement is required before tracer addition. The magnesium tracer technique can also be used to check the volume (or weight) calibration of the tank. Several experiments were carried out in the input accountability tank of the Fuel Reprocessing Plant at Tarapur to assess the accuracy of this method. The weight (or volume) of the solution in the tank could be measured independently with an accuracy of better than 0.5%. An experiment was also conducted to measure the total uranium in the accountability tank using MAGTRAP. The accuracy was better than 1%. The tracer technique was also used to arrive at optimum sparging times to ensure the homogeneity of the solution in the tank. Chemical procedures developed for the separation of plutonium and magnesium from dissolver solutions are also discussed. (author)

  13. Determination of diffusion parameters of Thermal neutrons for non-moderator media by a pulsed method and a time independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boufraqech, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for determining the diffusion parameters of thermal neutrons for non-moderator and non-multiplicator media have been developped: The first one, which is a pulsed method, is based on thermal neutrons relaxation coefficients measurement in a moderator, with and without the medium of interest that plays the role of reflector. For the experimental results interpretation using the diffusion theory, a corrective factor which takes into account the neutron cooling by diffusion has been introduced. Its dependence on the empirically obtained relaxation coefficients is in a good agreement with the calculations made in P3L2 approximation. The difference between linear extrapolation lengths of the moderator and the reflector has been taken into account, by developping the scalar fluxes in Bessel function series which automatically satisfy the boundary conditions at the extra-polated surfaces of the two media. The obtained results for Iron are in a good agreement with those in the literature. The second method is time independent, based on the 'flux albedo' measurements interpretation (Concept introduced by Amaldi and Fermi) by P3 approximation in the one group trans-port theory. The independent sources are introduced in the Marshak boundary conditions. An angular albedo matrix has been used to deal with multiple reflections and to take into account the distortion of the current vector when entring a medium, after being reflected by this latter. The results obtained by this method are slightly different from those given in the literature. The analysis of the possible sources causing this discrepancy, particulary the radial distribution of flux in cylindrical geometry and the flux depression at medium-black body interface, has shown that the origin of this discrepancy is the neutron heating by diffusion. 47 figs., 20 tabs., 39 refs. (author)

  14. Functional connectivity analysis of the neural bases of emotion regulation: A comparison of independent component method with density-based k-means clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Guo, Qian; Xu, Yi; Yang, Biao; Jiao, Zhuqing; Xiang, Jianbo

    2016-04-29

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool in neuroscience for assessing connectivity and interactions between distant areas of the brain. To find and characterize the coherent patterns of brain activity as a means of identifying brain systems for the cognitive reappraisal of the emotion task, both density-based k-means clustering and independent component analysis (ICA) methods can be applied to characterize the interactions between brain regions involved in cognitive reappraisal of emotion. Our results reveal that compared with the ICA method, the density-based k-means clustering method provides a higher sensitivity of polymerization. In addition, it is more sensitive to those relatively weak functional connection regions. Thus, the study concludes that in the process of receiving emotional stimuli, the relatively obvious activation areas are mainly distributed in the frontal lobe, cingulum and near the hypothalamus. Furthermore, density-based k-means clustering method creates a more reliable method for follow-up studies of brain functional connectivity.

  15. Bacterial community structure associated with white band disease in the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata determined using culture-independent 16S rRNA techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantos, Olga; Bythell, John C

    2006-03-23

    Culture-independent molecular (16S ribosomal RNA) techniques showed distinct differences in bacterial communities associated with white band disease (WBD) Type I and healthy elkhorn coral Acropora palmata. Differences were apparent at all levels, with a greater diversity present in tissues of diseased colonies. The bacterial community associated with remote, non-diseased coral was distinct from the apparently healthy tissues of infected corals several cm from the disease lesion. This demonstrates a whole-organism effect from what appears to be a localised disease lesion, an effect that has also been recently demonstrated in white plague-like disease in star coral Montastraea annularis. The pattern of bacterial community structure changes was similar to that recently demonstrated for white plague-like disease and black band disease. Some of the changes are likely to be explained by the colonisation of dead and degrading tissues by a micro-heterotroph community adapted to the decomposition of coral tissues. However, specific ribosomal types that are absent from healthy tissues appear consistently in all samples of each of the diseases. These ribotypes are closely related members of a group of alpha-proteobacteria that cause disease, notably juvenile oyster disease, in other marine organisms. It is clearly important that members of this group are isolated for challenge experiments to determine their role in the diseases.

  16. Establishment of primary bovine intestinal epithelial cell culture and clone method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Kang; Lin, Miao; Liu, Ming-Mei; Sui, Yang-Nan; Zhao, Guo-Qi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish bovine intestinal epithelial cell (BIEC) line and provide a novel clone cell method. Although various strategies of bovine cell culture and clone techniques have been reported, these methods remain not established. Here, we culture successfully primary BIECs and establish a novel clone cell method. Our result showed that BIECs could be successfully cultured and passaged about generation 5. These cellular aggregates and clusters were adherent loosely at day 2 of culture. Cell aggregates and clusters start to proliferate after approximately 4 d. The BIECs showed positive reaction against cytokeratin 18, E-cadherin, and characteristics of epithelial-like morphology. In addition, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), villin, and intestinal peptidase (IP) band were positive in BIECs. Our results suggest that the establishment of culturing and clone BIEC methods will apply to isolate and clone other primary cells. These BIECs could therefore contribute to the study of bovine intestinal nutrient absorption and regulation, immune regulation, and the pathogenesis of the bovine intestinal disease, which will provide intestinal cell model in vitro.

  17. A Novel Method for Culturing of Leptothrix sp. Strain OUMS1 in Natural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Suzuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some strains of Leptothrix spp. isolated from aquatic environments have been characterized by culturing them in laboratory conditions, they often show morphological and chemical features distinct from those found in natural environments. To resolve this discrepancy, a novel cultivation method was devised for culturing such strains in natural groundwater. Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 was pre-cultured in a medium lacking Fe for 2 days, and then injected into a small dialysis tube bag and immersed in a container with continuously flowing groundwater for 1–3 and 14 days. Microscopic analysis of the initial phase of sheath formation and arbitrary comparisons with medium cultures revealed that in groundwater the surface coat of the sheath comprised much thinner fibrils, and an inner sheath wall that was much thinner and more indistinct compared with medium cultures. These differences were probably attributable to poorer secretion from the cell surface in groundwater conditions. A nutrient-rich medium likely activates cell metabolism and promotes secretion, resulting in a thicker inner sheath wall and thicker outer coat fibrils. Aqueous-phase Fe was deposited on immature sheaths in a similar manner in both cultures. These results indicate that laboratory culture of isolated microbes does not always reflect their characteristics in natural environments.

  18. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  19. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Edagawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%. Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%. In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8% compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%. Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1% compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%. Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%, irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  20. Comparing rapid and culture indicator bacteria methods at inland lake beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Kephart, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), for quantifying indicator bacteria in recreational waters is desirable for public health protection. We report that replacing current Escherichia coli standards with new US Environmental Protection Agency beach action values (BAVs) for enterococci by culture or qPCR may result in more advisories being posted at inland recreational lakes. In this study, concentrations of E. coli and enterococci by culture methods were compared to concentrations of Enterococcus spp. by qPCR at 3 inland lake beaches in Ohio. The E. coli and enterococci culture results were significantly related at all beaches; however, the relations between culture results and Enterococcus spp. qPCR results were not always significant and differed among beaches. All the qPCR results exceeded the new BAV for Enterococcus spp. by qPCR, whereas only 23.7% of culture results for E. coli and 79% of culture results for enterococci exceeded the current standard for E. coli or BAV for enterococci.

  1. Method and Apparatus for a Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J. (Inventor); Geffert, Sandra K. (Inventor); Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A bioreactor and method that permits continuous and simultaneous short, moderate, or long term cell culturing of one or more cell types or tissue in a laminar flow configuration is disclosed, where the bioreactor supports at least two laminar flow zones, which are isolated by laminar flow without the need for physical barriers between the zones. The bioreactors of this invention are ideally suited for studying short, moderate and long term studies of cell cultures and the response of cell cultures to one or more stressors such as pharmaceuticals, hypoxia, pathogens, or any other stressor. The bioreactors of this invention are also ideally suited for short, moderate or long term cell culturing with periodic cell harvesting and/or medium processing for secreted cellular components.

  2. Deaf: A Concept Analysis From a Cultural Perspective Using the Wilson Method of Concept Analysis Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Kathy M; Newman, Susan D; Jones, Elaine; Jenkins, Carolyn H

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an analysis of the concept Deaf to increase health care provider (HCP) understanding from a cultural perspective. Deaf signers, people with hearing loss who communicate primarily in American Sign Language (ASL), generally define the term Deaf as a cultural heritage. In the health care setting, the term deaf is most often defined as a pathological condition requiring medical intervention. When HCPs are unaware that there are both cultural and pathological views of hearing loss, significant barriers may exist between the HCP and the Deaf individual. The concept of Deaf is analyzed using the Wilsonian method. Essential elements of the concept "Deaf" from a cultural perspective include a personal choice to communicate primarily in ASL and identify with the Deaf community. Resources for HCPs are needed to quickly identify Deaf signers and provide appropriate communication.

  3. Optimization of an Efficient Non-Tissue Culture Transformation Method for Brassica Juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, I.; Munir, I.; Iqbal, A.; Ullah, F.

    2016-01-01

    The major hurdles in successful in vitro transformation of Brassica juncea through standard tissue culture (STC) method are: culture contamination, somaclonal variations, and lack of expertise. Moreover, the current STC method is time consuming and needs continuous electricity. In the present study, the in planta transformation method through floral dip with or without vacuum infiltration was optimized for successful transformation of B. juncea. The B. juncea CV RAYA Anmol was used for transformation through Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 harboring the binary vector plasmid pBinGlyBar4-EADcT. Based on the resistance reaction to the herbicide Basta, 20 and 40 resistant seedlings were obtained from 2000 seed germinated from the plants transformed through floral dip and vacuum infiltration methods, respectively. The PCR analyses further confirmed the presence of transgene in 3 floral dipped plants without vacuum infiltration and 17 floral dipped plants with vacuum infiltration, giving the transformation frequencies of 1.5*10/sup -3/ and 8.5*10/sup -3/, respectively. This method, which avoids tissue culture, will reduce the somaclonal variation accompanying prolonged culture of cells in a dedifferentiated state, will facilitate functional genomics and improvement of Brassica juncea with novel desirable traits while reducing time and expense. (author)

  4. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  5. Application and Evaluation of Independent Component Analysis Methods to Generalized Seizure Disorder Activities Exhibited in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S Thomas; Balakrishnan, R; Johnson, J Stanly; Jayakumar, J

    2017-07-01

    EEG records the spontaneous electrical activity of the brain using multiple electrodes placed on the scalp, and it provides a wealth of information related to the functions of brain. Nevertheless, the signals from the electrodes cannot be directly applied to a diagnostic tool like brain mapping as they undergo a "mixing" process because of the volume conduction effect in the scalp. A pervasive problem in neuroscience is determining which regions of the brain are active, given voltage measurements at the scalp. Because of which, there has been a surge of interest among the biosignal processing community to investigate the process of mixing and unmixing to identify the underlying active sources. According to the assumptions of independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms, the resultant mixture obtained from the scalp can be closely approximated by a linear combination of the "actual" EEG signals emanating from the underlying sources of electrical activity in the brain. As a consequence, using these well-known ICA techniques in preprocessing of the EEG signals prior to clinical applications could result in development of diagnostic tool like quantitative EEG which in turn can assist the neurologists to gain noninvasive access to patient-specific cortical activity, which helps in treating neuropathologies like seizure disorders. The popular and proven ICA schemes mentioned in various literature and applications were selected (which includes Infomax, JADE, and SOBI) and applied on generalized seizure disorder samples using EEGLAB toolbox in MATLAB environment to see their usefulness in source separations; and they were validated by the expert neurologist for clinical relevance in terms of pathologies on brain functionalities. The performance of Infomax method was found to be superior when compared with other ICA schemes applied on EEG and it has been established based on the validations carried by expert neurologist for generalized seizure and its clinical

  6. Using consumer perspectives to inform the cultural adaptation of psychological treatments for depression: a mixed methods study from South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Balaji, Madhumitha; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rahman, Atif; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; Jordans, M J D; Chowdhary, Neerja; Patel, Vikram

    2014-07-01

    Integrating consumer perspectives in developing and adapting psychological treatments (PTs) can enhance their acceptability in diverse cultural contexts. To describe the explanatory models (EMs) of depression in South Asia with the goal of informing the content of culturally appropriate PTs for this region. Two methods were used: a systematic review of published literature on the EMs of depression in South Asia; and in-depth interviews with persons with depression and family caregivers in two sites in India. Findings from both were analysed independently and then triangulated. There were 19 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Interviews were conducted with 27 patients and 10 caregivers. Findings were grouped under four broad categories: illness descriptions, perceived impact, causal beliefs and self-help forms of coping. Depression was characterised predominantly by somatic complaints, stress, low mood, and negative and ruminative thoughts. Patients experienced disturbances in interpersonal relationships occupational functioning, and stigma. Negative life events, particularly relationship difficulties, were perceived as the main cause. Patients mostly engaged in distracting activities, religious practices, and received support from family and friends to cope with the illness. The primary data are entirely from India but the studies from the literature review covering South Asia are consistent with these findings. This study also does not include literature in local languages or explore how consumer perspectives change over time. EMs can inform cultural adaptations to PTs for depression in South Asia by defining target outcomes, content for psycho-education, and culturally appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Methods for culturing saltwater rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) for rearing larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Sanders, Erik; Henry, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The saltwater rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, is widely used in the aquaculture industry as a prey item for first-feeding fishes due to its ease of culture, small size, rapid reproductive rate, and amenability to enrichment with nutrients. Despite the distinct advantages of this approach, rotifers have only been sporadically utilized for rearing larval zebrafish, primarily because of the common misconception that maintaining cultures of rotifers is difficult and excessively time-consuming. Here we present simple methods for maintaining continuous cultures of rotifers capable of supporting even the very largest zebrafish aquaculture facility, with minimal investments in materials, time, labor, and space. Examples of the methods' application in one large, existing facility is provided, and troubleshooting of common problems is discussed.

  8. Transferring methods to teach business administration from one cultural context to another

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Catalo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What happens when a teaching method is transferred from one cultural context to another? In this article we investigate this question by looking at how Computer Based Simulations (CBS were transposed from a French context to an Egyptian one. In this article we demonstrate, through the case of Egypt, how culture and the characteristics of the school system impact learning abilities. We describe what happens when Egyptian students are confronted with learning modes they have not encountered prior to University, in the context of an Egyptian-French dual-degree programme in business administration and business informatics. We show that the transfer of CBS as a teaching method revealed cultural differences between French and Egyptian students. As a consequence the teaching objectives of CBS were redefined in order to take the Egyptian context into account.

  9. Room for improvement? Leadership, innovation culture and uptake of quality improvement methods in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apekey, Tanefa A; McSorley, Gerry; Tilling, Michelle; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2011-04-01

    Leadership and innovation are currently seen as essential elements for the development and maintenance of high-quality care. Little is known about the relationship between leadership and culture of innovation and the extent to which quality improvement methods are used in general practice. This study aimed to assess the relationship between leadership behaviour, culture of innovation and adoption of quality improvement methods in general practice. Self-administered postal questionnaires were sent to general practitioner quality improvement leads in one county in the UK between June and December 2007. The questionnaire consisted of background information, a 12-item scale to assess leadership behaviour, a seven-dimension self-rating scale for culture of innovation and questions on current use of quality improvement tools and techniques. Sixty-three completed questionnaires (62%) were returned. Leadership behaviours were not commonly reported. Most practices reported a positive culture of innovation, featuring relationship most strongly, followed by targets and information but rated lower on other dimensions of rewards, risk and resources. There was a significant positive correlation between leadership behaviour and the culture of innovation (r = 0.57; P improvement methods were not adopted by most participating practices. Leadership behaviours were infrequently reported and this was associated with a limited culture of innovation in participating general practices. There was little use of quality improvement methods beyond clinical and significant event audit. Practices need support to enhance leadership skills, encourage innovation and develop quality improvement skills if improvements in health care are to accelerate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Development of Nuclear Safety Culture evaluation method for an operation team based on the probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Lee, Seung Min; Yim, Ho Bin; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •We proposed a Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method. •Positive relationship between the ‘success’ states of NSC and performance was shown. •The state probability profile showed a unique ratio regardless of the scenarios. •Cutset analysis provided not only root causes but also the latent causes of failures. •Pro-SCHEMe was found to be applicable to Korea NPPs. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose a new quantitative evaluation method for Nuclear Safety Culture (NSC) in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation teams based on the probabilistic approach. Various NSC evaluation methods have been developed, and the Korea NPP utility company has conducted the NSC assessment according to international practice. However, most of methods are conducted by interviews, observations, and the self-assessment. Consequently, the results are often qualitative, subjective, and mainly dependent on evaluator’s judgement, so the assessment results can be interpreted from different perspectives. To resolve limitations of present evaluation methods, the concept of Safety Culture Healthiness was suggested to produce quantitative results and provide faster evaluation process. This paper presents Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method (Pro-SCHEMe) to generate quantitative inputs for Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Evaluation items which correspond to a basic event in PSA are derived in the first part of the paper through the literature survey; mostly from nuclear-related organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC), and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Event trees (ETs) and fault trees (FTs) are devised to apply evaluation items to PSA based on the relationships among such items. The Modeling Guidelines are also suggested to classify and calculate NSC characteristics of

  11. Teaching cross-cultural communication skills online: a multi-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy L; Mader, Emily M; Morley, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Cultural competency education is an important and required part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an online cross-cultural communication module could increase student use of cross-cultural communication questions that assess the patient's definition of the problem, the way the problem affects their life, their concerns about the problem, and what the treatment should be (PACT). We used multi-method assessment of students assigned to family medicine clerkship blocks that were randomized to receive online cultural competency and PACT training added to their standard curriculum or to a control group receiving the standard curriculum only. Outcomes included comparison, via analysis of variance, of number of PACT questions used during an observed Standardized Patient Exercise, end-of-year OSCE scores, and qualitative analysis of student narratives. Students (n=119) who participated in the online module (n=60) demonstrated increased use of cross-cultural communication PACT questions compared to the control group (n=59) and generally had positive themes emerge from their reflective writing. The module had the biggest impact on students who later went on to match in high communication specialties. Online teaching of cross-cultural communication skills can be effective at changing medical student behavior.

  12. a Method of 3d Measurement and Reconstruction for Cultural Relics in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, R.; Zhou, L.; Xu, X.; Wang, C.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional measurement and reconstruction during conservation and restoration of cultural relics have become an essential part of a modem museum regular work. Although many kinds of methods including laser scanning, computer vision and close-range photogrammetry have been put forward, but problems still exist, such as contradiction between cost and good result, time and fine effect. Aimed at these problems, this paper proposed a structure-light based method for 3D measurement and reconstruction of cultural relics in museums. Firstly, based on structure-light principle, digitalization hardware has been built and with its help, dense point cloud of cultural relics' surface can be easily acquired. To produce accurate 3D geometry model from point cloud data, multi processing algorithms have been developed and corresponding software has been implemented whose functions include blunder detection and removal, point cloud alignment and merge, 3D mesh construction and simplification. Finally, high-resolution images are captured and the alignment of these images and 3D geometry model is conducted and realistic, accurate 3D model is constructed. Based on such method, a complete system including hardware and software are built. Multi-kinds of cultural relics have been used to test this method and results prove its own feature such as high efficiency, high accuracy, easy operation and so on.

  13. Anthropology and International Business Research Methods in DBA Teaching: Frameworks for Cultural Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for introducing anthropology into a doctoral-level international business research methods course. Describes three anthropological frameworks designed for the course: a cultural awareness model adapted from G. Morgan's (1980) idea of paradigmatic orthodoxy; key organizing principles; and a mapping model allowing researchers…

  14. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  15. Learning as Researchers and Teachers: The Development of a Pedagogical Culture for Social Science Research Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Daniel; Nind, Melanie; Wiles, Rose

    2014-01-01

    In light of calls to improve the capacity for social science research within UK higher education, this article explores the possibilities for an emerging pedagogy for research methods. A lack of pedagogical culture in this field has been identified by previous studies. In response, we examine pedagogical literature surrounding approaches for…

  16. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  17. When Smokey says "No": Fire-less methods for growing plants adapted to cultural fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Shebitz; Justine E. James

    2010-01-01

    Two culturally-significant plants (sweetgrass [Anthoxanthum nitens] and beargrass [Xerophyllum tenax]) are used as case studies for investigating methods of restoring plant populations that are adapted to indigenous burning practices without using fire. Reports from tribal members that the plants of interest were declining in traditional gathering areas provided the...

  18. Digital Storytelling: A Method for Engaging Students and Increasing Cultural Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Natalie S.; Bolin, Brien L.

    2016-01-01

    Digital storytelling is explored as a method of engaging students in the development of media literacy and cultural competency. This paper describes the perceptions and experiences of 96 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university, after completing a digital storytelling project in a semester-long diversity course. Digital storytelling…

  19. Establishment and Characterization of Primary Cultures from Iranian Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients by Enzymatic Method and Explant Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ganjibakhsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC is the most frequent oral cancer worldwide. It is known as the eighth most common cancer in men and as the fifth most common cancer in women. Cytogenetic and biochemical studies in recent decades have emphasized the necessity of providing an appropriate tool for such researches. Cancer cell culture is a useful tool for investigations on biochemical, genetic, molecular and immunological characteristics of different cancers, including oral cancer. Here, we explain the establishment process of five primary oral cancer cells derived from an Iranian population.Materials and Methods: The specimens were obtained from five oral cancer patients. Enzymatic, explant culture and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS methods were used for cell isolation. After quality control tests, characterization and authentication of primary oral cancer cells were performed by short tandem repeats (STR profiling, chromosome analysis, species identification, and monitoring the growth, morphology and the expression of CD326 and CD133 markers.Results: Five primary oral cancer cells were established from an Iranian population. The flow cytometry results showed that the isolated cells were positive for CD326 and CD133 markers. Furthermore, the cells were free from mycoplasma, bacterial and fungal contamination. No misidentified or cross-contaminated cells were detected by STR analysis.Conclusions: Human primary oral cancer cells provide an extremely useful platform for studying carcinogenesis pathways of oral cancer in Iranian population. They may be helpful in explaining the ethnic differences in cancer biology and the individuality in anticancer drug response in future studies.

  20. Children's activities and their meanings for parents: a mixed-methods study in six Western cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.

  1. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  2. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

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    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  3. Radiation-Independent Distal Locking Screw Insertion Using Dual Nail Insertion Handle: Is it a Reliable Method?

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    Adel Abdel Azim Foda

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This technique is not reliable enough to replace the classic radiation-dependent free-hand technique. Further development of this idea is needed to get a perfect radiation-independent distal locking technique.

  4. Microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine test method for quantifying phenolic compounds in microbial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justiz Mendoza, Ibrahin; Aguilera Rodriguez, Isabel; Perez Portuondo, Irasema

    2014-01-01

    Validation of test methods microscale is currently of great importance due to the economic and environmental advantages possessed, which constitutes a prerequisite for the performance of services and quality assurance of the results to provide customer. This paper addresses the microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine spectrophotometric method for the quantification of phenolic compounds in culture medium. Parameters linearity, precision, regression, accuracy, detection limits, quantification limits and robustness were evaluated, addition to the comparison test with no standardized method for determining polyphenols (Folin Ciocalteu). The results showed that both methods are feasible for determining phenols

  5. Comparison of the lysis centrifugation method with the conventional blood culture method in cases of sepsis in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-07-01

    Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Two hundred nonduplicate blood cultures from cases of sepsis were analyzed using two blood culture methods concurrently for recovery of bacteria from patients diagnosed clinically with sepsis - the conventional blood culture method using trypticase soy broth and the lysis centrifugation method using saponin by centrifuging at 3000 g for 30 minutes. Overall bacteria recovered from 200 blood cultures were 17.5%. The conventional blood culture method had a higher yield of organisms, especially Gram positive cocci. The lysis centrifugation method was comparable with the former method with respect to Gram negative bacilli. The sensitivity of lysis centrifugation method in comparison to conventional blood culture method was 49.75% in this study, specificity was 98.21% and diagnostic accuracy was 89.5%. In almost every instance, the time required for detection of the growth was earlier by lysis centrifugation method, which was statistically significant. Contamination by lysis centrifugation was minimal, while that by conventional method was high. Time to growth by the lysis centrifugation method was highly significant (P value 0.000) as compared to time to growth by the conventional blood culture method. For the diagnosis of sepsis, combination of the lysis centrifugation method and the conventional blood culture method with trypticase soy broth or biphasic media is advocable, in order to achieve faster recovery and a better yield of microorganisms.

  6. Microbial transformation of tannin-rich substrate to gallic acid through co-culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rintu; Mukherjee, Gargi; Patra, Krushna Chandra

    2005-05-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process parameters for maximum production of tannase and gallic acid by co-culture method were optimized through media engineering. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The optimal pH and incubation period was 5.0 and 48 h respectively. Through the co-culture technique the maximum yield of tannase and gallic acid was found to be 41.3 U/ml and 94.8% respectively.

  7. Reflexive photography: an alternative method for documenting the learning process of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Roxanne; Livingston, Wade G

    2014-04-01

    This qualitative descriptive study used reflexive photography to evaluate the learning process of cultural competence during an international service-learning project in Guatemala. Reflexive photography is an innovative qualitative research technique that examines participants' interactions with their environment through their personal reflections on images that they captured during their experience. A purposive sample of 10 baccalaureate nursing students traveled to Guatemala, where they conducted family and community assessments, engaged in home visits, and provided health education. Data collection involved over 100 photographs and a personal interview with each student. The themes developed from the photographs and interviews provided insight into the activities of an international experience that influence the cognitive, practical, and affective learning of cultural competence. Making home visits and teaching others from a different culture increased students' transcultural self-efficacy. Reflexive photography is a more robust method of self-reflection, especially for visual learners.

  8. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

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    Santanu Panda

    Full Text Available In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes.Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies.We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes

  9. New method for exopolysaccharide determination in culture broth using stirred ultrafiltration cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmaier, D; Lacroix, C; Guadalupe Macedo, M; Champagne, C P

    2001-10-01

    A new method to remove simple carbohydrates from culture broth prior to the quantification of exopolysaccharides (EPS) was developed and validated for the EPS-producing strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M. This method uses ultrafiltration (UF) in stirred cells followed by polysaccharide detection in the retentate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The UF method was compared with a conventional method based on ethanol extraction, dialysis, protein removal by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and freeze-drying. EPS production during pH-controlled batch fermentations in basal minimum medium, whey permeate (WP). and whey permeate supplemented with yeast extract, minerals and Tween-80 (SWP) was determined by the new UF and conventional methods. EPS recovery by the new method ranged from 83% to 104% for EPS added in the concentration range 40-1,500 mg/l in 0.1 M NaCl solution or culture medium. The UF method was rapid (8 h), accurate and simple, and required only a small sample volume (1-5 ml). A very high maximum EPS production was measured in SWP by both the UF and conventional methods (1,718 and 1,755 mg/l).

  10. Comparison among four proposed direct blood culture microbial identification methods using MALDI-TOF MS

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    Ali M. Bazzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry facilitates rapid and accurate identification of pathogens, which is critical for sepsis patients.In this study, we assessed the accuracy in identification of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Streptococcus viridans, using four rapid blood culture methods with Vitek MALDI-TOF-MS. We compared our proposed lysis centrifugation followed by washing and 30% acetic acid treatment method (method 2 with two other lysis centrifugation methods (washing and 30% formic acid treatment (method 1; 100% ethanol treatment (method 3, and picking colonies from 90 to 180 min subculture plates (method 4. Methods 1 and 2 identified all organisms down to species level with 100% accuracy, except for Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The latter two were identified to genus level with 100% accuracy. Each method exhibited excellent accuracy and precision in terms of identification to genus level with certain limitations. Keywords: MALDI-TOF, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, Sepsis, Blood culture

  11. Hearsay Ethnography: Conversational Journals as a Method for Studying Culture in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Susan Cotts; Swidler, Ann

    2009-04-01

    Social scientists have long struggled to develop methods adequate to their theoretical understanding of meaning as collective and dynamic. While culture is widely understood as an emergent property of collectivities, the methods we use keep pulling us back towards interview-situated accounts and an image of culture as located in individual experience. Scholars who seek to access supra-individual semiotic structures by studying public rituals and other collectively-produced texts then have difficulty capturing the dynamic processes through which such meanings are created and changed in situ. To try to capture more effectively the way meaning is produced and re-produced in everyday life, we focus here on conversational interactions-the voices and actions that constitute the relational space among actors. Conversational journals provide us with a method: the analysis of texts produced by cultural insiders who keep journals of who-said-what-to-whom in conversations they overhear or events they participate in during the course of their daily lives. We describe the method, distinguishing it from other approaches and noting its drawbacks. We then illustrate the methodological advantages of conversational journals with examples from our texts. We end with a discussion of the method's potential in our setting as well as in other places and times.

  12. Water Quality Improvement of Media Culture for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Cleaner Production Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeruddin; Supriharyono; Febrianto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is known as a high adaptability and brackish water tolerance fish. This fish is also has a meat with high protein content, that ranges about 65 -75%. Generally the tilapia is cultured using a conventional system with high density. It is caused degradation of water quality of media culture, and finally increase mortality rate of fish cultured. The application of tilapia cultivation with cleaner production method by giving enzyme into the feed to upgrade the efficiency of feed utilization, presumed that could improve the water quality of cultivation media. It is due to the lower of feed and feces residues. Therefore the concentration of toxic compounds, such as ammonia, nitrite and sulfide, will be lower. The experiments were conducted for 35 days with a completely factorial randomized design. The first factor was the dosage of enzyme in the feed, consisting of 4 dosages, and the second factor was the duration of the test fish maintenance (5 weeks). Water quality variables examined included ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. The results showed that enzyme dosage had no significantly impact on ammonia, nitrite and sulfide concentrations in the test media culture. However, the feeding with enzyme in low dosage, resulted less concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide than it was without enzyme). The duration of fish cultured has significantly effect on the concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide in the test media. While it is no significantly correlation between dosage and duration of maintenance.

  13. Sensitivity assessment of direct method for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in comparison with Dorset Culture media

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    ebrahim badparva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that lives in the genital tract and causes trichomoniasis in women. About 200 million people all over the world are infected with T. vaginalis. There are various methods with different sensitivity and specificity for detection of this parasite, that one of them is direct smear of vaginal secretions which is simpler, rapid and cheaper than other diagnostic methods. Materials and Methods: Demographic data was gathered by a questionnaire which contained different variables. Vaginal secretions samples were taken by spicolum and two swaps that maintained in glucose solution in separate tubes from 160 women referred to health centers of Khorramabad. One of the vaginal samples was examined by direct smear in saline solution and the other was cultured in Dorse medium. Results: Of 160 women suspected of trichomoniasis, 11.8% and 18.75% were positive by direct smear and culture respectively. The sensitivity of the direct method was 63.3%. Our findings indicated that 30% of the infected women belonged to the 31 – 35 age group, which had the most relative frequency of positive cases. Most of the patients (43% were illiterate or had elementary educational level. Conclussion: The sensivity of direct method is 63% in compare to culture ( as a Gold standard , which is ralatively low . Although the efficacy of this test could be imporved by shortening the elapsed time between sampling and examination , use of skilled microscopists , and different samples , but we recommend that more sensitive methods such as culture and PCR should be used .

  14. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  15. Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: a self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Valery; Ryan, Richard M; Kim, Youngmee; Kaplan, Ulas

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of self-determination theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and cultural descriptions drawn from H. C. Triandis (1995), the authors hypothesized that (a) individuals from different cultures internalize different cultural practices; (b) despite these differences, the relative autonomy of individuals' motivation for those practices predicts well-being in all 4 cultures examined; and (c) horizontal practices are more readily internalized than vertical practices across all samples. Five hundred fifty-nine persons from South Korea, Russia, Turkey and the United States participated. Results supported the hypothesized relations between autonomy and well-being across cultures and gender. Results also suggested greater internalization of horizontal relative to vertical practices. Discussion focuses on the distinction between autonomy and individualism and the relative fit of cultural forms with basic psychological needs.

  16. Comprehensive Method for Culturing Embryonic Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Miranda; Zeng, Yan; Knight, Andrew; Windebank, Anthony; Trushina, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15) rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  17. Comprehensive method for culturing embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons for Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda L. Lange

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function contribute to progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases including peripheral neuropathies. The Seahorse Extracellular Flux XF24 analyzer provides a comprehensive assessment of the relative state of glycolytic and aerobic metabolism in live cells making this method instrumental in assessing mitochondrial function. One of the most important steps in the analysis of mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 analyzer is plating a uniform monolayer of firmly attached cells. However, culturing of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is associated with multiple challenges, including their propensity to form clumps and detach from the culture plate. This could significantly interfere with proper analysis and interpretation of data. We have tested multiple cell culture parameters including coating substrates, culture medium, XF24 microplate plastics, and plating techniques in order to optimize plating conditions. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to obtain neuron-enriched monolayers of securely attached dissociated primary embryonic (E15 rat DRG neurons suitable for analysis with the Seahorse XF24 platform.

  18. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical results

  19. Safe operation of nuclear power plants - Is safety culture an adequate management method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirto, A.

    2012-07-01

    One of the characteristics of a good safety culture is a definable commitment to the improvement of safety behaviours and attitudes at all organisational levels. A second characteristic of an organisation with excellent safety culture is free and open communication. The general understanding has been that safety culture is a part of organisation culture. In addition to safety culture thinking, proactive programmes and displays of proactive work to improve safety are required. This work needs to include, qt a minimum, actions aiming at reducing human errors, the development of human error prevention tools, improvements in training, and the development of working methods and the organisation's activities. Safety depends not only on the technical systems, but also on the organisation. There is a need for better methods and tools for organisational assessment and development. Today there is universal acceptance of the significant impact that management and organisational factors have over the safety significance of complex industrial installations such as nuclear power plants. Many events with significant economic and public impact had causes that have been traced to management deficiencies. The objective of this study is development of new methods to increase safety of nuclear power plant operation. The research has been limited to commercial nuclear power plants that are intended for electrical power generation in Finland. Their production activities, especially operation and maintenance, are primarily reviewed from a safety point of view, as well as human performance and organisational factors perspective. This defines the scope and focus of the study. The research includes studies related to knowledge management and tacit knowledge in the project management context and specific studies related to transfer of tacit knowledge in the maintenance organization and transfer of tacit knowledge between workers of old generation and young generation. The empirical

  20. Using Educational Data Mining Methods to Assess Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners' Complex Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…

  1. Resident Perspectives of an Interactive Case Review Following Independent Didactic Study as a Method of Teaching a Pediatric Imaging Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Aleksandr; Dheer, Sachin; Nazarian, Levon N; Long, Suzanne S

    The ABR has recently changed the format of the board examination, in which the oral examination was replaced by a computer based multiple-choice test. The purpose of this study was to determine resident's perceptions of a new conference resembling the new ABR format. Residents were requested to review a series of didactic pediatric imaging presentations prior to attending case conference. During conference, unknown cases reflecting the subject matter from the didactic presentations were presented along with multiple-choice questions. We then surveyed resident perspectives after each case conference. Between 14 and 18 residents were surveyed at the end of each subspecialty case review presentation. About 94% of resident respondents felt that the independent didactic study followed by an interactive case review session would better prepare them for the ABR certification exams, compared to didactic lectures alone. Furthermore, 95% of the respondents indicated that they preferred the independent didactic review followed by interactive case review versus didactic lecture alone. Most the respondents (85%) felt that combining independent didactic review with interactive unknown case sessions made the material more interesting and provided greater understanding of the material. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of answers across the subspecialty sessions (p > .05). Radiology residents favorably reviewed the combination of independent review of didactic material prior to interactive case review. Material presented in this fashion is felt to be more interesting and is thought to result in enhanced understanding of pediatric radiology material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Method for combined 3H and 14C autoradiography with a single emulsion tested in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, S.W.; Kimball, R.F.; Hsie, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    A single-gelatin expanded film method for double-isotope autoradiography is described. A preliminary classification based upon silver-grain distribution is used to assign labeled cells to 3 H only or with 14 C classes. Optical sectioning combined with grain counting is employed to obtain ratios for classifying cells labeled with 14 C into 14 C only and 3 H + 14 C classes. The method has been tested with CHO-K1 cells in plateau-phase cultures using two 24-h labeling periods. The experimental design allowed for independent estimation of the expected frequencies of label classes under conditions that provided a wide range of possible label levels and combinations. Previous methods have used time-consuming applications of two emulsion layers and exposures to distinguish between cells labeled with 3 H only or with 14 C and do not identify the 3 H + 14 C class. A single-gelatin expanded film requires only one exposure and permits all label classes to be determined by an objective grain-counting procedure

  3. Studies of Ancient Russian Cultural Objects Using the Neutron Tomography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kichanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron radiography and tomography is a non-destructive method that provides detailed information about the internal structure of cultural heritage objects. The differences in the neutron attenuation coefficients of constituent elements of the studied objects, as well as the application of modern mathematical algorithms to carry out three-dimensional imaging data analysis, allow one to obtain unique information about the spatial distribution of different phases, the presence of internal defects, or the degree of structural degradation inside valuable cultural objects. The results of the neutron studies of several archaeological objects related to different epochs of the Russian history are reported in order to demonstrate the opportunities provided by the neutron tomography method. The obtained 3D structural volume data, as well as the results of the corresponding data analysis, are presented.

  4. Growth and accumulation of flavan-3-ol in Camellia sinensis through callus culture and suspension culture method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini Sutini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess flavan-3-ol biomass in C. sinensis through callus cultures and suspension cultures derived from leaf explants. Callus initiation of both cultures were using Murashige and Skoog medium were enriched with plant growth regulators Naphtha-lene Acetic Acid 3.0 mg/L and kinetin 2.0 mg/L. The procedures in this study were: (1 callus initiation by cutting the leaves of C. sinen-sis shoots then planted on Murashige and Skoog medium that were enriched with plant growth regulators, (2 sub callus culture on fresh medium that enriched with the same growth regulators, (3 suspension culture initiation of liquid callus, (4 growth examination of callus and suspension cultures in week 12, (5 examination of qualitative-quantitative content of flavan-3-olin suspension cultures at week 4. The results show that suspension cultures contain biomass flavan-3-ol that increase in the same manner of the increase of callus age and weight

  5. Prevalence of periodontopathogenic bacteria in patients suffering from periodontitis using culture and PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aliramezani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases with the various incidence rates in different populations. A number of bacteria are considered as the major etiologic agents of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of periodontopathogen bacteria in patients using both PCR and culture techniques.Materials and Methods: In this study, one-hundred patients (including 62 females and 38 males with an average age of 49±11.5 years with adult periodontitis referred to periodontics department of School of Dentistry/Tehran University of Medical Sciences were investigated. The samples were taken and sent immediately to the laboratory for culture and molecular evaluation. The PCR was performed using specific primers and the statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS statistic software and McNemar test.Results: The results demonstrated that the total detection rate in culture method was 64%. The rate of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa was 28% which was significantly higher than that of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg (6% and Prevotella intermedia (Pi (3%. 27% of cases showed mixed bacterial growth. 65% of patients were positive using molecular method. The rate of Aa (30% was significantly higher than that of Pg (7% and Pi (5%. The mixed PCR positive rate containing of Aa, Pg and Pi was (23%.Conclusion: In this study, it was found that most of the bacteria isolated using culture and molecular methods were Aa, Pg and Pi, respectively. Although the detection frequencies of both techniques were similar, the specificity, sensitivity and bacterial detection speed of the PCR technique is obviously higher. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques is strongly recommended. However, both techniques seem to be suitable for microbiological diagnostics.

  6. How guiding coalitions promote positive culture change in hospitals: a longitudinal mixed methods interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika L; Cherlin, Emily; Fosburgh, Heather; Ting, Henry H; Curry, Leslie A

    2018-03-01

    Quality collaboratives are widely endorsed as a potentially effective method for translating and spreading best practices for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Nevertheless, hospital success in improving performance through participation in collaboratives varies markedly. We sought to understand what distinguished hospitals that succeeded in shifting culture and reducing 30-day risk-standardised mortality rate (RSMR) after AMI through their participation in the Leadership Saves Lives (LSL) collaborative. We conducted a longitudinal, mixed methods intervention study of 10 hospitals over a 2-year period; data included surveys of 223 individuals (response rates 83%-94% depending on wave) and 393 in-depth interviews with clinical and management staff most engaged with the LSL intervention in the 10 hospitals. We measured change in culture and RSMR, and key aspects of working related to team membership, turnover, level of participation and approaches to conflict management. The six hospitals that experienced substantial culture change and greater reductions in RSMR demonstrated distinctions in: (1) effective inclusion of staff from different disciplines and levels in the organisational hierarchy in the team guiding improvement efforts (referred to as the 'guiding coalition' in each hospital); (2) authentic participation in the work of the guiding coalition; and (3) distinct patterns of managing conflict. Guiding coalition size and turnover were not associated with success (p values>0.05). In the six hospitals that experienced substantial positive culture change, staff indicated that the LSL learnings were already being applied to other improvement efforts. Hospitals that were most successful in a national quality collaborative to shift hospital culture and reduce RSMR showed distinct patterns in membership diversity, authentic participation and capacity for conflict management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  7. Enlargement of induced variations by combined method of chronic irradiations with callus culture in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of gamma ray irradiation and callus culture upon induced variation of the regeneratives. The populations regenerated from young leaf tissue of chronic irradiated plnats grown under a gamma field receiving a total dose of 300 and 100 Gy, showed rather wider variation on quantitative characters than plants from populations of the non-irradiated. This variation extended in both negative and positive directions. Analysis of variance also revealed that variation and heritability in broad sense of most agronomic characters increased significantly among the subclones as the irradiation done rose. Principal component analysis also indicated that the subclones from the irradiated population were more variable than the non-irradiated. Such variation with higher heritability could be transmitted to the following generations by clonal propagation and utilized as genetic sources in mutation breeding. The combined method with chronic irradiation followed by tissue culture is evaluated as an effective method of widening mutation spectrum and increasing mutation frequency in regenerated plants. In addition, this method is valid to improve any crop species which can regenerate plants through callus culture. (author)

  8. Ethnonursing: A Qualitative Research Method for Studying Culturally Competent Care across Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn R. McFarland PhD, RN, FNP-BC, CTN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nurse anthropologist, Madeleine Leininger, developed the culture care theory and ethnonursing research method to help researchers study transcultural human care phenomena and discover the knowledge nurses need to provide care in an increasingly multicultural world. The authors propose that the ethnonursing method can be useful for research that addresses providing care in other disciplines, including education, administration, physical, occupational, and speech therapy, social work, pharmacy, medicine, and other disciplines in which research findings have implications for human care and health. The authors discuss the culture care theory and describe the ethnonursing research method's enablers, data analysis phases, and qualitative evaluation criteria. The theory is presented as a guide for using research findings to design culturally competent and congruent care to promote well-being among diverse people, groups, communities, and institutions. Resources include a reference list of key source publications, a discussion of exemplar studies, and samples of a theory-based, open-ended interview guide and data coding system.

  9. A NEW APPROACH FOR CULTURING LEMNA MINOR (DUCKWEED) AND STANDARDIZED METHOD FOR USING ATRAZINE AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemna minor (Duckweed) is commonly used in aquatic toxicity investigations. Methods for culturing and testing with reference toxicants, such as atrazine, are somewhat variable among researchers. Our goal was to develop standardized methods of culturing and testing for use with L....

  10. The State of the Art of Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Towards a Pedagogical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Claire; Garner, Mark; Kawulich, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    No formal pedagogical culture for research methods in the social sciences seems to exist and, as part of the authors' endeavour to establish such a culture, this article reviews current literature about teaching research methods and identifies the gaps in the research. Articles in academic journals spanning a 10-year period were collected by…

  11. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    2013-01-01

    . This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis...... potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe...... underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different...

  12. Irradiation as a Method of Salvation of Cultural Heritage Objects Under Massive Jeopardy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Razem, B.; Braun, M.; Jagic, R.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural heritage artefacts made of organic materials are susceptible to deterioration caused by the action of insects, moulds, fungi and bacteria. The problem of biodeterioration becomes especially acute after natural catastrophes and weather inclemencies, or after human activities conducive to an abrupt development of pests. Usually a large number of objects are imperilled at the same time and their sheer number aggravates any organized preservation effort. Irradiation has proven an effective method of preservation under the circumstances, e.g. for the prevention of massive proliferation of fungal infestation of books wetted by flood. War destructions in Croatia 1991 - 1995 seriously jeopardized many cultural objects. Their treatment by 60Co gamma rays in the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruðer Boškoviæ Institute played a significant role in the prevention of massive biodeterioration. In co-operation with the Croatian Conservation Institute, one third of 5000 evacuated objects, mostly polychromic wooden sculptures, were irradiated for desinsection and disinfection, enabling their joint accommodation in depots until restoration. This contribution to the preservation of jeopardized cultural heritage objects has been recognized internationally as a specially significant and successful case of the application of irradiation to cultural heritage. The presentation describes in more detail the preservation and restoration of the altar of the Holy Cross from the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Snow in Kamensko.(author)

  13. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  14. Methods to induce primary and secondary traumatic damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchik, Y; Frantseva, M V; Weisspapir, M; Carlen, P L; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2000-04-01

    Organotypic brain slice cultures have been used in a variety of studies on neurodegenerative processes [K.M. Abdel-Hamid, M. Tymianski, Mechanisms and effects of intracellular calcium buffering on neuronal survival in organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to anoxia/aglycemia or to excitotoxins, J. Neurosci. 17, 1997, pp. 3538-3553; D.W. Newell, A. Barth, V. Papermaster, A.T. Malouf, Glutamate and non-glutamate receptor mediated toxicity caused by oxygen and glucose deprivation in organotypic hippocampal cultures, J. Neurosci. 15, 1995, pp. 7702-7711; J.L. Perez Velazquez, M.V. Frantseva, P.L. Carlen, In vitro ischemia promotes glutamate mediated free radical generation and intracellular calcium accumulation in pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices, J. Neurosci. 23, 1997, pp. 9085-9094; L. Stoppini, L.A. Buchs, D. Muller, A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue, J. Neurosci. Methods 37, 1991, pp. 173-182; R.C. Tasker, J.T. Coyle, J.J. Vornov, The regional vulnerability to hypoglycemia induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal culture: protection by early tetrodotoxin or delayed MK 801, J. Neurosci. 12, 1992, pp. 4298-4308.]. We describe two methods to induce traumatic cell damage in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Primary trauma injury was achieved by rolling a stainless steel cylinder (0.9 g) on the organotypic slices. Secondary injury was followed after dropping a weight (0.137 g) on a localised area of the organotypic slice, from a height of 2 mm. The time course and extent of cell death were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the viability indicator propidium iodide (PI) at several time points after the injury. The initial localised impact damage spread 24 and 67 h after injury, cell death being 25% and 54%, respectively, when slices were kept at 37 degrees C. To validate these methods as models to assess neuroprotective strategies, similar insults were applied to slices at relatively low temperatures (30

  15. Co-interviewing across gender and culture: expanding qualitative research methods in Melanesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle L; Api, Unia K; Darius, Matupit; Tommbe, Rachael; Mafile'o, Tracie A; MacLaren, David J

    2014-09-06

    The social and cultural positions of both researchers and research participants influence qualitative methods and study findings. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), as in other contexts, gender is a key organising characteristic and needs to be central to the design and conduct of research. The colonial history between researcher and participant is also critical to understanding potential power differences. This is particularly relevant to public health research, much of which has emerged from a positivist paradigm. This paper describes our critical reflection of flexible researcher responses enacted during qualitative research in PNG. Led by a senior male HIV researcher from PNG, a male from a PNG university and a female from an Australian university conducted qualitative interviews about faith-based responses to HIV in PNG. The two researchers planned to conduct one-on-one interviews matching gender of participants and interviewer. However, while conducting the study, four participants explicitly requested to be interviewed by both researchers. This experience led us to critically consider socially and culturally situated ways of understanding semi-structured interviewing for public health research in Melanesia. New understandings about public health research include: (i) a challenge to the convention that the researcher holds more power than the research participant, (ii) the importance of audience in Melanesia, (iii) cultural safety can be provided when two people co-interview and (iv) the effect an esteemed leader heading the research may have on people's willingness to participate. Researchers who occupy insider-outsider roles in PNG may provide participants new possibilities to communicate key ideas. Our recent experience has taught us public health research methods that are gender sensitive and culturally situated are pivotal to successful research in Melanesia. Qualitative research requires adaptability and reflexivity. Public health research methods must continue

  16. Different Donor Cell Culture Methods Can Influence the Developmental Ability of Cloned Sheep Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiBing Ma

    Full Text Available It was proposed that arresting nuclear donor cells in G0/G1 phase facilitates the development of embryos that are derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Full confluency or serum starvation is commonly used to arrest in vitro cultured somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. However, it is controversial as to whether these two methods have the same efficiency in arresting somatic cells in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, it is unclear whether the cloned embryos have comparable developmental ability after somatic cells are subjected to one of these methods and then used as nuclear donors in SCNT. In the present study, in vitro cultured sheep skin fibroblasts were divided into four groups: (1 cultured to 70-80% confluency (control group, (2 cultured to full confluency, (3 starved in low serum medium for 4 d, or (4 cultured to full confluency and then further starved for 4 d. Flow cytometry was used to assay the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, and cell counting was used to assay the viability of the fibroblasts. Then, real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to determine the levels of expression of several cell cycle-related genes. Subsequently, the four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT, and the developmental ability and the quality of the cloned embryos were compared. The results showed that the percentage of fibroblasts in G0/G1 phase, the viability of fibroblasts, and the expression levels of cell cycle-related genes was different among the four groups of fibroblasts. Moreover, the quality of the cloned embryos was comparable after these four groups of fibroblasts were separately used as nuclear donors in SCNT. However, cloned embryos derived from fibroblasts that were cultured to full confluency combined with serum starvation had the highest developmental ability. The results of the present study indicate that there are synergistic effects of full confluency and serum starvation on arresting fibroblasts in

  17. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea.

  18. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea

  19. The Leukocyte Culture Method in the Diagnosis of Free-martinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, H.; Basrur, Parvathi K.

    1968-01-01

    The clinical application and reliability of the leukocyte culture method for the diagnosis of freemartinism were examined and the length of time that blood samples could be held at room temperature and in the refrigerator prior to culturing, was investigated. The chromosome findings by the leukocyte culture method in 14 freemartins and 9 non-freemartin females belonging to heterosexual twins or triplets revealed that XX-XY cell chimerism exists only in the former, whereas the latter were exclusively of normal female complement. The mitotic index in bovine blood after preservation for varying periods was studied on samples from two animals. Blood samples from these two animals stored at 5°C for 6 hours in a refrigerator showed the mitotic index to be 3.8 and 5.3 per cent which gradually decreased in samples stored for longer than 12 hours. After 72 hours, a very rapid decrease in mitotic index occurred in both cases, reaching zero in samples stored for 96 and 108 hours. Samples kept at room temperature followed a similar pattern as under refrigeration but with slightly lower values throughout. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:4234791

  20. Robust Microplate-Based Methods for Culturing and in Vivo Phenotypic Screening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Haire

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr, a unicellular alga, is routinely utilized to study photosynthetic biochemistry, ciliary motility, and cellular reproduction. Its minimal culture requirements, unicellular morphology, and ease of transformation have made it a popular model system. Despite its relatively slow doubling time, compared with many bacteria, it is an ideal eukaryotic system for microplate-based studies utilizing either, or both, absorbance as well as fluorescence assays. Such microplate assays are powerful tools for researchers in the areas of toxicology, pharmacology, chemical genetics, biotechnology, and more. However, while microplate-based assays are valuable tools for screening biological systems, these methodologies can significantly alter the conditions in which the organisms are cultured and their subsequent physiology or morphology. Herein we describe a novel method for the microplate culture and in vivo phenotypic analysis of growth, viability, and photosynthetic pigments of C. reinhardtii. We evaluated the utility of our assay by screening silver nanoparticles for their effects on growth and viability. These methods are amenable to a wide assortment of studies and present a significant advancement in the methodologies available for research involving this model organism.

  1. Assessment of Flagellate Diversity at Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents Using the Combined Approach of Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkins, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... Molecular and ultrastructural evidence point to one of the isolates. Ancyromonas, as a plausible candidate for the closest relative to the common ancestor of Metazoans, Fungi, and Choanoglagellates...

  2. Characterization by culture-dependent and culture-1 independent methods of the 2 bacterial population of suckling-lamb packaged in different atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Diez, A.M.; Melero, B.; Luning, P.A.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers insight into the dynamics of bacterial populations in fresh cuts of suckling lamb under four different atmospheric conditions: air (A), and three Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) environments, 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2 (C, commercial), 70%O2/30%CO2 (O), and 15%O2/85%CO2 (H) for 18

  3. Comparing culture and molecular methods for the identification of microorganisms involved in necrotizing soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are a group of infections affecting all soft tissues. NSTI involves necrosis of the afflicted tissue and is potentially life threatening due to major and rapid destruction of tissue, which often leads to septic shock and organ failure. The gold...... to culture. Although the molecular methods generally gave concordant results, our results indicate that Microseq may misidentify or overlook microorganisms that can be detected by other molecular methods. Half of the patients were found to be infected with S. pyogenes, but several atypical findings were also...... that clinicians should be prepared to diagnose and treat any combination of microbial pathogens. Some of the tested molecular methods offer a faster turnaround time combined with a high specificity, which makes supplemental use of such methods attractive for identification of microorganisms, especially...

  4. Detection and identification of microbes in prosthetic joint infections by culture and molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Ehrlich, Garth

    , indicating biofilm formation. In conclusion, this study indicated that to improve the microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections molecular methods may be useful supplements to routine cultures, and the current intraoperative sampling strategy needs to be optimized.......Bacterial biofilms have been observed in many device-related infections including orthopedic implants. This mode of growth makes the infection difficult to treat and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study...... uncovered many more species including known pathogens and species not previously reported in orthopedic infections, and polymicrobial communities were commonly observed. Additionally the molecular findings suggested the bacterial composition and yield varied depending on the position and type of samples...

  5. Improving safety culture in hospitals: Facilitators and barriers to implementation of Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Aleksandra A; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Ngo, Charity; Halligan, Michelle; Kothari, Anita

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitators and barriers to implementation of the Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM) on selected hospital units. A cross-sectional explanatory mixed methods design was used to converge results from a standardized safety culture survey with themes that emerged from interviews and focus groups. Findings were organized by six elements of the Ottawa Model of Research Use framework. A geriatric rehabilitation unit of an acute care hospital and a neurological unit of a rehabilitation hospital were selected purposefully due to the high frequency of falls. Hospital staff who took part in: surveys (n = 39), interviews (n = 10) and focus groups (n = 12), and 38 people who were interviewed during falls investigations: fallers, family, unit staff and hospital management. Implementation of the SFIM to investigate fall occurrences. Percent of positive responses on the Modified Stanford Patient Safety Culture Survey Instrument converged with qualitative themes on facilitators and barriers for intervention implementation. Both hospital units had an overall poor safety culture which hindered intervention implementation. Facilitators were hospital accreditation, strong emphasis on patient safety, infrastructure and dedicated champions. Barriers included heavy workloads, lack of time, lack of resources and poor communication. Successful implementation of SFIM requires regulatory and organizational support, committed frontline staff and allocation of resources to identify active causes and latent contributing factors to falls. System-wide adjustments show promise for promotion of safety culture in hospitals where falls happen regularly. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Organizational culture change in U.S. hospitals: a mixed methods longitudinal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A; Linnander, Erika L; Brewster, Amanda L; Ting, Henry; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-03-07

    Improving outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a priority for hospital leadership, clinicians, and policymakers. Evidence suggests links between hospital organizational culture and hospital performance; however, few studies have attempted to shift organizational culture in order to improve performance, fewer have focused on patient outcomes, and none have addressed mortality for patients with AMI. We sought to address this gap through a novel longitudinal intervention study, Leadership Saves Lives (LSL). This manuscript describes the methodology of LSL, a 2-year intervention study using a concurrent mixed methods design, guided by open systems theory and the Assess, Innovate, Develop, Engage, Devolve (AIDED) model of diffusion, implemented in 10 U.S. hospitals and their peer hospital networks. The intervention has three primary components: 1) annual convenings of the ten intervention hospitals; 2) semiannual workshops with guiding coalitions at each hospital; and 3) continuous remote support across all intervention hospitals through a web-based platform. Primary outcomes include 1) shifts in key dimensions of hospital organizational culture associated with lower mortality rates for patients with AMI; 2) use of targeted evidence-based practices associated with lower mortality rates for patients with AMI; and 3) in-hospital AMI mortality. Quantitative data include annual surveys of guiding coalition members in the intervention hospitals and peer network hospitals. Qualitative data include in-person, in-depth interviews with all guiding coalition members and selective observations of key interactions in care for patients with AMI, collected at three time points. Data integration will identify patterns and major themes in change processes across all intervention hospitals over time. LSL is novel in its use of a longitudinal mixed methods approach in a diverse sample of hospitals, its focus on objective outcome measures of mortality, and its

  7. [Preliminary Study of Lonicera hypoglauca on Germination Conditions of Sand Culture Seeds and Sterilization Method of Sand Culture Seedling Sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mu-xiu; Zeng, Wen-wen; Wei, Peng-xiao; Mo, Qiao-cheng; Pu, Zu-ning; Cen, Xiu-fen; Shi, Feng-hua

    2015-05-01

    To explore the germination conditions of Lonicera hypoglauca sand culture seeds and the effects of sand culture seedlings sterilization. 0.1% HgCl2 with different sterilization time, different illumination time and temperature culture condition were adopted to study the germination conditions of sand culture seeds. Different sterilization treatments and different hardening-seedling days were used to test the sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings. The sterilization effect of the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min on Lonicera hypoglauca seeds was the optimum,with the average pollution rate of 15.56%, and the average germination rate reached 51.11%. The combination of varied temperature-room temperature under light for 12 h/d was the best, with the average germination rate peaked at 75.49%, and the average germination potential reached 68.36%. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash on the part above the hypocotyl, which was sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, showed the best sterilization effect, with the average pollution rate was zero, and the average survival rate peaked at 100.00%. The sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings, which was disinfected after cleaning by detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash after hardening-seeding for 30 days, was the best, with the average pollution rate of 50.00%, and the average survival rate of 100.00%. The best sterilization effect is the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min; Lighting for 12 h/d of varied temperature-room temperature is regarded as the optimum culture condition. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash treatment on the part above the hypocotyl,which is sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, shows the best sterilization effect. For the sand culture seedlings, before inoculated in subculture medium, should be hardening-seedling for some days and sterilized after detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash.

  8. Comparison among four proposed direct blood culture microbial identification methods using MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; El Edaily, Zeyad; John, Susan; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry facilitates rapid and accurate identification of pathogens, which is critical for sepsis patients. In this study, we assessed the accuracy in identification of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Streptococcus viridans, using four rapid blood culture methods with Vitek MALDI-TOF-MS. We compared our proposed lysis centrifugation followed by washing and 30% acetic acid treatment method (method 2) with two other lysis centrifugation methods (washing and 30% formic acid treatment (method 1); 100% ethanol treatment (method 3)), and picking colonies from 90 to 180min subculture plates (method 4). Methods 1 and 2 identified all organisms down to species level with 100% accuracy, except for Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The latter two were identified to genus level with 100% accuracy. Each method exhibited excellent accuracy and precision in terms of identification to genus level with certain limitations. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Application of a modified culturing method for lymphocytes in cytogenetic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chaoxian; Hui, Changye; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yan; Li, Limei; Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Yang, Xinyue; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-08-01

    To establish a modified method for microculturing whole human blood for cytogenetic analysis. A novel tube rack was designed to overcome the drawbacks of directly culturing the cells within centrifuge tubes. The fractions of human plasma, human serum and two commercial fetal bovine sera were analyzed with 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The influence of adding 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% autologous plasma to the culture on lymphocyte transformation rate and mitotic index (MI) was examined. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed a significant difference between commercial fetal bovine sera, and that the components of human plasma were similar to those of fetal bovine serum. The value of MI in lymphocyte was evidently increased along with addition of autologous plasma. However, this has exerted no significant effect on the transformation rate. With the addition of 10% autologous plasma, the MI value has become much higher than the conventional method. A modified method was established by application of a novel tube inclined rack and optimization of whole blood inoculation. This method is easier and cheaper, and is suitable for application in clinical practice.

  10. Comparison of the Lysis Centrifugation Method with the Conventional Blood Culture Method in Cases of Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. Objectives: To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ...

  11. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  12. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral rinse as a potential method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiana Radithia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida isolate is easily sampled from oral cavity by swabbing directly on the candidiasis lesion, to be smeared onto slides for direct examination or cultured in a growth medium. This method is by far the gold standard for defining candidiasis diagnosis. However it is difficult to apply on sensitive patients and almost impossible on patients showing no clinical appearance of oral candidiasis. AIDS patients are very prone to candida infection and have a tendency of repetitive infection involving mixed species. As many candida species show different susceptibility to anti-fungal agents, it is necessary to identify the species causing the infection in the management of oral candidiasis. Oral rinse is a suggested method to obtain candida isolate to be cultured for further analysis such as species identification. This method is simple and less risky on infection transmission as less tools are required in the procedure. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the application of oral rinse as an alternative method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients. Methods: A cross-sectional observative study was conducted in HIV/AIDS in-Patient Facility of Intermediate Care Unit for Infection Disease, Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Fourteen stadium 4 AIDS patients matching criteria were swabbed on 1/3-posterior of the tongue, and then given 10 ml phosphate buffer saline to rinse vigorously for 15 seconds. Both specimens were cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and colony growth was observed. Results: Candida colonies were able to grow from all 14 isolates (100% by both methods. Qualitatively, cultures from oral rinse specimens were more populated than cultures from swab specimens. Conclusion: Oral rinse is an applicable technique to obtain Candida species isolate. This technique is safe, easy, non-invasive, and needs less tools therefore less risky for HIV transmission.Latar belakang: Isolat Candida mudah diambil dengan cara mengusap lesi

  14. Development of an enumeration method for arsenic methylating bacteria from mixed culture samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S M Atiqul; Fukushi, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2005-12-01

    Bacterial methylation of arsenic converts inorganic arsenic into volatile and non-volatile methylated species. It plays an important role in the arsenic cycle in the environment. Despite the potential environmental significance of AsMB, an assessment of their population size and activity remains unknown. This study has now established a protocol for enumeration of AsMB by means of the anaerobic-culture-tube, most probable number (MPN) method. Direct detection of volatile arsenic species is then done by GC-MS. This method is advantageous as it can simultaneously enumerate AsMB and acetate and formate-utilizing methanogens. The incubation time for this method was determined to be 6 weeks, sufficient time for AsMB growth.

  15. Quantitative study of Portland cement hydration by X-ray diffraction/Rietveld analysis and independent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivener, K.L.; Fuellmann, T.; Gallucci, E.; Walenta, G.; Bermejo, E.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful technique for the study of crystalline materials. The technique of Rietveld refinement now enables the amounts of different phases in anhydrous cementitious materials to be determined to a good degree of precision. This paper describes the extension of this technique to a pilot study of the hydration of a typical Portland cement. To validate this XRD-Rietveld analysis technique, its results were compared with independent measures of the same materials by the analysis of backscattered electron images (BSE/IA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the internal consistency of the measurements was studied by comparing the XRD estimates of the amounts of hydrates formed with the amounts expected to form from the XRD estimates of the amounts of anhydrous materials reacted

  16. ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF LALAWAK Barbonymus balleroides (VALENCIENNES, 1842 IN THREE CULTURE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Radona

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In fish culture, optimal growth could be influenced by various culture methods. Aim of the study was to evaluate the productivity of Barbonymus balleroides, lalawak in floating net cages, concrete ponds, and earthen ponds. Cultivation was designed with the circulation water system. Experiment was conducted using completely randomized design with three treatments and three replications for each treatment. The experimental fish, sized of 4.20 ± 0.64 cm SL and weight of 2.14 ± 0.99 g, were obtained from induced breeding. The stocking density used was 20 individuals/m3. Fish were fed 3% of total weight two times every day using commercial pellet with 35% protein content for 90 day. The result showed that lalawak reared in earthen pond was no significant difference on length, weight, and biomass compared with that one in concrete pond (P>0.05, but significantly different (P0.05 among the three different culture systems for survival rate and FCR. Lalawak reared on earthen pond system supported with optimal water quality could increase productivity value.

  17. The double pedigree: a method for studying culturally and genetically inherited behavior in tandem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Danchin

    Full Text Available Transgenerational sources of biological variation have been at the center of evolutionary studies ever since Darwin and Wallace identified natural selection. This is because evolution can only operate on traits whose variation is transmitted, i.e. traits that are heritable. The discovery of genetic inheritance has led to a semantic shift, resulting in the tendency to consider that only genes are inherited across generations. Today, however, concepts of heredity are being broadened again to integrate the accruing evidence of non-genetic inheritance, and many evolutionary biologists are calling for the inclusion of non-genetic inheritance into an inclusive evolutionary synthesis. Here, we focus on social heredity and its role in the inheritance of behavioral traits. We discuss quantitative genetics methods that might allow us to disentangle genetic and non-genetic transmission in natural populations with known pedigrees. We then propose an experimental design based on cross-fostering among animal cultures, environments and families that has the potential to partition inherited phenotypic variation into socially (i.e. culturally and genetically inherited components. This approach builds towards a new conceptual framework based on the use of an extended version of the animal model of quantitative genetics to integrate genetic and cultural components of behavioral inheritance.

  18. Usability in a cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant for the Danish Research Councils...... for Independent Research in Culture and Communication. The project aimed at innovating processes in Information and Communication Technology development through an understanding of culturally sensitive aspects of usability evaluation methods....

  19. Cultural border crossing in three urban classrooms: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Rupnarain

    This study examined the effects of the instruction of four youth cultural border crossing behaviors: flexibility, being at ease, playfulness, and citizenship as an intervention aimed at helping students to transition across three borders, student to student, student to science, and student to teacher. The research involved 12 ninth- and 10th-grade students in a large urban school district in three diverse classrooms, A, B, and C. Four students in each classroom volunteered for the study. The students in Groups A and B were in 9th grade Living Environment and students in Group B were in 10th grade chemistry. These students participated in this instructional intervention for three months. The study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods based on participant observations, interviews, and questionnaire. The result indicated that there was no significant effect of the cultural border crossing instructions on the students' interactions across the three borders examined. However, the instructions helped Group A and Group B to be more flexible but not group C. Also, the instructions helped Group A to be more playful and at ease but not Group B and C. The instructions also helped Group A to show more citizenship but not Group B and C. In addition, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest cultural bother crossing behavior. Moreover, qualitative data analysis showed that the participants were more flexible, at ease, and playful among peers than across student to teacher and student to science borders. Also, the use of citizenship in the three groups showed no effect on the participants' interaction with peers. Although, the findings showed no effect of cultural border crossing instructions on students' interactions, it is suggested that we continue to find ways to help students feel more comfortable in science.

  20. Assessing Adolescents' Understanding of and Reactions to Stress in Different Cultures: Results of a Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John H.; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    This article expands on an emerging mixed-method approach for validating culturally-specific constructs (see Hitchcock et al., 2005). Previous work established an approach for dealing with cultural impacts when assessing psychological constructs and the current article extends these efforts into studying stress reactions among adolescents in Sri…

  1. Culture-independent genome sequencing of Coxiella burnetii from a native heart valve of a Tunisian patient with severe infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delaloye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome of a Coxiella burnetii strain sequenced from the native valve of a patient presenting with severe endocarditis in Tunisia. The genome could be sequenced without a cellular or axenic culture step. The MST5 strain was demonstrated to be closely related to the published reference genome of C. burnetii CbuK_Q154.

  2. Mathematical evaluation of similarity factor using various weighing approaches on aceclofenac marketed formulations by model-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, T G; Desai, J U; Nagda, C D; Gandhi, T R; Chotai, N P

    2008-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance for industry on dissolution testing of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms describes that drug dissolution may be the rate limiting step for drug absorption in the case of low solubility/high permeability drugs (BCS class II drugs). US FDA Guidance describes the model-independent mathematical approach proposed by Moore and Flanner for calculating a similarity factor (f2) of dissolution across a suitable time interval. In the present study, the similarity factor was calculated on dissolution data of two marketed aceclofenac tablets (a BCS class II drug) using various weighing approaches proposed by Gohel et al. The proposed approaches were compared with a conventional approach (W = 1). On the basis of consideration of variability, preference is given in the order of approach 3 > approach 2 > approach 1 as approach 3 considers batch-to-batch as well as within-samples variability and shows best similarity profile. Approach 2 considers batch-to batch variability with higher specificity than approach 1.

  3. Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Hannah; Evans, Jason T; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-18

    Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) were applied to each positive culture followed by centrifugation, washing and protein extraction steps. Methods were compared using the McNemar test and 16S rDNA sequencing was used to assess discordant results. In 144 monomicrobial cultures, using ≥2.000 as the cut-off value, species level identifications were obtained from 69/144 (48%) samples using Saponin, 86/144 (60%) using SDS, and 91/144 (63%) using SepsiTyper. The difference between SDS and SepsiTyper was not statistically significant (P = 0.228). Differences between Saponin and the other two reagents were significant (P direct MALDI-TOF identification were observed in monomicrobial cultures. In 32 polymicrobial cultures, MALDI-TOF identified one organism in 34-75% of samples depending on the method. This study demonstrates two inexpensive in-house detergent lysis methods are non-inferior to a commercial kit for analysis of positive blood cultures by direct MALDI-TOF in a clinical diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

  4. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naide Jahangirov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey. The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

  5. Microbial diversity in an Armenian geothermal spring assessed by molecular and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2014-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the prokaryotic community thriving in the Arzakan hot spring in Armenia was studied using molecular and culture-based methods. A sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated the presence of a diversity of microorganisms belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes phyla, and Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the dominant group, representing 52% of the bacterial clones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments also indicated the abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria populations. Most of the sequences were most closely related to uncultivated microorganisms and shared less than 96% similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, indicating that this spring harbors a unique community of novel microbial species or genera. The majority of the sequences of an archaeal 16S rRNA gene library, generated from a methanogenic enrichment, were close relatives of members of the genus Methanoculleus. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria mainly belonging to Bacillus and Geobacillus were detected only by culture-dependent methods. Three isolates were successfully obtained having 99, 96, and 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Arcobacter sp., Methylocaldum sp., and Methanoculleus sp., respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  7. Proteomic profiling of an undefined microbial consortium cultured in fermented dairy manure: Methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea J; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Coats, Erik R

    2016-03-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA; bioplastics) from waste or surplus feedstocks using mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) is a growing field within mixed culture biotechnology. This study aimed to optimize a 2DE workflow to investigate the proteome dynamics of an MMC synthesizing PHA from fermented dairy manure. To mitigate the challenges posed to effective 2DE by this complex sample matrix, the bacterial biomass was purified using Accudenz gradient centrifugation (AGC) before protein extraction. The optimized 2DE method yielded high-quality gels suitable for quantitative comparative analysis and subsequent protein identification by LC-MS/MS. The optimized 2DE method could be adapted to other proteomic investigations involving MMC in complex organic or environmental matrices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Intracellular localization of pregnane X receptor in HepG2 cells cultured by the hanging drop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokobori, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Azuma, Ikuko; Akita, Hidetaka; Chiba, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is localized in the cytoplasm of liver cells, whereas it is localized in the nucleus of monolayer-cultured HepG2 cells. Since cultured cells are affected by the microenvironment in which they are grown, we studied the effect of three-dimensional (3D) culture on the localization of PXR in HepG2 cells using the hanging drop method. The results showed that PXR was retained in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells and other human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (FLC5, FLC7 and Huh7) when they were cultured by the hanging drop method. Treatment with rifampicin, a ligand of PXR, translocated PXR from the cytoplasm to nucleus and increased expression levels of CYP3A4 mRNA in HepG2 cells cultured by the hanging drop method. These findings suggest that 3D culture is a key factor determining the intracellular localization of PXR in human hepatocarcinoma cells and that PXR that becomes retained in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells with 3D culture has functions of nuclear translocation and regulation of target genes in response to human PXR ligands. Three-dimensionally cultured hepatocarcinoma cells would be a useful tool to evaluate induction potency of drug candidates and also to study mechanisms of nuclear translocation of PXR by human PXR ligands. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow Derived Immature Dendritic Cells: A Comparative Analysis of Flask Culture Method and Mouse CD11c Positive Selection Kit Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ashok Gosavi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 12–14 days of culturing of bone marrow (BM cells containing various growth factors is widely used method for generating dendritic cells (DCs from suspended cell population. Here we compared flask culture method and commercially available CD11c Positive Selection kit method. Immature BMDCs’ purity of adherent as well as suspended cell population was generated in the decreasing concentration of recombinant-murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF in nontreated tissue culture flasks. The expression of CD11c, MHCII, CD40, and CD86 was measured by flow cytometry. We found significant difference (P<0.05 between the two methods in the adherent cells population but no significant difference was observed between the suspended cell populations with respect to CD11c+ count. However, CD11c+ was significantly higher in both adhered and suspended cell population by culture method but kit method gave more CD11c+ from suspended cells population only. On the other hand, using both methods, immature DC expressed moderate level of MHC class II molecules as well as low levels of CD40 and CD86. Our findings suggest that widely used culture method gives the best results in terms of yield, viability, and purity of BMDCs from both adherent and suspended cell population whereas kit method works well for suspended cell population.

  10. Scientific methods and cultural heritage an introduction to the application of materials science to archaeometry and conservation science

    CERN Document Server

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

  11. IP-MLI: An Independency of Learning Materials from Platforms in a Mobile Learning using Intelligent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdallh Otair

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to deliver a monolithic mobile learning system is too inflexible in view of the heterogeneous mixture of hardware and services available and the desirability of facility blended approaches to learning delivery, and how to build learning materials to run on all platforms[1]. This paper proposes a framework of mobile learning system using an intelligent method (IP-MLI . A fuzzy matching method is used to find suitable learning material design. It will provide a best matching for each specific platform type for each learner. The main contribution of the proposed method is to use software layer to insulate learning materials from device-specific features. Consequently, many versions of learning materials can be designed to work on many platform types.

  12. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  13. Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Hannah; Evans, Jason T.; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) w...

  14. An independent evaluation of a new method for automated interpretation of lung scintigrams using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, H.; Jaerund, A.; Evander, E.; Taegil, K.; Edenbrandt, L.; Maare, K.; Aastroem, K.; Ohlsson, M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new automated method for the interpretation of lung perfusion scintigrams using patients from a hospital other than that where the method was developed, and then to compare the performance of the technique against that of experienced physicians. A total of 1,087 scintigrams from patients with suspected pulmonary embolism comprised the training group. The test group consisted of scintigrams from 140 patients collected in a hospital different to that from which the training group had been drawn. An artificial neural network was trained using 18 automatically obtained features from each set of perfusion scintigrams. The image processing techniques included alignment to templates, construction of quotient images based on the perfusion/template images, and finally calculation of features describing segmental perfusion defects in the quotient images. The templates represented lungs of normal size and shape without any pathological changes. The performance of the neural network was compared with that of three experienced physicians who read the same test scintigrams according to the modified PIOPED criteria using, in addition to perfusion images, ventilation images when available and chest radiographs for all patients. Performances were measured as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The performance of the neural network evaluated in the test group was 0.88 (95% confidence limits 0.81-0.94). The performance of the three experienced experts was in the range 0.87-0.93 when using the perfusion images, chest radiographs and ventilation images when available. Perfusion scintigrams can be interpreted regarding the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by the use of an automated method also in a hospital other than that where it was developed. The performance of this method is similar to that of experienced physicians even though the physicians, in addition to perfusion images, also had access to ventilation images for

  15. The comparison of two methods to obtain human oral keratinocytes in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingbeil, Maria Fatima Guarizo

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic procedures frequently used in oral treatments for the pathological diseases are surgical, resulting in failures of the mucosal continuity.The possibility to obtain transplantable oral epithelia from an in vitro cell culture opens new utilization perspectives not only to where it comes from, but also as a reconstructive material for other parts of the human body, such as: urethra, epithelia corneo-limbal, cornea, ocular surface. Many researchers still use controversial methods for obtaining cells. It was therefore evaluated and compared the efficiency in both methods: enzymatic and direct explant to obtain oral keratinocytes from human oral mucosa. Fragments of intra oral epithelial tissues from healthy human subjects, undergoing dental surgeries, were donated to the research project. The keratinocytes were cultivated over a feeder-layer from a previously irradiated 3T3 Swiss albino fibroblasts. In this study it was compared the time needed in the cell obtention, the best cell amount between both methods, the life-span, the cell capacity to form an in vitro epithelia and its morphologic structure. The results in the assessment of both methods have shown the possibility to obtain keratinocytes from a small oral fragment, but at the same time we may verify the advantages and peculiar restrictions for each one of both analyzed methods. (author)

  16. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED CELL CULTURE/RT-PCR METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF ENTEROVIRUS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus contamination in environmental samples is believed to be underestimated due to the limitations in the methods available for detection. A major detection method is based upon the formation of cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell culture. The main limitations to this method are ...

  18. An improved culture method for selective isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently-available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin, to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. In particular, rifampicin supplementation and an increased culture temperature (i.e., 42°C had a decisive effect on the selective enrichment of C. jejuni from wastewater. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater.

  19. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  20. A Non-Destructive Culturing and Cell Sorting Method for Cardiomyocytes and Neurons Using a Double Alginate Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyonchol; Hayashi, Masahito; Hattori, Akihiro; Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A non-destructive method of collecting cultured cells after identifying their in situ functional characteristics is proposed. In this method, cells are cultivated on an alginate layer in a culture dish and released by spot application of a calcium chelate buffer that locally melts the alginate layer and enables the collection of cultured cells at the single-cell level. Primary hippocampal neurons, beating human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and beating hES cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters cultivated on an alginate layer were successfully released and collected with a micropipette. The collected cells were recultured while maintaining their physiological function, including beating, and elongated neurites. These results suggest that the proposed method may eventually facilitate the transplantation of ES- or iPS-derived cardiomyocytes and neurons differentiated in culture. PMID:22870332

  1. A non-destructive culturing and cell sorting method for cardiomyocytes and neurons using a double alginate layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Terazono

    Full Text Available A non-destructive method of collecting cultured cells after identifying their in situ functional characteristics is proposed. In this method, cells are cultivated on an alginate layer in a culture dish and released by spot application of a calcium chelate buffer that locally melts the alginate layer and enables the collection of cultured cells at the single-cell level. Primary hippocampal neurons, beating human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and beating hES cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters cultivated on an alginate layer were successfully released and collected with a micropipette. The collected cells were recultured while maintaining their physiological function, including beating, and elongated neurites. These results suggest that the proposed method may eventually facilitate the transplantation of ES- or iPS-derived cardiomyocytes and neurons differentiated in culture.

  2. Cultural Heritage Digitalization on Traditional Sundanese Music Instrument Using Augmented Reality Markerless Marker Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Arifitama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research into cultural heritage which implements augmented reality technology is limited. Most recent research on cultural heritage are limited on storing data and information in the form of databases, this creates a disadvantage for people who wants to see and feel at the same moment on actual cultural heritage objects. This paper, proposes a solution which could merge the existing cultural object with people using augmented reality technology. This technology would preserve traditional instrument in the form of 3D object which can be digitally protected. The result showed that the use of augmented reality on preserving cultural heritage would benefit people who try to protect their culture.

  3. Understanding the independent influence of duty and achievement striving when predicting the relationship between conscientiousness and organizational cultural profiles and helping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Henry; Livne, Ephrat; Marinova, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The theory that 2 facets of the factor conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, are related to self- or other-centered motives, is supported in 2 studies. In Study 1 (N = 204 undergraduates), the self-centered facet of achievement striving was found to be the most important predictor of attraction toward organizational cultures that were outcome-based, aggressive, and emphasized rewards. Achievement strivers were less attracted to supportive and decisive organizations. In Study 2 (N = 189 part-time MBA students) the other-centered facet of duty was found to be predictive of helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  4. Double isotopic method using dansyl chloride for the determination of GABA in rat C6 astrocytoma cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, R.L.; Quay, W.B.; Perez-Polo, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Methods are described for the quantitative measurement of GABA in culture. The method can be adapted to any amino acid or dansyl-chloride-reactive species. The sensitivity and selectivity of the procedure result from the double isotopic design in which (/sup 14/C)-labeled internal standard was added to the samples before reaction with (3M)-labeled dansyl chloride. Values obtained by ion-exchange amino acid analysis of cultures agree closely with the values obtained by the double isotopic method. This method is sensitive enough to measure GABA intracellularly and the condition medium.

  5. Kinematic inversion of the 2008 Mw7 Iwate-Miyagi (Japan) earthquake by two independent methods: Sensitivity and resolution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallovic, Frantisek; Cirella, Antonella; Plicka, Vladimir; Piatanesi, Alessio

    2013-04-01

    On 14 June 2008, UTC 23:43, the border of Iwate and Miyagi prefectures was hit by an Mw7 reverse-fault type crustal earthquake. The event is known to have the largest ground acceleration observed to date (~4g), which was recorded at station IWTH25. We analyze observed strong motion data with the objective to image the event rupture process and the associated uncertainties. Two different slip inversion approaches are used, the difference between the two methods being only in the parameterization of the source model. To minimize mismodeling of the propagation effects we use crustal model obtained by full waveform inversion of aftershock records in the frequency range between 0.05-0.3 Hz. In the first method, based on linear formulation, the parameters are represented by samples of slip velocity functions along the (finely discretized) fault in a time window spanning the whole rupture duration. Such a source description is very general with no prior constraint on the nucleation point, rupture velocity, shape of the velocity function. Thus the inversion could resolve very general (unexpected) features of the rupture evolution, such as multiple rupturing, rupture-propagation reversals, etc. On the other hand, due to the relatively large number of model parameters, the inversion result is highly non-unique, with possibility of obtaining a biased solution. The second method is a non-linear global inversion technique, where each point on the fault can slip only once, following a prescribed functional form of the source time function. We invert simultaneously for peak slip velocity, slip angle, rise time and rupture time by allowing a given range of variability for each kinematic model parameter. For this reason, unlike to the linear inversion approach, the rupture process needs a smaller number of parameters to be retrieved, and is more constrained with a proper control on the allowed range of parameter values. In order to test the resolution and reliability of the

  6. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  7. The Aorta-Gonad-Mesonephros Organ Culture Recapitulates 5hmC Reorganization and Replication-Dependent and Independent Loss of DNA Methylation in the Germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Joseph Hargan; Cook, Helene; Vincent, John J; Nee, Kevin; Clark, Amander T

    2015-07-01

    Removal of cytosine methylation from the genome is critical for reprogramming and transdifferentiation and plays a central role in our understanding of the fundamental principles of embryo lineage development. One of the major models for studying cytosine demethylation is the mammalian germ line during the primordial germ cell (PGC) stage of embryo development. It is now understood that oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is required to remove cytosine methylation in a locus-specific manner in PGCs; however, the mechanisms downstream of 5hmC are controversial and hypothesized to involve either active demethylation or replication-coupled loss. In the current study, we used the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) organ culture model to show that this model recapitulates germ line reprogramming, including 5hmC reorganization and loss of cytosine methylation from Snrpn and H19 imprinting control centers (ICCs). To directly address the hypothesis that cell proliferation is required for cytosine demethylation, we blocked PI3-kinase-dependent PGC proliferation and show that this leads to a G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest in PGCs, together with retained levels of cytosine methylation at the Snrpn ICC, but not at the H19 ICC. Taken together, the AGM organ culture model is an important tool to evaluate mechanisms of locus-specific demethylation and the role of PI3-kinase-dependent PGC proliferation in the locus-specific removal of cytosine methylation from the genome.

  8. Operation method study based on the energy balance of an independent microgrid using solar-powered water electrolyzer and an electric heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Seizi; Rengarajan, Balaji

    2011-01-01

    A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was examined in this work with the aims of abating greenhouse gas emissions by spreading the use of green energy, providing energy backup systems for disaster, and increasing the energy utilization efficiency with the use of exhaust heat. This paper analyzed the energy supply to six houses in a cold region. The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEFCs), and heat pumps. To investigate the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment in the arrangement, a distributed system with two or more sets of equipment and a central system with one set of equipment were analyzed by a genetic algorithm. By introducing the prior energy need pattern of a cold region into the proposed system, the operation method and equipment capacity based on the power and heat balance were clarified. By introducing the partial load performance of a water electrolyzer and a PEFC into the analysis program, the operation method of each system was investigated. It was found that the area of a solar cell of a distributed system could be reduced by 12% as compared to a central system. -- Highlights: → A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was planned. → The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, PEM-FCs, and heat pumps. → Operation of a concentrated system and a distributed system. → Investigate of the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment.

  9. Yeast species diversity in apple juice for cider production evidenced by culture-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Simonato, Barbara; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2018-05-07

    Identification of yeasts isolated from apple juices of two cider houses (one located in a plain area and one in an alpine area) was carried out by culture-based method. Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar was used as medium for isolation and preliminary yeasts identification. A total of 20 species of yeasts belonging to ten different genera were identified using both BLAST algorithm for pairwise sequence comparison and phylogenetic approaches. A wide variety of non-Saccharomyces species was found. Interestingly, Candida railenensis, Candida cylindracea, Hanseniaspora meyeri, Hanseniaspora pseudoguilliermondii, and Metschnikowia sinensis were recovered for the first time in the yeast community of an apple environment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a better resolution in identifying Metschnikowia and Moesziomyces isolates than comparative analysis using the GenBank or YeastIP gene databases. This study provides important data on yeast microbiota of apple juice and evidenced differences between two geographical cider production areas in terms of species composition.

  10. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  11. Application of a Bayesian/generalised least-squares method to generate correlations between independent neutron fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, L.; Diez, C.; Cabellos, O.; Stankovskiy, A.; Van den Eynde, G.; Labeau, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    Fission product yields are fundamental parameters for several nuclear engineering calculations and in particular for burn-up/activation problems. The impact of their uncertainties was widely studied in the past and evaluations were released, although still incomplete. Recently, the nuclear community expressed the need for full fission yield covariance matrices to produce inventory calculation results that take into account the complete uncertainty data. In this work, we studied and applied a Bayesian/generalised least-squares method for covariance generation, and compared the generated uncertainties to the original data stored in the JEFF-3.1.2 library. Then, we focused on the effect of fission yield covariance information on fission pulse decay heat results for thermal fission of 235 U. Calculations were carried out using different codes (ACAB and ALEPH-2) after introducing the new covariance values. Results were compared with those obtained with the uncertainty data currently provided by the library. The uncertainty quantification was performed with the Monte Carlo sampling technique. Indeed, correlations between fission yields strongly affect the statistics of decay heat. (authors)

  12. Between Contemporary Art and Cultural Analysis: Alternative Methods for Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Ehn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artistic research suggests alternative methods for producing various kinds of knowledge, whether within or without the confines of academe. These methods may involve either the production of investigative artworks or the writing by the artist of a doctoral dissertation about his or her own work. For cultural researchers, the methods employed by artists engaged in these processes are both familiar and challenging, as conventional ethnography is mixed with more unpredictable experiments. This article presents several contemporary artworks, including sculpture, film, dance, installation and performance that explore various aspects of reality. What can be learnt from these works? And what could be achieved by an open exchange between artists and academic researchers? Four methodological approaches are highlighted as being of particular interest. The first relates to artists’ tendency to live experimentally, using themselves both as actors and as research objects. The second arises from the very tangible ways in which contemporary artworks approach the theme of materiality. The third relates to the emotional nature of much of contemporary art – even when it is categorised as conceptual – in its creation, forms of presentation, and influence on the spectator. Finally, many artists are gifted with the ability to find and communicate surprising meanings in ordinary life. How do they do this? Part of the answer seems to be that although artists are open to the implementation of “wild whims”, they exploit their spontaneity in a highly professional manner.

  13. Evaluation of data discretization methods to derive platform independent isoform expression signatures for multi-class tumor subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Segun; Bi, Yingtao; Davuluri, Ramana V

    2015-01-01

    Many supervised learning algorithms have been applied in deriving gene signatures for patient stratification from gene expression data. However, transferring the multi-gene signatures from one analytical platform to another without loss of classification accuracy is a major challenge. Here, we compared three unsupervised data discretization methods--Equal-width binning, Equal-frequency binning, and k-means clustering--in accurately classifying the four known subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when the classification algorithms were trained on the isoform-level gene expression profiles from exon-array platform and tested on the corresponding profiles from RNA-seq data. We applied an integrated machine learning framework that involves three sequential steps; feature selection, data discretization, and classification. For models trained and tested on exon-array data, the addition of data discretization step led to robust and accurate predictive models with fewer number of variables in the final models. For models trained on exon-array data and tested on RNA-seq data, the addition of data discretization step dramatically improved the classification accuracies with Equal-frequency binning showing the highest improvement with more than 90% accuracies for all the models with features chosen by Random Forest based feature selection. Overall, SVM classifier coupled with Equal-frequency binning achieved the best accuracy (> 95%). Without data discretization, however, only 73.6% accuracy was achieved at most. The classification algorithms, trained and tested on data from the same platform, yielded similar accuracies in predicting the four GBM subgroups. However, when dealing with cross-platform data, from exon-array to RNA-seq, the classifiers yielded stable models with highest classification accuracies on data transformed by Equal frequency binning. The approach presented here is generally applicable to other cancer types for classification and identification of

  14. Activity of the lactate-alanine shuttle is independent of glutamate-glutamine cycle activity in cerebellar neuronal-astrocytic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Sickmann, Helle M; Schousboe, Arne

    2004-01-01

    The glutamate-glutamine cycle describes the neuronal release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, astrocytic uptake, and conversion into glutamine, followed by release for use as a neuronal glutamate precursor. This only explains the fate of the carbon atoms, however, and not that of the ammonia....... Recently, a role for alanine has been proposed in transfer of ammonia between glutamatergic neurons and astrocytes, denoted the lactate-alanine shuttle (Waagepetersen et al. [ 2000] J. Neurochem. 75:471-479). The role of alanine in this context has been studied further using cerebellar neuronal cultures...... and corresponding neuronal-astrocytic cocultures. A superfusion paradigm was used to induce repetitively vesicular glutamate release by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the neurons, allowing the relative activity dependency of the lactate-alanine shuttle to be assessed. [(15)N]Alanine (0.2 mM), [2-(15)N]/[5-(15)N...

  15. A Simple and Robust Method for Culturing Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in an Undifferentiated State Using Botulinum Hemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee-Hae; Matsubara, Yoshifumi; Fujinaga, Yukako; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    Clinical and industrial applications of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is hindered by the lack of robust culture strategies capable of sustaining a culture in an undifferentiated state. Here, a simple and robust hiPSC-culture-propagation strategy incorporating botulinum hemagglutinin (HA)-mediated selective removal of cells deviating from an undifferentiated state is developed. After HA treatment, cell-cell adhesion is disrupted, and deviated cells detached from the central region of the colony to subsequently form tight monolayer colonies following prolonged incubation. The authors find that the temporal and dose-dependent activity of HA regulated deviated-cell removal and recoverability after disruption of cell-cell adhesion in hiPSC colonies. The effects of HA are confirmed under all culture conditions examined, regardless of hiPSC line and feeder-dependent or -free culture conditions. After routine application of our HA-treatment paradigm for serial passages, hiPSCs maintains expression of pluripotent markers and readily forms embryoid bodies expressing markers for all three germ-cell layers. This method enables highly efficient culturing of hiPSCs and use of entire undifferentiated portions without having to pick deviated cells manually. This simple and readily reproducible culture strategy is a potentially useful tool for improving the robust and scalable maintenance of undifferentiated hiPSC cultures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by the urban air pollutant 3-NBA and its isomer 2-NBA in human lung cells analyzed with three independent methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Eszter; Johansson, Clara; Zeisig, Magnus; Moller, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    The air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), emitted in diesel exhaust, is a potent mutagen and genotoxin. 3-NBA can isomerise to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), which can become more than 70-fold higher in concentration in ambient air. In this study, three independent methods have been employed to evaluate the oxidative stress and genotoxicity of 2-NBA compared to 3-NBA in the human A549 lung cell line. HPLC-EC/UV was applied for measurements of oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyg...

  17. Listeria spp. in broiler flocks: recovery rates and species distribution investigated by conventional culture and the EiaFoss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Hedegård; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in samples from broiler houses and cloacal swabs taken at the abattoir was investigated. An automated immunobased method (EiaFoss) was used, and 42 samples were also analysed by conventional culture; both methods were based on a two-step selective enrichment....... monocytogenes in enrichment broths may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, as L. inocua was also detected by the EiaFoss method, a significant amount of bacterial confirmation work had to be done. Of 42 samples analysed by conventional culture, four yielded L. inocua......, of which two were not positive by EiaFoss....

  18. Designing 3ERP to meet use and users - methods to handle cultural diversity and collaborative networking in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Nielsen, Janni

    2007-01-01

    The purpose is to describe a project the aim of which is to develop and validate the scientific methodological foundation for design of user friendly and usable, flexible and configurable global Enterprise Resource Planning system for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) which are adoptable ...... to cultural diversity and support the collaborative networking tasks embedded in 3gERP. Focus is on Human Centered Design methods and tools which must be developed to handle cultural diversity....

  19. Evaluation of culture methods for rapid screening of swine faecal samples for Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 biotype 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Holmvig, C.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In two studies, seven different culture protocols were compared to test naturally contaminated faecal samples from pigs for isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype O; 3/biotype 4( n = 70 and n = 79). Four of the protocols were based on the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL protocols), while...... indicate possibilities of shortening the culture methods by replacing most of the biochemical tests with an agglutination test based on a monoclonal antibody....

  20. Comparison of group B streptococci colonization in vaginal and rectal specimens by culture method and polymerase chain reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Bidgani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours.

  1. Acute Pain Perception During Different Sampling Methods for Respiratory Culture in Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyns, Hanneke; De Wachter, Elke; Malfroot, Anne; Vaes, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Reliable identification of lower respiratory tract pathogens is crucial in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF). The multitude of treatments and clinical procedures are a considerable burden and are potentially provoking pain. As part of another study (NCT02363764), investigating the bacterial yield of three sampling methods, nasal swabs (NSs), cough swabs (CSs), and (induced) sputum samples ([I]SSs), in both expectorating patients (EPs) and non-expectorating patients (NEPs) with CF, the present study aimed to explore the prevalence of respiratory culture sampling-related pain as assessed by self-report within a cohort of children and adults. Literate patients with CF (aged six years or older) completed a questionnaire on pain perception related to the three aforementioned sampling methods (No/Yes; visual analogue scale for pain [VAS-Pain] [0-10 cm]). In addition, patients were asked to rank these methods by their own preference without taking into account the presumed bacterial yield. In total, 119 questionnaires were returned. In the EPs-group, CS was most frequently (n%; mean VAS-Pain if pain [range]) reported as painful method: overall (n = 101; 12.9%; 1.8 [0.2-4.8]), children (n = 41; 22.0%; 1.4 [0.2-2.7]), and adults (n = 60; 6.7%; 2.5 [0.5-4.8]). Highest pain intensity scores were observed with NS overall (3.0%; 2.4 [0.3-6.2]) and in children (4.9%; 3.3 [0.3-6.2]), but not in adults (1.7%; 0.6 [-]).NEPs-children (n = 17) reported ISS most frequently and as most painful sampling method (17.6%; 2.0 [1.0-4.0]). The only NEP-adult did not perceive pain. NEPs preferred NS > CS > ISS (61.1%, 33.3%, 5.6%, respectively [P = 0.001]) as primary sampling method, whereas EPs preferred SS > NS > CS (65.7%, 26.3%, 8.1%, respectively [P method inversely correlated to pain perception and intensity in EPs (φ = -0.155 [P = 0.007] and ρ = -0.926 [P = 0.008], respectively), but not in NEPs (φ = -0.226 [P = 0.097] and ρ = -0.135 [P = 0

  2. Exploring the response process of culturally differing survey respondents with a response style: A sequential mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mixed methods approach that integrates quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze why the four largest minorities in the Netherlands-Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, and Surinamese-respond differently to items treating cultural topics. First, we conducted latent class

  3. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in broiler breeder farms of Tehran province using PCR and culture methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamnia, F.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae (MS is an important avian pathogen that can cause both respiratory disease and joint inflammation synovitis in poultry, inducing economic losses to the Iranian chicken industry especially breeder farms. The aim of this study was to use the MS specific PCR and culture methods in order to detect of M. synoviae from breeder farms where located in Tehran province. A total of 475 samples including choanal cleft, trachea, ovary and /or joint cavities from 23 broiler breeder farms of Tehran area were collected. Samples were cultured in PPLO broth media supplemented for MS isolation. The bacteria DNAs were extracted by phenol/chloroform method. Specific published primers amplify a 207 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of MS were used for PCR method. Out of 475 samples, 146 cultures were shown positive and typical Mycoplasma colonies, 85 samples were also identified MS based on agglutination test with specific MS antiserum and the PCR method. A total of 122 samples, a band with 207 bp was shown as MS specific PCR product in electrophoresis. In addition to these 85 samples that were positives in both culture and PCR, 37 samples that had not grown in Mycoplasma media were positive in MS specific PCR. A total of 292 samples were negatives in both culture and PCR methods. 122 positive samples out of 475 samples (25.7% were belonged to 7 breeder farms (30.4%. On conclusions, the MS infection of broiler breeder farms of Tehran area was confirmed truly. From the results, as the PCR method reduces the time consuming, an effectiveness and efficient for detection of M. synoviae infection of chicken breeder. It is then suggested that the PCR method could be an alternative method for culturing.

  4. Use of a culture-independent on-farm algorithm to guide the use of selective dry-cow antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A K; Nydam, D V; Foditsch, C; Wieland, M; Lynch, R; Eicker, S; Virkler, P D

    2018-06-01

    An algorithm using only computer-based records to guide selective dry-cow therapy was evaluated at a New York State dairy farm via a randomized field trial. DairyComp 305 (Valley Ag Software, Tulare, CA) and Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day data were used to identify cows as low risk (cows that might not benefit from dry-cow antibiotics) or high risk (cows that will likely benefit). Low-risk cows were those that had all of the following: somatic cell count (SCC) ≤200,000 cells/mL at last test, an average SCC ≤200,000 cells/mL over the last 3 tests, no signs of clinical mastitis at dry-off, and no more than 1 clinical mastitis event in the current lactation. Low-risk cows were randomly assigned to receive intramammary antibiotics and external teat sealant (ABXTS) or external teat sealant only (TS) at dry-off. Using pre-dry-off and postcalving quarter-level culture results, low-risk quarters were assessed for microbiological cure risk and new infection risk. Groups were also assessed for differences in first-test milk yield and linear scores, individual milk weights for the first 30 d, and culling and mastitis events before 30 d in milk. A total of 304 cows and 1,040 quarters in the ABXTS group and 307 cows and 1,058 quarters in the TS group were enrolled. Among cows to be dried, the proportion of cows that met low-risk criteria was 64% (n = 611/953). Of cultures eligible for bacteriological cure analysis (n = 171), 93% of ABXTS cured, whereas 88% of TS cured. Of the non-cures, 95% were contributed by the minor pathogens coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 19/20). These organisms also accounted for 57.5% of new infections (n = 77/134). We found no statistical differences between treatment groups for new infection risk (TS = 7.3% quarters experiencing new infections; ABXTS = 5.5%), milk production (ABXTS = 40.5 kg; TS = 41.2 kg), linear scores (ABXTS = 2.5; TS = 2.7), culling events (ABXTS, n = 18; TS, n = 15), or clinical mastitis events (ABXTS, n

  5. The effects of cultural practice methods on fruit orchard rehabilitation after flooding crisis in Songkhla province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaweerawan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To rehabilitate the fruit orchards exposed to flooding crisis that occurred in year 2000 in Songkhla province, an investigation of the effects of cultural practice methods was done in the farmers’ orchards at 2 experimental sites (at Tumbol Kho Hong and Tumbol Kuan Lang, Amphur Hat Yai. The first site, at Tumbol Kho Hong, was mixed cropping (durian, longkong and mangosteen. The second site, at Tumbol Kuan Lang, was a monocrop of pummelo orchard. The experiment was comprised a stratified sampling method with 3 treatments: 1 control, 2 fertilization (15-15-15, 8-24-24 and 13-13-21 and soil improvement with humic acid (S and 3 foliar application (glucose was applied with 16-12-0+micronutrients+extracted seaweed and 7-13-34+12.5Zn+extracted seaweed+Ca-B spraying with fertilization and soil improvement (F+S. The results from the both experimental sites showed that the F+S treatment exhibited the best result. This promoted the plant growth and yield of fruit trees. In addition, the other orchards surrounding the experimental sites were surveyed. It was noticeable that fruit trees grown in raising-beds could recover and exhibit normal fruit bearing. This pointed out that the impact of flooding on fruit orchards would be possibly alleviated by a drainage system.

  6. Does Identity Incompatibility Lead to Disidentification? Internal Motivation to Be a Group Member Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Independent Cultures, Whereas External Motivation Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Interdependent Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschke, Christina; Fehr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Most individuals possess more than one relevant social identity, but these social identities can be more or less incompatible. Research has demonstrated that incompatibility between an established social identity and a potential new social identity impedes the integration into the new group. We argue that incompatibility is a strong risk factor for disidentification, i.e., a negative self-defining relation to a relevant group. The current research investigates the impact of incompatibilities on disidentification in the acculturation context. We propose that incompatibility between one’s cultural identities increases the disidentification with the receiving society. It has, however, been shown that the motivation to be a group member serves as a buffer against negative integration experiences. Moreover, research from the intercultural domain has shown that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has specific effects for members of cultures that differ in self-construal. In a European sample of High school exchange students (Study 1, N = 378), it was found that incompatibility was positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) intrinsically motivated newcomers. In an Asian sample of international university students (Study 2, N = 74), it was found that incompatibility was also positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) extrinsically motivated newcomers. Thus, the findings demonstrate that the effect of incompatibility between social identities on disidentification can be buffered by motivation. The results suggest that, depending on cultural self-construal, individuals have different resources to buffer the negative effect of incompatibility on the social identity. PMID:28326055

  7. Does Identity Incompatibility Lead to Disidentification? Internal Motivation to Be a Group Member Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Independent Cultures, Whereas External Motivation Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Interdependent Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschke, Christina; Fehr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Most individuals possess more than one relevant social identity, but these social identities can be more or less incompatible. Research has demonstrated that incompatibility between an established social identity and a potential new social identity impedes the integration into the new group. We argue that incompatibility is a strong risk factor for disidentification, i.e., a negative self-defining relation to a relevant group. The current research investigates the impact of incompatibilities on disidentification in the acculturation context. We propose that incompatibility between one's cultural identities increases the disidentification with the receiving society. It has, however, been shown that the motivation to be a group member serves as a buffer against negative integration experiences. Moreover, research from the intercultural domain has shown that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has specific effects for members of cultures that differ in self-construal. In a European sample of High school exchange students (Study 1, N = 378), it was found that incompatibility was positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) intrinsically motivated newcomers. In an Asian sample of international university students (Study 2, N = 74), it was found that incompatibility was also positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) extrinsically motivated newcomers. Thus, the findings demonstrate that the effect of incompatibility between social identities on disidentification can be buffered by motivation. The results suggest that, depending on cultural self-construal, individuals have different resources to buffer the negative effect of incompatibility on the social identity.

  8. Direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS using an in-house saponin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonetani, Shota; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a fast and reliable method for the identification of bacteria. A MALDI Sepsityper kit is generally used to prepare samples obtained directly from culture bottles. However, the relatively high cost of this kit is a major obstacle to introducing this method into routine clinical use. In this study, the accuracies of three different preparation methods for rapid direct identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were compared. In total, 195 positive bottles were included in this study. Overall, 78.5%, 68.7%, and 76.4% of bacteria were correctly identified to the genus level (score ≥1.7) directly from positive blood cultures using the Sepsityper, centrifugation, and saponin methods, respectively. The identification rates using the Sepsityper and saponin methods were significantly higher than that using the centrifugation method (Sepsityper vs. centrifugation, pdirectly from blood culture bottles, and could be a less expensive alternative to the Sepsityper method. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  10. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells propagate immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophages in cell-to-cell contact-independent and -dependent manners under hypoxic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Naoki; Okubo, Naoto; Kamo, Masaharu; Chosa, Naoyuki; Mikami, Toshinari; Suzuki, Keita; Yokota, Seiji; Ibi, Miho; Ohtsuka, Masato; Taira, Masayuki; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira; Kyakumoto, Seiko

    2017-09-15

    Immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophage (Mφ), M2-Mφ that expressed the typical M2-Mφs marker, CD206, and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, is beneficial and expected tool for the cytotherapy against inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived lineage-positive (Lin+) blood cells proliferated and differentiated into M2-Mφs by cooperation with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under hypoxic condition: MSCs not only promoted proliferation of undifferentiated M2-Mφs, pre-M2-Mφs, in the Lin+ fraction via a proliferative effect of the MSCs-secreted macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but also promoted M2-Mφ polarization of the pre-M2-Mφs through cell-to-cell contact with the pre-M2-Mφs. Intriguingly, an inhibitor for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 receptor/lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1, Rwj50271, partially suppressed expression of CD206 in the Lin+ blood cells but an inhibitor for VCAM-1 receptor/VLA-4, BIO5192, did not, suggesting that the cell-to-cell adhesion through LFA-1 on pre-M2-Mφs and ICAM-1 on MSCs was supposed to promoted the M2-Mφ polarization. Thus, the co-culture system consisting of bone marrow-derived Lin+ blood cells and MSCs under hypoxic condition was a beneficial supplier of a number of M2-Mφs, which could be clinically applicable to inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Progress on CD-DVD laser microfabrication method to develop cell culture scaffolds integrating biomimetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Cruz-Ramírez, Aaron; Cabriales, Lucia; Jiménez-Diaz, Edgar; Escutia-Guadarrama, Lidia; López-Aparicio, Jehú; Pérez-Calixto, Daniel; Cano-Jorge, Mariel; Nieto-Rivera, Brenda; Sánchez-Olvera, Raúl

    2018-02-01

    The development of organ-on-chip and biological scaffolds is currently requiring simpler methods to microstructure biocompatible materials in three dimensions, fabricate structural and functional elements in biomaterials or modify the physicochemical properties of desired substrates. With the aim of creating simple, cost-effective alternatives to conventional existing techniques to produce such platforms with very specific properties, a low-power CD-DVD laser pickup head was recycled and mounted on a programmable three-axis micro-displacement system in order to modify the surface of polymeric materials in a local fashion. Thanks to a specially-designed method using a strongly absorbing additive coating the materials of interest, it has been possible to establish and precisely control processes useful in microtechnology for biomedical applications and normally restricted to much less affordable high-power lasers. In this work, we present our latest progress regarding the application of our fabrication technique to the development of organ-on-chip platforms thanks to the simple integration of several biomimetic characteristics typically achieved with traditional, less cost-effective microtechnology methods in one step or through replica-molding. Our straightforward approach indeed enables great control of local laser microablation for true on-demand biomimetic micropatterned designs in several transparent polymers and hydrogels of tunable stiffness and is allowing integration of microfluidics, microelectronics, optical waveguides, surface microstructuring and even transfer of superficial protein micropatterns on a variety of biocompatible materials. The results presented here were validated using hepatic and fibroblasts cell lines to demonstrate the viability of our procedure for organ-on-chip development and show the impact of such features in cell culture.

  12. Using qualitative research methods in biomedical innovation: the case of cultured red blood cells for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Catherine; King, Emma

    2016-05-11

    Qualitative research has a key role to play in biomedical innovation projects. This article focuses on the appropriate use of robust social science methodologies (primarily focus group studies) for identifying the public's willingness and preference for emerging medical technologies. Our study was part of the BloodPharma project (now known as the Novosang project) to deliver industrially generated red blood cells for transfusion. Previous work on blood substitutes shows that the public prefers donated human blood. However, no research has been conducted concerning attitudes to stem cell derived red blood cells. Qualitative research methods including interviews and focus groups provide the methodological context for this paper. Focus groups were used to elicit views from sub-sections of the UK population about the potential use of such cultured red blood cells. We reflect on the appropriateness of that methodology in the context of the BloodPharma project. Findings are in the form of lessons transferable to other interdisciplinary, science-led teams about what a social science dimension can bring; why qualitative research should be included; and how it can be used effectively. Qualitative data collection offers the strength of exploring ambivalence and investigating the reasons for views, but not necessarily their prevalence in wider society. The inherent value of a qualitative method, such as focus groups, therefore lies in its ability to uncover new information. This contrasts with a quantitative approach to simply 'measuring' public opinion on a topic about which participants may have little prior knowledge. We discuss a number of challenges including: appropriate roles for embedded social scientists and the intricacies of doing upstream engagement as well as some of the design issues and limitations associated with the focus group method.

  13. Methods for suspension culture, protoplast extraction, and transformation of high-biomass yielding perennial grass Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigna, Gaia; Dhillon, Taniya; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Yuan, Joshua S; Gorman, Connor; Morandini, Piero; Lenaghan, Scott C; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-12-01

    Arundo donax L. is a promising biofuel feedstock in the Mediterranean region. Despite considerable interest in its genetic improvement, Arundo tissue culture and transformation remains arduous. The authors developed methodologies for cell- and tissue culture and genetic engineering in Arundo. A media screen was conducted, and a suspension culture was established using callus induced from stem axillary bud explants. DBAP medium, containing 9 µM 2,4-D and 4.4 µM BAP, was found to be the most effective medium among those tested for inducing cell suspension cultures, which resulted in a five-fold increase in tissue mass over 14 days. In contrast, CIM medium containing 13 µM 2,4-D, resulted in just a 1.4-fold increase in mass over the same period. Optimized suspension cultures were superior to previously-described solidified medium-based callus culture methods for tissue mass increase. Suspension cultures proved to be very effective for subsequent protoplast isolation. Protoplast electroporation resulted in a 3.3 ± 1.5% transformation efficiency. A dual fluorescent reporter gene vector enabled the direct comparison of the CAMV 35S promoter with the switchgrass ubi2 promoter in single cells of Arundo. The switchgrass ubi2 promoter resulted in noticeably higher reporter gene expression compared with that conferred by the 35S promoter in Arundo. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comparison of four methods for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from BACTEC 9240 blood culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Ozen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci is very important in blood stream infections. Identification of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS from blood cultures takes generally 18-24 h after positive signaling on continuously monitored automated blood culture system. In this study, we evaluated the performance of tube coagulase test (TCT, slide agglutination test (Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit directly from blood culture bottles to achieve rapid identification of S. aureus by using the BACTEC 9240 blood culture system. Materials and Methods: A total of 129 BACTEC 9240 bottles growing gram-positive cocci suggesting Staphylococci were tested directly from blood culture broths (BCBs with TCT, Dry Spot Staphytect Plus, conventional PCR and LightCycler Staphylococcus MGrade kit for rapid identification of S. aureus. Results: The sensitivities of the tests were 99, 68, 99 and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggested that 2 h TCT was found to be simple and inexpensive method for the rapid identification of S. aureus directly from positive blood cultures.

  15. Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D max Man -D max DVH |) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D max Man -D max DVH |)/D max DVH ) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D max Man ) and the objective method (D max DVH ) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average±standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%±1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value max >90%) compared with lower dose range (D max <90%): 2.16%±1.93% vs 1.19%±1.25% with p value of 0.0049. However, the Rediff[%] analysis eliminated the inverse square factor and there was no statistically significant difference (p value=0.8931) between high and low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was <2% of PD, on average, if appropriate attention is paid to selecting a manual dose point in 3D planning CT images.

  16. The relationship between organizational culture and the health and wellbeing of hospital nurses worldwide: a mixed methods systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Anne; Cooper, Kay; Palmer, Emma

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this mixed methods systematic review is to examine the relationship between organizational culture and the health and wellbeing of hospital nurses, and to develop an aggregated synthesis of quantitative and qualitative systematic reviews to derive recommendations for policy and practice.Organizational culture comprises factors such as leadership, management and support, a health and safety oriented workplace climate and job characteristics.The quantitative component of this review will explore the relationship between organizational culture and the following outcomes in hospital nurses which may be indicators of health and wellbeing: work-related injury such as needlestick or sharp injuries, musculoskeletal injuries and conditions such as low back pain, burnout and general wellbeing.The qualitative component of this review will explore the perceptions of hospital nurses in relation to the impact of organizational culture on their own health and wellbeing and those of their nursing colleagues.

  17. Comparative analysis of four commercial on-farm culture methods to identify bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jair C; Gomes, Marilia S; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Canisso, Igor F; Garrett, Edgar F; Stewart, Jamie L; Zhou, Ziyao; Lima, Fabio S

    2018-01-01

    Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk samples from the affected quarter with clinical mastitis were aerobically cultured with the on-farm culture systems and by two additional reference laboratories. Agreeing results from both standard laboratories were denoted as the reference standard (RS). Accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) of on-farm plates were determined based on the RS culture of 211 milk samples. All four plate-systems correctly identified ≥ 84.9% of milk samples with no bacterial growth. Accumast had greater values for all overall predictive factors (Ac, Se, Sp, PPV and NPV) and a substantial agreement (k = 0.79) with RS. The inter-rater agreements of Minnesota, SSGN, and SSGNC with RS were moderate (0.45 ≤ k ≤ 0.55). The effectiveness to categorize bacterial colonies at the genus and species was numerically different amongst the commercial plates. Our findings suggest that Accumast was the most accurate on-farm culture system for identification of mastitis-associated pathogens of the four systems included in the analysis.

  18. Universal Linear Fit Identification: A Method Independent of Data, Outliers and Noise Distribution Model and Free of Missing or Removed Data Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikaram, K K L B; Hussein, M A; Effenberger, M; Becker, T

    2015-01-01

    Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1) and 2/n * (1 + k2), respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.

  19. Universal Linear Fit Identification: A Method Independent of Data, Outliers and Noise Distribution Model and Free of Missing or Removed Data Imputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K L B Adikaram

    Full Text Available Data processing requires a robust linear fit identification method. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric robust linear fit identification method for time series. The method uses an indicator 2/n to identify linear fit, where n is number of terms in a series. The ratio Rmax of amax - amin and Sn - amin*n and that of Rmin of amax - amin and amax*n - Sn are always equal to 2/n, where amax is the maximum element, amin is the minimum element and Sn is the sum of all elements. If any series expected to follow y = c consists of data that do not agree with y = c form, Rmax > 2/n and Rmin > 2/n imply that the maximum and minimum elements, respectively, do not agree with linear fit. We define threshold values for outliers and noise detection as 2/n * (1 + k1 and 2/n * (1 + k2, respectively, where k1 > k2 and 0 ≤ k1 ≤ n/2 - 1. Given this relation and transformation technique, which transforms data into the form y = c, we show that removing all data that do not agree with linear fit is possible. Furthermore, the method is independent of the number of data points, missing data, removed data points and nature of distribution (Gaussian or non-Gaussian of outliers, noise and clean data. These are major advantages over the existing linear fit methods. Since having a perfect linear relation between two variables in the real world is impossible, we used artificial data sets with extreme conditions to verify the method. The method detects the correct linear fit when the percentage of data agreeing with linear fit is less than 50%, and the deviation of data that do not agree with linear fit is very small, of the order of ±10-4%. The method results in incorrect detections only when numerical accuracy is insufficient in the calculation process.

  20. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from cattle and buffaloes in Egypt using traditional culture, serological and molecular based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Abdellrazeq

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Johne's disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP represents a real threat to the agriculture and dairy food industries and believed to be a potential public health problem. Signs of infection in ruminant include weight loss, diarrhea, decreased milk production, and eventually death. The definition of an infected animal based either on the presence of anti-MAP antibodies, or positive bacterial culture. No treatment for the disease exists and controlling the disease is difficult due to its long latent period. JD is a worldwide problem and multiple studies in many countries have been carried out to determine the prevalence of MAP infections. Although some primary non intensive studies confirm presence of JD in Egypt, the disease is currently neglected by the official Egyptian veterinary agencies. There is no official data, no national control program, and no used vaccine. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate three conventional diagnostic methods for MAP under the Egyptian circumstances with a general aim to determine the appropriate strategy to develop a JD control program. These methods were pooled fecal culture, humoral response and insertion sequence IS900 targets polymerase chain reaction (IS900 PCR. Materials and Methods: Fecal and serum samples (500 each were collected from Holstein-Friesian cattle and buffaloes housed in five Egyptian governorates. Fecal samples were examined for MAP on the basis of a strategic pooling procedure and performed on Herrold's Egg Yolk Agar Medium (HEYM. Smears were prepared from developed colonies and stained using a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN technique. The identity of developed colonies was further confirmed by PCR analysis of IS900 sequence. Sera from both culture-positive and culture-negative animals were evaluated individually for humoral response. Results: Out of 50 pooled specimens, 34 (68% fecal cultures were positive for MAP. Serum positive samples of culture

  2. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Though This be Madness: Heritage Methods for Working in Culturally Diverse Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Petersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the NSW Migration Heritage Centre was conceived by the NSW Government as a virtual heritage centre to help ageing former migrants tell their stories. Migration museums and other organisations interested in heritage are grappling with how to identify, record, preserve and interpret the heritage legacy of migration and settlement in their communities. The distinctions between museum and environmental heritage practices have diminished during the past decade in Australia. The Centre’s methodologies are based on historic method and thematic and typology studies, better known for their application to heritage place identification and archaeological artefact studies than for their more recent use by some Australian museum curators for the survey and documentation of collections and community participation in heritage. The ‘virtual museum’ has enabled the Centre to break away from the centralised museum concept, with the associated trappings of venue management, to pioneer a decentralised and dispersed museum model that works almost entirely in collaborative community history research partnerships to document culturally significant collections, and associated migration memories, held by communities and private individuals. The work is centralised on the Centre’s website as a virtual collection of objects, places and associated memories. They are presented in online exhibitions for student research and as a destination for the mass audiences of the worldwide web.

  4. A method for quantitative measurement of safety culture based on ISO 26262

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khabbaz Saberi, A.; Benders, F.; Koch, R.; Lukkien, J.J.; van den Brand, M.G.J.; Parsons, M.; Kelly, T.

    2018-01-01

    Safety culture is the collective attitude of members of an organization regarding safety issues: awareness, communication, knowledge, etc. In the automotive industry, specifically in its Research and Development (R&D) environments, safety culture is relatively new. Recent incidents related to

  5. Modularized substrate culture:a new method for green leafy vegetable planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Quanxi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing general situation of green leafy vegetable production and main difficulty,we introduce the characteristics of modularized substrate culture for green leafy vegetable,and point out the important issues of modularized substrate culture which urgently need be solved in the coming future.

  6. The repertory grid technique as method for the study of cultural differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Karapanos, E.; Levy, P.D.; Mizutani, N.; Yamanaka, T.

    2009-01-01

    Culture is typically approached in the field of design through generic, cross-domain constructs. In this paper we provide an alternative methodological approach to exploring cross-cultural differences by studying the idiosyncratic views of individuals with regard to existing products. We

  7. Cultural cognition in the thinking-aloud method for usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...

  8. Is Acculturation a Dynamic Construct?: The Influence of Method of Priming Culture on Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that culture is a dynamic construct activated in response to cues encountered in a given situation. Research on acculturation indicates that this is a complex construct that might be domain specific. Two studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of two ways of priming culture on acculturation and enculturation…

  9. Research on Basis and Method of Fujian-Taiwan Cultural Creative Industry Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available deepening Fujian-Taiwan cultural creative industry connection cooperation is of great importance to close Fujian-Taiwan relationship, forge new economic growth points, optimize and adjust industrial structure. In this paper, the opportunities, potential, basis and conditions for Fujian-Taiwan cultural creative industry connection cooperation are analyzed, and countermeasures and suggestions to deepen the connection cooperation are proposed.

  10. Calcium-independent phospholipase A₂, group VIA, is critical for RPE cell survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vohra, Rupali; Westlund, Barbro S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the significance of calcium-independent phospholipase A₂, group VIA (iPLA2-VIA), in RPE cell survival following responses to sodium iodate (SI) in cell cultures. METHODS: The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line (ARPE-19) cells and primary mouse-RPE cultures were...

  11. Diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae among pregnant women by culture method and PCR on cppB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mardaneh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a human obligate pathogen and the etiological agent of gonorrhea. Health irreparable complications resulting from gonorrhea disease occur mainly in pregnant women and neonates. Aim of this study was diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae among pregnant women with using culture and molecular method by amplification of cppB gene with PCR. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, two endocervical swab specimens were obtained from 1100 pregnant women who referred to Shiraz Hospitals. Culture on nonselective and selective media and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT were performed for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae cppB gene. Results: All endocervical swabs cultures on selective and nonselective media were negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Among examined endocervical swabs, 13samples (1.18% were positive by nucleic acid amplification of Neisseria gonorrgoeae cppB gene. Conclusion: Negative results of culture and positive results of PCR in this study indicate that however culture is gold standard method for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae but due to bacterial autolysis, poor sampling techniques and improper specimen storage and transport, its value decline as compared with Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT.

  12. A METHOD OF INCREASING THE NUMBER OF TOURISTS IN ROMANIA: SIBIU – EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of European Capital of Culture could help immensely a city and its surrounding region from cultural, social and economic pointd of view. Cultural activity in the city is gaining momentum and new categories of tourists are attracted here. To determine if being a cultural capital influenced or not the growth and/or decrease trend as regards the number of tourists that came to Sibiu in a consecutive period of 23 years, the starting point was that this event had a major impact on tourists. The present paper is a quantitative research based on the number of Romanian and foreign tourists accommodated in structures of tourist receptions with functions of tourist accommodation. The conclusions of this article respond to these questions: Being a European Capital of Culture attracts or not more tourists than usual? The increase in the number of tourists was proportional with the effort of the authorities involved in the project?

  13. A novel three-dimensional cell culture method enhances antiviral drug screening in primary human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Robert; Neumann, Markus; Daugs, Aila; Bloch, Oliver; Nitsche, Andreas; Langhammer, Stefan; Ellerbrok, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation. 3D cell cultures, which meanwhile are widely distributed across all fields of research, are a promising tool for more predictive in vitro investigations of antiviral compounds. In this study the spreading of cowpox virus and the antiviral efficacy of gefitinib were analyzed in primary human keratinocytes (NHEK) grown in a novel 3D extracellular matrix-based cell culture model and compared to the respective monolayer culture. 3D-cultivated NHEK grew in a polarized and thus a more physiological manner with altered morphology and close cell-cell contact. Infected cultures showed a strongly elevated sensitivity towards gefitinib. EGFR phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and virus replication were significantly reduced in 3D cultures at gefitinib concentrations which were at least 100-fold lower than those in monolayer cultures and well below the level of cytotoxicity. Our newly established 3D cell culture model with primary human cells is an easy-to-handle alternative to conventional monolayer cell cultures and previously described more complex 3D cell culture systems. It can easily be adapted to other cell types and a broad spectrum of viruses for antiviral drug screening and many other aspects of virus research under more in vivo-like conditions. In consequence, it may contribute to a more targeted realization of necessary in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultural and Molecular Evidence of Legionella spp. Colonization in Dental Unit Waterlines: Which Is the Best Method for Risk Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditommaso, Savina; Giacomuzzi, Monica; Ricciardi, Elisa; Zotti, Carla M

    2016-02-06

    Legionella spp. are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and water distribution systems, including dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Legionella in DUWLs and tap water samples using PMA-qPCR and standard culture methods. The total viable counts (TVCs) of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in the samples were also determined. Legionella spp. were detected and quantified using the modified ISO 11731 culture method. Extracted genomic DNA was analysed using the iQ-Check Quanti Legionella spp. kit, and the TVCs were determined according to the ISO protocol 6222. Legionella spp. were detected in 100% of the samples using the PMA-qPCR method, whereas these bacteria were detected in only 7% of the samples using the culture method. The number of colony forming units (CFUs) of the TVCs in the DUWL and tap water samples differed, with the bacterial load being significantly lower in the tap water samples (p-value = 0). The counts obtained were within the Italian standard range established for potable water in only 5% of the DUWL water samples and in 77% of the tap water samples. Our results show that the level of Legionella spp. contamination determined using the culture method does not reflect the true scale of the problem, and consequently we recommend testing for the presence of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria based on the assumption that Legionella spp. are components of biofilms.

  15. A method comparison of total and HMW adiponectin: HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies versus total adiponectin, independent of clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Merel; Drent, Madeleine L; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2017-02-01

    Total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been associated with endocrine and cardiovascular pathology. As no gold standard is available, the discussion about biological relevance of isoforms is complicated. In our study we perform a method comparison between two commercially available assays measuring HMW and total adiponectin, in various patient groups, thus contributing further to this discussion. We determined levels of HMW and total adiponectin using assays by Lumipulse® and Millipore® respectively, in 126 patients with different clinical characteristics (n=29 healthy volunteers, n=22 dialysis patients, n=25 elderly with body mass index (BMI) LUMIPULSE ∗0.5-0.9=total adiponectin MILLIPORE , albeit with significant deviation from linearity (p<0.001). Pearson's correlation was R=0.987 (p=0.000). No significant differences between patient groups were observed (p=0.190). The HMW/total adiponectin ratio varies with total adiponectin concentration independent of clinical conditi