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Sample records for culture confirmation test

  1. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community.......To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  2. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  3. Factors that Predict Negative Results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Patients with Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soo Kwon

    Full Text Available Interferon-γ release assays such as the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT-GIT are designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, whether latent or manifesting as disease. However, a substantial number of persons with culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB have negative QFT-GITs. Information on host factors contributing to false-negative and indeterminate results are limited.A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed with 1,264 culture-confirmed TB patients older than 18 years who were subjected to the QFT-GIT at one of the six hospitals between May 2007 and February 2014. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection were excluded. Clinical and laboratory data were collected in South Korea.Of all patients, 87.6% (1,107/1,264 were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 12.4% (157/1,264 with extrapulmonary TB. The rate of negative results was 14.4% (182/1,264. The following factors were highly correlated with false-negative results in the QFT-GIT: advanced age (age ≥ 65 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.39, bilateral disease as determined by chest radiography (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.72, malignancy (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.30-4.49, and lymphocytopenia (total lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 109/L, OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.21-2.87.Consequently, QFT-GIT results need to be interpreted with caution in patients with these host risk factors such as the elderly, bilateral disease on chest radiography, or malignancy, or lymphocytopenia.

  4. Added value of PCR-testing for confirmation of invasive meningococcal disease in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, Ellen; Ladhani, Shamez; Gray, Steve; Guiver, Malcolm; Kaczmarski, Ed; Borrow, Ray; Ramsay, Mary

    2013-11-01

    In England, national guidance recommends that all patients with suspected invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) should be investigated by blood culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. The Meningococcal Reference Unit (MRU) provides a national service for meningococcal species confirmation and PCR-testing of clinical samples. We performed a population-level assessment of the added value of PCR-testing for IMD to augment traditional culture confirmation. We analysed all PCR-samples and invasive meningococcal isolates received by MRU in 2009 and 2010. We assumed that all patients with PCR-samples submitted to MRU also had blood cultures performed and that positive blood cultures were referred to MRU. We confirmed this assertion by case ascertainment. In total, 25,379 specimens from 22,039 patients were submitted for PCR-testing and 1492 (6.8%) tested PCR-positive. MRU received 825 invasive meningococcal isolates; 393 confirmed by PCR and culture, 405 without a PCR-specimen submitted and 27 with a PCR-negative result. Thus, of 1924 reported IMD cases, 1099 (57.1%) were confirmed by PCR only, 432 (22.5%) by culture only and 393 (20.4%) by both tests. More than half of all confirmed IMD cases were confirmed by PCR only, indicating this service ensures high case ascertainment for national surveillance. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Apnoea testing to confirm brain death in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donselaar, C A; Meerwaldt, J D; van Gijn, J

    1986-09-01

    In six patients an apnoea test was carried out to confirm brain death according to a protocol recommended in the USA. After ten minutes' apnoea the pCO2 did not reach the target value of 7.98 kPa (60 mm Hg) in any of these patients. This was caused by the low initial value and the slow increase of the pCO2. Moreover, we could not confirm the belief that the necessary duration of the apnoea test can be predicted by assuming a rise of the pCO2 of 0.33 kPa (2.5 mm Hg) per minute.

  6. Apnoea testing to confirm brain death in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donselaar, C A; Meerwaldt, J D; van Gijn, J

    1986-01-01

    In six patients an apnoea test was carried out to confirm brain death according to a protocol recommended in the USA. After ten minutes' apnoea the pCO2 did not reach the target value of 7.98 kPa (60 mm Hg) in any of these patients. This was caused by the low initial value and the slow increase of the pCO2. Moreover, we could not confirm the belief that the necessary duration of the apnoea test can be predicted by assuming a rise of the pCO2 of 0.33 kPa (2.5 mm Hg) per minute. PMID:3093640

  7. Apnoea testing to confirm brain death in clinical practice.

    OpenAIRE

    van Donselaar, C. A.; Meerwaldt, J D; van Gijn, J

    1986-01-01

    In six patients an apnoea test was carried out to confirm brain death according to a protocol recommended in the USA. After ten minutes' apnoea the pCO2 did not reach the target value of 7.98 kPa (60 mm Hg) in any of these patients. This was caused by the low initial value and the slow increase of the pCO2. Moreover, we could not confirm the belief that the necessary duration of the apnoea test can be predicted by assuming a rise of the pCO2 of 0.33 kPa (2.5 mm Hg) per minute.

  8. Failure to Confirm the Macrophage Electrophoretic Mobility Test in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, J. A.; Dando, P. M.; Smith, W. J.; Turberville, C.

    1977-01-01

    A series of patients with a variety of histopathologically confirmed cancers have been examined using the MOD-MEM test as described by Pritchard et al. (1973). Despite the closest possible adherence to the experimental protocols recommended by these authors, no positive reactions to the test were observed in this series: neither were we able to demonstrate the release of a “macrophage-slowing factor” by a panel of normal donors when challenged with tubercle PPD. We conclude that the test has no present application to the diagnosis of cancer.

  9. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  10. Fixed drug eruption by etoricoxib confirmed by patch test*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Aline Soares; Cardoso, José Carlos; Gouveia, Miguel Pinto; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Gonçalo, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by antibiotics, are the main causes of fixed drug eruption. They provoke one or several round erythematous or bullous lesions that recur in the same place after taking the causative medication. A positive patch test on residual, lesional skin can replace satisfactorily oral reintroduction. We describe the case of a 74-year-old woman with numerous, rounded, erythematous lesions on the trunk and recurrent blistering on the fifth right-hand finger, which developed a few hours after taking etoricoxib. Lesional patch testing with etoricoxib was positive and reproduced the typical pattern of a fixed drug eruption upon histopathology. We emphasize the specific reactivity of the etoricoxib patch test, and the capacity to reproduce the histologic pattern of the reaction. PMID:27828643

  11. Test Driven Development: Advancing Knowledge by Conjecture and Confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Lange

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Test Driven Development (TDD is a critical agile software development practice that supports innovation in short development cycles. However, TDD is one of the most challenging agile practices to adopt because it requires changes to work practices and skill sets. It is therefore important to gain an understanding of TDD through the experiences of those who have successfully adopted this practice. We collaborated with an agile team to provide this experience report on their adoption of TDD, using observations and interviews within the product development environment. This article highlights a number of practices that underlie successful development with TDD. To provide a theoretical perspective that can help to explain how TDD supports a positive philosophy of software development, we have revised Northover et al.’s conceptual framework, which is based on a four stage model of agile development, to reinterpret Popper’s theory of conjecture and falsification in the context of agile testing strategies. As a result of our findings, we propose an analytical model for TDD in agile software development which provides a theoretical basis for further investigations into the role of TDD and related practices.

  12. [First report of three culture confirmed human Lyme cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Erdal; Turhan, Vedat; Aslan, Mustafa; Müsellim, Benan; Onem, Yalçin; Ertuğrul, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    Lyme disease which is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a multisystemic disease that involves skin, joints, cardiovascular and central nervous system, leading to chronic inflammatory response and late complications. First lyme cases have been reported after 1990's in Turkey and the spirochete was isolated from the tick vectors. In this case series three human Lyme cases confirmed with not only serological tests but also growth in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium were presented for the first time in Turkey. Two of these three cases were residents in Istanbul while the third one has acquired the infection in USA (imported case). First case was a previously healthy 46 years old male, admitted to the state hospital with the complaints of diarrheae, chills, nausea, vomiting, cough, sputum production and widespread myalgias. The patient was a chronic alcohol consumer with a history of frequent visits to the forest areas. The laboratory test results revealed hepatonephritis-like clinical picture and pulmonary involvement. Leptospira IgM and Borrelia IgM antibodies were detected in the serum by ELISA and both of the agents were isolated in the blood cultures of the patient. This case was then diagnosed as Lyme disease with leptospirosis co-infection. The second case was a 32 years old female who suffered from Bell's palsy for the last 15 days. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a nodular lesion at globus pallidus. Since the patient had a history of tick-bite, further testing was done for Lyme disease. Borrelia IgM and IgG antibodies were found negative, however, Borrelia was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid sample. The third patient was a 68 years old female who had recently travelled to USA and exposed to a tick-bite in a recreational area. She suffered from nausea, vomiting, myalgia and cutaneous lesions compatible with erythema chronicum migrans. Samples taken from the skin lesions revealed growth of Borrelia. As far as the current literature is

  13. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  14. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neissefia gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N-gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J

    A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased

  15. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijt, D.S.; Bos, P.A.; van Zwet, A.A.; Voorst-Vader, P.C.; Schirm, J.

    2005-01-01

    : A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased

  16. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neissefia gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N-gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J

    2005-01-01

    A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased t

  17. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neissefia gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N-gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J

    2005-01-01

    A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased t

  18. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijt, D.S.; Bos, P.A.; van Zwet, A.A.; Voorst-Vader, P.C.; Schirm, J.

    2005-01-01

    : A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased

  19. Field application of serodiagnostics to identify elephants with tuberculosis prior to case confirmation by culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Mikota, Susan; Miller, Michele; Moller, Torsten; Vogelnest, Larry; Gairhe, Kamal P; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Gai, Jackie; Waters, W Ray

    2012-08-01

    Three serologic methods for antibody detection in elephant tuberculosis (TB), the multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), ElephantTB STAT-PAK kit, and DPP VetTB test, were evaluated using serial serum samples from 14 captive elephants infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 5 countries. In all cases, serological testing was performed prior to the diagnosis of TB by mycobacterial culture of trunk wash or tissue samples collected at necropsy. All elephants produced antibody responses to M. tuberculosis antigens, with 13/14 recognizing ESAT-6 and/or CFP10 proteins. The findings supported the high serodiagnostic test accuracy in detecting infections months to years before M. tuberculosis could be isolated from elephants. The MAPIA and/or DPP VetTB assay demonstrated the potential for monitoring antimycobacterial therapy and predicting TB relapse in treated elephants when continuously used in the posttreatment period. History of exposure to TB and past treatment information should be taken into consideration for proper interpretation of the antibody test results. Data suggest that the more frequent trunk wash culture testing of seropositive elephants may enhance the efficiency of the TB diagnostic algorithm, leading to earlier treatment with improved outcomes.

  20. Long-term assessment of fatigue in patients with culture-confirmed Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Gary P; Weitzner, Erica; McKenna, Donna; Nadelman, Robert B; Scavarda, Carol; Nowakowski, John

    2015-02-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom with numerous causes. Severe fatigue is thought to be an important manifestation of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. The frequency with which severe fatigue occurs as a long-term sequela in prospectively followed patients with Lyme disease is unknown. Patients with culture-confirmed Lyme disease who originally presented with erythema migrans have been evaluated annually in a prospective study to determine their long-term outcome. In 2011-2013, subjects were evaluated for fatigue using an 11-item Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-11) that has been used in studies of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. An FSS-11 score of ≥4.0 is indicative of severe fatigue. A total of 100 subjects were assessed, 52% of whom were male; the mean age was 64.9 years (range, 42-86 years). The mean duration of follow-up was 15.4 years (range, 11-20 years). Nine subjects had severe fatigue but in none as a consequence of Lyme disease. Only 3 subjects were thought to possibly have persistent fatigue from Lyme disease. The FSS-11 value for these 3 individuals was less than 4, averaging 2.27, and none had functional impairment. Severe fatigue was found in 9 patients (9%) with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease at 11 to 20 years after presentation, but was due to causes other than Lyme disease. Fatigue of lesser severity was possibly due to Lyme disease, but was found in only 3% of 100 patients, and therefore is rarely a long-term complication of this infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microscopy, culture, and quantitative real-time PCR examination confirm internalization of mycobacteria in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, M; Lvoncik, S; Slana, I; Kulich, P; Kralik, P

    2014-07-01

    The environment is a reservoir of nontuberculous mycobacteria and is considered a source of infection for animals and humans. Mycobacteria can persist in different types of environments for a relatively long time. We have studied their possible internalization into plant tissue through intact, as well as damaged, root systems of different types of plants grown in vitro and under field conditions. The substrate into which plants were seeded was previously contaminated with different strains of Mycobacterium avium (10(8) to 10(10) cells/g of soil) and feces from animals with paratuberculosis. We detected M. avium subsp. avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in the stems and leaves of the plants by both culture and real-time quantitative PCR. The presence of mycobacteria in the plant tissues was confirmed by microscopy. The concentration of mycobacteria found inside plant tissue was several orders of magnitude lower (up to 10(4) cells/g of tissue) than the initial concentration of mycobacteria present in the culture medium or substrate. These findings led us to the hypothesis that plants may play a role in the spread and transmission of mycobacteria to other organisms in the environment.

  2. Missed opportunities: refusal to confirm reactive rapid HIV tests in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Ganguli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection remains a major US public health concern. While HIV-infected individuals now benefit from earlier diagnosis and improved treatment options, progress is tempered by large numbers of newly diagnosed patients who are lost to follow-up prior to disease confirmation and linkage to care. METHODOLOGY: In the randomized, controlled USHER trial, we offered rapid HIV tests to patients presenting to a Boston, MA emergency department. Separate written informed consent was required for confirmatory testing. In a secondary analysis, we compared participants with reactive results who did and did not complete confirmatory testing to identify factors associated with refusal to complete the confirmation protocol. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen of 62 (21.0%, 95% CI (11.7%, 33.2% participants with reactive rapid HIV tests refused confirmation; women, younger participants, African Americans, and those with fewer HIV risks, with lower income, and without primary care doctors were more likely to refuse. We projected that up to four true HIV cases were lost at the confirmation stage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need to better understand the factors associated with refusal to confirm reactive HIV testing and to identify interventions that will facilitate confirmatory testing and linkage to care among these populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00502944; NCT01258582.

  3. Confirmation of endovenous placement of central catheter using the ultrasonographic "bubble test"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit S Baviskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous catheter (CVC is the most common procedure to be performed in Intensive Care Units. Addition of ultrasonographic guidance to this procedure, which was initially performed blindly, has improved safety of this procedure. Confirmation of endovenous placement of CVC though, is tricky, as methods for confirmation are either operator dependent, time-consuming or not available at bedside. Prospective observational study was carried out to study feasibility of use of sonobubble test to confirm the presence of CVC within central vein. After insertion of CVC in the internal jugular, subclavian or axillary vein, a 10 ml bolus of shaken saline microbubble is injected through port of CVC, and opacification of right atrium is observed in xiphoid view on ultrasonography. The Sonobubble test was helpful for dynamic confirmation of endovenous placement of CVC and prevented complications such as arterial puncture and cannulation. We recommend its use following CVC insertion.

  4. Rapid confirmation of drug susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using MPT 64 Ag based test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Afu Ochang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the possible use of MPT64 based rapid test to detect multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis in antibiotic broth dilution cultures. Methods: Twenty five isolates of M. tuberculosis whose susceptibility pattern had previously been identified by HAIN Genotype MTBDRplus (HainLifecience, Herhen, Germany were processed and cultured according to the microscopic-observation drug susceptibility technique. These included 20 susceptible, two multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis and three isoniazid mono-resistant isolates. After 10-day incubation, aspirates from each well were tested with the MPT64 rapid test. Results: The rapid test correctly identified all 25 isolates and detected rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in all but one isoniazid mono-resistant isolate. Conclusions: MPT64 rapid test could be useful in detecting M. tuberculosis and drug resistance from Middlebrook 7H9 antimicrobial broth dilution in resource poor settings without an inverted microscope.

  5. Design stage confirmation of lifetime improvement for newly modified products through accelerated life testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, S. Hossein, E-mail: seyed-h.mohammadian.1@ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada) and Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada); Ait-Kadi, Daoud, E-mail: Daoud.Aitkadi@gmc.ulaval.c [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche sur les Reseaux d' Entreprise, la Logistique et le Transport (CIRRELT), Departement de Genie Mecanique, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Readaptation et en Integration Sociale (CIRRIS), Institut de Readaptation en Deficience Physique de Quebec, 525 Boul. Hamel, Quebec, G1M 2S8 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    After a modification to the original version of a product and before mass production, the expected improvement in the product lifetime or reliability needs to be validated. This paper presents three approaches based on accelerated life testing to verify, estimate and confirm the lifetime or reliability of a newly modified product at design stage: ALT comparative approach, reliability estimation approach, and reliability validation test. Test samples of the original and modified versions are expected to fail during the tests in order to obtain their failure time data. In ALT comparative approach, the statistical comparison between failure time data of the original and modified versions is used to verify the required improvement in lifetime. In reliability estimation approach, the relationship made between available lifetime and failure time data of the original version is used to extrapolate lifetime data of the modified version from its failure time data. Since modified versions are usually highly reliable, all test samples might survive the tests (without any failures) that results in the lack of failure time data for statistical analysis. To confirm a level of service reliability with confidence, reliability validation test is presented to make an estimate of the number of samples required to survive the tests. To fulfill the same level of confidence for fewer number of prototypes (as test samples), the test time must be extended. On the other hand, more prototypes are needed to pass a shorter test time if there are any time constraints.

  6. Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction for confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a broth-based culture system ESP II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung G; Kim, Eun H; Lafferty, Caroline J; Miller, Loretta J; Koo, Hye J; Stehman, Susan M; Shin, Sang J

    2004-09-01

    The ESP II Culture System (ESP II), a broth-based culture system, has been modified and optimized for culturing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) in animal feces since 2000. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the IS900 sequence were performed as confirmatory tests for M. paratuberculosis in ESP II liquid culture medium. There were no differences between test results of conventional and real-time PCR assays. During the 5-week incubation period, if acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in ESP culture-positive samples, IS900 PCR assays were performed to confirm whether those AFB were M. paratuberculosis. At the end of the 5-week incubation, AF staining was performed on all ESP II-negative cultures to screen any false-negative cultures; IS900 PCR assays were performed on AFB-positive cultures. During a period of 1 year, of a total of 18,499 ESP II cultures, 2,814 (15.2%) PCR confirmation assays were performed. Of those, 2,259 (80%) were both ESP and PCR positive; 104 (4%) were ESP positive and PCR negative; 423 (15%) were ESP negative and PCR positive; 28 (1%) were both ESP and PCR negative. The AF-staining step after the 5-week incubation produced 423 (15%) more PCR-positive cultures. Of a total of 2,814 AFB-positive cultures, 132 (5%) were not confirmed as M. paratuberculosis. Further studies are needed for speciation of non-M. paratuberculosis isolates.

  7. Confirmation test for hysteroscopic sterilization: a descriptive study of patient tolerability and impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapa HO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector O Chapa, Gonzalo VenegasDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Methodist Medical and Women’s Specialty Center, Dallas, TX, USABackground: This retrospective descriptive study describes patient follow-up and tolerability of the post-hysteroscopic sterilization confirmation test.Methods: Recruitment for the original sterilization procedure was from January 2008 to March 2009; subsequent confirmation test (hysterosalpingogram capture was from March 2008 to July 2009. Patients were given a 10 cm visual analog pain scale during the hysteroscopic sterilization procedure, and took the scale with them as a take-home sheet. Following hysterosalpingography (HSG, patients received a follow-up phone call within 24 hours, and were asked to rate their pain during the hysterosalpingogram as well as during the first 2 hours following the test.Results: Eighty-nine hysteroscopic sterilizations were performed under local paracervical block and oral nonsteroidal medication. The median immediate post-sterilization visual analog pain score was 1.9 (range 1.7–2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–1.5. Of the 89 sterilization procedures, 79% (n = 70 patients underwent a confirmation test using HSG. Ten percent (n = 7 of the hysterosalpinograms were performed at least 3 months after sterilization (mean 17 [range 14–20] weeks. Median intratest visual analog pain score overall (n = 70 was 1.8 (range 1.6–1.9, 95% CI 1.5–1.9. Following the test, the median visual analog pain score was 1.7 (range 1.6–1.9, 95% CI 1.4–0.18. Of the 70 patients who participated in visual analog pain score capture, 64 had a paper copy of the scale had six had it via email. Of the 19 who did not complete hysterosalpinography, five were lost to follow-up. Reasons given by the remaining 14 for noncompliance with hysterosalpinography were: a busy schedule/childcare issues (62%, fear of the test (13%, trust in the sterilization procedure alone (13%, and forgetting the

  8. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research......-cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability...

  9. Evaluation of carbapenemase screening and confirmation tests with Enterobacteriaceae and development of a practical diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Florian P; Castelberg, Claudio; Quiblier, Chantal; Bloemberg, Guido V; Hombach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Reliable identification of carbapenemase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is necessary to limit their spread. This study aimed to develop a diagnostic flow chart using phenotypic screening and confirmation tests that is suitable for implementation in different types of clinical laboratories. A total of 334 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates genetically characterized with respect to carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), and AmpC genes were analyzed. A total of 142/334 isolates (42.2%) were suspected of carbapenemase production, i.e., intermediate or resistant to ertapenem (ETP) and/or meropenem (MEM) and/or imipenem (IPM) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoints (CBPs). A group of 193/334 isolates (57.8%) showing susceptibility to ETP, MEM, and IPM was considered the negative-control group in this study. CLSI and EUCAST carbapenem CBPs and the new EUCAST MEM screening cutoff were evaluated as screening parameters. ETP, MEM, and IPM with or without aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or EDTA combined-disk tests (CDTs) and the Carba NP-II test were evaluated as confirmation assays. EUCAST temocillin cutoffs were evaluated for OXA-48 detection. The EUCAST MEM screening cutoff (carbapenemase confirmation. ETP and MEM EDTA CDTs showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for class B carbapenemases. Temocillin zone diameters/MIC testing on MH-CLX was highly specific for OXA-48 producers. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Carba NP-II test were 78.9, 100, 100, and 98.7%, respectively. Combining the EUCAST MEM carbapenemase screening cutoff (carbapenemase detection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The identification of carbapenemase types in Enterobacteriaceae by using molecular assay and phenotyping confirmation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ozlem; Aksu, Evrim; Gulcan, Aynur

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify the molecular carbapenemase types of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates and to evaluate the performance of manually prepared and commercially available combination disc methods and the modified Hodge test. One hundred and forty carbapenemase producing isolates and 45 isolates as control group were included in our study. The Xpert CARBA-R test was used as the molecular method. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using combined discs, manually prepared with APBA (3-aminophenyl boronic acid), DPA (dipicolinic acid), EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), cloxacillin supplements and Mastdiscs Combi-D70C that includes four antibiotic discs with specific inhibitors and temocillin discs. The modified Hodge test was performed on all isolates. OXA-48 gene was identified in 129 isolates , the NDM gene was identified in 10 isolates and VIM in one isolate. Thirty inaccurate results (30/185, 16%) were detected by using the manually prepared confirmation test. The sensitivity and specificity of this test were identified respectively 85% and 73%. Also, the sensitivity and specificity of the Mastdiscs Combi-D70C were identified as 100%. Negative results were detected in 3 NDM isolates with the use of a modified Hodge test. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the modified Hodge test respectively 97% and 100%. Finally, molecular methods provide results rapidly but they are not always easily accessible. The modified Hodge test can be used only for screening as a first step test and is not one of the tests that can identify the type of the carbapenemase. When carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are detected, a commercial kit like Mastdiscs Combi-D70 may be preferred instead of the manually prepared phenotypic verification tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Link between Organizational Learning Culture and Customer Satisfaction: Confirming Relationship and Exploring Moderating Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantouvakis, Angelos; Bouranta, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework and conduct an empirical study across different service sectors to investigate the inter-relationships between organizational learning culture, employee job satisfaction and their impact on customer satisfaction. It also aims to examine an individual-level variable (educational…

  12. The Link between Organizational Learning Culture and Customer Satisfaction: Confirming Relationship and Exploring Moderating Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantouvakis, Angelos; Bouranta, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework and conduct an empirical study across different service sectors to investigate the inter-relationships between organizational learning culture, employee job satisfaction and their impact on customer satisfaction. It also aims to examine an individual-level variable (educational…

  13. Confirmation of Chlamydophila abortus in infected cell culture using Indirect Immunofluorescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Nair G

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus is an important abortifacient agent in bovines and ovines. Clinical diagnosis of the disease is often difficult. An early diagnosis can be achieved based on direct demonstration of the organism in clinical material and through the cultural recovery of the organism in embryonated chicken egg. For confirmatory diagnosis antigen detection methods or serological techniques can be adopted. The present study is aimed at the confirmatory diagnosis of C. abortus infection by indirect immunofluorescence technique following the isolation of the organism in cell culture. Specific apple green fluorescing inclusions of C. abortus in McCoy cell lines was detected from 72 h to 96 h post infection employing anti-chlamydial group specific monoclonal antibodies. Thus, a confirmatory diagnosis of the infection was possible with this study. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 473-474

  14. Verification Testing to Confirm VO2max in Altitude-Residing, Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherwax, R M; Richardson, T B; Beltz, N M; Nolan, P B; Dalleck, L

    2016-06-01

    We sought to explore the utility of the verification trial to confirm individual attainment of 'true' VO2max in altitude-residing, endurance-trained runners during treadmill exercise. 24 elite endurance-trained men and women runners (age=21.5±3.3 yr, ht=174.8±9.3 cm, body mass=60.5±6.7 kg, PR 800 m 127.5±13.1 s) completed a graded exercise test (GXT) trial (VO2max=60.0±5.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and returned 20 min after incremental exercise to complete a verification trial (VO2max=59.6±5.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) of constant load, supramaximal exercise. The incidence of 'true' VO2max confirmation using the verification trial was 24/24 (100%) with all participants revealing differences in VO2max≤3% (the technical error of our equipment) between the GXT and verification trials. These findings support use of the verification trial to confirm VO2max attainment in altitude-residing, endurance-trained runners. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture.

  16. Supramaximal testing to confirm attainment of VO2max in sedentary men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, T A; White, A C; Dalleck, L C

    2009-04-01

    Supramaximal testing is widely used to verify VO2max attainment, yet its efficacy in sedentary subjects is unknown. The aim of the study was to test this hypothesis in men and women completing maximal cycle ergometry. Fifteen sedentary subjects (age=22.4+/-3.9 year) completed incremental exercise, and returned at least 24 h later to complete constant load exercise at 105% peak work rate (Wmax). Another group of nine sedentary men and women (age=21.8+/-5 year) completed supramaximal exercise at 115% Wmax 1-1.5 h after incremental exercise. During exercise, gas exchange data and heart rate (HR) were continuously obtained. VO2max was similar (p>0.05) between incremental and supramaximal exercise in subjects in the first (32.32+/-4.81 mL/kg/min vs. 31.80+/-5.35 mL/kg/min) and second subset (40.63+/-3.61 mL/kg/min vs. 41.66+/-5.55 mL/kg/min). Maximal HR was lower (pTest-retest reliability (r=0.81-0.89, pVO2max was high during repeated bouts of supramaximal testing. Findings support use of this protocol to confirm VO2max attainment in healthy, sedentary men and women completing incremental cycle ergometry.

  17. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods.

  18. The Test of Strategic Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    Germany was the first country to issue a categorical refusal to support the US-led war in Iraq. Some have interpreted this as the result of a clash between the strategic cultures of Germany and the USA, others as a sign that a more nationalistic and assertive Germany is emerging. This article...... explains the apparently contradictory aspects of Germany’s stance on Iraq by identifying two competing strands within Germany’s strategic culture. It concludes that the German refusal signals neither a reversion to a pacifist stance nor that Germany is in a process of shedding the bonds and alliances...... that have so far framed the reunified Germany’s military policy. Iraq simply showed that Germany, like most other countries, has conditions that have to be met – in Germany’s case, conditions flowing from the coexistence of two competing schools of thought within Germany’s strategic culture....

  19. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  20. Cumulative BRCA mutation analysis in the Greek population confirms that homogenous ethnic background facilitates genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigginou, Alexandra; Vlachopoulos, Fotios; Arzimanoglou, Iordanis; Zagouri, Flora; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Screening for BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations has long moved from the research lab to the clinic as a routine clinical genetic testing. BRCA molecular alteration pattern varies among ethnic groups which makes it already a less straightforward process to select the appropriate mutations for routine genetic testing on the basis of known clinical significance. The present report comprises an in depth literature review of the so far reported BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 molecular alterations in Greek families. Our analysis of Greek cumulative BRCA 1 and 2 molecular data, produced by several independent groups, confirmed that six recurrent deleterious mutations account for almost 60 % and 70 % of all BRCA 1 and 2 and BRCA 1 mutations, respectively. As a result, it makes more sense to perform BRCA mutation analysis in the clinic in two sequential steps, first conventional analysis for the six most prevalent pathogenic mutations and if none identified, a second step of New Generation Sequencing-based whole genome or whole exome sequencing would follow. Our suggested approach would enable more clinically meaningful, considerably easier and less expensive BRCA analysis in the Greek population which is considered homogenous.

  1. Long-term Assessment of Post-Treatment Symptoms in Patients With Culture-Confirmed Early Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzner, Erica; McKenna, Donna; Nowakowski, John; Scavarda, Carol; Dornbush, Rhea; Bittker, Susan; Cooper, Denise; Nadelman, Robert B; Visintainer, Paul; Schwartz, Ira; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-12-15

    Lyme disease patients with erythema migrans are said to have post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms (PTLDS) if there is persistence of subjective symptoms for at least 6 months following antibiotic treatment and resolution of the skin lesion. The purpose of this study was to characterize PTLDS in patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease followed for >10 years. Adult patients with erythema migrans with a positive skin or blood culture for Borrelia burgdorferi were enrolled in a prospective study beginning in 1991 and followed up at 6 months and annually thereafter to determine the long-term outcome of this infection. The genotype of the infecting strain of B. burgdorferi was evaluated in subjects with PTLDS. One hundred twenty-eight subjects with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease, of whom 55% were male, were followed for a mean ± SD of 14.98 ± 2.71 years (median = 15 years; range = 11-20 years). Fourteen (10.9%) were regarded as having possible PTLDS, but only 6 (4.7%) had PTLDS documented at their last study visit. Nine (64.3%) had only a single symptom. None of the 6 with PTLDS at their last visit was considered to be functionally impaired by the symptom(s). PTLDS was not associated with a particular genotype of B. burgdorferi. PTLDS may persist for >10 years in some patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease. Such long-standing symptoms were not associated with functional impairment or a particular strain of B. burgdorferi. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Neurofibromatosis without Neurofibromas: Confirmation of a Genotype-Phenotype Correlation and Implications for Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Quintáns

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a multisystem disease with autosomal dominant inheritance and complete penetrance diagnosed by clinical findings. Cutaneous neurofibromas are present in almost all adult patients in the dermis, epidermis or along the peripheral nerves. Plexiform neurofibromas are subcutaneous or deep lesions involving nerve plexuses or roots. Neurofibromas can degenerate into malignant tumors, with important prognostic implications. NF1 shows a broad clinic variability even within a single family. Exceptions are cases reporting the in-frame microdeletion c.2970_2972delAAT, presenting with the typical pigmentary features of NF1, but no cutaneous or plexiform neurofibromas. We report a patient with a de novo c.2970_2972delAAT mutation who had few café-au-lait spots, only 2 of which measured >15 mm, axillary and submammary freckling, a flat angioma extending over the neck, arm and trunk, a high arched palate, micrognathia, macrocephaly, pes cavus and scoliosis. There was complete absence of observable cutaneous neurofibromas as well as external plexiform neurofibromas. She had had epileptic seizures since childhood; however, a diagnosis of NF1 had not been confirmed until she was 38, partly due to the paucity of characteristic cutaneous stigmata. We confirm the association of the c.2970_2972delAAT mutation in NF1 with a particular clinical phenotype, especially with lack of detectable neurofibromas. For an appropriate management of patients and family counseling, molecular study of the NF1 gene should be considered in patients not fulfilling NIH criteria when other features suggestive of NF1 are present. In the absence of neurofibromas, starting NF1 testing with the screening of exon 17 may be worthwhile.

  3. Confirmation of ovarian homogeneity in post-vitellogenic cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Mariah J; Servid, Sarah A; Cavinato, Anna G; Van Eenennaam, Joel P; Doroshov, Serge I; Struffenegger, Peter; Webb, Molly A H

    2014-02-01

    Assessing stage of oocyte maturity in female sturgeon by calculating oocyte polarization index (PI) is a necessary tool for both conservation propagation managers and caviar producers to know when to hormonally induce spawning. We tested the assumption that sampling ovarian follicles from one section of one ovary is sufficient for calculating an oocyte PI representative of oocyte maturity for an individual animal. Short-wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy (SW-NIR) scans were performed on three positions per ovary for five fish prior to caviar harvest. Samples of ovarian follicles were subsequently taken from the exact location of the SW-NIR scans for calculation of oocyte PI and follicle diameter. Oocyte PI was statistically different though not biologically relevant within an ovary and between ovaries in four of five fish. Follicle diameter was statistically different but not biologically relevant within an ovary in three of five fish. There were no differences in follicle diameter between ovaries. No statistical differences were observed between SW-NIR spectra collected at different locations within an ovary or between ovaries. These results emphasize the importance of utilizing both oocyte PI measurement and progesterone-induced oocyte maturation assays while deciding when to hormonally induce spawning in sturgeon females.

  4. Do confessions taint perceptions of handwriting evidence? An empirical test of the forensic confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukucka, Jeff; Kassin, Saul M

    2014-06-01

    Citing classic psychological research and a smattering of recent studies, Kassin, Dror, and Kukucka (2013) proposed the operation of a forensic confirmation bias, whereby preexisting expectations guide the evaluation of forensic evidence in a self-verifying manner. In a series of studies, we tested the hypothesis that knowing that a defendant had confessed would taint people's evaluations of handwriting evidence relative to those not so informed. In Study 1, participants who read a case summary in which the defendant had previously confessed were more likely to erroneously conclude that handwriting samples from the defendant and perpetrator were authored by the same person, and were more likely to judge the defendant guilty, compared with those in a no-confession control group. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings using a within-subjects design in which participants rated the same samples both before and after reading a case summary. These findings underscore recent critiques of the forensic sciences as subject to bias, and suggest the value of insulating forensic examiners from contextual information.

  5. The impact of meningococcal polymerase chain reaction testing on laboratory confirmation of invasive meningococcal disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drew, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Laboratory methods of diagnosis were examined for 266 children with invasive meningococcal disease. Seventy-five (36%) of 207 cases with bloodstream infection had both positive blood culture and blood meningococcal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 130 (63%) negative blood culture and positive blood PCR, and 2 (1%) had positive blood culture and negative blood PCR. Sixty-three percent of cases were diagnosed by PCR alone.

  6. Artificial cloud test confirms volcanic ash detection using infrared spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A. J.; Dezitter, F.; Davies, I.; Weber, K.; Birnfeld, M.; Moriano, D.; Bernardo, C.; Vogel, A.; Prata, G. S.; Mather, T. A.; Thomas, H. E.; Cammas, J.; Weber, M.

    2016-05-01

    Airborne volcanic ash particles are a known hazard to aviation. Currently, there are no means available to detect ash in flight as the particles are too fine (radii < 30 μm) for on-board radar detection and, even in good visibility, ash clouds are difficult or impossible to detect by eye. The economic cost and societal impact of the April/May 2010 Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generated renewed interest in finding ways to identify airborne volcanic ash in order to keep airspace open and avoid aircraft groundings. We have designed and built a bi-spectral, fast-sampling, uncooled infrared camera device (AVOID) to examine its ability to detect volcanic ash from commercial jet aircraft at distances of more than 50 km ahead. Here we report results of an experiment conducted over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of France, confirming the ability of the device to detect and quantify volcanic ash in an artificial ash cloud created by dispersal of volcanic ash from a second aircraft. A third aircraft was used to measure the ash in situ using optical particle counters. The cloud was composed of very fine ash (mean radii ~10 μm) collected from Iceland immediately after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and had a vertical thickness of ~200 m, a width of ~2 km and length of between 2 and 12 km. Concentrations of ~200 μg m-3 were identified by AVOID at distances from ~20 km to ~70 km. For the first time, airborne remote detection of volcanic ash has been successfully demonstrated from a long-range flight test aircraft.

  7. Artificial cloud test confirms volcanic ash detection using infrared spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A J; Dezitter, F; Davies, I; Weber, K; Birnfeld, M; Moriano, D; Bernardo, C; Vogel, A; Prata, G S; Mather, T A; Thomas, H E; Cammas, J; Weber, M

    2016-05-09

    Airborne volcanic ash particles are a known hazard to aviation. Currently, there are no means available to detect ash in flight as the particles are too fine (radii ash clouds are difficult or impossible to detect by eye. The economic cost and societal impact of the April/May 2010 Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull generated renewed interest in finding ways to identify airborne volcanic ash in order to keep airspace open and avoid aircraft groundings. We have designed and built a bi-spectral, fast-sampling, uncooled infrared camera device (AVOID) to examine its ability to detect volcanic ash from commercial jet aircraft at distances of more than 50 km ahead. Here we report results of an experiment conducted over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of France, confirming the ability of the device to detect and quantify volcanic ash in an artificial ash cloud created by dispersal of volcanic ash from a second aircraft. A third aircraft was used to measure the ash in situ using optical particle counters. The cloud was composed of very fine ash (mean radii ~10 μm) collected from Iceland immediately after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and had a vertical thickness of ~200 m, a width of ~2 km and length of between 2 and 12 km. Concentrations of ~200 μg m(-3) were identified by AVOID at distances from ~20 km to ~70 km. For the first time, airborne remote detection of volcanic ash has been successfully demonstrated from a long-range flight test aircraft.

  8. Was the increase in culture-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Denmark during the 1990s a surveillance artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Teunis, Peter; Simonsen, Jacob; Krogfelt, Karen A; Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Takkinen, Johanna; Mølbak, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    In 1991, 1999 and 2006, randomly selected individuals from the Danish Central Personal Register provided a serum sample. From individuals aged 30 years and above, 500 samples from each year were analysed for Campylobacter IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies using a direct ELISA method. We applied a seroincidence calculator available from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to perform a mathematical back-calculation to estimate the annual Campylobacter seroincidence in the Danish population. The estimated Campylobacter seroincidence did not differ significantly between the 1991, 1999 and 2006 studies although the reported number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection increased 2.5 fold from 1993 to 1999 among individuals aged 30 years and above. This suggests that Campylobacter was widely present in the Danish population before the increase in poultry-associated clinical Campylobacter infections observed from 1993 to 2001 among individuals of this age groups.

  9. Final Technical Resource Confirmation Testing at the Raft River Geothermal Project, Cassia County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaspey, Douglas J.

    2008-01-30

    Incorporates the results of flow tests for geothermal production and injection wells in the Raft River geothermal field in southern Idaho. Interference testing was also accomplished across the wellfield.

  10. Confirming the Factor Structure of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale: Comparing the Utility of Three Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    This study validated the factor structure of a popular assessment of learner's cognitive test anxiety. Following recent findings in a study with Argentinean students' use of the Spanish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS), this study tested the factor structure using data from 742 students who completed the original English version…

  11. A cultural congruence test for primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayanova L. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this article relies on the principles of the cultural-historical theory, which defines cultural impact as the main driving force behind psychological development. Based on the assumption that culture is a set of normative situations, the study identifies rules that are typical for primary school students in big Russian cities. These rules are grouped into what we refer to as factors of cultural compliance, which ultimately can be seen as indicators of pupils’ cultural congruence. In specifying the cultural congruence of primary school students, we take into account not only the rules of school life but also the whole range of stable rules for children 7- to 10-years-old. Researchers at the Psychology Institute of the Higher University of the Chinese Academy of Science (Wang, Zhu, & Shi, 2011 call such rules usual or contextually usual. We include rules that govern the behavior of children who have cultural differences, so in this article we are talking about the rules that are typical for children of this age in Russia. The goal of the study was to develop a test to diagnose the level of cultural congruence. The test was exposed to psychometric evaluation for validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. Factor analysis by means of varimax rotation provided for calibration of the rules by consolidating them into factors. These factors underpin the test and include the categories social interaction, academic competence, regulation, obedience, self-service, and self-control. In accordance with the principles employed in psychology, the factors confirm the construct validity of the test in relation to children’s development when they are between 7 and 10 years old. The study confirms that learning is the main activity at this age by introducing a factor that brings together rules inherent in normative situations in the education process. The social setting for psychological development, viewed as a specific

  12. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transit between sites counts toward the waiting period if the STT or BAT who conducted the screening test...) You or another BAT or STT, or an employer representative, must observe the employee during the waiting... or STT conducted the screening test. (c) Complete Step 1 of the ATF. (d) Direct the employee to...

  13. Thin magnesium layer confirmed as an antibacterial and biocompatible implant coating in a co‑culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaatreh, Sarah; Haffner, David; Strauss, Madlen; Dauben, Thomas; Zamponi, Christiane; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Quandt, Eckhard; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Bader, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Implant-associated infections commonly result from biofilm‑forming bacteria and present severe complications in total joint arthroplasty. Therefore, there is a requirement for the development of biocompatible implant surfaces that prevent bacterial biofilm formation. The present study coated titanium samples with a thin, rapidly corroding layer of magnesium, which were subsequently investigated with respect to their antibacterial and cytotoxic surface properties using a Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and human osteoblast (hOB) co‑culture model. Primary hOBs and S. epidermidis were co‑cultured on cylindrical titanium samples (Ti6Al4V) coated with pure magnesium via magnetron sputtering (5 µm thickness) for 7 days. Uncoated titanium test samples served as controls. Vital hOBs were identified by trypan blue staining at days 2 and 7. Planktonic S. epidermidis were quantified by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The quantification of biofilm‑bound S. epidermidis on the surfaces of test samples was performed by ultrasonic treatment and CFU counting at days 2 and 7. The number of planktonic and biofilm‑bound S. epidermidis on the magnesium‑coated samples decreased by four orders of magnitude when compared with the titanium control following 7 days of co‑culture. The number of vital hOBs on the magnesium‑coated samples was observed to increase (40,000 cells/ml) when compared with the controls (20,000 cells/ml). The results of the present study indicate that rapidly corroding magnesium‑coated titanium may be a viable coating material that possesses antibacterial and biocompatible properties. A co‑culture test is more rigorous than a monoculture study, as it accounts for confounding effects and assesses additional interactions that are more representative of in vivo situations. These results provide a foundation for the future testing of this type of surface in animals.

  14. Field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, H C; Granade, T C; Nunez, C A; Meza, R; Terrell, S; Amador, L; George, J R

    1997-03-01

    To determine the ability of simple, rapid tests to identify HIV-1 antibody-positive specimens in field settings using the World Health Organization's (WHO) alternative testing strategies. Three-phase evaluation of simple, rapid assays using banked specimens and prospectively collected serum specimens at regional hospitals and rural clinics. Seven test (Retrocell, Genie, HIVCHEK, SUDS HIV-1, Testpack, Serodia HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 RTD) were evaluated and results compared with standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot results (phase 1). Further evaluation consisted of prospective testing of routine specimens at regional (phase 2; n = 900) and rural, peripheral laboratories (phase 3; n = 1266) throughout Honduras with selected assays. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay and combination of assays for each phase to evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO alternative testing strategies. All tests in all phases were > 99% sensitive after correcting for technical errors, with two exceptions (SUDS, phase 1; HIVCHEK, phase 3). In phase 3, where the testing algorithm was diagnostic, several combinations of assays were 100% sensitive and specific using WHO strategy II or III. For the Honduras Ministry of Health, the combination of Retrocell and Genie was found to be equally sensitive, more specific (no indeterminate results), and less expensive than EIA/Western blot. Combinations of rapid, simple HIV antibody assays provide sensitivity and specificity performance comparable to EIA/Western blot. Application of these combinations in the WHO alternative testing strategies provides an inexpensive and effective method of determining HIV status. Assay combinations using these strategies can be easily performed in small, rural laboratories and have been implemented in routine HIV screening in Honduras.

  15. A patch test confirmed phenobarbital-induced fixed drug eruption in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadly, Zohra; Aouam, Karim; Chaabane, Amel; Belhadjali, Hichem; Abderrazzak Boughattas, Naceur; Zili, Jamel Eddine

    2014-06-01

    A-10-year-old girl was referred to our department for multiple hyperpigmented plaques. One week previously, she had been given one suppository of acetylsalicylic acid - phenobarbital for fever. Twelve hours after the drug intake the child developed pruritic red plaques on the left thigh. Six weeks after resolution of the acute reaction, patch tests were performed separately, with phenobarbital and acetylsalicylic acid. On 48-hour reading, only the phenobarbital patch test on residual pigmented lesion was positive. Because of possible cross-reactions between aromatic anticonvulsants, subsequent patch tests using carbamazepine and phenytoin on residual pigmented lesions were performed. They were all negative at 48-hour reading. To our knowledge, only two isolated pediatric cases of Phenobarbital-induced FDE have been reported in the literature. In this case report, as it was difficult to determine whether phenobarbital or acetylsalicylic acid was responsible for this reaction, subsequent patch tests allowed the identification of the culprit component since it was positive to phenobarbital.

  16. Evaluation of Four Commercially Available Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Phenotypic Confirmation Tests

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in members of the Enterobacteriaceae can confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aztreonam, and penicillin. As such, the accurate detection of ESBL producers is essential for the appropriate selection of antibiotic therapy. Twenty previously characterized isolates and 49 clinical isolates suspected of ESBL production were tested by four ESBL phenotypic confirmatory methods for accuracy and ease of use. The four ESBL phenotypic ...

  17. Report on system confirmation test of the used filter transporting vessel. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kiyoto; Morita, Shin-ichi; Hanada, Keiji; Ouchi, Kazutoshi; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Uryu, Mitsuru; Karino, Motonobu

    1997-05-01

    As an exchanging method of vacuum filter element installed at vacuum system of the Recycle Equipment Test Facility (RETF), the cask method is determined to use at a viewpoint of pollution expansion protection and radiation exposure reduction of workers. A principle proof test was conducted after trial protection of main parts according to design conducted in 1995 fiscal year. As a result, it was found that filter element (after storing a container) could be exhausted without any problem, in falling test of exhausting chute, that a setting method of exchanger onto upper part of the filter unit was required to improve, that a set of filter exchanging medium could be conducted scarcely any problem, that a load required to push a filter element into the determined position was at least 37 kg, and that an allowable interval at jointing with a double-door flange was 0.8 mm and air tightness could be kept if its inclination is less tha 0.85 mm. (G.K.)

  18. Predictors of having a resistance test following confirmed virological failure of combination antiretroviral therapy: data from EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe V; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    these recommendations. Methods: In EuroSIDA, virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed VL>1,000 copies/ml after =4 months continuous use of any antiretroviral in a =3-drug regimen started during or after 2002. We assessed whether a resistance test was performed around VF (from 4 months before to 1 year after VF...

  19. Validation of a Blood-Based Laboratory Test to Aid in the Confirmation of a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schwartz (Emanuel); R. Izmailov (Rauf); M. Spain (Michael); A. Barnes (Anthony); J.P. Mapes (James); P.C. Guest (Paul); H. Rahmoune (Hassan); S. Pietsch (Sandra); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); J. Steiner (Johann); D. Koethe (Dagmar); L. Kranaster (Laura); P. Ohrmann (Patricia); T. Suslow (Thomas); Y. Levin (Yishai); B. Bogerts (Bernhard); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); G. McAllister (George); N. Weber (Natalya); D. Niebuhr (David); D. Cowan (David); R.H. Yolken (Robert); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: We describe the validation of a serum-based test developed by Rules-Based Medicine which can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In preliminary studies using multiplex immunoassay profiling technology, we identified a disease signature comprised of 51

  20. Johanson-Blizzard syndrome with mild phenotypic features confirmed by UBR1 gene testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naim Alkhouri; Barbara Kaplan; Marsha Kay; Amy Shealy; Carol Crowe; Susanne Bauhuber; Nartin Zenker

    2008-01-01

    Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and is characterized by hypoplastic nasal alae, mental retardation, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature, scalp defects, dental abnormalities and abnormal hair patterns. Growth hormone deficiency, hypopituitarism, and impaired glucagon secretion response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia have been reported. Congenital heart defects have also been described in this condition. Mental retardation is typically moderate to severe in patients with JBS; however, normal intelligence can occur. In the pancreas, there is a selective defect of acinar tissue, whereas the islets of Langerhans and ducts are preserved. Diabetes has been reported in older children, suggesting the progressive nature of pancreatic disease. The molecular basis of JBS has recently been mapped to chromosome 15q15-q21 with identified mutations in the UBR1 gene. We report the case of a 7-year-old female with pancreatic insufficiency and mild phenotypic features, in whom the diagnosis of JBS was established using recently described molecular testing for the UBR1 gene.

  1. Cross-validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy confirmed with some cross-cultural differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Alcorta-Garza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians’ professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners.Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and thirteen Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with oblique rotation (promax to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis. Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S, were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons.Results: A total of 715 (80% surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  2. Influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation with confirmed influenza in the 2010-11 seasons: a test-negative observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen C Cheng

    Full Text Available Immunisation programs are designed to reduce serious morbidity and mortality from influenza, but most evidence supporting the effectiveness of this intervention has focused on disease in the community or in primary care settings. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against hospitalisation with confirmed influenza. We compared influenza vaccination status in patients hospitalised with PCR-confirmed influenza with patients hospitalised with influenza-negative respiratory infections in an Australian sentinel surveillance system. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated from the odds ratio of vaccination in cases and controls. We performed both simple multivariate regression and a stratified analysis based on propensity score of vaccination. Vaccination status was ascertained in 333 of 598 patients with confirmed influenza and 785 of 1384 test-negative patients. Overall estimated crude vaccine effectiveness was 57% (41%, 68%. After adjusting for age, chronic comorbidities and pregnancy status, the estimated vaccine effectiveness was 37% (95% CI: 12%, 55%. In an analysis accounting for a propensity score for vaccination, the estimated vaccine effectiveness was 48.3% (95% CI: 30.0, 61.8%. Influenza vaccination was moderately protective against hospitalisation with influenza in the 2010 and 2011 seasons.

  3. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Laboratory Confirmation of Buruli Ulcer Disease-Towards a Point-of-Care Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Beissner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As the major burden of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD occurs in remote rural areas, development of point-of-care (POC tests is considered a research priority to bring diagnostic services closer to the patients. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, a simple, robust and cost-effective technology, has been selected as a promising POC test candidate. Three BUD-specific LAMP assays are available to date, but various technical challenges still hamper decentralized application. To overcome the requirement of cold-chains for transport and storage of reagents, the aim of this study was to establish a dry-reagent-based LAMP assay (DRB-LAMP employing lyophilized reagents.Following the design of an IS2404 based conventional LAMP (cLAMP assay suitable to apply lyophilized reagents, a lyophylization protocol for the DRB-LAMP format was developed. Clinical performance of cLAMP was validated through testing of 140 clinical samples from 91 suspected BUD cases by routine assays, i.e. IS2404 dry-reagent-based (DRB PCR, conventional IS2404 PCR (cPCR, IS2404 qPCR, compared to cLAMP. Whereas qPCR rendered an additional 10% of confirmed cases and samples respectively, case confirmation and positivity rates of DRB-PCR or cPCR (64.84% and 56.43%; 100% concordant results in both assays and cLAMP (62.64% and 52.86% were comparable and there was no significant difference between the sensitivity of the assays (DRB PCR and cPCR, 86.76%; cLAMP, 83.82%. Likewise, sensitivity of cLAMP (95.83% and DRB-LAMP (91.67% were comparable as determined on a set of 24 samples tested positive in all routine assays.Both LAMP formats constitute equivalent alternatives to conventional PCR techniques. Provided the envisaged availability of field friendly DNA extraction formats, both assays are suitable for decentralized laboratory confirmation of BUD, whereby DRB-LAMP scores with the additional advantage of not requiring cold-chains. As validation of the assays was conducted in a third

  4. Genetic Testing Confirmed the Early Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets in a 7-Month-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Siong Poon BSc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome (PHEX have been causally associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR. The early diagnosis of XLHR in infants is challenging when it is based solely on clinical features and biochemical findings. We report a 7-month-old boy with a family history of hypophosphatemic rickets., who demonstrated early clinical evidence of rickets, although serial biochemical findings could not definitively confirm rickets. A sequencing assay targeting the PHEX gene was first performed on the mother’s DNA to screen for mutations in the 5′UTR, 22 coding exons, and the exon-intron junctions. Targeted mutation analysis and mRNA studies were subsequently performed on the boys’ DNA to investigate the pathogenicity of the identified mutation. Genetic screening of the PHEX gene revealed a novel mutation, c.1080-2A>C, at the splice acceptor site in intron 9. The detection of an aberrant mRNA transcript with skipped (loss of exon 10 establishes its pathogenicity and confirms the diagnosis of XLHR in this infant. Genetic testing of the PHEX gene resulted in early diagnosis of XLHR, thus enabling initiation of therapy and prevention of progressive rachitic changes in the infant.

  5. Confirmative laboratory tests and one example of forensic application of the probabilistic approach to the area of convergence in BPA

    CERN Document Server

    Camana, Francesco; Gravina, Nicola; Quintarelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important results in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is the determination of the area of convergence of blood-drop trajectories. This area is directly related to the point of origin of the projections and is often indicative of the point where the main action of a crime has occurred. One of us has recently proposed a method to statistically characterize this area by mean of a probabilistic approach based on the uncertainties of the angles of impact of the stains in the pattern. In our work we present some laboratory tests that confirm the validity of the method, returning good agreement between the empirical and the theoretical data. By comparing the results of different operators, we also show the robustness of the method, in that the results are independent of the analytical approach of the single experimenter. Finally, we describe an example of application to a real forensic case.

  6. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient--Italian Version: A Cross-Cultural Confirmation of the Broader Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Liliana; Mazzone, Domenico; Mazzone, Luigi; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) has been used to define the "broader" (BAP), "medium" (MAP) and "narrow" autism phenotypes (NAP). We used a new Italian version of the AQ to test if difference on AQ scores and the distribution of BAP, MAP and NAP in autism parents (n = 245) versus control parents (n = 300) were replicated in a Sicilian sample.…

  7. Development and psychometric testing of the nursing culture assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerly, Susan M; Yap, Tracey L; Hemmings, Annette; Beckett, Gulbahar; Schafer, John C; Borchers, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    A valid and reliable nursing culture assessment tool aimed at capturing general aspects of nursing culture is needed for use in health care settings to assess and then reshape indicated troubled areas of the nursing culture. This article summarizes the Nursing Culture Assessment Tool's (NCAT) development and reports on a cross-sectional, exploratory investigation of its psychometric properties. The research aims were to test the tool's psychometric properties; discover its dimensionality; and refine the item structure to best represent the construct of nursing culture, an occupational subset of organizational culture. Empirical construct validity was tested using a sample of licensed nurses and nursing assistants (n = 340). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and logistical regression yielded a 6-factor, 19-item solution. Evidence supports the tool's validity for assessing nursing culture as a basis for shaping the culture into one that supports change, thereby accelerating, improving, and advancing nursing best practices and care outcomes.

  8. Seasonal distribution of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in a river in Taiwan evaluated with culture-confirmed and direct DNA extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Min-Che; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Shen, Shu-Min; Huang, Jen-Te; Kao, Po-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the presence and amount of Legionella in along a river in Taiwan, and the relations between seasonal distribution of Legionella spp. and geographic characteristics in the watershed were also evaluated. Water samples were pre-treated and analyzed with culture-confirmed and direct DNA extraction methods. For culture-confirmed method, water samples were cultivated through a series of selective media, and candidate colonies were confirmed by PCR. For direct DNA extraction method, direct DNA extraction was performed from pre-treated water samples. The DNA extracts were analyzed with PCR and DNA sequence analysis for species determination, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to quantify Legionella concentration in the water sample. In all, 150 water samples were included in this study, with 73 (48.6%) water samples detected with Legionella spp., and 17 with L. pneumophila. Over 80% Legionella spp. detections were through direct DNA extraction method, but more than 80% L. pneumophila detections were through culture-confirmed method. While detection of Legionella spp. was done with two methods, positive results were found through only one method. Legionella spp. was detected in all seasons with detection rate ranging between 34.3-58.8% and seasonal average concentration from 1.9 × 102 to 7.1 × 103 CFU/L. Most of the L. pneumophila detections were from samples collected in fall (38.2%) and summer (6.0%), which also coincided with increased cases of Legionellosis reported through Center of Disease Control in Taiwan. The high prevalence and concentration of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in the surface waters should be further evaluated for potential health risks.

  9. Comparison of a recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test for serological confirmation of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Islay; Alvarez, Elvio L; Fernández, Carmen; Miranda, Alina

    2002-04-01

    A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA), BioSCREEN anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38), secondary (n = 10), early latent (n = 28) and congenital syphilis (n = 2), patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8), infectious mononucleosis (n = 7), hepatitis (n = 9), diabetes mellitus (n = 11), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13), leprosy (n = 11), tuberculosis (n = 9), HIV/Aids ( n= 12), systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4), rheumatic fever (n = 3), old-persons (n = 9), pregnant women (n = 29) and blood donors (n = 164). The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  10. Comparison of a Recombinant-antigen Enzyme Immunoassay with Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Test for Serological Confirmation of Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant-antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA, BioSCREEN TM anti-Treponema pallidum, was compared favorably with the T. pallidum hemagglutination test, in the detection of specific antibodies in different groups of sera from patients with primary (n = 38, secondary (n = 10, early latent (n = 28 and congenital syphilis (n = 2, patients with leptospirosis ( n= 8, infectious mononucleosis (n = 7, hepatitis (n = 9, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, rheumatoid arthritis (n = 13, leprosy (n = 11, tuberculosis (n = 9, HIV/Aids ( n= 12, systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 4, rheumatic fever (n = 3, old-persons (n = 9, pregnant women (n = 29 and blood donors (n = 164. The coincidence between them was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity of the EIA were 93.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Fifteen serum specimens belonging to old-persons, pregnant women, blood donors, and patients with human leptospirosis, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and rheumatic fever gave false-positive results by Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and/or Rapid Plasma Reagin. The EIA can be used as alternative method for the serological confirmation of syphilis.

  11. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  12. Detection of EPO-Fc fusion protein in human blood: screening and confirmation protocols for sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Christian; Thevis, Mario

    2012-11-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been under investigation for several years as a pharmaceutical drug target. Clinical studies have shown that fusion proteins consisting of human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) and the Fc-part of IgG can be transported after pulmonary administration via FcRn across the airway epithelium to the blood stream. So far, no clinically approved pharmaceutical formulation of EPO-Fc is available. Since various forms of recombinant erythropoietins have been frequently misused by athletes as performance-enhancing agents, EPO-Fc might play a similar role in sports in the future. In order to investigate the detectability of EPO-Fc in human blood, different strategies were tested and developed. Only two of them fulfilled the necessary requirements regarding sensitivity and specificity. A rapid protocol useful for screening purposes first enriches EPO-Fc from human serum via high capacity protein A beads and subsequently detects EPO-Fc in the eluate with a commercial EPO ELISA kit. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method is about 5 pg (45 amol) EPO-Fc and is independent of the serum volume used. For screening and/or confirmation purposes a second protocol was evaluated, which consists of a fast EPO immunopurification step followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate or sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, SAR-PAGE) and Western double-blotting with chemiluminescence detection - a method already established in routine EPO anti-doping control. The latter strategy allows the detection of EPO-Fc in serum together with all other recombinant erythropoietins and with an identical LOD (5 pg/45 amol) as for the rapid screening protocol.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid fecal test to confirm H pylori eradication after therapy: Prospective comparison with a laboratory stool test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucio Trevisani; Viviana Cifalà; Nadia Fusetti; Giuseppe Gilli; Paola Tombesi; Marco Torchiaro; Sergio Boccia; Vincenzo Abbasciano

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical performances of rapid stool test (ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, Meridian Diagnostic Inc.) in the evaluation of eradication therapy of H pylori and to compare it with a well-known and validated laboratory stool test (Amplified IDEA Hp StAR, Dako).METHODS: Stool samples of 122 patients were evaluated after eradication therapy of H pylori. H pyloristatus was assessed by 13C-urea breath test (UBT).Stool specimens were tested using either the rapid immunoassay kit or the laboratory immunoassay kit.RESULTS: Forty-three patients were infected and 79 non-infected. Sensitivity and specificity of ImmunoCard STAT and Hp StAR were 58.14% and 76.4%, and 97.47% and 98.73%, respectively (P > 0.05). Overall agreement between the two tests was 92.6% (113 of 122 cases).CONCLUSION: ImmunoCard STAT seems to have rather low performances, and it cannot be regarded as a reliable tool in the post-treatment setting. Also Hp StAR cannot be recommended to confirm H pylori eradication after treatment.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid fecal test to confirm H pylori eradication after therapy: Prospective comparison with a laboratory stool test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Lucio; Cifalà, Viviana; Fusetti, Nadia; Gilli, Giuseppe; Tombesi, Paola; Torchiaro, Marco; Boccia, Sergio; Abbasciano, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical performances of rapid stool test (ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, Meridian Diagnostic Inc.) in the evaluation of eradication therapy of H pylori and to compare it with a well-known and validated laboratory stool test (Amplified IDEA Hp StAR, Dako). METHODS: Stool samples of 122 patients were evaluated after eradication therapy of H pylori. H pylori status was assessed by 13C-urea breath test (UBT). Stool specimens were tested using either the rapid immunoassay kit or the laboratory immunoassay kit. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were infected and 79 non-infected. Sensitivity and specificity of ImmunoCard STAT and Hp StAR were 58.14% and 76.4%, and 97.47% and 98.73%, respectively (P > 0.05). Overall agreement between the two tests was 92.6% (113 of 122 cases). CONCLUSION: ImmunoCard STAT seems to have rather low performances, and it cannot be regarded as a reliable tool in the post-treatment setting. Also Hp StAR cannot be recommended to confirm H pylori eradication after treatment. PMID:17724805

  15. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness against Hospitalisation with Confirmed Influenza in the 2010–11 Seasons: A Test-negative Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Allen C.; Mark Holmes; Irving, Louis B.; Simon G A Brown; Waterer, Grant W.; Korman, Tony M.; N Deborah Friedman; Sanjaya Senanayake; Dwyer, Dominic E; Stephen Brady; Grahame Simpson; Richard Wood-Baker; John Upham; David Paterson; Christine Jenkins

    2013-01-01

    Immunisation programs are designed to reduce serious morbidity and mortality from influenza, but most evidence supporting the effectiveness of this intervention has focused on disease in the community or in primary care settings. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against hospitalisation with confirmed influenza. We compared influenza vaccination status in patients hospitalised with PCR-confirmed influenza with patients hospitalised with influenza-negative respirat...

  16. Recovery Act. Direct Confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado Using Remote Sensing and On-Site Exploration, Testing, and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Paul [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Skeehan, Kirsten [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Smith, Jerome [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Mink, Roy [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Geohydro, Mink [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Report on the confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado describing the on site testing and analysis to confirm remote sensing identified potential resources. A series of thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Pagosa Springs region and the data collected is analyzed within.

  17. Evaluation of repetitive stimulation test (RST in 30 patients with Myasthenia Gravis, who were previously confirmed by clinical sign and tensilon test 1996-99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Ghabaee M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available est (RST is the most commonly used electrodiagnostic test to asses the defect of neuromuscular transmission, which is reported to be positive in the diffuse and restricted ocular forms 60-95% and 14-50%, respectively. In a cross-sectional study, to determine the efficacy of repetitive stimulation test in myasthenia gravis, we evaluated the results in 30 cases who were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini Hospital during 1996-1999. Patients were first selected clinically and then confirmed by Tensilon test.Various clinical types including generalized and restricted ocular forms with different severity and duration were entered in this study. Considering the fact that the positiveness of the test is enhanced by assessment of more muscle groups, we evaluated decremental response in the facial, proximal and distal muscles of limbs. 90% of patients had the generalized form of the disease, whereas ocular myasthenia gravis was seen only in 10% of the cases. 74% of females and 73% of males showed positive response (overall: 73.3%. No significant association was found between the positive response, and age and sex. Peaks of incidences of the disease for the males were in fourth and sixth decades and for the females in thired decades

  18. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  19. IQ Tests Are Not Culturally Biased for Blacks & Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that these standardized tests of intelligence--the Peabody Picture Vocabulary, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Stanford-Binet, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wonderlic Personnel Test, and most likely many other similar tests--show practically no evidence of differential culture bias for blacks and whites. (Author)

  20. Comparison of PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis in suspected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhosssein; Sadeh, Maryam; Khalili, Mohammad Bagher; Mollaabedin, Mansour; Sazmand, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Brucellosis has long been prevalent in Iran, with considerable medical and economic importance. Timely diagnosis is needed for early management and effective prevention of its consequences in human beings and animals. Current diagnostic methods impose peculiar challenges in terms of analytical method performance. This study compares diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive Value of Positive (PVP) and Predictive Value of Negative (PVN) for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Wright agglutination test and blood culture used for patients suspected of brucellosis. In 120 patients clinically suspected of brucellosis and referred by physicians to the Yazd central Medical Laboratory, some relevant demographic, occupational, nutritional and clinical data were collected. Also, venous blood samples were drawn for diagnosis of brucellosis using PCR, Wright agglutination test and blood culture techniques. The most frequent symptom of patients was arthralgia (82 cases, 68.3%). PCR was positive in 25 cases (20.8%), wright test in 21 patients (17.5%) and blood culture in 6 cases (5%). In 20 out of 21 wright-positive cases, PCR was positive and all of the culture-positive patients had positive PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PVP and PVN of blood culture compared to PCR (as the gold standard test) were 24, 100, 100 and 86%, respectively, but the above parameters when PCR is compared with blood culture (as gold standard) were 100, 83, 24 and 95%, respectively. PCR has better analytical performances than blood culture for diagnosis of brucellosis and is suitable for confirmation of Wright-positive cases.

  1. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  2. Evaluation of a commercial microarray as a confirmation test for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in isolates from the routine clinical setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, T.N.; Stuart, J.W.; Voets, G.M.; Scharringa, J.; Sande, N. van de; Fluit, A.C.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the diagnostic characteristics of the Check-KPC ESBL microarray as a confirmation test on isolates obtained in a routine clinical setting have not been determined, we evaluated the microarray in a random selection of 346 clinical isolates with a positive ESBL screen test (MIC >1 mg/L for

  3. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to variant angina diagnosed on Holter monitoring and confirmed with cold pressor test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Semi; Aktemur, Tuğba; Kalyoncuoğlu, Muhsin; Durmuş, Gündüz; Can, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    A 52-year-old man complaining of persistent recurring chest pain at night underwent coronary angiogram at another institution. Normal coronaries were observed and he was discharged with muscle spasmolytic prescription. Since symptoms had continued, 24-hour Holter monitoring was ordered at our facility and results revealed huge ST elevation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Cold pressor test performed in catheterization laboratory also resulted in ventricular tachycardia. Nifedipine was prescribed and follow-up Holter monitoring revealed no further vasospastic episodes. Utility of 24-hour Holter rhythm monitoring and cold pressor test in patients with recurrent chest pain at night is demonstrated in this report.

  4. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory method

  5. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  6. Investigating the viability of genetic screening/testing for RA susceptibility using combinations of five confirmed risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Annie; Lunt, Mark; Eyre, Steve; Ke, Xiayi; Thomson, Wendy; Hinks, Anne; Bowes, John; Gibbons, Laura; Plant, Darren; Wilson, Anthony G.; Marinou, Ioanna; Morgan, Ann W.; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne J.; Reid, David M.; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Worthington, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Five loci—the shared epitope (SE) of HLA-DRB1, the PTPN22 gene, a locus on 6q23, the STAT4 gene and a locus mapping to the TRAF1/C5 genetic region—have now been unequivocally confirmed as conferring susceptibility to RA. The largest single effect is conferred by SE. We hypothesized that combinations of susceptibility alleles may increase risk over and above that of any individual locus alone. Methods. We analysed data from 4238 RA cases and 1811 controls, for which genotypes were available at all five loci. Results. Statistical analysis identified eight high-risk combinations conferring an odds ratio >6 compared with carriage of no susceptibility variants and, interestingly, 10% population controls carried a combination conferring high risk. All high-risk combinations included SE, and all but one contained PTPN22. Statistical modelling showed that a model containing only these two loci could achieve comparable sensitivity and specificity to a model including all five. Furthermore, replacing SE (which requires full subtyping at the HLA-DRB1 gene) with DRB1*1/4/10 carriage resulted in little further loss of information (correlation coefficient between models = 0.93). Conclusions. This represents the first exploration of the viability of population screening for RA and identifies several high-risk genetic combinations. However, given the population incidence of RA, genetic screening based on these loci alone is neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific at the current time. PMID:19741008

  7. Brazilian guidelines for the application of transcranial ultrasound as a diagnostic test for the confirmation of brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. Lange

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurosonological studies, specifically transcranial Doppler (TCD and transcranial color-coded duplex (TCCD, have high level of specificity and sensitivity and they are used as complementary tests for the diagnosis of brain death (BD. A group of experts, from the Neurosonology Department of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology, created a task force to determine the criteria for the following aspects of diagnosing BD in Brazil: the reliability of TCD methodology; the reliability of TCCD methodology; neurosonology training and skills; the diagnosis of encephalic circulatory arrest; and exam documentation for BD. The results of this meeting are presented in the current paper.

  8. [Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test as an Alternative for the Mouse Inoculation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, R.; Hörnlimann, B.; Wandeler, A. I.; Kappeler, A.; Kipfer, R.; Peterhans, E.

    1990-01-01

    Rabies has disappeared from large parts of Switzerland. Due to systematic oral fox-vaccination campaings that started in 1987, cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals have been confined to the western frontier with France in the last three years. Nevertheless, some cases of severe exposition of man by rabid or rabies-suspect animals still occur. Rabies can be diagnosed in brain smears of infected animals with high specificity and sensitivity by a direct immunofluorescence method. According to WHO recommendations, negative results are to be confirmed in cases of a human exposition by intracerebral inoculation of brain suspensions in three-weeks-old mice. This method has an excellent sensitivity and is able to detect false-negative results in immunofluorescence, which occur in a very small percentage (0.043%). The disadvantage of this confirmatory assay is the sacrification of relatively high numbers of mice (in the Swiss rabies center about 1,300 animals each year), and the long time required for a final diagnosis: 7-20 days in positive, 21 days in negative cases. The cultivation of virus from brain suspensions on a mouse neuroblastoma cell line is a tempting alternative to the mouse inoculation test. This method usually provides a conclusive diagnosis within a few days. However, in our hands it showed in preliminary experiments an unsatisfactory sensitivity (80.7%). The necessity to carry out strict reproducibility controls in this assay has to be emphasized. Further work must be invested in the improvement of the rabies tissue culture infection test and a careful long-term comparison with the mouse inoculation test will be necessary before the mouse inoculation test can be replaced.

  9. Denver Developmental Screening Test: Cultural Variations in Southeast Asian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Tests (DDST) was administered to 25 Southeast Asian children (one to five years old) and scores of 150 other DDSTs performed on Southeast Asian children were reviewed. Findings suggested that scores may reflect differences in social and cultural experiences between these children and the standardization sample.…

  10. An Examination of Culture Bias in the Wonderlic Personnel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    Internal evidence of cultural bias, in terms of various types of item analysis, was sought in the Wonderlic Personnel Test results in large, representative samples of whites and Negroes totalling some 1,500 subjects. Essentially, the lack of any appreciable Race X Items interaction and the high interracial similarity in rank order of item…

  11. CYTOTOXICITY TESTING OF WOUND DRESSINGS USING METHYLCELLULOSE CELL-CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; NIEUWENHUIS, P; JONKMAN, MF

    1992-01-01

    Wound dressings may induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we check several, mostly commercially available, wound dressings for cytotoxicity. We used our previously described, newly developed and highly sensitive 7 d methylcellulose cell culture with fibroblasts as the test system. Cytotoxicity is

  12. Utility of the ceftazidime-imipenem antagonism test (CIAT to detect and confirm the presence of inducible AmpC beta-lactamases among enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of AmpC beta-lactamase production by enterobacteria has been problematic. Contrary to ESBLs, no specific guidelines are available for detection and confirmation of AmpC production by clinical relevant microorganisms. Moreover, some bacterial species may produce inducible AmpC beta-lactamases that can be easily overlooked by routine susceptibility tests. We reported here a new test based on the strong inducible effect of imipenem on AmpC genes and the consequent antagonism with ceftazidime. This test is very simple and proved to be helpful in detecting AmpC-inducible enzymes among several species of clinical isolates.

  13. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontweka, Lameck N.; Deng, Lul O.; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K.; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Bior, Bior K.; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A.; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4–6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5–95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4–100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2–93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8–85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7–100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5–100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited. PMID:27992488

  14. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontweka, Lameck N; Deng, Lul O; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A; Wamala, Joseph F; Bior, Bior K; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S; Luquero, Francisco J; Page, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4-6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5-95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4-100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2-93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8-85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7-100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5-100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited.

  15. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Marek, E-mail: mag@iq.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Gawron, Stanisław, E-mail: s.gawron@komel.katowice.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Sieroń, Aleksander, E-mail: sieron1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Pawłowska–Góral, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgoral@sum.edu.pl [Department of Food and Nutrition in Sosnowiec. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 8 Jednosci Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Cieślar, Grzegorz, E-mail: cieslar1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Sieroń–Stołtny, Karolina [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Article presents a test chamber intended to be used for in vitro cell culture in homogenous constant magnetic field with parametrically variable magnitude. We constructed test chambers with constant parameters of control homeostasis of cell culture for the different parameters of static magnetic field. The next step was the computer calculation of 2D and 3D simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the chamber. The analysis of 2D and 3D calculations of magnetic induction in the cells' exposition plane reveals, in comparison to the detection results, the greater accuracy of 2D calculations (Figs. 9 and 10). The divergence in 2D method was 2–4% and 8 to 10% in 3D method (reaching 10% only out of the cells′ cultures margins). -- Highlights: ► We present test chamber to be used for in vitro cell culture in static magnetic field. ► The technical data of the chamber construction was presented. ► 2D versus 3D simulation of static magnetic field distribution in chamber was reported. ► We report the accuracy of 2D calculation than 3D.

  16. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailam Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (≤0.01 of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  ≤0.05 to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal noninvasive testing for post-treatment confirmation of Helicobacter pylori eradication and the impact of patient adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boklage SH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan H Boklage,1 Allen W Mangel,2 Varun Ramamohan,2 Deirdre Mladsi,2 Tao Wang1 1Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc, Princeton, NJ, 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Background: The treatment failure rate for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is ~20% due to poor patient compliance and increased antibiotic resistance. This analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing to confirm eradication of H. pylori infection in adults.Methods: Decision-analytic models evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal post-treatment testing (urea breath test [UBT] or monoclonal fecal antigen test [mFAT] vs no testing (Model 1, and UBT vs mFAT after adjusting for patient adherence to testing (Model 2 in adults who previously received first-line antimicrobial therapy. Patients testing positive received second-line quadruple therapy; no further action was taken for those testing negative or with no testing (Model 1 or for those nonadherent to testing (Model 2. In addition to testing costs, excess lifetime costs and reduced quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs due to continuing H. pylori infection were considered in the model.Results: Expected total costs per patient were higher for post-treatment testing (UBT: US$325.76; mFAT: US$242.12 vs no testing (US$182.41 in Model 1 and for UBT (US$336.75 vs mFAT (US$326.24 in Model 2. Expected QALYs gained per patient were 0.71 and 0.72 for UBT and mFAT, respectively, vs no testing (Model 1, and the same was 0.37 for UBT vs mFAT (Model 2. The estimated incremental costs per QALY gained for post-treatment testing vs no testing were US$82.90–US$202.45 and, after adjusting for adherence, US$28.13 for UBT vs mFAT.Conclusion: Universal post-treatment testing was found to be cost-effective for confirming eradication of H. pylori infection following first-line therapy. Better adherence to UBT relative to mFAT was the key to its cost-effectiveness. Keywords: health

  18. Repositioning through Culture: Testing Change in Connectivity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Plaza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic knowledge-driven innovations can play an important role in the economic development of cities and regions. Cultural events and infrastructures can act as powerful connectivity engines, generating new connections, rewiring links, and repositioning institutions/cities/regions on the Internet map. Within this framework, this paper aims to contribute to the analytical understanding of culture-led repositioning. For this purpose we perform regression analysis with cultural networks (observational cross-sectional network data from digital media for a specific cultural case study: the Basque Culinary Center (BCC, a higher education faculty of haute cuisine promoted by the University of Mondragon along with a group of Michelin-starred chefs. Results show that a cultural sector, such as haute cuisine, can contribute to structural changes in connectivity patterns, putting an institution/city/region on the media map. It is the connection (in the online press of the BCC to the influential Michelin-starred chefs that can fuel the accumulation of press articles (media items on the BCC; and it is precisely this accumulation of press articles that can impact BCC revenues. Put differently, the co-branding between the influential Michelin chefs and the BCC may have put the BCC on the press map, promoting new student registrations and fostering Basque haute cuisine. The main contribution of this article is a prototype of regression analysis to test repositioning with network data.

  19. [Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero-Téllez, Mónica; Recacha, Esther; de Cueto, Marina; Pascual, Álvaro

    2016-02-16

    Mass spectrometry Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) helps in the rapid identification of microorganisms causing blood stream infection. Rapid and reliable methods are required to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results from blood culture isolates. An evaluation was performed on the reliability of a method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood culture isolates from briefly incubated solid medium cultures. The agreement between the evaluated and standard methods was 99.3%. The major and minor error rates were 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively, and no very major errors were observed. The inoculation of briefly incubated solid medium cultures into antimicrobial susceptibility testing panels is an easy and reliable technique, and helps to decrease the turnaround time for reporting antimicrobial susceptibility results of positive blood cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Repository performance confirmation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-09-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part

  1. A test of the culture-performance related distress hypothesis among employees in a collectivistic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheko, M.M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To test the notions that people from collectivist cultures may experience more intense Sensitivity Towards being the Target of Upward Comparison (STTUC responses the current study investigated the relationships between traditional gender role orientation and STTUC, and collectivistic cultural orientation and STTUC. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional survey approach, a convenient sample of 464 participants from various organizations in Botswana completed the questionnaire. The participants were mostly female (59.9%, in a dating relationship (67.9%, and between the ages of 20 and 57 (M = 32.69, SD = 7.43. In the main, the hypotheses were not supported as the correlation results indicated that neither collectivistic cultural orientation nor traditional gender role orientation were linked to STTUC experiences. Discussions center on the importance of reporting and suggesting theoretical justifications for the so called ‘”nonsignificant findings.” Implications of the empirical findings and the future research directions are also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test as an alternative to Western blot for confirmation of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Baughan, Eleonore; Hodinka, Richard L

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, a new HIV diagnostic algorithm has been proposed that uses an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay instead of Western blot or immunofluoresence for confirmatory testing. To evaluate the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test (Multispot) as an alternative to Western blot analysis for confirmation of HIV infection. A series of 205 serum and plasma specimens positive for HIV-1 or HIV-2 were used to compare the performance of Multispot to a standard HIV-1 Western blot. Positive samples included 63 specimens from patients>18 months of age, 33 proficiency survey specimens, and 109 specimens from nine commercial seroconversion and performance panels. In addition, 63 specimens from 51 HIV-exposed, uninfected children≤18 months of age in various stages of seroreversion and 192 HIV-negative samples were tested. Specimens were initially screened using a 4th generation HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay. Multispot readily discriminated between individuals with HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection and those who were uninfected. Of the 205 samples repeatedly reactive by the 4th generation screening assay, infection status was correctly confirmed by Multispot in 83.9% (172/205) compared to 68.8% (141/205) for Western blot. Multispot detected HIV-1 earlier in 27.6% of low-titer antibody specimens called indeterminate by Western blot, and effectively reduced the number of indeterminate results in seroreverting HIV-1 exposed, uninfected infants and for HIV-2 infections misinterpreted as indeterminate or positive by HIV-1 Western blot. Multispot offers speed and simplicity over Western blot and has an excellent performance for differentiation and confirmation of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-invasive neurosensory testing used to diagnose and confirm successful surgical management of lower extremity deep distal posterior compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyton Gregory P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is characterized by elevated pressures within a closed space of an extremity muscular compartment, causing pain and/or disability by impairing the neuromuscular function of the involved compartment. The diagnosis of CECS is primarily made on careful history and physical exam. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of CECS is invasive intra-compartmental pressure measurements. Sensory nerve function is often diminished during symptomatic periods of CECS. Sensory nerve function can be documented with the use of non-painful, non-invasive neurosensory testing. Methods Non-painful neurosensory testing of the myelinated large sensory nerve fibers of the lower extremity were obtained with the Pressure Specified Sensory Device™ in a 25 year old male with history and invasive compartment pressures consistent with CECS both before and after running on a tread mill. After the patient's first operation to release the deep distal posterior compartment, the patient failed to improve. Repeat sensory testing revealed continued change in his function with exercise. He was returned to the operating room where a repeat procedure revealed that the deep posterior compartment was not completely released due to an unusual anatomic variant, and therefore complete release was accomplished. Results The patient's symptoms numbness in the plantar foot and pain in the distal calf improved after this procedure and his repeat sensory testing performed before and after running on the treadmill documented this improvement. Conclusion This case report illustrates the principal that non-invasive neurosensory testing can detect reversible changes in sensory nerve function after a provocative test and may be a helpful non-invasive technique to managing difficult cases of persistent lower extremity symptoms after failed decompressive fasciotomies for CECS. It can easily be performed before and after

  4. Testing of serum atherogenicity in cell cultures: questionable data published

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large series of studies was reported that culturing of smooth muscle cells with serum from atherosclerosis patients caused intracellular lipid accumulation, while serum from healthy controls had no such effect. Cultures were used for evaluation of antiatherogenic drugs. Numerous substances were reported to lower serum atherogenicity: statins, trapidil, calcium antagonists, garlic derivatives etc. On the contrary, beta-blockers, phenothiazines and oral hypoglycemics were reported to be pro-atherogenic. Known antiatherogenic agents can influence lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, intestinal absorption or endothelium-related mechanisms. All these targets are absent in cell monocultures. Inflammatory factors, addressed by some antiatherogenic drugs, are also not reproduced. In vivo, relationship between cholesterol uptake by cells and atherogenesis must be inverse rather than direct: in familial hypercholesterolemia, inefficient clearance of LDL-cholesterol by cells predisposes to atherosclerosis. Accordingly, if a pharmacological agent reduces cholesterol uptake by cells in vitro, it should be expected to elevate cholesterol in vivo. Validity of clinical recommendations, based on serum atherogenicity testing in cell monocultures, is therefore questionable. These considerations pertain also to the drugs developed on the basis of the cell culture experiments.

  5. 论常规兵器试验中试验任务要求的确定%Discussing the Confirmation of Test Task Requirement to the Product in Conventional Ordnance Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑鹏翱; 杭小初; 张亚欧; 宁金贵

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the confirmation of the occasion, the personnel duty, the requirement, the content and the procedure of “Requirement Related to the Product” in conventional ordnance test. The format of confirmation book of test task requirement, the suggestions and the opinions of confirming the test task requirement are provided, which could be the reference for the organizations and the personnel of engaging in conventional ordnance test to confirm the test task requirement.%文章探讨了常规兵器试验中"与产品有关的要求"确定的时机、人员职责、要求、内容及程序,提出了确定试验任务要求的建议与意见.为承担常规兵器试验的组织及相关人员进行试验任务要求的确定提供借鉴与参考.

  6. Liquid-based cytological test of samples obtained by catheter aspiration is applicable for the bronchoscopic confirmation of pulmonary malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dai-Rong; Wan, Tao; Su, Yi; Ding, Min; Wu, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to confirm the value of electronic bronchoscopy-aided catheter aspiration technique with liquid-based cytological test in the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma. A total of 815 patients of lung cancer were evaluated by bronchoscopy between February 2011 and June 2012. Catheter aspiration technique and forceps biopsy during bronchoscopy were employed to obtain adequate tissue specimens. Liquid-based cytological test and conventional smears for catheter aspiration were used for cytological detection of the tumors. For all cytological specimens, slide preparations with LCT and CS were reviewed by two senior pathologists, who were blinded to patient medical history. Complications related to electronic bronchoscopy, such as bleeding, were clinically judged as light, moderate or severe by the needs for clinical interventions. The diagnostic yield of catheter aspiration in endobronchial visible lesions (tumor, infiltrative and necrotic lesions) was 94.6% (success rates concerning malignancy), which was slightly higher than that of the forceps biopsy (91.4%, P biopsy (51.4%, P biopsy with the cytological analysis of the catheter aspiration increased the diagnostic sensitivity in both lesion types (P biopsy. Liquid-based cytological test is routinely applicable for the diagnosis of lung cancer using samples collected through electronic bronchoscopy. PMID:24966963

  7. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Zimbabwe, 2010: potential of a point of care test to replace laboratory confirmation of suspected cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonhai, A; Warrener, L; Mangwanya, D; Slibinskas, R; Brown, K; Brown, D; Featherstone, D; Samuel, D

    2015-12-01

    Blood and oral fluid (OF) samples were collected from 103 suspected measles cases between February and November 2010 during a nationwide measles outbreak in Zimbabwe. Siemens measles IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on serum, Microimmune measles IgM capture EIA on OF, real-time haemagglutinin (H) gene PCR and nested nucleocapsid (N) gene PCR on OF were performed, confirming 75 measles cases. These samples were then used to evaluate a newly developed point of care test (POCT) for measles and determine its potential for identifying measles cases in outbreaks. After performing POCTs on OF samples, nucleic acid was extracted from the used test strips and the measles H and N genes amplified by RT-PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the POCT for IgM in OF was 75·0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 63·4-84·5], 96·2% (95% CI 80·4-99·9), 98·2% (95% CI 90·3-100) and 58·1% (95% CI 42·1-73·0), respectively. The N gene sequences showed high level of agreement between original OF and corresponding POCT strips. Measles genotype B3 was identified in all cases. We conclude that the measles POCT has the potential to be used, at the point of contact, in outbreak situations and provide molecular characterization of the virus at a later date.

  8. Noninvasive testing of art and cultural heritage by mobile NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Presciutti, Federica; Anselmi, Chiara; Doherty, Brenda

    2010-06-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has many applications in science, medicine, and technology. Conventional instrumentation is large and expensive, however, because superconducting magnets offer maximum sensitivity. Yet NMR devices can also be small and inexpensive if permanent magnets are used, and samples need not be placed within the magnet but can be examined externally in the stray magnetic field. Mobile stray-field NMR is a method of growing interest for nondestructive testing of a diverse range of materials and processes. A well-known stray-field sensor is the commercially available NMR-MOUSE, which is small and can readily be carried to an object to be studied. In this Account, we describe mobile stray-field NMR, with particular attention to its use in analyzing objects of cultural heritage. The most common data recorded are relaxation measurements of (1)H because the proton is the most sensitive NMR nucleus, and relaxation can be measured despite the inhomogeneous magnetic field that typically accompanies a simple magnet design. Through NMR relaxation, the state of matter can be analyzed locally, and the signal amplitude gives the proton density. A variety of stray-field sensors have been designed. Small devices weighing less than a kilogram have a shallow penetration depth of just a few millimeters and a resolution of a few micrometers. Access to greater depths requires larger sensors that may weigh 30 kg or more. The use of these sensors is illustrated by selected examples, including examinations of (i) the stratigraphy of master paintings, (ii) binder aging, (iii) the deterioration of paper, (iv) wood density in master violins, (v) the moisture content and moisture profiles in walls covered with paintings and mosaics, and (vi) the evolution of stone conservation treatments. The NMR data provide unique information to the conservator on the state of the object--including past conservation measures. The use of mobile NMR remains relatively new, expanding

  9. 21 CFR 866.1700 - Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility....1700 Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. (a) Identification. A culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of any medium capable...

  10. Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Clinical Samples from Ruminants and in Spiked Environmental Samples by Modified BACTEC 12B Radiometric Culture and Direct Confirmation by IS900 PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, R. J.; Marsh, I.; Turner, M. J.; McAllister, S.; Choy, E.; Eamens, G. J.; Marshall, D. J.; Ottaway, S.

    1998-01-01

    The suitability of a radiometric culture medium consisting of BACTEC 12B with PANTA PLUS, mycobactin J, and egg yolk was evaluated for detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in feces, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal walls from cattle, sheep, and goats. In addition, a simple method that would enable the rapid identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by IS900 PCR in the primary cultures was sought so that subculture to secondary egg-free radiometric medium could be avoided. An ethanol extraction followed by differential centrifugation was used to separate M. paratuberculosis from PCR inhibitors in the primary culture. PCR was then undertaken with the pellet, after boiling to lyse the mycobacteria; if this test was negative, the DNA in the lysate was purified with guanidine thiocyanate and silica. Cultures of feces, ilea, and mesenteric lymph nodes from cattle, sheep, and goats known to have or suspected of having Johne’s disease yielded positive PCR results 1 to 7 weeks after inoculation. Similar results were obtained with soil and pasture samples that had been spiked with M. paratuberculosis. The results suggested that radiometric culture was more sensitive than histopathology in detecting M. paratuberculosis infection in sheep and goats and more sensitive than culture on Herrold’s egg yolk medium for the detection of the infection in cattle. Of 259 individual PCR tests with samples from cultures with growth indices of ≥10,237 (91.5%) were positive, with only 28 (11.8%) requiring both ethanol and silica preparation to yield a positive result. Of the 22 negative PCR results for samples from cultures with growth indices of ≥10, 18 were for samples from cultures that had only just developed evidence of growth. PCR-positive cultures tended to remain PCR positive over successive weeks. Flexibility in the timing of the sampling for PCR is thus possible, facilitating batch processing of samples in large-scale disease control programs for

  11. Multiparameter Characterization Confirms Apoptosis as the Primary Cause of Reduced Self-renewal Capacity in Cultured Human Fetal Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Guan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human fetal striatum-derived neural stem cells (hfsNSCs are important in regenerative medicine; however, their ability to self-renew diminishes quickly following passages in culture. Typically when hfsNSC-derived neurospheres are dissociated by accutase, more than 90% of the cells survive, but only 6-8% of the cells are able to form secondary neurospheres. Our hypothesis is that the hfsNSCs that are unable to form new neurospheres become apoptotic. Methods/Results: Because the NSC apoptosis process has never been characterized in detail, we characterized hfsNSC apoptosis using multiparameter analysis and determined that the majority of hfsNSCs undergo apoptosis after passaging, which leads to a reduction in self-renewal. The replacement of trituration with vortexing decreases apoptosis, increases self-renewal, and does not affect NSC differentiation. When we used live cell staining with Annexin V, Hoechst 33342, and PI together, the apoptotic index was in agreement with what could be obtained using fixed-cell staining methods, including TUNEL and activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry. NSC apoptosis could be divided into 9 stage types based on our live cell assay. Several types during early and late stages had similar staining profiles that could be further discriminated based on cell size. Conclusion: Apoptosis largely contributes to the low self-renewal of neurospheres, and replacing trituration with vortexing aided in alleviating NSC apoptosis. Multiparameter analysis is required for the identification of NSC apoptosis, particularly when live cell staining is used.

  12. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  13. Detection of acute childhood meningitis by PCR, culture and agglutination tests in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Farajnia, Safar; Yeganeh, Fatemeh; Abdoli-Oskouei, Shahram; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Barzegar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Meningitis is one of the hazardous and life threatening infections and is associated with mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to determine etiological agents of childhood bacterial meningitis. The culture, Gram staining, agglutination and PCR assays were used to examine CSF specimens from 277 patients with presumed bacterial meningitis for the occurrence of 4 most common infectious agents consist of N. meningitis, H. influnsae, S. pneumoniae and S. agalactiae between 2008 and 2009 at different wards of the Children Hospital of Tabriz. The mean age of patients was 35 ± 2 (Mean ± SEM) month, (minimum 11 days maximum 14 years), of all cases 59.6% male and 40.4% female. Overall the diagnosis was confirmed with a CSF culture in 11/277 (3.97%), by agglutination test in 14/277 (5.05%). The isolated bacteria included S. pneumoniae 5 cases, H. influnsae 2 cases, N. meningitis 3 cases and P. aeroginusae 1 case. A positive PCR assay allowed us to diagnose bacterial meningitis in 19 patients (6.8%). In the present study, we found PCR to be a useful and sensitive method for the detection of bacterial DNA in the CSF samples from suspected meningitis patients. Furthermore, to maximize management of meningitis cases, a combination of culture and PCR is necessary.

  14. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Beryllium toxicity testing in the suspension culture of mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössner, P; Bencko, V

    1980-01-01

    Suspension culture of mouse fibroblast cell line L-A 115 was used to test beryllium toxicity in the presence of magnesium ions. Beryllium added to the MEM cultivation medium was bound in a complex with sulphosalicylic acid BeSSA complex, because the use of beryllium chloride turned out to yield ineffective beryllium phosphate that formed macroscopically detectable insoluble opacities. The BeSSA complex was used in the concentration range: 10(-3)--10(-9)M, magnesium was used in 3 concentrations: 10(-1)M, 5 x 10(-2)M and 10(-2)M. Growth curve analysis revealed pronounced beryllium toxicity at the concentration of 10(-3)M, magnesium-produced toxic changes were observed only at the concentration of 10(-1)M. No competition between the beryllium and magnesium ions was recorded. It is assumed that the possible beryllium-magnesium competition was significantly modified by the use of BeSSA complex-bound beryllium.

  16. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Demeler, Janina; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-12-15

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure. In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from adult goats on the farm. Recovered specimens of H. contortus were subjected to pyrosequencing for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to benzimidazole (BZ) resistance. During the FECRT, FECs in untreated lambs dropped significantly by 47%. No FEC reduction was detected in untreated kids. After FBZ treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids ranged from 15 to 54% and 49-56%, respectively, according to the different calculation methods. Post IVM treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids varied between 71-90% and 81-83%, correspondingly. LEV and MOX reduced FECs by 98-100% in both species. In the CET, FBZ reduced H. contortus worm counts by 52-56% and no reduction in T. colubriformis counts were detected after treatment. IVM eliminated 100% of H. contortus and reduced T. colubriformis counts by 84-92%, according to different calculation methods. Pyrosequencing of isolated H. contortus revealed increased frequencies of the BZ resistance-related SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene

  17. METHYLCELLULOSE CELL-CULTURE AS A NEW CYTOTOXICITY TEST SYSTEM FOR BIOMATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; NIEUWENHUIS, P; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    1991-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of biomaterials can be tested in vitro using various culture systems. Liquid culture systems may detect cytotoxicity of a material either by culture of cells with extracts or with the material itself. In the latter instance, renewing the medium will remove possible released cytotoxi

  18. [DNA synthesis inhibition test of INAH by cultured human fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, K; Yanagisawa, K

    1986-03-20

    The most commonly used screening test of carcinogens is the Ames test. But this system occasionally shows false positive and false negative. Painter's method is one which has been developed to minimize false results. Now we test by Painter's method isonicotinic acid hydrazide, which shows negative in the Ames test but positive in an animal test. INAH showed positive by Painter's method. More chemicals are now under study for their carcinogenicity by Painter's method.

  19. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  20. Use of rapid HIV assays as supplemental tests in specimens with repeatedly reactive screening immunoassay results not confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Delaney, Kevin P; Meyer, William A; Blatt, Amy J; Bennett, Berry; Chavez, Pollyanna; Granade, Timothy C; Owen, Michele

    2013-09-01

    An alternate HIV testing algorithm has been proposed which includes a fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation supplemental test for reactive specimens and a nucleic acid test (NAT) for specimens with discordant results. To evaluate the performance of five rapid tests (Alere Clearview, Bio-Rad Multispot, OraSure OraQuick, MedMira Reveal, and Trinity Biotech Unigold) as the supplemental antibody assay in the algorithm. A total of 3273 serum and plasma specimens that were third-generation immunoassay repeatedly reactive and Western blot (WB) negative or indeterminate were tested with rapid tests and NAT. Specimens were classified by NAT: (1) HIV-1 infected (NAT-reactive; n=184, 5.6%), (2) HIV-status unknown (NAT nonreactive; n=3078, 94.2%) or by Multispot, (3) HIV-2 positive (n=5), and (4) HIV-1 and HIV-2 positive (n=6). Excluding HIV-2 positive specimens, we calculated the proportion of reactive rapid tests among specimens with reactive and nonreactive NAT. The proportion of infected specimens with reactive rapid test results and negative or indeterminate WB ranged from 30.4% (56) to 47.8% (88) depending on the rapid test. From 1% to 2% of NAT-negative specimens had reactive rapid test results. In these diagnostically challenging specimens, all rapid tests identified infections that were missed by the Western blot, but only Multispot could differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2. Regardless of which rapid test is used as a supplemental test in the alternative algorithm, false-positive algorithm results (i.e., reactive screening and rapid test in uninfected person) may occur, which will need to be resolved during the baseline medical evaluation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Cultural influences on female mate choice: an experimental test in cowbirds, Molothrus ater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg; Duncan; Kast; Enstrom

    1999-02-01

    Previous studies of brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater, have shown that social learning and cultural transmission can influence courtship and mating patterns. These earlier studies did not test whether cultural background influenced mate choice in females and therefore whether culture could potentially play a role in sexual selection in this species, as has been suggested by recent theory. Here, we tested whether culture influences female mate choice in brown-headed cowbirds. Female cowbirds from a South Dakota population were housed with adult cowbirds from the same South Dakota population or with adult cowbirds from a behaviourally distinct population from Indiana. We tested the mating preferences of females of the South Dakota culture and females of the Indiana culture in sequential mate-choice trials with males, controlling for intrasexual interactions. The males were South Dakota cowbirds that had also been housed either in the South Dakota culture or in the Indiana culture. Females showed mating preferences for males from their own culture. These results suggest that mate choice in female cowbirds can be influenced by cultural background. We briefly discuss the effect that culture may have on sexual selection and on the evolution of female mating preferences. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  2. Protestant Clergy and the Culture Wats: An Empirical Test of Hunter’s Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Lucke, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    This study instead focuses on culture wars among religious elites—clergy—and tests three aspects of the culture wars thesis: (1) whether cultural wars exist at all among religious elites, (2) whether clergy attitudes are polarized on these issues, and (3) whether religious authority or religious affiliation is more salient in creating culture wars cleavages. Using data from a large random sample of Protestant clergy, we find a substantial amount of engagement in culture wars by all types of Protestant clergy. The amount of polarization is more attributable to views of religious authority (i.e., biblical inerrancy) than to religious tradition. Moreover, polarization among clergy is somewhat more evident on culture wars issues than on other social and political issues. These findings are generally supportive of the culture wars thesis and should help return examinations of culture wars back to where they were originally theorized to be waged: among elites. PMID:24072933

  3. Protestant Clergy and the Culture Wats: An Empirical Test of Hunter's Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Lucke, Glenn

    2011-12-01

    This study instead focuses on culture wars among religious elites-clergy-and tests three aspects of the culture wars thesis: (1) whether cultural wars exist at all among religious elites, (2) whether clergy attitudes are polarized on these issues, and (3) whether religious authority or religious affiliation is more salient in creating culture wars cleavages. Using data from a large random sample of Protestant clergy, we find a substantial amount of engagement in culture wars by all types of Protestant clergy. The amount of polarization is more attributable to views of religious authority (i.e., biblical inerrancy) than to religious tradition. Moreover, polarization among clergy is somewhat more evident on culture wars issues than on other social and political issues. These findings are generally supportive of the culture wars thesis and should help return examinations of culture wars back to where they were originally theorized to be waged: among elites.

  4. Effects of hardness and alkalinity in culture and test waters on reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, Peter J; Winger, Parley V; Hardin, Ian R

    2006-10-01

    Ceriodaphnia dubia were cultured in four reconstituted water formulations with hardness and alkalinity concentrations ranging from soft to the moderately hard water that is required by whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing methods for culturing test organisms. The effects of these culture formulations alone and in combination with two levels of Cl-, SO4(2-), and HCO3- on reproduction of C. dubia were evaluated with the standard three-brood test. Reproduction was significantly reduced when test waters had lower hardness than culture waters. However, reproduction was not significantly different when animals cultured in low-hardness waters were exposed to moderately hard waters. The hardness of the culture water did not significantly affect the sensitivity of C. dubia to the three anions. Conversely, increased hardness in test waters significantly reduced the toxicities of Cl- and SO4(2-), with HCO3- toxicity following the same pattern. Alkalinity exhibited no consistent effect on Cl- and SO4(2-) toxicity. The physiological stress of placing animals cultured in moderately hard water into softer test waters might contribute to marginal failures of otherwise nontoxic effluents. The standard WET protocol should be revised to allow the culture of C. dubia under lower hardness conditions to better represent local surface water chemistries.

  5. Effects of hardness and alkalinity in culture and test waters on reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Hardin, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Ceriodaphnia dubia were cultured in four reconstituted water formulations with hardness and alkalinity concentrations ranging from soft to the moderately hard water that is required by whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing methods for culturing test organisms. The effects of these culture formulations alone and in combination with two levels of Cl-, SO42, and HCO3- on reproduction of C. dubia were evaluated with the standard three-brood test. Reproduction was significantly reduced when test waters had lower hardness than culture waters. However, reproduction was not significantly different when animals cultured in low-hardness waters were exposed to moderately hard waters. The hardness of the culture water did not significantly affect the sensitivity of C. dubia to the three anions. Conversely, increased hardness in test waters significantly reduced the toxicities of Cl- and SO42-, with HCO3- toxicity following the same pattern. Alkalinity exhibited no consistent effect on Cl- and SO42- toxicity. The physiological stress of placing animals cultured in moderately hard water into softer test waters might contribute to marginal failures of otherwise nontoxic effluents. The standard WET protocol should be revised to allow the culture of C. dubia under lower hardness conditions to better represent local surface water chemistries.

  6. Note on a Cross-cultural Test of Gilligan's Ethic of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikan, Arne; Camino, Cleonice; Biaggio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and twenty students from both Brazil and Norway were tested with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview (ECI), which is a test of Gilligan's hypothesized gender-related ethic of care. Subjects were also tested with Bem's Sex Role Inventory and Triandis's Test of Cultural Orientations. The ECI was shown to be related neither to gender nor to…

  7. Deaf Adults’ Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results From a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults’ motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf, or both communities, rated interest in testing for 21 reasons covering 5 life domains. Findings suggest strong interest in testing to learn why they ...

  8. Ecocultural Bias in Culture-Specific Intelligence Tests in an Ecologically Diverse Culture: The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1987-01-01

    Ecocultural bias in the Preschool Intelligence Test and the Adult Verbal Aptitude Test was studied. Test results with 177 five- and six-year-olds and 168 mothers in neighborhoods with similar lifestyles and economies in the Philippines show need to screen items for bias. Tests of crystallized abilities had greatest potential for bias. Culturally…

  9. Deaf Adults' Reasons for Genetic Testing Depend on Cultural Affiliation: Results from a Prospective, Longitudinal Genetic Counseling and Testing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…

  10. Testing the Culturally Deviant of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette; Ydesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a comparative methodological design to investigate the testing and assessment of different children and families deemed as deviant by the established Danish welfare state society in general and the national public school system [Folkeskole] in particular. The analysis contains...... two empirical cases of testing and assessment of deviant children by educational authorities. The first case is the handling of Greenlandic minority children within the Danish commonwealth between 1961 and 1971. The second case is the testing of labour migrant children in the city of Aarhus...

  11. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mari; Iguchi, Shigekazu; Mizutani, Tomonori; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Tega-Ishii, Michiru; Sansaka, Kaori; Negishi, Kenta; Shimada, Kimie; Umemura, Jun; Notake, Shigeyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Yabusaki, Reiko; Araoka, Hideki; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP) in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%). The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  12. Potential Impact of Rapid Blood Culture Testing for Gram-Positive Bacteremia in Japan with the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kikuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early detection of Gram-positive bacteremia and timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required for decreasing patient mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay (BC-GP in two special healthcare settings and determine the potential impact of rapid blood culture testing for Gram-positive bacteremia within the Japanese healthcare delivery system. Furthermore, the study included simulated blood cultures, which included a library of well-characterized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE isolates reflecting different geographical regions in Japan. Methods. A total 347 BC-GP assays were performed on clinical and simulated blood cultures. BC-GP results were compared to results obtained by reference methods for genus/species identification and detection of resistance genes using molecular and MALDI-TOF MS methodologies. Results. For identification and detection of resistance genes at two clinical sites and simulated blood cultures, overall concordance of BC-GP with reference methods was 327/347 (94%. The time for identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by BC-GP was significantly shorter compared to routine testing especially at the cardiology hospital, which does not offer clinical microbiology services on weekends and holidays. Conclusion. BC-GP generated accurate identification and detection of resistance markers compared with routine laboratory methods for Gram-positive organisms in specialized clinical settings providing more rapid results than current routine testing.

  13. Wartime Test and Evaluation; Initiatives Lead to Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-14

    Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision; Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona; and White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico , and each specializes in...MRTFBs, led to the “ Uber Lean” process of evaluating each test center’s mission, functions and core competencies. That analysis identified each test...facilities that could be eliminated. The outcome led to the development of investment strategies from a holistic DTC perspective. The DTC “ Uber Lean

  14. Development of a PCR test for identification of Haemophilus somnus in pure and mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Ahrens, Peter; Tegtmeier, Conny

    1998-01-01

    a single colony of H. somnus in the presence of 10(9) CFU of P. multocida even after 2 days of incubation. In conclusion, the present PCR test has been shown to represent a specific test for identification of H. somnus both in pure and mixed cultures. It represents a quick, sensitive and reliable method...... rise to an amplicon in the PCR test. The performance of the test on mixed cultures was evaluated by adding P. multocida to serial dilutions of H. somnus and incubating the agarplates for 1 and 2 days. This showed that the PCR test applied to the harvest from an agarplate can be expected to detect...

  15. Identification of problem Neisseria gonorrhoeae cultures by standard and experimental tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R J; Finley-Price, K G; Wong, K H; Johnson, S R; Reising, G

    1982-01-01

    Standard and experimental tests were used by a reference diagnostic laboratory to determine the identity of 182 "suspected" Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates submitted by state health departments because of inconclusive laboratory results. More than 97% of these cultures were subsequently identified by a rapid microcarbohydrate test in conjunction with confirmatory immunological procedures. The experimental rapid slide agglutination test using rough-lipopolysaccharide antibody, the Phadebact co-agglutination test, and fluorescent antibody test identified 49.3 to 94.1% of these cultures. Because of frequent problems with carbohydrate utilization, Neisseria meningitidis and Branhamella catarrhalis were the two microorganisms most often confused with N. gonorrhoeae by submitting laboratories. PMID:6804485

  16. Cross-Cultural Validity of the TIMSS-1999 Mathematics Test: Verification of a Cognitive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Gorin, Joanna S.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    2008-01-01

    As with any test administered across linguistically and culturally diverse groups, evidence suggesting the equivalence of score meaning across countries is needed for valid comparisons. The current study examines the cross-cultural equivalence of score interpretations from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)-1999 from…

  17. Standardized laboratory tests with 21 species of temperate and tropical sepsid flies confirm their suitability as bioassays of pharmaceutical residues (ivermectin) in cattle dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A; Scheffczyk, Adam; Römbke, Jörg

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals excreted in the dung of treated livestock can have strong non-target effects on the dung organism community. We report results of ecotoxicological tests with ivermectin for 21 species of temperate (Europe, North America) and tropical (Asia, Central America) black scavenger flies (Diptera: Sepsidae), using standardized methods developed previously for the yellow dung fly and the face fly. Our study documents great variation in ivermectin sensitivity of more than two orders of magnitude among species and even populations within species: estimated lethal effect concentrations LC(50) (at which 50% of the flies died) ranged from 0.05 to 18.55 μg/kg dung fresh weight (equivalent to 0.33-132.22 μg/kg dung dry weight). We also show that controlled laboratory tests can--within reasonable limits-be extended to the field or to laboratory settings without climate control, as obtained LC(50) were roughly similar. In addition to lethal effects, our study revealed relevant sub-lethal effects at lower ivermectin concentrations in terms of prolonged development, smaller body size and reduced juvenile growth rate. Finally, oviposition choice experiments showed that females generally do not discriminate against dung containing ivermectin residues. We conclude that sepsid flies are well suited test organisms for pharmaceutical residues in the dung of livestock due to their ease and speed of rearing and handling, particularly in the tropics, where high-tech laboratory equipment is often not available.

  18. 确证试验评价梅毒患者感染现状的意义%Significance of Confirmation Test of Serum for Syphilis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 程志英; 马雪平; 张丽萍; 杨晓莉; 王贝晗; 王海燕

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationship between the infection status and therapentic efficacy among syphilis patients. METHODS The positive samples with Treponema pallidum passive agglutinatim (TPPA) test and titers of rapid plasma reagin test for syphilis (RPR) were detected, compared the results of fluorescence treponemal antibody absorption test for syphilis (FTA-ABS) between the RPR positives and RPR negatives and test the density of RPR and FTA-ABS after therapy. RESULTS There was significant difference between the positive and the negatives of RPR (P<0.005). With the descent of density of RPR, the positive rate of FTA-ABS was decreased. With the degree of RPR descended after therapy, the density of FTA-ABS was also descended at the same time. CONCLUSIONS To observe the curative effect, FTA-ABS should be tested for the descent of RPR. When RPR and FTA-ABS are negative, the therapy can be stopped.%目的 分析梅毒患者的感染现状与治疗疗效的关系.方法 用苍白密螺旋体(梅毒密螺旋体)被动血凝试验(TPPA)法确证抗梅毒抗体阳性,并测定它们的梅毒心磷脂反应素(RPR)滴度,分别对比RPR阳性组和阴性组血清与荧光密螺旋体抗体吸收试验(FTA-ABS)的检测结果;追踪检测梅毒感染者治疗的RPR滴度与FTA-ABS的抗体强度.结果 RPR阳性组与RPR阴性组的FTA-ABS阳性检出率分别为77.5%与37.5%,差异有统计学意义(X~2=24.47,P<0.05);随着RPR滴度的降低,FTA-ABS的阳性检出率也降低;经过治疗RPR滴度下降的病例,其FTA-ABS检测的抗体强度也随之下降.结论 观察梅毒治疗疗效,在监测RPR的下降程度时,也应检测FTA-ABS,两者均为阴性时再停止治疗.

  19. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami; Assailly, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers from 15 countries were analyzed. Two cultural values, "tradition" and "conformism," were identified as possibly being linked to social influence. Country scores for these values were taken from the European Social Survey. The number of random roadside breath tests per inhabitant was used as an indicator of drunk-driving enforcement in each country. A hierarchical multilevel modeling analysis confirmed the link between friends' drunk driving and one's own drunk driving in all countries, but the strength of the link was much stronger in some countries (e.g., Italy, Cyprus, and Israel) than in others (e.g., Finland, Estonia, and Sweden). Both the measured value of "tradition" and the number of alcohol breath tests were found to moderate the link between friends' and one's own drunk driving. European stakeholders should take into account cultural specificities of target countries when designing campaigns against drunk driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Dynamic testing : Assessing cognitive potential of children with culturally diverse backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.E.; Heiser, W.J.; Resing, W.C.M.

    Dynamic testing may be useful in assessing cognitive potential in disadvantaged populations such as ethnic minorities. Majority and minority culture children's performance on a dynamic test of figural matrices was examined using a pretest-training-posttest design. Dynamically tested children were

  1. Test Anxiety Among Black College Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    On the Alpert-Haber Achievement Anxiety Test, University of the West Indies black students had significantly higher facilitating test anxiety and significantly lower debilitating test anxiety in comparison to black students at Lehman College in the United States. Results are explained in terms of cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward…

  2. Post-implantation embryo culture: validation with selected compounds for teratogenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicurel, L; Schmid, B P

    1988-06-01

    1. Some chemical compounds selected by experts for the validation of in vitro teratogenicity testing were investigated in whole rat embryos cultured during the early stages of organogenesis. All sixteen known in vivo teratogens tested also induced specific malformations in embryos grown in culture. 2. Of the nine compounds which were negative in in vivo rat teratogenicity studies, none provoked dysmorphogenic effects in cultured embryos. Abnormal development of the embryos was only observed with these compounds at concentrations also high enough to affect significantly overall growth and/or differentiation. 3. The results showed a high predictability of this system for the compounds tested and suggest that the post-implantation embryo culture system may also be useful in the prospective testing of new drugs and environmental chemicals.

  3. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: comparison of an urease test, histological visualization of curved bacteria and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Hernández; Patrícia Rivera; Manuel Sigarán; Jorge Miranda

    1991-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori was investigated in 189 patients for culture, microscopic visualization of campylobacter-like organisms (CLO) and a ten minute urease test. In 136 (72%) the bacteria was isolated, and in 98 of them CLO were histologically detected. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of microscopic visualization of CLO were: 0.77, 0.73, 0.97 and 0.51, respectively; 98 culture-positive patients were urease test positive. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and n...

  4. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  5. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Demeler, Janina

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure...... of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus......, the observed FEC reduction in untreated lambs and the relevance of including a control group in the FECRT are discussed....

  6. HPV immunisation and cervical screening—confirmation of changed performance of cytology as a screening test in immunised women: a retrospective population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, T J; McFadden, M; Pollock, K G J; Kavanagh, K; Cuschieri, K; Cruickshank, M; Cotton, S; Nicoll, S; Robertson, C

    2016-01-01

    Background: To document the effect of bivalent HPV immunisation on cervical cytology as a screening test and assess the implications of any change, using a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data from the Scottish Cervical Screening Programme (SCSP). Methods: Data were extracted from the Scottish Cervical Call Recall System (SCCRS), the Scottish Population Register and the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. A total of 95 876 cytology records with 2226 linked histology records from women born between 1 January 1988 and 30 September 1993 were assessed. Women born in or after 1990 were eligible for the national catch-up programme of HPV immunisation. The performance of cervical cytology as a screening test was evaluated using the key performance indicators used routinely in the English and Scottish Cervical Screening Programmes (NHSCSP and SCSP), and related to vaccination status. Results: Significant reductions in positive predictive value (16%) and abnormal predictive value (63%) for CIN2+ and the mean colposcopy score (18%) were observed. A significant increase (38%) in the number of women who had to be referred to colposcopy to detect one case of CIN2+ was shown. The negative predictive value of negative- or low-grade cytology for CIN2+ increased significantly (12%). Sensitivity and specificity, as used by the UK cervical screening programmes, were maintained. Conclusions: The lower incidence of disease in vaccinated women alters the key performance indicators of cervical cytology used to monitor the quality of the screening programme. These findings have implications for screening, colposcopy referral criteria, colposcopy practice and histology reporting. PMID:26931370

  7. Biocompatibility of alloys used in orthodontics evaluated by cell culture tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locci, P; Marinucci, L; Lilli, C; Belcastro, S; Staffolani, N; Bellocchio, S; Damiani, F; Becchetti, E

    2000-09-15

    The cytotoxicity of the most common alloys used in orthodontic appliances was determined by cell culture testing. Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured on 304 and 316 stainless steel, on brazing alloy composed of palladium (Pd), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag), and on plastic substrate (control). Studies were carried out with SEM and radiolabeled precursor incorporation. Cells were cultured in MEM without serum but with the addition of (3)H-thymidine to evaluate cell proliferation and (3)H-glucosamine to evaluate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis and secretion in the culture medium. Moreover, gingival fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of some metal ions generally released by orthodontic appliances to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of single ions. Morphologic observations with SEM and radiolabeled incorporation studies showed that 304 and 316 stainless steel were more biocompatible than the brazing alloy. Among the metal ions tested, Ag and Pd, constituents of the brazing alloy, showed the highest cytotoxicity.

  8. Cultural Adaptation of the Portuguese Version of the "Sniffin' Sticks" Smell Test: Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Simões, João; Silva, Filipe; Silva, Eduardo D; Hummel, Cornelia; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sniffin`Sticks test for the Portuguese population is described. Over 270 people participated in four experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants rated the familiarity of presented odors and seven descriptors of the original test were adapted to a Portuguese context. In Experiment 2, the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test was administered to 203 healthy participants. Older age, male gender and active smoking status were confirmed as confounding factors. The third experiment showed the validity of the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test in discriminating healthy controls from patients with olfactory dysfunction. In Experiment 4, the test-retest reliability for both the composite score (r71 = 0.86) and the identification test (r71 = 0.62) was established (pPortuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test is provided, showing good validity and reliability and effectively distinguishing patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test identification test is a clinically suitable screening tool in routine outpatient Portuguese settings.

  9. The Influence of Socio-Cultural Background and Product Value in Usability Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee mac...

  10. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  11. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF ELISA TESTING FOR THE LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF MEASLES AND RUBELLA INFECTIONS AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES/ RUBELLA ELIMINATION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mamaeva

    2017-01-01

    .u. (р < 0.05 in EcoLab and Siemens ELISA test-systems correspondently. In the studies when the ILC working solution parameters for ELISA of “capture” and “indirect” formats were evaluated the statistic reliability and high information capability of the mathematic models of the OD value changes vs. the degree of dilution of the initial ILC were determined. For the “capture” and “indirect” formats the determination coefficient (R2 consisted 97.34 and 99.29 correspondently, the Fisher criteria (F — 219.62 and 556.55 correspondently, the significance level (p — < 0.05 for both formats. The evaluated optimal working dilution degrees of the IgM-containing ILC make possible to exclude the influence of the IgG antibodies as the non-target marker in the ILC. On the other hand, taking into account the format of the used ELISA kit the optimal working dilution degrees give the possibility to obtain the desirable 2–3 “cut-off” values of the specific marker. Moreover, the issue of the target marker quantitative content in ILC is discussed in the study. In order to improve the quality of the commercial MRV IgM and IgG ELISA test-systems the joint studies with those who develop and produce these systems are desirable to be organized.

  13. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  14. CONFIRMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR PHOSPHINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Decin, L. [Sterrenkundig Instituut Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam (Netherlands); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Teyssier, D. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Urb. Villafranca del Castillo, P.O. Box 50727, E-28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC +10216 and CRL 2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J = 1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J = 2-1 rotational transition of PH{sub 3} in IRC +10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping in excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH{sub 3} in the envelope of IRC +10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R {sub *} from the star, with an abundance of 10{sup –8} relative to H{sub 2}. The detection of PH{sub 3} challenges chemical models, none of which offer a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH{sub 3} holds just 2% of the total available phosphorus in IRC +10216, it is, together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggesting that it could also be an important phosphorus species in other astronomical environments. This is the first unambiguous detection of PH{sub 3} outside the solar system, and is a further step toward a better understanding of the chemistry of phosphorus in space.

  15. Confirmation of circumstellar phosphine

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, M; Decin, L; Encrenaz, P; Teyssier, D

    2014-01-01

    Phosphine (PH3) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC+10216 and CRL2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J=1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J=2-1 rotational transition of PH3 in IRC+10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH3. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping to excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH3 in the envelope of IRC+10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R* from the star, with an abundance of 1e-8 relative to H2. The detection of PH3 challenges chemical models, none of which offers a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH3 locks just 2 % of the total available phosphorus in IRC+10216, it is together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggest...

  16. Review of the cultural safety of a national Indigenous point-of-care testing program for diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark; O'Brien, Christopher; Burgoyne, Anthony; Croft, Jody; Garlett, Trevor; Barancek, Kristina; Halls, Heather; McAteer, Bridgit; Motta, Lara; Shephard, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have approximately three-fold higher rates of diabetes than non-Indigenous Australians. Point-of-care testing, where pathology tests are conducted close to the patient, with results available during the patient consultation, can potentially deliver several benefits for both the Indigenous client and the health professional team involved in their care. Currently, point-of-care testing for diabetes management is being conducted in over 180 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Medical Services as part of a national program called Quality Assurance for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Medical Services (QAAMS). The cultural safety of the Program was reviewed by sourcing the views of the QAAMS Indigenous Leaders Team in a focus group setting and by surveying the point-of-care testing operators enrolled in QAAMS, via an electronic questionnaire. The current study confirms that QAAMS remains a culturally safe program that fills a permanent and positive niche within the Indigenous health sector. The study demonstrates that QAAMS provides a convenient and accessible 'one-stop' pathology service for Indigenous clients with diabetes and empowers Aboriginal Health Workers to have a direct role in the care of their diabetes clients.

  17. Development of a Culture Specific Critical Thinking Ability Test and Using It as a Supportive Diagnostic Test for Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a culture specific critical thinking ability test for 6, 7, and 8. grade students in Turkey and to use it as an assessment instrument for giftedness. For these purposes, item pool involving 22 items was formed by writing items focusing on the current and common events presented in (Turkish) media from…

  18. Militarist, Marxian, and Non-Marxian Materialist Theories of Gender Inequality: A Cross-Cultural Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen K.; Heckert, D. Alex; Dubrow, Joshua K.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested three types of theories of gender inequality in preindustrial societies by using half the societies in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample: militarist, Marxian, and non-Marxian materialist theories. The first phase of the research used simple cross-tabulations with chi-square as a test of significance and gamma as a measure of…

  19. Cultural Transmission in Three Societies: Testing a Systems-Based Field Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbert, Marion Lundy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports on: (1) the formulation of a holistic, systems-based theory of cultural transmission; (2) a field guide developed for gathering the precise data needed to test the theory; and (3) a pilot study, involving the collection and analysis of data about six- to 12-year-old Americans, Israelis, and Mexicans, to test both guide and theory. (CMG)

  20. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  1. Development and preclinical testing of HNVAC, a cell culture-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagendra R; Kumar, Deepak; Rao, P Panduranga; Kumari, P Krishna; Kaushik, Yashpal; Ravikrishnan, R; Prasad, Sai D; Ella, Krishna M

    2014-06-17

    Several limitations of the use of embryonated eggs and the threat of pandemics have highlighted the need for other platforms for the production of influenza vaccines. We report the indigenous development and pre-clinical testing of an MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine HNVAC from India. The cell bank and virus seed were characterized extensively. The cells were characterized by PCR, electron microscopy, and karyotyping, and found to be of female canine epithelial origin. The virus was confirmed by neutralization, haemagglutination inhibition, neuraminidase inhibition, and PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Adventitious agent testing was performed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro studies included culturing, haemadsorption, haemagglutination, PCR and RT-PCR, whereas in vivo studies included passage in embryonated eggs and in laboratory animals. Both cell bank and virus seed were free of adventitious agents. MDCK cell lysates as well as cellular DNA did not produce tumours in newborn or adult laboratory animals. The bioprocess parameters were standardized to recover antigen with minimal levels of process-related impurities. The vaccine bulk was tested for the presence of specific antigen, and quantified by single radial immunodiffusion. Finally, non-adjuvanted and aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccine formulations were found to be safe in preclinical toxicity studies in mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits, and immunogenic in mice and rabbits. This is the first and only cell culture-based influenza vaccine platform developed in any developing country.

  2. Methods For Collecting , Culturing And Performing Toxicity Tests With Daphnia ambigua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Winona L.

    2005-07-01

    Toxicity tests conducted on water collected from impacted locations in SRS streams often failed chronic toxicity tests and sometimes failed acute toxicity tests (Specht 1995). These findings prompted SRS to determine the cause of the failures. Some SRS NPDES outfalls were also failing chronic toxicity tests, even though no toxicant could be identified and when TIEs were performed, none of the TIE treatments removed the toxicity. Ultimately, it was determined that the failures were due to the low hardness of SRS surface waters, rather than to the presence of a toxicant. The species of cladoceran that the EPA recommends for toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is stressed by the very low hardness of SRS waters. SRS developed an alternate species toxicity test that is similar to the EPA test, but uses an indigenous cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (Specht and Harmon, 1997; Harmon et al., 2003). In 2001, SCDHEC approved the use of D. ambigua for toxicity testing at SRS, contingent upon approval by EPA Region 4. In 2002, EPA Region 4 approved the use of this species for compliance toxicity testing at SRS. Ultimately, the use of this species demonstrated that SRS effluents were not toxic, and most toxicity testing requirements were removed from the NPDES permit that was issued in December 2003, with the exception of one round of chronic definitive testing on outfalls A-01, A-11, and G-10 just before the next NPDES permit application is submitted to SCDHEC. Although the alternate species test was developed at SRS (1996-1998), the culture was transferred to a contract toxicity testing lab (ETT Environmental) located in Greer, SC in 1998. ETT Environmental became certified by SCDHEC to perform toxicity tests using D. ambigua in 2002, and at this time is the only laboratory certified by SCDHEC to perform tests with this species. Because of the expense associated with maintaining the D. ambigua culture for several years when no toxicity testing is required, SRS decided to suspend

  3. Viabilidade, confirmação taxonômica e detecção enzimática de espécies de Acremonium preservadas sob óleo mineral na Coleção de Culturas University Recife Mycology Viability, taxonomic confirmation and enzymatic detection of Acremonium species preserved under mineral oil in the URM Culture Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Carvalho de Moura Braz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzimas hidrolíticas secretadas por fungos têm um papel importante na patogenicidade das infecções. Objetivando avaliar a atividade enzimática foram testados 31 isolados de Acremonium mantidos na Coleção de Culturas University Recife Mycology. Fragmentos das culturas foram transferidos para caldo glicosado para reativação e posterior crescimento em meio ágar batata dextrose, para verificar viabilidade, pureza e confirmação taxonômica pela observação das características macroscópicas e microscópicas. Para detecção enzimática foram utilizados substratos de caseína do leite e gelatina para protease, amido para amilase e lecitina de soja para fosfolipase. Das 31 culturas, 26 (83,9% mantiveram-se viáveis e 24 (92,3% foram confirmadas taxonomicamente. Das 24 culturas, 12 (50% apresentaram atividade proteásica, duas (16,7% em caseína do leite, uma (8,3% em gelatina e nove (75% em ambos os substratos; 16 (66,7% degradaram amido. Nenhuma cultura apresentou atividade fosfolipásica. Conclui-se que espécies de Acremonium são capazes de produzir enzimas envolvidas na patogenicidade das infecções fúngicas.Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by fungi play an important role in the pathogenesis of infection. With the aim of evaluating the enzymatic activity, 31 isolates of Acremonium stored in the University of Recife Mycology (URM Culture Collection were tested. Culture fragments were transferred to glycoside broth for reactivation and further growth in potato dextrose agar medium in order to investigate viability and purity and to confirm the taxonomy through observing the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. To detect enzymes, milk casein and gelatin were used as substrates for proteinase, starch for amylase and soy lecithin for phospholipase. Among the 31 cultures, 26 (83.9% remained viable and 24 (92.3% were confirmed taxonomically. Out of these 24 cultures, 12 (50% presented proteinase activity, of which two (16.7% were on

  4. Does high-stakes testing increase cultural capital among low-income and racial minority students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Pyo Hong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on research from Texas and Chicago to examine whether high-stakes testing enables low-income and racial minority students to acquire cultural capital. While students' performance on state or district tests rose after the implementation of high-stakes testing and accountability policies in Texas and Chicago in the 1990s, several studies indicate that these policies seemed to have had deleterious effects on curriculum, instruction, the percentage of students excluded from the tests, and student dropout rates. As a result, the policies seemed to have had mixed effects on students' opportunities to acquire embodied and institutionalized cultural capital. These findings are consistent with the work of Shepard (2000, Darling-Hammond (2004a, and others who have written of the likely negative repercussions of high-stakes testing and accountability policies.

  5. Testingcultural reproduction theory’ against relative risk aversion theory – some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense of the conc......The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense...

  6. Successful Combination of Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Diagnostics and Targeted Deferred Neisseria gonorrhoeae Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Carolien M; de Vries, Henry J C; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Unemo, Magnus; van Dam, Alje P

    2015-06-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for the diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infections because of their superior sensitivity. Increasing NAAT use causes a decline in crucial antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance data, which rely on culture. We analyzed the suitability of the ESwab system for NAAT diagnostics and deferred targeted N. gonorrhoeae culture to allow selective and efficient culture based on NAAT results. We included patients visiting the STI Clinic Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in 2013. Patient characteristics and urogenital and rectal samples for direct N. gonorrhoeae culture, standard NAAT, and ESwab were collected. Standard NAAT and NAAT on ESwab samples were performed using the Aptima Combo 2 assay for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Two deferred N. gonorrhoeae cultures were performed on NAAT-positive ESwab samples after storage at 4°C for 1 to 3 days. We included 2,452 samples from 1,893 patients. In the standard NAAT, 107 samples were N. gonorrhoeae positive and 284 were C. trachomatis positive. The sensitivities of NAAT on ESwab samples were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 90%) and 87% (95% CI, 82 to 90%), respectively. ESwab samples were available for 98 of the gonorrhea-positive samples. Of these, 82% were positive in direct culture and 69% and 56% were positive in the 1st and 2nd deferred cultures, respectively (median storage times, 27 and 48 h, respectively). Deferred culture was more often successful in urogenital samples or when the patient had symptoms at the sampling site. Deferred N. gonorrhoeae culture of stored ESwab samples is feasible and enables AMR surveillance. To limit the loss in NAAT sensitivity, we recommend obtaining separate samples for NAAT and deferred culture.

  7. Comparison of Gen-Probe Group A streptococcus Direct Test with culture for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, S J; Vetter, E A; Wollan, P C; Cockerill, F R

    1994-01-01

    The Group A Streptococcus Direct Test (GP-ST test; Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) was compared with culture for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs of 767 patients with pharyngitis. Swabs were tested by the GP-ST test after inoculating a 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) plate. SBA plates were incubated at 35 degrees C in room air for 72 h. SBA plates with no evidence of beta-hemolytic colonies after 18 to 24 h of incubation were subcultured by taking a swipe across the primary inoculum from the SBA plate to an agar selective for Streptococcus spp. In a low-prevalence (11.9%) population and in comparison with the number of positive cultures detected by the 72-h single-culture method (SBA plate method), the GP-ST test had a sensitivity of 88.6%, a specificity of 97.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.9%, and a negative predictive value of 98.5%. In comparison with the growth of any colonies of S. pyogenes on the 72-h SBA plates plus a subculture onto selective blood agar, the sensitivities and specificities were as follows: 72-h SBA plate method, 96.7 and 100%, respectively; GP-ST test, 85.7 and 97.8%, respectively. The GP-ST test is an easy-to-perform, reliable test for batch screening of throat swabs for S. pyogenes. PMID:8077386

  8. Comparison of three diagnostic methods to confirm Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opavski Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori induces gastric inflammation in host and such gastritis increases the risk of gastric and duodenal ulceration as well as adenocarcinoma. Because peptic ulcer disease is the major cause of morbidity, accurate diagnosis of H. pylori infection is very important. Unfortunately, there is no gold standard among diagnostic tests for Helicobacter infections. If gastroscopy is performed, histopathology and urease test are the most often used. Still, culturing of this bacterium is essential for drug susceptibility testing and analysis of virulence factors. Objective The aim of this study was to compare three diagnostic procedures - histopathology, urease test and culture, which are used to verify H. pylori infection. Method Three pairs of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were collected from each of 28 dyspeptic patients undergoing endoscopy. Nineteen patients were not pretreated with antibiotics, while nine had received eradication therapy earlier. One pair of biopsy specimens was used for histopathologic examination, the second for urease test and the third was simultaneously cultured on nonselective and selective solid media. Isolate was identified as H. pylori on the basis of colony morphology, morphological properties and biochemical tests. Results In 14 out of 28 patients, H. pylori infection was confirmed on the basis of results of all diagnostic procedures. The concordance of these three methods was very good, because the results of histopathology, urease test and culture corresponded in 26 from 28 patients. Conclusion The conclusion of our study is that culture, as the method with high degree of concordance with other two procedures and the only that can give information on drug susceptibility of Helicobacter, is recommended for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection along with histopathology and urease test.

  9. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) C...

  10. On the origins of cultural differences in conformity: four tests of the pathogen prevalence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Damian R; Trudeau, Russell; Schaller, Mark

    2011-03-01

    What are the origins of cultural differences in conformity? The authors deduce the hypothesis that these cultural differences may reflect historical variability in the prevalence of disease-causing pathogens: Where pathogens were more prevalent, there were likely to emerge cultural norms promoting greater conformity. The authors conducted four tests of this hypothesis, using countries as units of analysis. Results support the pathogen prevalence hypothesis. Pathogen prevalence positively predicts cultural differences in effect sizes that emerge from behavioral conformity experiments (r=.49, n=17) and in the percentage of the population who prioritize obedience (r=.48, n=83). Pathogen prevalence also negatively predicted two indicators of tolerance for nonconformity: within-country dispositional variability (r=-.48, n=33) and the percentage of the population who are left-handed (r=-.73, n=20). Additional analyses address plausible alternative causal explanations. Discussion focuses on plausible underlying mechanisms (e.g., genetic, developmental, cognitive).

  11. Usefulness of fibroblast culture for testing of cattle tissues polluted with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weglarz, L.; Drozdz, M.Wa.; Wardas, M.; Kula, B.; Pawlaczyk-Szpilowa, M. (Medical Univ. School of Silesia, Katowice (Poland))

    1990-04-01

    Cattle tissues (liver, kidney, brain, and lung) that had been polluted with heavy metals were tested for their ability to alter fibroblast culture growth, cellular protein and DNA content, and fibroblast DNA synthesis. At 72 hr of incubation a significant increase in cellular DNA and (14C)thymidine incorporation was noted in the primary cultures as well as in the subcultures compared to controls. Fibroblast cultures also displayed growth inhibition and reduction in protein content. The measurement of basic biochemical parameters of the fibroblast culture may represent a sensitive means of assessing rapidly the activity of heavy metals deposited in the tissues of cattle as a result of their grazing on polluted soil.

  12. The influence of socio-cultural background and product value in usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2013-05-01

    This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee machine usage, measuring performance, perceived usability, and emotion. The results showed that in Switzerland, high-value products were rated higher in usability than low-value products whereas in East Germany, high-value products were evaluated lower in usability. A similar interaction effect of socio-cultural background and product value was observed for user emotion. Implications are that the outcomes of usability tests do not allow for a simple transfer across cultures and that the mediating influence of perceived product value needs to be taken into consideration.

  13. TEST RORSCHACHA W DIAGNOSTYCE KLINICZNEJ I BADANIACH MIEDZYKULTUROWYCH [THE RORSCHACH TEST IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS AND CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waszkiewicz, Ewa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the application of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in clinical practice. It concerns specificity of this test, its advantages, disadvantages and diagnostic value in assessment of mental disorders. Such an review seems to be important in face of controversies this tool has been evoking since its conceptualization in 1921 by Hermann Rorschach and current rising popularity of quantitative methods, which are often perceived as having more evidence-based psychometric foundations and demanding less clinical experience when it comes to analysis. The first part of this article is focused on methodological aspects of the Rorschach Test: specificity of its application, the most important variables and theoretical approaches. Also the arguments of Rorschach opponents and proponents will be discussed. The most important argument of its proponents is the variety of information about unconscious processes. The main argument of its opponents is the lack of validity, reliability and adequate norms for particular mental disorders. In the following paragraphs, the most crucial criteria for diagnosis of schizophrenia, affective and personality disorders will be described. This scope of disorders is reflected in typical traits found in the Rorschach scoring protocol. The second part of the article will be focused on the implementation of the method in cross-cultural and acculturation research. The results of some research imply that there are many of cross-cultural differences in norms and there was evidence found that the results, in case of individuals who go through the process of acculturation, especially biculturals, are strongly influenced by culture.

  14. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  15. PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziolkowska, K.; Jedrych, E.; Kwapiszewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    microdevice was developed and successfully tested. The MCCS microdevice is fully reusable, i.e. it can be used several times for various cell culture and cytotoxic experiments. The suitability of designed MCCS for cell-based cytotoxicity assay application was verified using 1,4-dioxane as a model toxic agent....... The series of cytotoxicity tests in the microdevice as well as in classic way using 96-well cell culture plates were performed to compare results obtained in micro- and macroscale. Fluorescein dibutyrate (FDB) and iodide propidine (PI) were used as viable and dead cells' markers, respectively. Fabricated...... MCCS microdevices were reproducible and apart from cell culture for long period of time, including cell passaging, it allowed cell-based cytotoxicity assays performance. The MCCS can be applied in high-throughput cell-based assays providing important informations on potential drug targets, substances...

  16. Rapid drug susceptibility testing of mycobacteria by culture on a highly porous ceramic support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Ayad, A.B.; Nolsen, K.; Mulder, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phenotypic, culture-based methods for drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are relatively simple and may be particularly appropriate for resource-limited settings where tuberculosis (TB) is most prevalent. However, these methods can be slow and generate signifi

  17. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the

  18. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the inv

  19. A new cultural adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Doty, Richard L; Santos, Clayson Alan dos; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, a test of olfactory function that is widely used by otolaryngologists, geriatricians, and neurologists, has been translated into more than a dozen languages. In some instances, cultural and socioeconomic factors have necessitated changes in the odorant items or the response alternatives to make the test scores congruent with North American norms. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of Brazilian subjects on a new Portuguese language version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test with their performance on an earlier Portuguese language version of the test, as well as to assess the influences of gender, age, ethnicity, and economic status on the test scores. Based on pilot data, several response alternatives of the earlier Portuguese language version of the test were altered in an effort to improve test performance. Forty-nine healthy Brazilian volunteers, who represented several economic classes, were tested. The test scores of the study cohort who received the newer version of the test were compared with those of a group of 25 subjects who received the earlier version of the test. The mean score for the new version [35 (2.1)] was significantly (p = 0.002) higher than that for the earlier version [32.5 (3.5)]. Although no apparent influence of socioeconomic status was observed, the female participants outperformed the male participants in the current subject cohort. The changes made in the new cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were effective in increasing the average test scores of the participants. Overall, the female subjects outperformed the male subjects on the test.

  20. Model confirmation in climate economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Antony; McDermott, Thomas K J

    2016-08-01

    Benefit-cost integrated assessment models (BC-IAMs) inform climate policy debates by quantifying the trade-offs between alternative greenhouse gas abatement options. They achieve this by coupling simplified models of the climate system to models of the global economy and the costs and benefits of climate policy. Although these models have provided valuable qualitative insights into the sensitivity of policy trade-offs to different ethical and empirical assumptions, they are increasingly being used to inform the selection of policies in the real world. To the extent that BC-IAMs are used as inputs to policy selection, our confidence in their quantitative outputs must depend on the empirical validity of their modeling assumptions. We have a degree of confidence in climate models both because they have been tested on historical data in hindcasting experiments and because the physical principles they are based on have been empirically confirmed in closely related applications. By contrast, the economic components of BC-IAMs often rely on untestable scenarios, or on structural models that are comparatively untested on relevant time scales. Where possible, an approach to model confirmation similar to that used in climate science could help to build confidence in the economic components of BC-IAMs, or focus attention on which components might need refinement for policy applications. We illustrate the potential benefits of model confirmation exercises by performing a long-run hindcasting experiment with one of the leading BC-IAMs. We show that its model of long-run economic growth-one of its most important economic components-had questionable predictive power over the 20th century.

  1. Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Korhonen, Johan; Peng, Aihui; Linnanmäki, Karin; Svens-Liavåg, Camilla; Bagger, Anette; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3…

  2. Test of a cultural framework of parenting with Latino families of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Anicama, Catherine; Fernandez, Yenny; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the mental health and academic functioning of 442 4- and 5-year old children of Mexican (MA) and Dominican (DA) immigrant mothers using a cultural framework of Latino parenting. Data were collected on mothers' self-reported acculturative status, parenting practices and cultural socialization, and on children's behavioral functioning (mother- and teacher-report) and school readiness (child test). Results provide partial support for the validity of the framework in which mothers' acculturative status and socialization of respeto (a Latino cultural value of respect) and independence (a U.S. American cultural value) predict parenting practices. For both groups, English language competence was related to less socialization of respeto, and other domains of acculturative status (i.e., U.S. American/ethnic identity, and U.S. American/ethnic cultural competence) were related to more socialization of respeto and independence. Socialization of respeto was related to the use of authoritarian practices and socialization of independence was related to the use of authoritative practices. Socialization of respeto was also related to lower school readiness for DA children, whereas socialization of independence was related to higher school readiness for MA children. Independence was also related to higher teacher-rated externalizing problems for MA children. For both groups, authoritarian parenting was associated with more parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The discussion focuses on ethnic subgroup differences and similarities to further understanding of Latino parenting from a cultural perspective.

  3. Reliability and Validity of Culturally Adapted Executive Function Performance Test for Koreans with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee; Lee, Yu-Na; Jo, Eun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Young

    2017-05-01

    Executive Function Performance Test was unusable in Asia because of cultural differences, although evaluating the effect that executive function has on real life is essential to people with stroke. The aims of this study were to report the development and standardization of culturally appropriate Executive Function Performance Test for Koreans (EFPT-K) and to verify its reliability and validity in the stroke population. EFPT-K was developed by going through the process of translation, back-translation, and an expert committee's conference on cultural adaptation. Inter-rater reliability was examined and 34 people with stroke were recruited to test the internal consistency and criterion validity of EFPT-K. To verify the criterion validity, EFPT-K scores were compared with those of the Trail-Making Test, the Korean Color-Word Stroop Test, the Digit Span Test, and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Inter-rater reliability and internal consistency of the total score of EFPT-K supported high levels of reliability. In the criterion validity of EFPT-K, all neuropsychological tests but digits backward showed a correlation with the total score of EFPT-K, and AMPS components of initiation, notice/response, and termination showed a moderate correlation with the EFPT-K score. EFPT-K is a useful tool to evaluate the executive functioning of patients with stroke in real-life tasks and could be used as a sample in other Asian cultures where thorough evaluation of executive function in the performance of daily life is needed. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and psychometric testing of the satisfaction with Cultural Simulation Experience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Pratt, Helen; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel; Pitt, Victoria; Gilligan, Conor; Van der Riet, Pamela; Rossiter, Rachel; Jones, Donovan; Everson, Naleya

    2015-11-01

    Decreasing the numbers of adverse health events experienced by people from culturally diverse backgrounds rests, in part, on the ability of education providers to provide quality learning experiences that support nursing students in developing cultural competence, an essential professional attribute. This paper reports on the implementation and evaluation of an immersive 3D cultural empathy simulation. The Satisfaction with Cultural Simulation Experience Scale used in this study was adapted and validated as the first stage of this study. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were undertaken to investigate the psychometric properties of the scale using two randomly-split sub-samples. Cronbach's Alpha was used to examine internal consistency reliability. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis of mean satisfaction scores and qualitative comments to open-ended questions were analysed and coded. A purposive sample (n = 497) of second of nursing students participated in the study. The overall Cronbach's alpha for the scale was 0.95 and each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency: 0.92; 0.92; 0.72 respectively. The mean satisfaction score was 4.64 (SD 0.51) out of a maximum of 5 indicating a high level of participant satisfaction with the simulation. Three factors emerged from qualitative analysis: "Becoming culturally competent", "Learning from the debrief" and "Reflecting on practice". The cultural simulation was highly regarded by students. Psychometric testing of the Satisfaction with Cultural Simulation Experience Scale demonstrated that it is a reliable instrument. However, there is room for improvement and further testing in other contexts is therefore recommended.

  5. Testing of the radiosensitivity of human malignant tumor cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, M.; Neumeister, K.; Jahns, J.; Kamprad, F. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Chirurgische Klinik; Bezirkskrankenhaus Karl-Marx-Stadt (German Democratic Republic); Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1984-01-01

    Primary cell cultures of human malignant tumors were irradiated with X-ray doses of 1-30 Gy. Their radiosensitivity has been examined for 3 weeks postirradiation concerning morphological aspects. The investigations were carried out on 43 tumors of different histology. In 26 cases the results of the radiosensitivity test in the tumor cell culture were compared with the results of the radiotherapy of the adequate patients, 6-8 years postirradiation. In 17 patients the in vitro results correlated with the conventional clinical experience as to the radiosensitivity of the corresponding tumor.

  6. The culture of time in neuropsychological assessment: exploring the effects of culture-specific time attitudes on timed test performance in Russian and American samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovich, Anna V; Panter, A T; Puente, Antonio E; Touradji, Pegah

    2011-07-01

    Cultural differences in time attitudes and their effect on timed neuropsychological test performance were examined in matched non-clinical samples of 100 Russian and American adult volunteers using 8 tests that were previously reported to be relatively free of cultural bias: Color Trails Test (CTT); Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT); Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT); and Tower of London-Drexel Edition (ToL(Dx)). A measure of time attitudes, the Culture of Time Inventory (COTI-33) was used to assess time attitudes potentially affecting time-limited testing. Americans significantly outscored Russians on CTT, SDMT, and ToL(Dx) (p,.05) while differences in RFFT scores only approached statistical significance. Group differences also emerged in COTI-33 factor scores, which partially mediated differences in performance on CTT-1, SDMT, and ToL(Dx) initiation time, but did not account for the effect of culture on CTT-2. Significant effect of culture was revealed in ratings of familiarity with testing procedures that was negatively related to CTT, ToL(Dx), and SDMT scores. Current findings indicated that attitudes toward time may influence results of time limited testing and suggested that individuals who lack familiarity with timed testing procedures tend to obtain lower scores on timed tests.

  7. Acceleration of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures by inoculation of Vitek 2 cards with briefly incubated solid medium cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schüle, Isabel; Grünastel, Barbara; Wüllenweber, Jörg; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    2014-11-01

    Briefly incubated agar cultures from positive blood cultures were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by Vitek 2. The cultivation time until inoculation was 3.8 h for Gram-positive cocci and 2.4 h for Gram-negative rods. The error rates were low, providing early and reliable AST without additional time or cost expenditure.

  8. Superoxol and amylase inhibition tests for distinguishing gonococcal and nongonococcal cultures growing on selective media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R J; Odugbemi, T

    1984-01-01

    Two inexpensive screening tests were evaluated singly and in tandem for distinguishing Neisseria gonorrhoeae from other oxidase-positive microorganisms growing on selective gonococcal media. In tests of 728 cultures, including 460 N. gonorrhoeae, 4 Neisseria lactamica, 257 Neisseria meningitidis, and 7 Branhamella catarrhalis, both Superoxol (30% H2O2; J. T. Baker Chemical Co., Phillipsburg, N.J.) and amylase inhibition tests were 100% sensitive (positive) for 20-h cultures of N. gonorrhoeae. Singly, the Superoxol test was 92.7% specific for N. gonorrhoeae, compared with a specificity of 82.3% for the amylase inhibition test. By using tandem screening tests to distinguish gonococci, we achieved an overall specificity of 98.6%. Group A meningococci were the primary source of error in the Superoxol test, with 97% (37 of 38) strains producing gonococcal like reactions for catalase. From 5 to 20% of N. meningitidis serogroups X, Y, Z, and Z' and nontypable strains, as well as about 50% of B. catarrhalis and N. lactamica strains, were also strong catalase producers. Images PMID:6205016

  9. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  10. Testing socio-cultural valuation methods of ecosystem services to explain land use preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katja; Walz, Ariane; Martín-López, Berta; Sachse, René

    2017-08-01

    Socio-cultural valuation still emerges as a methodological field in ecosystem service (ES) research and until now lacks consistent formalisation and balanced application in ES assessments. In this study, we examine the explanatory value of ES values for land use preferences. We use 563 responses to a survey about the Pentland Hills regional park in Scotland. Specifically, we aim to (1) identify clusters of land use preferences by using a novel visualisation tool, (2) test if socio-cultural values of ESs or (3) user characteristics are linked with land use preferences, and (4) determine whether both socio-cultural values of ESs and user characteristics can predict land use preferences. Our results suggest that there are five groups of people with different land use preferences, ranging from forest and nature enthusiasts to traditionalists, multi-functionalists and recreation seekers. Rating and weighting of ESs and user characteristics were associated with different clusters. Neither socio-cultural values nor user characteristics were suitable predictors for land use preferences. While several studies have explored land use preferences by identifying socio-cultural values in the past, our findings imply that in this case study ES values inform about general perceptions but do not replace the assessment of land use preferences.

  11. Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Clinical Samples from Ruminants and in Spiked Environmental Samples by Modified BACTEC 12B Radiometric Culture and Direct Confirmation by IS900 PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Whittington, R. J.; Marsh, I.; Turner, M J; McAllister, S; Choy, E.; Eamens, G J; Marshall, D.J.; Ottaway, S.

    1998-01-01

    The suitability of a radiometric culture medium consisting of BACTEC 12B with PANTA PLUS, mycobactin J, and egg yolk was evaluated for detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in feces, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal walls from cattle, sheep, and goats. In addition, a simple method that would enable the rapid identification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by IS900 PCR in the primary cultures was sought so that subculture to secondary egg-free radiometric medium could be avoided. ...

  12. Testing of viable human skin cell dilution cultures as an approach to validating microsampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainger, Stephen A; Yong, X L Hilary; Soyer, H Peter; Sturm, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Skin biopsies are a valuable technique in the diagnosis of cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. We were interested to test the minimal size or equivalent volume by dilution of proteolytically disassociated skin tissue required to allow the isolation and propagation of cutaneous cells, for freezing, storage and biochemical analysis. It was possible to propagate with 100% efficiency fibroblast and melanocytic cells from a 0.1 to 0.5 mm(3) equivalent neonatal foreskin sample using a combination of DispaseII and CollagenaseIV. The smallest tissue dilution that allowed melanocytic cell culture was 0.01 mm(3), which equated to approximately 16 cells based on the average skin density of melanocytes. However, passaging of cells to create frozen stocks was achieved routinely only from 1 mm(3) skin, equating to 1560 cells. Tissue-specific antigen expression of these cultures was tested by western blot of total protein extracts. There was no pigmentation antigen expression in fibroblast cultures; however, smooth muscle actin protein expression was high in fibroblast but absent from melanocytic cell strains. Melanocytic cells expressed pigmentation antigens and E-cadherin, but these were not detected in fibroblasts. Moreover, maturation of these melanocytic cells resulted in a decrease of Dopachrome Tautomerase antigen expression and induction of Tyrosinase protein consistent with the differentiation potential seen in cell cultures derived routinely from large sections of skin tissue.

  13. Validation of the cross-linguistic naming test: a naming test for different cultures? A preliminary study in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Lara, Mario; Moriana, Juan Antonio; Vilar-López, Raquel; Fasfous, Ahmed Fayez; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the consensus pointing out the importance of cultural variables in neuropsychological assessments, empirical studies within cross-cultural neuropsychology continue to be limited. The Cross-Linguistic Naming Test (CLNT) is a naming test that is supposed to have no influence from cultural variables. The aim of this paper is to determine the psychometric properties of the CLNT and its discriminatory validity (Experiment 1) and to determine the performance of the CLNT in different cultures (Experiment 2). Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 1: dementia patients, individuals with subjective memory complaints, and neurologically healthy volunteers. Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 2: Colombians, Moroccans, and Spaniards. The results showed that the psychometric properties of the CLNT are appropriate and that this test obtains a high specificity but a low sensitivity. Furthermore, no differences were found in the CLNT among the three cultural groups. The CLNT may be appropriate for the screening of naming impairment in Colombian, Moroccan, and Spanish cultures.

  14. [A simple ELISA method for the detection of HBsAg: Organon Teknika HBsAg Uniform II screening and confirmation test. Comparative study using the HBsAg Hapanostika method. A multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pár, A; Mihály, I; Kömives, K

    1994-09-25

    An one-step enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent method, named as HBsAg Uniform II has been described for the detection of serum HBsAg, and a comparison was made with a widely used ELISA technique HBsAg Hepanostika test, to evaluate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the method. A total of 531 serum samples from patients with liver disease and with renal failure, as well as 1065 samples from blood donors have been investigated. While the sensitivity of Uniform II vs. Hepanostika was 99.5% vs. 72.7%, the specificity was 99.2% of both methods. The positive predictive values did not differ (99.5% vs. 99.2%), however, the negative predictive values were 99.2% vs. 71.7%, respectively, in favour of Uniform II test. The Uniform II confirmatory test confirmed the positive HBsAg results in 94%, this rate was 74% using Hepanostika system. The new method proved to be a simple, quick, reliable test, which can be useful as a valuable tool in both the clinical diagnosis and blood donor screening.

  15. Coccidioidomycosis: adenosine deaminase levels, serologic parameters, culture results, and polymerase chain reaction testing in pleural fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George R; Sharma, Shobha; Bays, Derek J; Pruitt, Rachel; Engelthaler, David M; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Davis, Michael; Libke, Robert; Cohen, Stuart H; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2013-03-01

    In a patient with positive serum serology for coccidioidomycosis, the differential diagnosis of concurrent pleural effusions can be challenging. We, therefore, sought to clarify the performance characteristics of biochemical, serologic, and nucleic-acid-based testing in an attempt to avoid invasive procedures. The utility of adenosine deaminase (ADA), coccidioidal serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the evaluation of pleuropulmonary coccidioidomycosis has not been previously reported. Forty consecutive patients evaluated for pleuropulmonary coccidioidomycosis were included. Demographic data, pleural fluid values, culture results, and clinical diagnoses were obtained from patient chart review. ADA testing was performed by ARUP Laboratories, coccidioidal serologic testing was performed by the University of California-Davis coccidioidomycosis serology laboratory, and PCR testing was performed by the Translational Genomics Research Institute using a previously published methodology. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with pleuropulmonary coccidioidomycosis by European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. Pleural fluid ADA concentrations were coccidioidomycosis were not elevated in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of coccidioidal serologic testing in nonserum samples remained high, but the clinical usefulness of PCR testing in pleural fluid was disappointing and was comparable to pleural fluid culture.

  16. The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Assessment--The Test of Ability to Explain for Zulu-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarsh, Barbara; Alant, Erna

    2006-01-01

    A culturally appropriate test, The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children (TATE-ZC), was developed to measure verbal problem solving skills of rural, Zulu-speaking, primary school children. Principles of "non-biased" assessment, as well as emic (culture specific) and etic (universal) aspects of intelligence formed the theoretical…

  17. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  18. Sensitivity of APTIMA HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in comparison with hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for detection of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus in 396 biopsy confirmed cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Mittal, Srabani; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Ishita; Chowdhury, Nilarun; Abraham, Priya; Chandna, Puneet; Ratnam, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity of E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima HPV test (AHPV; Hologic, Inc.) for detection of cervical cancer has been reported based on only a small number of cases. We determined the sensitivity of AHPV in comparison with the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2; Qiagen) for the detection of oncogenic HPV in a large number of cervical cancers at the time of diagnosis using cervical samples obtained in ThinPrep (Hologic). Samples yielding discordant results were genotyped using Linear Array assay (LA; Roche). Of 396 cases tested, AHPV detected 377 (sensitivity, 95.2%; 95%CI: 93.1-97.3), and HC2 376 (sensitivity, 94.9%; 95%CI: 92.7-97.1) with an agreement of 97.2% (kappa 0.7; 95%CI: 0.54-0.87). Among six AHPV+/HC2- cases, LA identified oncogenic HPV types in four including a type 73 and was negative in two. Among five AHPV-/HC2+ cases, LA detected oncogenic HPV types in two including a type 73 and was negative in three. Of 14 AHPV-/HC2- cases, 13 were genotyped. LA detected oncogenic HPV types in six, non-oncogenic types in three, and was negative in four. This is the largest study to demonstrate the sensitivity of AHPV for the detection of invasive cervical cancer and this assay showed equal sensitivity to HC2.

  19. Validation of shortened 2-day sterility testing of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutic preparation on an automated culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysák, Daniel; Holubová, Monika; Bergerová, Tamara; Vávrová, Monika; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Kruzliak, Peter; Jindra, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Cell therapy products represent a new trend of treatment in the field of immunotherapy and regenerative medicine. Their biological nature and multistep preparation procedure require the application of complex release criteria and quality control. Microbial contamination of cell therapy products is a potential source of morbidity in recipients. The automated blood culture systems are widely used for the detection of microorganisms in cell therapy products. However the standard 2-week cultivation period is too long for some cell-based treatments and alternative methods have to be devised. We tried to verify whether a shortened cultivation of the supernatant from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture obtained 2 days before the cell harvest could sufficiently detect microbial growth and allow the release of MSC for clinical application. We compared the standard Ph. Eur. cultivation method and the automated blood culture system BACTEC (Becton Dickinson). The time to detection (TTD) and the detection limit were analyzed for three bacterial and two fungal strains. The Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recognized within 24 h with both methods (detection limit ~10 CFU). The time required for the detection of Bacillus subtilis was shorter with the automated method (TTD 10.3 vs. 60 h for 10-100 CFU). The BACTEC system reached significantly shorter times to the detection of Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis growth compared to the classical method (15.5 vs. 48 and 31.5 vs. 48 h, respectively; 10-100 CFU). The positivity was demonstrated within 48 h in all bottles, regardless of the size of the inoculum. This study validated the automated cultivation system as a method able to detect all tested microorganisms within a 48-h period with a detection limit of ~10 CFU. Only in case of B. subtilis, the lowest inoculum (~10 CFU) was not recognized. The 2-day cultivation technique is then capable of confirming the microbiological safety of MSC and

  20. Comparing the accuracy of different smell identification tests in Parkinson's disease: relevance of cultural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Gonzalez-Latapi, Paulina; Camacho-Ordoñez, Azyadeh; Martínez-Ramírez, Daniel; Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of the University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT), sniffin sticks (SS-16) and brief smell identification test (B-SIT) to assess smell identification in the Mexican population and its accuracy in discriminating subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). We included 199 nondemented PD subjects and 199 control subjects matched by gender. Smell identification was tested using the UPSIT and SS-16. Our group obtained B-SIT data from a previous report. The mean number of UPSIT items correctly identified by controls was 27.3±6; the PD group had a mean score of 19.4±6. UPSIT had a sensitivity of 82% with a specificity of 66% for a cut-off score of ≤25 for detection of PD. The mean number of SS-16 items correctly identified by controls was 10.3±2.2, while the PD group had 7.4±2.8 correct answers. For SS-16, sensitivity was 77.8% and specificity of 71.2% when using a cut-off value of ≤9. Lemon, turpentine and rose had an identification rate below the 25th percentile for all three tests. Odors with an identification rate above the 75th percentile include banana for all three tests, and gasoline, onion and chocolate for UPSIT and B-SIT. The sensitivity and specificity of the smell tests that were evaluated were lower in comparison to other published reports. Cultural biases and smell familiarity may influence the test results. The development of a true cross-culturally adapted smell identification test is warranted may improve test accuracy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G; Corso, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Preparation of a blood culture pellet for rapid bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Prod'hom, Guy; Durussel, Christian; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-10-15

    Bloodstream infections and sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The successful outcome of patients suffering from bacteremia depends on a rapid identification of the infectious agent to guide optimal antibiotic treatment. The analysis of Gram stains from positive blood culture can be rapidly conducted and already significantly impact the antibiotic regimen. However, the accurate identification of the infectious agent is still required to establish the optimal targeted treatment. We present here a simple and fast bacterial pellet preparation from a positive blood culture that can be used as a sample for several essential downstream applications such as identification by MALDI-TOF MS, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion assay or automated AST systems and by automated PCR-based diagnostic testing. The performance of these different identification and AST systems applied directly on the blood culture bacterial pellets is very similar to the performance normally obtained from isolated colonies grown on agar plates. Compared to conventional approaches, the rapid acquisition of a bacterial pellet significantly reduces the time to report both identification and AST. Thus, following blood culture positivity, identification by MALDI-TOF can be reported within less than 1 hr whereas results of AST by automated AST systems or disc diffusion assays within 8 to 18 hr, respectively. Similarly, the results of a rapid PCR-based assay can be communicated to the clinicians less than 2 hr following the report of a bacteremia. Together, these results demonstrate that the rapid preparation of a blood culture bacterial pellet has a significant impact on the identification and AST turnaround time and thus on the successful outcome of patients suffering from bloodstream infections.

  3. American parents' willingness to prescribe psychoactive drugs to children: a test of cultural mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Dillon, Frank R; Gladwin, Hugh; De La Rosa, Mario

    2013-12-01

    In the USA, white children receive psychoactive drugs more often than black or Hispanic children. This study investigates whether cultural attitudes statistically mediate differences between American parents' self-identified racial-ethnic group membership and their willingness to medicate children for behavioral problems. Using data from telephone interviews with 1,145 parents in two Florida counties, structural models tested associations between each group compared with the other, in willingness to medicate children exhibiting different problematic behaviors and hypothesized cultural (familism, fatalism, attitude toward corporal punishment, religiosity, concern about treatment stigma, birth abroad, language of interview) and other mediators (views about medications and causes of children's problems). Respondent gender, age, socioeconomic status, parent-type household, taking psychoactive medication, and having a child with behavioral problems were used as covariates. Race-ethnicity was strongly associated with specific cultural attitudes and views about medications and problems, but only Hispanics distinguished themselves significantly from whites in willingness to medicate children. Across groups, parents who viewed medication favorably and endorsed biomedical causes for problems were more willing to medicate. In Hispanic-white and Hispanic-black comparisons, being interviewed in Spanish was the sole but modest cultural mediator of willingness, and in black-white comparisons, only concern about treatment stigma weakly mediated differences in willingness. These findings provide faint support for a parent-centered cultural explanation of reported prescription differences among youths of different racial-ethnic groups in the USA. However, structural and professional components of a broader cultural hypothesis for such differences, within the USA and between different countries, still require evaluation.

  4. Interferon-gamma assay in combination with tuberculin skin test are insufficient for the diagnosis of culture-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Wlodarczyk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of infectious cases and treatment of tuberculosis (TB are important strategies for reducing the incidence of this disease. Unfortunately, traditional TB diagnostic methods are time-consuming and often unreliable. This study compared the accuracy and reliability of the tuberculin skin test (TST and interferon (IFN-γ-based assay (IGRA for the diagnosis of active pulmonary TB Polish cases that could or could not be confirmed by M. tuberculosis (M.tb culture. METHODS: In total, 126 adult patients with clinically active TB or non-mycobacterial, community-acquired lung diseases (NMLD hospitalised at the Regional Specialised Hospital of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and Rehabilitation in Tuszyn, Poland were enrolled in the present study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV, negative predicted value (NPV, and analytic accuracy (Acc of TST and IGRA testing for the diagnosis of culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients were calculated. The quantities of IFN-γ produced in the response to M.tb specific antigens (TB Ag - Nil in the cultures of blood from patients with active TB and NMLD patients were also analysed. RESULTS: The IGRA sensitivity in culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients was similar, measuring 65.1% and 55.6%, respectively. The sensitivity of TST did not differ from the parameters designated for IGRA, measuring 55.8% in culture-positive and 64.9% in culture-negative TB. The sensitivity of TST and IGRA was age-dependent and decreased significantly with the age of the patients. No differences in the frequency or intensity of M.tb-stimulated IFN-γ production, as assessed by IGRA testing between culture-positive and culture-negative TB were noticed. Significantly lower concentrations of IFN-γ were observed in patients with advanced TB forms compared with those with mild or moderate TB pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not show that a combination of IGRA and TST might be a

  5. Interferon-gamma assay in combination with tuberculin skin test are insufficient for the diagnosis of culture-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Rudnicka, Wieslawa; Janiszewska-Drobinska, Beata; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Fol, Marek; Druszczynska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of infectious cases and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are important strategies for reducing the incidence of this disease. Unfortunately, traditional TB diagnostic methods are time-consuming and often unreliable. This study compared the accuracy and reliability of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon (IFN)-γ-based assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary TB Polish cases that could or could not be confirmed by M. tuberculosis (M.tb) culture. In total, 126 adult patients with clinically active TB or non-mycobacterial, community-acquired lung diseases (NMLD) hospitalised at the Regional Specialised Hospital of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and Rehabilitation in Tuszyn, Poland were enrolled in the present study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV), negative predicted value (NPV), and analytic accuracy (Acc) of TST and IGRA testing for the diagnosis of culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients were calculated. The quantities of IFN-γ produced in the response to M.tb specific antigens (TB Ag - Nil) in the cultures of blood from patients with active TB and NMLD patients were also analysed. The IGRA sensitivity in culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients was similar, measuring 65.1% and 55.6%, respectively. The sensitivity of TST did not differ from the parameters designated for IGRA, measuring 55.8% in culture-positive and 64.9% in culture-negative TB. The sensitivity of TST and IGRA was age-dependent and decreased significantly with the age of the patients. No differences in the frequency or intensity of M.tb-stimulated IFN-γ production, as assessed by IGRA testing between culture-positive and culture-negative TB were noticed. Significantly lower concentrations of IFN-γ were observed in patients with advanced TB forms compared with those with mild or moderate TB pathologies. Our results do not show that a combination of IGRA and TST might be a step forward in the diagnosis of culture-negative TB

  6. Invasive Candidiasis in Various Patient Populations: Incorporating Non-Culture Diagnostic Tests into Rational Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Clancy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based (T2Candida assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. We propose a Bayesian framework for interpreting non-culture test results and developing rational patient management strategies, which considers test performance and types of invasive candidiasis that are most common in various patient populations. β-d-glucan sensitivity/specificity for candidemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis is ~80%/80% and ~60%/75%, respectively. In settings with 1%–10% likelihood of candidemia, anticipated β-d-glucan positive and negative predictive values are ~4%–31% and ≥97%, respectively. Corresponding values in settings with 3%–30% likelihood of intra-abdominal candidiasis are ~7%–51% and ~78%–98%. β-d-glucan is predicted to be useful in guiding antifungal treatment for wide ranges of populations at-risk for candidemia (incidence ~5%–40% or intra-abdominal candidiasis (~7%–20%. Validated PCR-based assays should broaden windows to include populations at lower-risk for candidemia (incidence ≥~2% and higher-risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (up to ~40%. In the management of individual patients, non-culture tests may also have value outside of these windows. The proposals we put forth are not definitive treatment guidelines, but rather represent starting points for clinical trial design and debate by the infectious diseases community. The principles presented here will be applicable to other assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data become available from different populations.

  7. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  8. HIV抗体确证实验结果不确定样本的检测分析%DETECTION OF INDEFINITE CASES BY HIV-AB CONFIRMATION TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱厚宏; 刘杨; 张祁; 孟建彤; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过对1例HIV抗体检测结果不确定样本随访检测分析,探讨(2009年修订版)HIV抗体确证实验在实际工作中可能存在的问题.[方法]对HIV抗体免疫印迹试验(WB)结果不确定受检者,进行跟踪随访,于1个月、3个月后再次收集血液样本按常规检测程序进行 HIV 抗体筛查和确证检测,第3次收集的样本同时进行HIV病毒载量检测(NASBA).[结果]研究病例从初检到随访共进行了3次HIV抗体免疫印迹试验(WB),带型均为gp160、gp120、gp41;最后一次随访补充HIV病毒载量检测(NASBA),结果为290 000IU/ml.结合受检者流行病学资料,最终作出HIV抗体阳性结论.[结论]随着HIV抗体不确定样本不断增多,特别是一些特殊病例的出现,现行HIV抗体检测策略在实际工作中的应答表现出了一定的滞后性;确证试验检测结果要结合试剂说明书判断标准进行判读.%[Objective]To explore the potential problems of HIV-Ab confirmation test in National AIDS Testing Technology Standards (revised edition 2009) applied in practical work by following up an HIV-Ab indefinite case.[Methods]Followed up the indefinite case by the HIV-Ab WB test and collected the blood samples after 1 and 3 months to carry out both screening and confirmation test in a general procedure.The third collection was tested by virus—load additionally.[Results]Of the 3 tests, the type of WB belts were respectively gp160, gp120 and gp41.The last follow-up added the virus-load test with the result of 290 000 IU/ml.A positive decision of HIV-Ab came out at last when combining the lab result with the epidemio logical data [Conclusion]With the increase of HIV-Ab indefinite cases, in some special cases, the HIV-Ab test strategy in practice has shown some response lag.Confirmatory test result requires a combination of reagents to judge the standard interpretation of instructions.

  9. Culture Matters in Successful Curriculum Change: An International Study of the Influence of National and Organizational Culture Tested With Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippes, Mariëlle; Driessen, Erik W; Broers, Nick J; Majoor, Gerard D; Gijselaers, Wim H; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2015-07-01

    National culture has been shown to play a role in curriculum change in medical schools, and business literature has described a similar influence of organizational culture on change processes in organizations. This study investigated the impact of both national and organizational culture on successful curriculum change in medical schools internationally. The authors tested a literature-based conceptual model using multilevel structural equation modeling. For the operationalization of national and organizational culture, the authors used Hofstede's dimensions of culture and Quinn and Spreitzer's competing values framework, respectively. To operationalize successful curriculum change, the authors used two derivates: medical schools' organizational readiness for curriculum change developed by Jippes and colleagues, and change-related behavior developed by Herscovitch and Meyer. The authors administered a questionnaire in 2012 measuring the described operationalizations to medical schools in the process of changing their curriculum. Nine hundred ninety-one of 1,073 invited staff members from 131 of 345 medical schools in 56 of 80 countries completed the questionnaire. An initial poor fit of the model improved to a reasonable fit by two suggested modifications which seemed theoretically plausible. In sum, characteristics of national culture and organizational culture, such as a certain level of risk taking, flexible policies and procedures, and strong leadership, affected successful curriculum change. National and organizational culture influence readiness for change in medical schools. Therefore, medical schools considering curriculum reform should anticipate the potential impact of national and organizational culture.

  10. Direct Urease Test and Acridine Orange Staining on Bactec Blood Culture for Rapid Presumptive Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Maleknejad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Growth of Brucella is slow and blood culture of these bacteria by use of classical methods is time-consuming. Furthermore, in endemic area culture is required for definitive diagnosis. In the present study, direct urease test and acridine orange staining were tried on the BACTEC blood culture broths for early presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Blood cultures were attempted in 102 seropositive patients. In the forty one blood cultures positive for Brucella, coccobacilli were seen in broth smears stained with acridine orange stain, and also were urease test positive, thus providing presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Urease test was negative and bacteria were not seen in the broth smears of the remaining 61 broths negative for Brucella growth. Because of simplicity, reliability and reproducibility, these tests can be routinely incorporated in the laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  11. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

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    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the English version of the Senior Fitness Test to Spanish

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    Marlene Edith Ochoa-González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The physical condition of the elderly is related to health and functional independence. One specific and scientifically valid instrument measuring this parameter is the Senior Fitness Test, of which the original version is in English. Objective. To identify the face validity of the test for use in Spanish language based on the cultural adaptation of the English version. Materials and methods. Descriptive study, for which cross-cultural adaptation to Spanish was performed. This involved translation, evaluation of conceptual equivalence by three bilingual experts, synthesis of observations, calculation of values for the index of agreement and applicability. Results. The overall agreement rate is 0.9485. No disagreements arose between the judges for any of the items, and intelligibility is of 85.2%, according to subjects of different ages and levels of schooling. Conclusions. A version of the Senior Fitness Test adapted to Spanish was obtained. The test is backed up by face validity and comprehensibility, and conserves semantic, idiomatic, and conceptual equivalence to the original version.

  13. Contributions of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests to the retreatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Horta Andrade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3% cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34. Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5% cases; 70 (48.6% had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5% cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988, despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034. For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026. Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved.

  14. An experimental test of the accumulated copying error model of cultural mutation for Acheulean handaxe size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen; Mesoudi, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Archaeologists interested in explaining changes in artifact morphology over long time periods have found it useful to create models in which the only source of change is random and unintentional copying error, or 'cultural mutation'. These models can be used as null hypotheses against which to detect non-random processes such as cultural selection or biased transmission. One proposed cultural mutation model is the accumulated copying error model, where individuals attempt to copy the size of another individual's artifact exactly but make small random errors due to physiological limits on the accuracy of their perception. Here, we first derive the model within an explicit mathematical framework, generating the predictions that multiple independently-evolving artifact chains should diverge over time such that their between-chain variance increases while the mean artifact size remains constant. We then present the first experimental test of this model in which 200 participants, split into 20 transmission chains, were asked to faithfully copy the size of the previous participant's handaxe image on an iPad. The experimental findings supported the model's prediction that between-chain variance should increase over time and did so in a manner quantitatively in line with the model. However, when the initial size of the image that the participants resized was larger than the size of the image they were copying, subjects tended to increase the size of the image, resulting in the mean size increasing rather than staying constant. This suggests that items of material culture formed by reductive vs. additive processes may mutate differently when individuals attempt to replicate faithfully the size of previously-produced artifacts. Finally, we show that a dataset of 2601 Acheulean handaxes shows less variation than predicted given our empirically measured copying error variance, suggesting that other processes counteracted the variation in handaxe size generated by perceptual

  15. Cross-Cultural Examination of Test Anxiety among US and Singapore Students on the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Ang, Rebecca P.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the similarity of the factor structure of the Test Anxiety Scale for Elementary Students (TAS-E) and cultural and gender differences in test anxiety were examined in a sample of 1322 US and Singapore elementary students. The similarity of the factor structure of the TAS-E, a measure of test anxiety, was examined to determine…

  16. Antitumor activity of amidino-substituted benzimidazole and benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinoline derivatives tested in 2D and 3D cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajša, Karmen; Vujasinović, Ines; Jelić, Dubravko; Trzun, Marija; Zlatar, Ivo; Karminski-Zamola, Grace; Hranjec, Marijana

    2016-12-01

    Due to a poor clinical predictive power of 2D cell cultures, standard tool for in vitro assays in drug discovery process, there is increasing interest in developing 3D in vitro cell cultures, biologically relevant assay feasible for the development of robust preclinical anti-cancer drug screening platforms. Herein, we tested amidino-substituted benzimidazoles and benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines as a small platform for comparison of antitumor activity in 2D and 3D cell culture systems and correlation with structure-activity relationship. 3D cell culture method was applied on a human cancer breast (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, T-47D) and pancreatic cancer cells (MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1). Results obtained in 2D and 3D models were highly comparable, but in some cases we have observed significant disagreement indicating that some prominent compounds can be discarded in early phase of researching because of compounds with false positive result. To confirm which of cell culture systems is more accurate, in vivo profiling is needed.

  17. The Internet Addiction Test: assessing its psychometric properties in Bangladeshi culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Karim, A K M; Nigar, Naima

    2014-08-01

    There is growing importance of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Internet addiction research around the world. Since the development of the IAT (Young, 1996, 1998), a number of validation studies have been done in various cultures. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi culture, a culture vulnerable to Internet addiction. A total of 177 Internet users (77 females and 100 males) participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 172 participants (who provided complete responses) identified a four factor structure of the IAT with 18 items. The four factors namely 'Neglect of duty', 'Online dependence', 'Virtual fantasies', and 'Privacy and self-defense' together explained 55.68% of the total variance. Problematic (moderate/excessive) users on the IAT scored, on average, higher on each of the four IAT factors as compared to average or non-problematic (minimal) users consistently across genders. The IAT and its factors showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=.89 for the IAT, and .60-.84 for the factors), strong convergent and discriminant validity. Thus, the Bangla version IAT appears to be valid and reliable and therefore may be used in further research on Internet addiction in the country.

  18. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  19. Cross-cultural effects on IQ test performance: a review and preliminary normative indications on WAIS-III test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Kemp, Ryan D; Rust, Annegret L; Muirhead, Joanne G L; Hartman, Nigel P; Radloff, Sarah E

    2004-10-01

    This article presents a review of cross-cultural influences on Wechsler IQ tests, together with a preliminary investigation into WAIS-III test performance (English administration) for a southern African sample (age range 19-30) stratified for white English first language and black African first language, level and quality of education. ('African language' is the term used to denote the indigenous languages of black populations in southern Africa). A two-way ANOVA revealed highly significant effects for both level and quality of education within the black African first language group. Scores for the white English and black African first language groups with advantaged education were comparable with the US standardization, whereas scores for black African first language participants with disadvantaged education were significantly lower than this. Thus indications from this research are that normative studies should take account of the influential variable of quality of education, in addition to level of education. Alternatively faulty conclusions may be drawn about the effects of ethnicity, with the potential for neuropsychological misdiagnosis.

  20. Bile Culture and Susceptibility Testing of Malignant Biliary Obstruction via PTBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haipeng; Guo Zhi, E-mail: jieruke@yahoo.com.cn; Xing Wenge; Guo Xiuying; Liu Fang; Li Baoguo [Tinajin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Key Cancer Prevention and Treatment Laboratory (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the information obtained by bile culture and susceptibility testing for malignant biliary obstruction by a retrospective one-center study. Methods: A total of 694 patients with malignant biliary obstruction received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during the period July 2003 to September 2010, and subsequently, bile specimens were collected during the procedure. Among the 694 patients, 485 were men and 209 were women, ranging in age from 38 to 78 years (mean age 62 years). Results: A total of 42.9% patients had a positive bile culture (298 of 694). Further, 57 species of microorganisms and 342 strains were identified; gram-positive bacteria accounted for 50.9% (174 of 342) and gram-negative bacteria accounted for 41.5% (142 of 342) of these strains. No anaerobes were obtained by culture during this study. The most common microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (41 of 342, 11.9%), Escherichia coli (34 of 342, 9.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (28 of 342, 8.2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (19 of 342, 5.5%), Enterococcus (18 of 342, 5.3%), and Enterobacter cloacae (16 of 342, 4.7%). The percentage of {beta}-lactamase-producing gram-positive bacteria was 27.6% (48 of 174), and the percentage of gram-negative bacteria was 19.7% (28 of 142). The percentage of enzyme-producing Escherichia coli was 61.7% (21 of 34). Conclusion: The bile cultures in malignant biliary obstruction are different from those in the Tokyo Guidelines and other benign biliary obstruction researches, which indicates that a different antibacterial therapy should be applied. Thus, knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility data could aid in the better use of antibiotics for the empirical therapy of biliary infection combined with malignant biliary obstruction.

  1. Comparison of nasopharyngeal culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serological test for diagnosis of pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Yildirim, Inci; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Seçmeer, Gülten; Gür, Deniz; Kara, Ateş

    2009-01-01

    This prospective study, which was designed to compare nasopharyngeal culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology in the diagnosis of pertussis, covered 35 children aged between 0 and 16 who were admitted to Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital between 1 March 2005 and 31 August 2006 with coughing for 7 days or longer, paroxysmal cough of any duration, or cough with inspiratory whoop and/or vomiting (or apnea) after coughs. The demographic data and vaccination history of the patients were recorded. During the initial examination, samples were taken from the posterior nasopharynx for Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) culture and PCR analysis. In order to determine antibody positivity and antibody levels against B. pertussis antigens, serum samples were taken during the initial examination (acute phase) and two weeks later (convalescent phase). In the first serum sample, immunoglobulin M (IgM) was determined against pertussis toxin. In the first and second samples, IgA and IgG antibodies were evaluated against pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin. Culture yielded negative results in all of the patients. PCR was positive in two cases (5.7%). In the PCR-positive patients, IgM, IgA and IgG type anti-pertussis antibodies were found to be positive in the first serum samples, and IgA and IgG antibodies were found to be positive in the second serum samples. Therefore, it was considered that serology could be as sensitive as PCR when type IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies were found to be positive against a minimum of two antigens of B. pertussis. In conclusion, both PCR and serologic tests--if evaluating all types of antibodies to a minimum of two antigens of B. pertussis obtained in both acute and convalescent sera--could be more sensitive than culture in the diagnosis of pertussis.

  2. Detection and characterization of silver nanoparticles and dissolved species of silver in culture medium and cells by AsFlFFF-UV-Vis-ICPMS: application to nanotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, E; Jiménez-Lamana, J; Laborda, F; Abad-Álvaro, I; Bladé, C; Arola, L; Castillo, J R

    2014-03-07

    A methodology based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled with UV-Vis absorption spectrometry and ICP mass spectrometry (ICPMS) has been developed and applied to the study of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and dissolved species of silver in culture media and cells used in cytotoxicity tests. The effect of a nano-silver based product (protein stabilized silver nanoparticles ca. 15 nm average diameter) on human hepatoma (HepG2) cell viability has been studied. UV-Vis absorption spectrometry provided information about the nature (organic vs. nanoparticle) of the eluted species, whereas the silver was monitored by ICPMS. A shift towards larger hydrodynamic diameters was observed in the AgNPs after a 24 hour incubation period in the culture medium, which suggests a "protein corona" effect. Silver(I) associated with proteins present in the culture medium has also been detected, as a consequence of the oxidation process experimented by the AgNPs. However, the Ag(I) released into the culture medium did not justify the toxicity levels observed. AgNPs associated with the cultured HepG2 cells were also identified by AsFlFFF, after applying a solubilisation process based on the use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and Triton X-100. These results have been confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis of the fractions collected from the AsFlFFF. The effect of AgNPs on HepG2 cells has been compared to that caused by silver(I) as AgNO3 under the same conditions. The determination of the total content of silver in the cells confirms that a much larger mass of silver as AgNPs with respect to AgNO3 (16 to 1) is needed to observe a similar toxicity.

  3. Executive functioning of Portuguese preschoolers in the Shape School test: A cross cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Joana Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Filipa; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2017-02-22

    The Shape School is a neuropsychological test of executive functions (EF) for preschool-aged children. The purposes of this study were: (a) to adapt the use of the Shape School for European Portuguese preschool children and (b) to examine the cultural sensitivity of this test comparing the performance of Portuguese sample and U.S. normative sample. The executive functioning of 233 typically developing children aged 3 to 5 years old (M = 57.52; SD = 10.25; in months) was analyzed and according to our results, the adapted version was appropriate to obtain the discrimination among age-groups. Portuguese and American preschoolers show similar EF profiles. It was possible, in both samples, to note the sensitivity of the measurement to age-related differences, with the older age groups outperforming the younger. Therefore, the Portuguese version of the Shape School was considered suitable for research and clinical purposes.

  4. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as a model for chemically induced skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappinen, Sari; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Suhonen, Marjukka; Tammi, Raija; Urtti, Arto

    2005-11-01

    The potential of rat epidermal keratinocyte (REK) organotypic culture (ROC) with proper stratum corneum barrier as a model for screening skin irritants was evaluated. The test chemicals were selected from ECETOC database (1995) and the observed in vitro irritation potential was compared to ECETOC in vivo primary irritation index (PII), to EU risk phrases, and to the harmonized OECD criteria. Chemicals were applied onto the stratum corneum surface of ROC for 30 min and samples were taken from the underlying medium at 4 and 8 h after exposure. Cell membrane integrity (determined by LDH assay) and pro-inflammatory effect (determined by IL-1alpha release) were verified at both time points and correlated to PII values. The best correlation (R(2) = 0.831) was seen with LDH leakage test. Based on obtained data, chemicals were classified according to criteria defined by EU and OECD. From 12 chemicals, only two were incorrectly classified according to OECD criteria when using LDH leakage and IL-1alpha release as irritation markers. At the end of experiment, chemical-treated ROC cultures were fixed and histological changes were assessed. Typical signs for irritation were lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed nuclei, cellular vacuolization, eosinophilic cytoplasms, and blebbing. These irritation effects of chemicals were graded visually into four classes (A-D). The extent of morphological perturbations of the cultures mostly correlated with PII. The present results indicate the validity of the ROC model in predicting skin irritation potential of chemicals and show that the use of set of irritation markers with different mechanistic responses gives more information on irritation than if only one marker was used.

  5. Modified protocol for drug susceptibility testing of MGIT cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the MGIT 960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Aline Gois; Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Martins, Maria Conceição; Giampaglia, Carmen Maria Saraiva; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2017-02-01

    A rapid detection of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for management and control of tuberculosis. This study evaluated a more rapid and cost-effective drug susceptibility testing (DST) protocol using primary isolates of M. tuberculosis in mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT). Ninety-four M. tuberculosis isolates in MGIT were subjected to DST by the manufacturer's method, i.e., primary isolates were subcultured and DST was performed from positive cultures for a maximum of 5days; and by our modified method, i.e., DST was performed directly from primary MGIT cultures positive for more than 5days. Results were concordant for 76 (81%) isolates. Agreement between both methods was 92.0%, 98.9%, 97.7%, and 95.5% for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol, respectively. Six isolates failed to grow on the recommended method, including 3 resistant isolates. Not performing subculture of primary M. tuberculosis isolates yields reliable results, decreasing the turnaround time and the cost of the test.

  6. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.

  7. Evaluation of the rat embryo culture system as a predictive test for human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, I; Buttar, H S; Smith, S; Varma, D R

    1994-01-01

    Ingestion of the anticonvulsant drug valproic acid and of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril during pregnancy has been associated with abnormal fetal outcome in humans. In contrast, the use of the antiinflammatory drug ibuprofen and the antihistamine diphenhydramine has not been documented to be embryotoxic in humans. We evaluated the rat embryo culture system as a predictive model of teratogenesis, using these four drugs as test agents. Valproic acid, ibuprofen, and diphenhydramine were embryotoxic, inducing concentration-dependent decreases in growth and a significant increase in anomalies. Valproic acid caused an increase in neural tube defects, ibuprofen increased the incidence of abnormal maxillary processes, and diphenhydramine increased the number of embryos with distorted body morphology. These abnormalities were induced at concentrations of valproic acid and diphenhydramine that are used clinically, but ibuprofen only induced toxicity at concentrations greatly exceeding the therapeutic range. Captopril was not embryotoxic up to 5 mM, the highest concentration tested. These results suggest that the rat embryo culture system produces both false positive and false negative data on the teratogenic potential of drugs. Although such an in vitro assay may be suitable to determine the mechanism of teratogenesis, it is not a sensitive indicator of potential human teratogens on its own. These data support the view that in vitro systems can only supplement clinical and epidemiological observations in humans, possibly as a method to determine mechanisms of actions of teratogens.

  8. One-day workflow scheme for bacterial pathogen detection and antimicrobial resistance testing from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wendy L J; Beuving, Judith; Verbon, Annelies; Wolffs, Petra F G

    2012-07-09

    Bloodstream infections are associated with high mortality rates because of the probable manifestation of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock(1). Therefore, rapid administration of adequate antibiotic therapy is of foremost importance in the treatment of bloodstream infections. The critical element in this process is timing, heavily dependent on the results of bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Both of these parameters are routinely obtained by culture-based testing, which is time-consuming and takes on average 24-48 hours(2, 4). The aim of the study was to develop DNA-based assays for rapid identification of bloodstream infections, as well as rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first assay is a eubacterial 16S rDNA-based real-time PCR assay complemented with species- or genus-specific probes(5). Using these probes, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as well as Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae could be distinguished. Using this multiprobe assay, a first identification of the causative micro-organism was given after 2 h. Secondly, we developed a semi-molecular assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus, Enterococcus spp. and (facultative) aerobe Gram-negative rods(6). This assay was based on a study in which PCR was used to measure the growth of bacteria(7). Bacteria harvested directly from blood cultures are incubated for 6 h with a selection of antibiotics, and following a Sybr Green-based real-time PCR assay determines inhibition of growth. The combination of these two methods could direct the choice of a suitable antibiotic therapy on the same day (Figure 1). In conclusion, molecular analysis of both identification and antibiotic susceptibility offers a faster alternative for pathogen detection and could improve the diagnosis of

  9. Performance of the dipstick screening test as a predictor of negative urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alexandre Gimenes; Doi, André Mario; Pasternak, Jacyr; Damascena, Márcio Dos Santos; França, Carolina Nunes; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the urine dipstick screening test can be used to predict urine culture results. A retrospective study conducted between January and December 2014 based on data from 8,587 patients with a medical order for urine dipstick test, urine sediment analysis and urine culture. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined and ROC curve analysis was performed. The percentage of positive cultures was 17.5%. Nitrite had 28% sensitivity and 99% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 89% and 87%, respectively. Leukocyte esterase had 79% sensitivity and 84% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 51% and 95%, respectively. The combination of positive nitrite or positive leukocyte esterase tests had 85% sensitivity and 84% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 53% and 96%, respectively. Positive urinary sediment (more than ten leukocytes per microliter) had 92% sensitivity and 71% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 40% and 98%, respectively. The combination of nitrite positive test and positive urinary sediment had 82% sensitivity and 99% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 91% and 98%, respectively. The combination of nitrite or leukocyte esterase positive tests and positive urinary sediment had the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (84%), with positive and negative predictive values of 58% and 99%, respectively. Based on ROC curve analysis, the best indicator of positive urine culture was the combination of positives leukocyte esterase or nitrite tests and positive urinary sediment, followed by positives leukocyte and nitrite tests, positive urinary sediment alone, positive leukocyte esterase test alone, positive nitrite test alone and finally association of positives nitrite and urinary sediment (AUC: 0.845, 0.844, 0.817, 0.814, 0.635 and 0.626, respectively). A negative urine culture can be

  10. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Jusak; Marpaung, Ferdy R; Tam, Frankie C H; Lim, Pak Leong

    2012-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP) to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days) and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days) were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured), TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored]) i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days), costs and manpower.

  11. Microbiological culture simplified using anti-O12 monoclonal antibody in TUBEX test to detect Salmonella bacteria from blood culture broths of enteric fever patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusak Nugraha

    Full Text Available Definitive diagnosis of infectious diseases, including food poisoning, requires culture and identification of the infectious agent. We described how antibodies could be used to shorten this cumbersome process. Specifically, we employed an anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide O12 monoclonal antibody in an epitope-inhibition 10-min test (TUBEX TP to detect O12⁺Salmonella organisms directly from routine blood culture broths. The aim is to obviate the need to subculture the broth and subsequently identify the colonies. Thus, blood from 78 young outpatients suspected of having enteric fever was incubated in an enrichment broth, and after 2 or 4 days, broth samplings were examined by TUBEX TP as well as by conventional agar culture and identification. TUBEX TP was performed before the culture results. Eighteen isolates of S. Typhi (15 after 2 days and 10 isolates of S. Paratyphi A (4 after 2 days were obtained by conventional culture. Both these Salmonella serotypes, the main causes of enteric fever, share the O12 antigen. In all instances where either of these organisms was present (cultured, TUBEX TP was positive (score 4 [light blue]--to--score 10 [dark blue]; negative is 0 [pink-colored] i.e. 100% sensitive. Identification of the specific Salmonella serotype in TUBEX-positive cases was achieved subsequently by conventional slide agglutination using appropriate polyclonal antisera against the various serotypes. Twelve Escherichia coli, 1 Alcaligenes spp. and 1 Enterobacter spp. were isolated. All of these cases, including all the 36 culture-negative broths, were TUBEX-negative i.e. TUBEX TP was 100% specific. In a separate study using known laboratory strains, TUBEX TF, which detects S. Typhi but not S. Paratyphi A via the O9 antigen, was found to efficiently complement TUBEX TP as a differential test. Thus, TUBEX TP and TUBEX TF are useful adjuncts to conventional culture because they can save considerable time (>2 days, costs and manpower.

  12. Comparison of the conventional diagnostic modalities, bactec culture and polymerase chain reaction test for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of 65 kDa antigen based PCR assay in clinical samples obtained from pulmonary and extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. METHODS: One hundred and fifty six samples were processed for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by ZN smear examination, LJ medium culture, BACTEC radiometric culture and PCR tests. RESULTS: A significant difference was seen in the sensitivities of different tests, the figures being 74.4% for PCR test, 33.79% for ZN smear examination, 48.9% for LJ culture and 55.8% for BACTEC culture (P0.05 as far as specificity of different tests was concerned. PCR test sensitivity in pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical samples were 72.7% and 75.9% respectively and found to be significantly higher (PM.tuberculosis was 24.03 days by LJ medium culture, 12.89 days by BACTEC culture and less than one day by PCR test. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

  13. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  14. Negotiating the boundary between medicine and consumer culture: online marketing of nutrigenetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukko, Paula M; Reed, Matthew; Britten, Nicky; Hogarth, Stuart

    2010-03-01

    Genomics researchers and policy makers have accused nutrigenetic testing companies--which provide DNA-based nutritional advice online--of misleading the public. The UK and USA regulation of the tests has hinged on whether they are classed as "medical" devices, and alternative regulatory categories for "lifestyle" and less-serious genetic tests have been proposed. This article presents the findings of a qualitative thematic analysis of the webpages of nine nutrigenetic testing companies. We argue that the companies, mirroring and negotiating the regulatory debates, were creating a new social space for products between medicine and consumer culture. This space was articulated through three themes: (i) how "genes" and tests were framed, (ii) how the individual was imagined vis a vis health information, and (iii) the advice and treatments offered. The themes mapped onto four frames or models for genetic testing: (i) clinical genetics, (ii) medicine, (iii) intermediate, and (iv) lifestyle. We suggest that the genomics researchers and policy makers appeared to perform what Gieryn (Gieryn, T.F. (1983). Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists. American Sociological Review, 48, 781-795.) has termed "boundary work", i.e., to delegitimize the tests as outside proper medicine and science. Yet, they legitimated them, though in a different way, by defining them as lifestyle, and we contend that the transformation of the boundaries of science into a creation of such hybrid or compromise categories is symptomatic of current historical times. Social scientists studying medicine have referred to the emergence of "lifestyle" products. This article contributes to this literature by examining the historical, regulatory and marketing processes through which certain goods and services become defined this way.

  15. Diagnostic value of culture and serological tests in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis in HIV and non-HIV Colombian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Bustamante, Karen; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz Elena; de Bedout, Catalina; Tobón, Angela Maria; González, Angel

    2013-11-01

    We determined the value of culture and serological tests used to diagnose histoplasmosis. The medical records of 391 histoplasmosis patients were analyzed. Diagnosis of the mycosis was assessed by culture, complement fixation, and immunodiffusion tests; 310 patients (79.5%) were male, and 184 patients (47.1%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Positivity value for cultures was 35.7% (74/207), reactivity of serological tests was 95.2% (160/168), and a combination of both methodologies was 16.9% (35/207) for non-HIV patients. Positivity value for cultures was 75.0% (138/184), reactivity of serological tests was 92.4% (85/92), and a combination of both methodologies was 26.0% (48/184) for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients; 48.1% (102/212) of extrapulmonary samples from HIV/AIDS patients yielded positive cultures compared with 23.1% (49/212) in non-HIV patients. Lymphocyte counts made for 33.1% (61/184) of HIV/AIDS patients showed a trend to low CD4+ numbers and higher proportion of positive cultures. These results indicate that culture is the most reliable fungal diagnostic method for HIV/AIDS patients, and contrary to what is generally believed, serological assays are useful for diagnosing histoplasmosis in these patients.

  16. Toxigenicity testing of clinical isolates of non-typhoidal salmonellae in Vero cell culture & Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudason, Mary V; V Balaji, V; Densibai, Shoba

    2006-06-01

    The non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) are recognized agents of gastroenteritis worldwide. Some of the NTS do not produces cytotoxic changes in tissue culture and not much is known about the endotoxicity of the clinical isolates of NTS (mostly Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis). We examined the exotoxic (cytotoxin) and endotoxic activity of clinical isolates of NTS in two assay models namely Vero cell culture and the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Bacteria-free culture supernatants of 40 isolates NTS were tested in 96 well microtitre plate containing confluent monolayers of Vero cells. For the effects on C. elegans, the worms were exposed to bacteria free culture supernatants in 24 well microtitre plate for 24 h and then transferred to OP50 Escherichia coli lawn culture. The endotoxic activity of the live bacterium was studied by feeding the worms in the lawn culture of NTS separately. No cytopathic effect was observed with NTS tested in Vero cell culture assay. Likewise, the worms exposed to the bacteria-free culture supernatants were found active up to 7 days. In the co-culture killing assay, worms were found dead with characteristic stiff and straight appearance by 16(th) day. The worms were alive up to 21 days in OP50 E. coli. Bacteria-free culture supernatants did not have any deleterious effect on worms or in Vero cell culture, suggesting that there is no soluble toxic factor (diffusible toxin) in the culture supernatants. However, live NTS were found to be lethal to the worms; indicating that direct interaction between viable NTS and C. elegans is necessary for killing.

  17. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  18. A 3D-psoriatic skin model for dermatological testing: The impact of culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Duque-Fernandez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical screen can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects. Consequently, pharmaceutical investigators are searching for preclinical models that closely resemble original tissue for predicting clinical outcomes.The current research aims to compare the impact of using serum-free medium instead of complete culture medium during the last step of psoriatic skin substitute reconstruction. Skin substitutes were produced according to the self-assembly approach.Serum-free conditions have no negative impact on the reconstruction of healthy or psoriatic skin substitutes presented in this study regarding their macroscopic or histological appearances. ATR-FTIR results showed no significant differences in the CH2 bands between psoriatic substitutes cultured with or without serum, thus suggesting that serum deprivation did not have a negative impact on the lipid organization of their stratum corneum. Serum deprivation could even lead to a better organization of healthy skin substitute lipids. Percutaneous analyses demonstrated that psoriatic substitutes cultured in serum-free conditions showed a higher permeability to hydrocortisone compared to controls, while no significant differences in benzoic acid and caffeine penetration profiles were observed.Results obtained with this 3D-psoriatic skin substitute demonstrate the potential and versatility of the model. It could offer good prediction of drug related toxicities at preclinical stages performed in order to avoid unexpected and costly findings in the clinic.Together, these findings offer a new approach for one of the most important challenges of the 21st century, namely, prediction of drug toxicity.•Impact of serum-free conditions during psoriatic skin substitutes reconstruction.•Lipids disorganization of healthy and psoriatic skin substitutes.•Permeation profiles of healthy skin substitutes.•Permeation profiles of

  19. Testing for divergent transmission histories among cultural characters: a study using Bayesian phylogenetic methods and Iranian tribal textile data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J; Tehrani, Jamie J; Jordan, Fiona M; Collard, Mark; Nunn, Charles L

    2011-04-29

    Archaeologists and anthropologists have long recognized that different cultural complexes may have distinct descent histories, but they have lacked analytical techniques capable of easily identifying such incongruence. Here, we show how bayesian phylogenetic analysis can be used to identify incongruent cultural histories. We employ the approach to investigate Iranian tribal textile traditions. We used bayes factor comparisons in a phylogenetic framework to test two models of cultural evolution: the hierarchically integrated system hypothesis and the multiple coherent units hypothesis. In the hierarchically integrated system hypothesis, a core tradition of characters evolves through descent with modification and characters peripheral to the core are exchanged among contemporaneous populations. In the multiple coherent units hypothesis, a core tradition does not exist. Rather, there are several cultural units consisting of sets of characters that have different histories of descent. For the Iranian textiles, the bayesian phylogenetic analyses supported the multiple coherent units hypothesis over the hierarchically integrated system hypothesis. Our analyses suggest that pile-weave designs represent a distinct cultural unit that has a different phylogenetic history compared to other textile characters. The results from the Iranian textiles are consistent with the available ethnographic evidence, which suggests that the commercial rug market has influenced pile-rug designs but not the techniques or designs incorporated in the other textiles produced by the tribes. We anticipate that bayesian phylogenetic tests for inferring cultural units will be of great value for researchers interested in studying the evolution of cultural traits including language, behavior, and material culture.

  20. Opinion Dynamics with Confirmation Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Allahverdyan, A E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings: We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect|when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preferenc...

  1. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  2. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of copper oxychloride in cultured human lymphocytes using cytogenetic and molecular tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Suleyman; Genc, Ahmet; Buyukleyla, Mehmet; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup

    2016-10-01

    The genotoxicity of copper oxychloride was investigated in human lymphocytes using chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests and the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction technique. The lymphocytes were treated with 3, 6, and 12 µg/mL of copper oxychloride for 24 and 48 h. Copper oxychloride increased CA and abnormal cells in a dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN and micronucleated binuclear cells also increased at all concentrations and treatment periods. However, copper oxychloride cytotoxicity, observed through lower mitotic and nuclear division index, was significantly lower only at the higher concentrations (6 and 12 µg/mL). Copper oxychloride increased the polymorphic bands and decreased genomic template stability. In conclusion, in this study it was confirmed that copper oxychloride has genotoxic potential for human lymphocytes in vitro. Additionally, caution is advised for its use as a fungicide, because it may increase the risk of exposure through the food chain.

  3. Cross-culturally modified University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test for a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Tekeli, Hakan; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Yasar, Halit; Kendirli, Mustafa T; Saglam, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is a well-developed and popular olfactory test, which has been validated in various populations. However, there was only one study in a Turkish population, and this study indicated that the North American version of the UPSIT was not enough to evaluate the olfactory functions of Turkish population. So, we developed a cross-cultural adaptation of the UPSIT, the UPSIT-Turkish (UPSIT-T). Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the applicability of the UPSIT-T in healthy Turkish subjects. The study included 51 healthy individuals who reported having normal olfactory function. The participants were administered the North American version of the UPSIT firstly, and then, after a day UPSIT-T was applied to the participants. The results of two smell tests were compared, and the applicability of UPSIT-T was evaluated. The mean (standard deviation) value for correctly identified odors was 27.2 ± 5.7 (range, 14-38) with the UPSIT application, whereas the mean (standard deviation) value for correctly identified odors was 35.9 ± 3.1 for UPSIT-T. There was a statistically significant increase in the scores of the participants when UPSIT-T was performed (p < 0.001). The identification rates of 10 test odorants were <80% for our study group, and 2 of 10 were <70% for the UPSIT-T. The UPSIT-T modification is an adequate olfactory test for clinical use in a Turkish population.

  4. Performance Confirmation Data Aquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Markman

    2000-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M&O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application.

  5. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  6. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  7. The Relationship between Ethical Culture and Unethical Behavior in Work Groups: Testing the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Corporate Ethical Virtues Model, which is a model for measuring the ethical culture of organizations, has not been tested on its predictive validity. This study tests the relationship between this model and observed unethical behavior in work groups. The sample consists of 301 triads

  8. Opinion Dynamics with Confirmation Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Background Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science. Methodology/Principal Findings We formulate a (non-Bayesian) model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect–when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency) or the first opinion (primacy) –and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties. Conclusions The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development. PMID:25007078

  9. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  10. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  11. Testing the cultural group selection hypothesis in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We examine the cultural group selection (CGS) hypothesis in light of our fieldwork in Northern Ghana and Oaxaca, highly multi-ethnic regions. Our evidence fails to corroborate two central predictions of the hypothesis: that the cultural group is the unit of evolution, and that cultural homogenization is to be expected as the outcome of a selective process.

  12. The statistical performance of an MCF-7 cell culture assay evaluated using generalized linear mixed models and a score test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey deCastro, B; Neuberg, Donna

    2007-05-30

    Biological assays often utilize experimental designs where observations are replicated at multiple levels, and where each level represents a separate component of the assay's overall variance. Statistical analysis of such data usually ignores these design effects, whereas more sophisticated methods would improve the statistical power of assays. This report evaluates the statistical performance of an in vitro MCF-7 cell proliferation assay (E-SCREEN) by identifying the optimal generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) that accurately represents the assay's experimental design and variance components. Our statistical assessment found that 17beta-oestradiol cell culture assay data were best modelled with a GLMM configured with a reciprocal link function, a gamma error distribution, and three sources of design variation: plate-to-plate; well-to-well, and the interaction between plate-to-plate variation and dose. The gamma-distributed random error of the assay was estimated to have a coefficient of variation (COV) = 3.2 per cent, and a variance component score test described by X. Lin found that each of the three variance components were statistically significant. The optimal GLMM also confirmed the estrogenicity of five weakly oestrogenic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 17, 49, 66, 74, and 128). Based on information criteria, the optimal gamma GLMM consistently out-performed equivalent naive normal and log-normal linear models, both with and without random effects terms. Because the gamma GLMM was by far the best model on conceptual and empirical grounds, and requires only trivially more effort to use, we encourage its use and suggest that naive models be avoided when possible. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Modeling confirmation bias and polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Del Vicario, Michela; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Online users tend to select claims that adhere to their system of beliefs and to ignore dissenting information. Confirmation bias, indeed, plays a pivotal role in viral phenomena. Furthermore, the wide availability of content on the web fosters the aggregation of likeminded people where debates tend to enforce group polarization. Such a configuration might alter the public debate and thus the formation of the public opinion. In this paper we provide a mathematical model to study online social debates and the related polarization dynamics. We assume the basic updating rule of the Bounded Confidence Model (BCM) and we develop two variations a) the Rewire with Bounded Confidence Model (RBCM), in which discordant links are broken until convergence is reached; and b) the Unbounded Confidence Model, under which the interaction among discordant pairs of users is allowed even with a negative feedback, either with the rewiring step (RUCM) or without it (UCM). From numerical simulations we find that the new models (UCM...

  14. Personality Testing in Antarctic Expeditioners: Cross Cultural Comparisons and Evidence for Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, D. M.; Sandal, G. M.; Harper, M. L.; Helmreich, R. L.

    Antarctica provides an ideal environment in which to study human behaviour under conditions of isolation and confinement. Such research is currently being conducted through several national Antarctic research programs, with the subject pool for these investigations necessarily consisting of individuals from multiple nationalities. Cross-cultural research has shown, however, that psychological traits and individual values may vary significantly between national and ethnic groups. Until now, there has been an implicit assumption that Antarctic personnel are essentially similar from one national program to another and that therefore findings from any one nation's Antarctic program should generalize to another, as well as to other domains such as spaceflight. We believe that it is necessary to validate this assumption through empirical research. This objective of this analysis was to determine the degree of similarity between the psychological testing profiles of Antarctic research personnel from different national Antarctic programs, and to determine the degrees of similarity or difference of these personnel to a normative population. METHODS In separate studies, Antarctic personnel from Australia (n=57), Norway (=37), and Great Britain (n=145) were administered the Personal Characteristics Inventory (PCI) before departing to Antarctica. The PCI is a battery consisting of 11 psychological scales designed to assess specific traits related to achievement and interpersonal competence that have been shown to be particularly salient to human performance under stressful and complex conditions. For comparative normative data, a group of 441 U.S. undergraduate students were also administered the PCI. Due to historical reasons, researchers in this study used 2 versions of the PCI, and only 9 of the 11 scales were directly equivalent. RESULTS For the three national Antarctic groups (Australia, Norway, and Great Britain), no significant variation was found between group mean

  15. Development and testing of the 'Culture of Care Barometer' (CoCB) in healthcare organisations: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anne Marie; Philippou, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; Pike, Geoff; Ball, Jane

    2017-08-18

    Concerns about care quality have prompted calls to create workplace cultures conducive to high-quality, safe and compassionate care and to provide a supportive environment in which staff can operate effectively. How healthcare organisations assess their culture of care is an important first step in creating such cultures. This article reports on the development and validation of a tool, the Culture of Care Barometer, designed to assess perceptions of a caring culture among healthcare workers preliminary to culture change. An exploratory mixed methods study designed to develop and test the validity of a tool to measure 'culture of care' through focus groups and questionnaires. Questionnaire development was facilitated through: a literature review, experts generating items of interest and focus group discussions with healthcare staff across specialities, roles and seniority within three types of public healthcare organisations in the UK. The tool was designed to be multiprofessional and pilot tested with a sample of 467 nurses and healthcare support workers in acute care and then validated with a sample of 1698 staff working across acute, mental health and community services in England. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dimensions underlying the Barometer. Psychometric testing resulted in the development of a 30-item questionnaire linked to four domains with retained items loading to four factors: organisational values (α=0.93, valid n=1568, M=3.7), team support (α=0.93, valid n=1557, M=3.2), relationships with colleagues (α=0.84, valid n=1617, M=4.0) and job constraints (α=0.70, valid n=1616, M=3.3). The study developed a valid and reliable instrument with which to gauge the different attributes of care culture perceived by healthcare staff with potential for organisational benchmarking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  16. Utility of MPT64 antigen test for differentiating mycobacteria: Can correlation with liquid culture smear morphology add further value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nerurkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clinical presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections may or may not be the same, but the treatment is always different. Hence accurate differentiation between MTBC and NTM is of utmost importance. Aims: To assess in parallel, the utility of MPT64 antigen immunochromatography assay (MPT64 ICT and bacillary morphology on liquid culture smear, for rapid differentiation between MTBC and NTM in clinical isolates. Settings and Designs: Private sector reference laboratory, prospective. Subjects and Methods: Thousand and ninety-three mycobacterial isolates, recovered using Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 liquid culture system (BD, USA, were subjected to MPT64 ICT (Standard Diagnostics Inc., Korea, para amino nitrobenzoicacid (PNB, niacin, and nitrate reduction tests. Smears prepared from culture vials were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining and observed microscopically for typical patterns (chords, single cells, etc.,. PNB, nitrate and niacin tests served as the reference method for MTBC identification. Results: Thousand and fourteen and 79 isolates were identified as MTBC and NTM, respectively. MPT64 ICT correctly identified 955/1014 MTBC and all NTM isolates, yielding sensitivity and specificity of 94.2% and 100%, respectively. 936/1014 (92.3% MTBC isolates revealed characteristic serpentine chording on culture smear including 56/59 MPT64 ICT negative isolates. Sensitivity and specificity of liquid culture smear were 98.1% and 82.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Correlation of MPT64 ICT results with liquid culture smear was useful, especially in MPT64 ICT negative isolates, where the latter could help to determine need and/or type of additional confirmatory testing. Liquid culture smear, however, lacked specificity and cannot be used as a stand alone test.

  17. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article. Diethylene triamine trinitrate (DETN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    chromatid interchanges between chromosomes leading to four-armed configurations. This could be asymmetrical with formation of a dicentric and an acentric...fragment which may be misaligned and a shortened monocentric chromosome , and where there is no sister chromatid union. Dicentric - an asymmetrical...Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test

  18. A quantitative test of the cultural theory of risk perceptions: comparison with the psychometric paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, C; Langford, I H; O'Riordan, T

    1998-10-01

    This paper seeks to compare two frameworks which have been proposed to explain risk perceptions, namely, cultural theory and the psychometric paradigm. A structured questionnaire which incorporated elements from both approaches was administered to 129 residents of Norwich, England. The qualitative risk characteristics generated by the psychometric paradigm explained a far greater proportion of the variance in risk perceptions than cultural biases, though it should be borne in mind that the qualitative characteristics refer directly to risks whereas cultural biases are much more distant variables. Correlations between cultural biases and risk perceptions were very low, but the key point was that each cultural bias was associated with concern about distinct types of risks and that the pattern of responses was compatible with that predicted by cultural theory. The cultural approach also provided indicators for underlying beliefs regarding trust and the environment; beliefs which were consistent within each world view but divergent between them. An important drawback, however, was that the psychometric questionnaire could only allocate 32% of the respondents unequivocally to one of the four cultural types. The rest of the sample expressed several cultural biases simultaneously, or none at all. Cultural biases are therefore probably best interpreted as four extreme world views, and a mixture of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies would generate better insights into who might defend these views in what circumstances, whether there are only four mutually exclusive world views or not, and how these views are related to patterns of social solidarity, and judgments on institutional trust.

  19. Testing a tri-partite contingent model of engineering cultures: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Glen D., E-mail: gd.murphy@qut.edu.a [Cooperative Research Centre for Integrated Engineering Asset Management (CIEAM), School of Management, Queensland University of Technology, PO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    For some time there has been a growing awareness of organizational culture and its impact on the functioning of engineering and maintenance departments. Those wishing to implement contemporary maintenance regimes (e.g. condition based maintenance) are often encouraged to develop 'appropriate cultures' to support a new method's introduction. Unfortunately these same publications often fail to specifically articulate the cultural values required to support those efforts. In the broader literature, only a limited number of case examples document the cultural values held by engineering asset intensive firms and how they contribute to their success (or failure). Consequently a gap exists in our knowledge of what engineering cultures currently might look like, or what might constitute a best practice engineering asset culture. The findings of a pilot study investigating the perceived ideal characteristics of engineering asset cultures are reported. Engineering managers, consultants and academics (n=47), were surveyed as to what they saw were essential attributes of both engineering cultures and engineering asset personnel. Valued cultural elements included those orientated around continuous improvement, safety and quality. Valued individual attributes included openness to change, interpersonal skills and conscientiousness. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the development of a best practice cultural framework for practitioners and engineering managers.

  20. Constructing, Confirming, and Contesting Icons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    of these appropriations, two overall modes are singled out: the appropriations either decontextualize or recontextualize the figure of Kurdi. The two next analytical cases test the limits of decontextualization and recontextualization: Chinese artist Ai Weiwei decontextualizes the Kurdi imagery in a controversial...

  1. Utility of Genetic Testing for Confirmation of Abnormal Newborn Screening in Disorders of Long-Chain Fatty Acids: A Missed Case of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Dowsett, Leah; Lulis, Lauren; Ficicioglu, Can; Cuddapah, Sanmati

    2017-01-01

    An 18-month-old male was evaluated after presenting with disproportionately elevated liver transaminases in the setting of acute gastroenteritis. He had marked hepatomegaly on physical exam that was later confirmed with an abdominal ultrasound. Given this clinical picture, suspicion for a fatty acid oxidation disorder was raised. Further investigation revealed that his initial newborn screen was positive for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency?a rare autosomal recessive disor...

  2. Modeling confirmation bias and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vicario, Michela; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H. Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Online users tend to select claims that adhere to their system of beliefs and to ignore dissenting information. Confirmation bias, indeed, plays a pivotal role in viral phenomena. Furthermore, the wide availability of content on the web fosters the aggregation of likeminded people where debates tend to enforce group polarization. Such a configuration might alter the public debate and thus the formation of the public opinion. In this paper we provide a mathematical model to study online social debates and the related polarization dynamics. We assume the basic updating rule of the Bounded Confidence Model (BCM) and we develop two variations a) the Rewire with Bounded Confidence Model (RBCM), in which discordant links are broken until convergence is reached; and b) the Unbounded Confidence Model, under which the interaction among discordant pairs of users is allowed even with a negative feedback, either with the rewiring step (RUCM) or without it (UCM). From numerical simulations we find that the new models (UCM and RUCM), unlike the BCM, are able to explain the coexistence of two stable final opinions, often observed in reality. Lastly, we present a mean field approximation of the newly introduced models. PMID:28074874

  3. Modeling confirmation bias and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vicario, Michela; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H. Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Online users tend to select claims that adhere to their system of beliefs and to ignore dissenting information. Confirmation bias, indeed, plays a pivotal role in viral phenomena. Furthermore, the wide availability of content on the web fosters the aggregation of likeminded people where debates tend to enforce group polarization. Such a configuration might alter the public debate and thus the formation of the public opinion. In this paper we provide a mathematical model to study online social debates and the related polarization dynamics. We assume the basic updating rule of the Bounded Confidence Model (BCM) and we develop two variations a) the Rewire with Bounded Confidence Model (RBCM), in which discordant links are broken until convergence is reached; and b) the Unbounded Confidence Model, under which the interaction among discordant pairs of users is allowed even with a negative feedback, either with the rewiring step (RUCM) or without it (UCM). From numerical simulations we find that the new models (UCM and RUCM), unlike the BCM, are able to explain the coexistence of two stable final opinions, often observed in reality. Lastly, we present a mean field approximation of the newly introduced models.

  4. Performance confirmation data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, D.A.; Raczka, N.T. [Yucca Mountain Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the Viability Assessment (VA) work, this QAP-3-9 document presents and evaluates a comprehensive set of viable concepts for collecting Performance Confirmation (PC) related data. The concepts include: monitoring subsurface repository air temperatures, humidity levels and gaseous emissions via the subsurface ventilation systems, and monitoring the repository geo-technical parameters and rock mass from bore-holes located along the perimeter main drifts and throughout a series of human-rated Observation Drifts to be located in a plane 25 meters above the plane of the emplacement drifts. A key element of this document is the development and analysis of a purposed multi-purpose Remote Inspection Gantry that would provide direct, real-time visual, thermal, and radiological monitoring of conditions inside operational emplacement drifts and close-up observations of in-situ Waste Packages. Preliminary finite-element analyses are presented that indicate the technological feasibility of operating an inspection gantry inside the operational emplacement drifts for short inspection missions lasting 2--3 hours. Overall reliability, availability, and maintainability of the PC data collection concepts are discussed. Preliminary concepts for PC data collection network are also provided.

  5. Fluorescence Microspectroscopy for Testing the Dimerization Hypothesis of BACE1 Protein in Cultured HEK293 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeen, Spencer; Johnson, Joseph L.; Heikal, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from the formation of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain that trigger the known symptoms of memory loss in AD patients. The beta-amyloid plaques are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the proteases BACE1 and gamma-secretase. These enzyme-facilitated cleavages lead to the production of beta-amyloid fragments that aggregate to form plaques, which ultimately lead to neuronal cell death. Recent detergent protein extraction studies suggest that BACE1 protein forms a dimer that has significantly higher catalytic activity than its monomeric counterpart. In this contribution, we examine the dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in cultured HEK293 cells using complementary fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy methods. Cells were transfected with a BACE1-EGFP fusion protein construct and imaged using confocal, and differential interference contrast to monitor the localization and distribution of intracellular BACE1. Complementary fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy measurements enabled us to examine the conformational and environmental changes of BACE1 as a function of substrate binding. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we also quantified the diffusion coefficient of BACE1-EGFP on the plasma membrane as a means to test the dimerization hypothesis as a fucntion of substrate-analog inhibitition. Our results represent an important first towards examining the substrate-mediated dimerization hypothesis of BACE1 in live cells.

  6. A longitudinal test of the effects of Facebook use on cultural adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Croucher, Stephen; Rahmani, Diyako

    2015-01-01

    The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of Facebook on the cultural adaptation of Muslim immigrants to the United States (n = 379). Immigrants’ use of Facebook affects interactions with the dominant culture and with the ingroup. Respondents were asked about their use of Facebook, motivation to culturally adapt, and perceptions of the US at two different points in a 6-year period. Analysis revealed the following. Muslim immigrants to the US from 2006 to 2012 ...

  7. A longitudinal test of the effects of Facebook use on cultural adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Croucher, Stephen; Rahmani, Diyako

    2015-01-01

    The present study is a longitudinal examination of the role of Facebook on the cultural adaptation of Muslim immigrants to the United States (n = 379). Immigrants’ use of Facebook affects interactions with the dominant culture and with the ingroup. Respondents were asked about their use of Facebook, motivation to culturally adapt, and perceptions of the US at two different points in a 6-year period. Analysis revealed the following. Muslim immigrants to the US from 2006 to 2012 ...

  8. From mandatory to voluntary testing: balancing human rights, religious and cultural values, and HIV/AIDS prevention in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginaah, Isaac N; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K; Taabazuing, Mary-Margaret

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines efforts by some churches in Ghana to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. The analysis is based on focus group discussions with two groups of men and two groups of women, along with in-depth interviews with 13 pastors and marriage counsellors in the churches studied. In response to government and public criticisms about human rights violations, churches that previously imposed mandatory HIV testing on members planning to marry now have voluntary testing programmes. However, the results suggest that what the churches refer to as voluntary testing may not be truly voluntary. Cultural values and traditional practices, including traditional courtship and marriage rites (which are performed before church weddings), not only clash with considerations about pre-marital HIV testing but also complicate the contentious issue of confidentiality of information on HIV testing. Associated with these complexities and issues of confidentiality is a reluctance among participants, particularly those from northern Ghana, to test for HIV. The results reveal how broader social impacts of HIV testing for those planning to marry may extend beyond individuals or couples in different cultural contexts. The findings also support the general view that there are no perfect or easy solutions to combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Practical solutions and programs for Ghana cannot be neutral to cultural values and need to be tailored for particular (ethnic) populations.

  9. Cultural group selection is plausible, but the predictions of its hypotheses should be tested with real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    The evidence compiled in the target article demonstrates that the assumptions of cultural group selection (CGS) theory are often met, and it is therefore a useful framework for generating plausible hypotheses. However, more can be said about how we can test the predictions of CGS hypotheses against competing explanations using historical, archaeological, and anthropological data.

  10. Separation and confirmation of showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslušan, L.; Hajduková, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Using IAU MDC photographic, IAU MDC CAMS video, SonotaCo video, and EDMOND video databases, we aim to separate all provable annual meteor showers from each of these databases. We intend to reveal the problems inherent in this procedure and answer the question whether the databases are complete and the methods of separation used are reliable. We aim to evaluate the statistical significance of each separated shower. In this respect, we intend to give a list of reliably separated showers rather than a list of the maximum possible number of showers. Methods: To separate the showers, we simultaneously used two methods. The use of two methods enables us to compare their results, and this can indicate the reliability of the methods. To evaluate the statistical significance, we suggest a new method based on the ideas of the break-point method. Results: We give a compilation of the showers from all four databases using both methods. Using the first (second) method, we separated 107 (133) showers, which are in at least one of the databases used. These relatively low numbers are a consequence of discarding any candidate shower with a poor statistical significance. Most of the separated showers were identified as meteor showers from the IAU MDC list of all showers. Many of them were identified as several of the showers in the list. This proves that many showers have been named multiple times with different names. Conclusions: At present, a prevailing share of existing annual showers can be found in the data and confirmed when we use a combination of results from large databases. However, to gain a complete list of showers, we need more-complete meteor databases than the most extensive databases currently are. We also still need a more sophisticated method to separate showers and evaluate their statistical significance. Tables A.1 and A.2 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  11. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Braga, Audrey Renno; Langoni, Hélio; Lucheis, Simone Baldini [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected random...

  12. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show…

  13. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic

  14. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection.

  15. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection. PMID:28232823

  16. Same-day identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing on positive blood cultures: a simple and inexpensive procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelegheer, K; Nulens, E

    2016-11-26

    Fast diagnostic tools are becoming a hot topic in microbiology, especially in the case of septic patients. Therefore, we attempted to develop a fast, inexpensive, accurate and easy method to identify bacteria and perform an antibiotic susceptibility test directly on positive blood cultures that could be used in a routine laboratory. A procedure based on centrifugation and washing steps was performed on 110 non-duplicated (including nine seeded) positive blood culture bottles. Direct identification (DID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was conducted on the pellet with the MALDI Biotyper and Phoenix, respectively. Identification (ID) to the species level was correct in 44/45 (97%) cases for Gram-negative bacteria and 44/56 (79%) cases for Gram-positive bacteria. In total, 98.9% of the AST results were identical to the routine laboratory result. No very major errors, four major errors and eight minor errors were detected. A reliable identification and a high AST agreement were obtained from blood cultures seeded with multi-resistant bacteria. We simulated the timeline of DID and demonstrated an identification and AST result within 24 h using Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-positive blood cultures as examples. We developed an easy, fast and cheap method to generate reliable ID and AST results. Moreover, this method may be used to obtain results within 24 h after incubating the blood culture bottles in the microbiology lab.

  17. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of uriSed automated urine microscopic sediment analyzer and dipstick parameters in predicting urine culture test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysal, Kağan; Budak, Yasemin U; Karaca, Ayse Ulusoy; Aydos, Murat; Kahvecioğlu, Serdar; Bulut, Mehtap; Polat, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of infection. Currently, diagnosis is primarily based on microbiologic culture, which is time- and labor-consuming. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of urinalysis results from UriSed (77 Electronica, Budapest, Hungary), an automated microscopic image-based sediment analyzer, in predicting positive urine cultures. We examined a total of 384 urine specimens from hospitalized patients and outpatients attending our hospital on the same day for urinalysis, dipstick tests and semi-quantitative urine culture. The urinalysis results were compared with those of conventional semiquantitative urine culture. Of 384 urinary specimens, 68 were positive for bacteriuria by culture, and were thus considered true positives. Comparison of these results with those obtained from the UriSed analyzer indicated that the analyzer had a specificity of 91.1%, a sensitivity of 47.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 53.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 40.8-65.3), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88.8% (95% CI = 85.0-91.8%). The accuracy was 83.3% when the urine leukocyte parameter was used, 76.8% when bacteriuria analysis of urinary sediment was used, and 85.1% when the bacteriuria and leukocyturia parameters were combined. The presence of nitrite was the best indicator of culture positivity (99.3% specificity) but had a negative likelihood ratio of 0.7, indicating that it was not a reliable clinical test. Although the specificity of the UriSed analyzer was within acceptable limits, the sensitivity value was low. Thus, UriSed urinalysis resuIts do not accurately predict the outcome of culture.

  19. Screening Test of Greenhouse Seeding Exercise Matrix for Tissue Culture Seeding of Dendrobium Officinale Kimura et Migo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo has a high demand on planting matrix, while its tissue culture seeding has much more demands on planting matrix. To find out a seeding exercise matrix to enhance the survival rate of tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo more efficiently, this article carries out a screening test of greenhouse seeding exercise matrix material for tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. The test adopts full random test design, mainly for screening test of five matrix materials, namely pine bark, camphor tree bark, fern root, peanut shell and longan bark. Compare the impact of prepared seeding exercise matrix on the survival rate and growth trend (including plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate. The test result shows that: The seeding exercise matrix prepared by fern root is the most efficient, and the survival rate, plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate have achieved 100%, 4.5cm, 43.67% and 54.33% respectively. The main reason may be that the seeding exercise matrix C prepared by fern root is fairly loose and has a great water permeability, which is conducive to the growth of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

  20. Beliefs Matter: Cultural Beliefs and the Use of Cervical Cancer-Screening Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, LR; Mcmullin, JM; Mishra, SI; Hubbell, FA

    2001-01-01

    In this article we examine the influence of cultural beliefs on behavior or, more specifically, beliefs about cervical cancer risk factors and the use of Pap exams. Individual Latinas' (Hispanic women) holding of beliefs similar to Latinas' generally (cultural consonance) did not significantly influence their use of Pap exams. Rather, structural factors such as medical insurance, age, marital status, education, and language acculturation explained Latinas' use of this medical service. However...

  1. Mass media tests: socio-cultural aspect (based on advertising texts)

    OpenAIRE

    MOSHCHEVA SVETLANA

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the social and cultural aspects of mass media texts. The ways and the principles of this research are defined. The study concludes that the social nature of advertising communication enables it to reflect all the nuances of life of society and to form an expedient paradigm of human relations in the context of various social and cultural phenomena of reality.

  2. Developing and Testing the Short-Form Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Assessing Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvan, Gerard J; Garvan, Cynthia W; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2016-10-01

    The importance of educating dental students in cultural competence has been widely emphasized, but there is a need to assess cultural competence in a consistent and reliable way. The aims of this study were to determine latent constructs for the initial measure of cultural competence for oral health providers, the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI), and to determine how well these factors related to previously identified latent constructs. Data were collected in surveys of dental students and from dental hygiene, dental assisting, and dental faculty members in 44 academic dental institutions from 2012 to 2015. There were a total of 1,786 respondents to the surveys; response rates to individual surveys ranged from 35% to 100%. There were 982 (55%) female and 804 (45%) male respondents, 286 (16%) underrepresented minority (URM) and 1,500 (84%) non-URM respondents, and 339 (19%) faculty and 1,447 (81%) student respondents. Three latent constructs were identified. Female respondents scored significantly higher on the culture-centered practice and efficacy of assessment factors, while URM respondents had significantly higher scores on all three of the KEPI factors. Measurements indicated that the long-form KEPI could be shortened by ten questions and still have three meaningful measurements. Continued research in assessing other health care providers' cultural competence is needed to expand the KEPI to measure providers' cultural competence with patients with minority sexual orientation and gender identity issues and those with physical disabilities, mental illness, and autism to advance patient-centric communication.

  3. Analyses of the Results of HIV-1 Western Blot Confirmative Test and NAT Test in Voluntary Blood Donors%无偿献血者HIV-1抗体蛋白印迹确认与核酸检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蓉; 王伦善; 盛琪琪; 赵阳; 蒋菲菲; 李敏; 刘忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the performance of confirmative Western blot (WB) and TMA-chemical luminescence test in detecting the reactive-samples for HIV antibody ELISA assay. Methods 117 reactive specimens detected by ELISA were repeatedly tested by two methods of primary screening assay and TMA-luminescence nucleic acid amplification testing(NAT). All samples of S/CO>0. 8 were analysed by the WB confirmative test. Serological tests participated in the external quality assessment (EQA) were surported by China CDC and Australian international CITIC as well as NAT participated in the EQA of Clinical Laboratory Center of the Ministry of Health and Australian CITIC. Results The results of all 117 tested samples were as followed, in primary screening test:S/CO>1,0. 8test: 7 were positive and 106 were negative, 4 cases could not be determined by this method. NAT test: 11 were HIV RNA positive and 106 were negative. Conclusion ELISA assay for the detection of HIV antibodies may result in false positive results. WB method can bring uncertain results. For the uncertain specimens, for instance, only positive in gpl60/120, P17, P24, NAT method can be used to confirm the HIV infection.%目的 对酶联免疫检测HIV抗体呈反应性标本进行蛋白印迹(WB法)确认和TMA-化学发光法对照检测,以探讨其应用特点.方法 将本中心检验科ELISA法检测结果呈HIV抗体反应性的117份标本,重新进行ELISA法检测,结果为S/CO>0.8的标本做蛋白印迹(WB法)确认试验.同时,对117份标本采用TMA-化学发光法检测核酸作为对照试验.血清学检测参加国家CDC及澳大利亚(CITIC)室间质评;核酸检测参加卫生部临检中心和澳大利亚(CITIC)室间质评.结果 ELISA初筛试验:117份标本中,S/CO>1的为37份;0.8<S/CO<1的为11份,S/CO<0.8的为69份;抗体确认试验:HIV抗体确认阳性7份,不确定4

  4. Development of the Performance Confirmation Program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.D. LeCain; R. Snell; D. Barr; S.W. Goodin; D. Weaver; F.D. Hansen

    2006-03-17

    The Yucca Mountain Performance Confirmation program consists of tests, monitoring activities, experiments, and analyses to evaluate the adequacy of assumptions, data, and analyses that form the basis of the conceptual and numerical models of flow and transport associated with a proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Performance Confirmation program uses an eight-stage risk-informed, performance-based approach. Selection of the Performance Confirmation activities (a parameter and a test method) for inclusion in the Performance Confirmation program was done using a risk-informed performance-based decision analysis. The result of this analysis and review was a Performance Confirmation base portfolio that consists of 20 activities. The 20 Performance Confirmation activities include geologic, hydrologic, and construction/engineering testing. Several of the activities were initiated during site characterization and are ongoing. Others activities will commence during construction and/or post emplacement and will continue until repository closure.

  5. Comparison of the H7 latex agglutination test with a fliCh7 real-time PCR assay for confirmation of the H type of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Positive identification of E. coli O157:H7 is made using biochemical tests and latex agglutination using specific antisera. However, under certain conditions, some E. coli O157:H7 isolate...

  6. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Wagner, Jenny; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2015-09-01

    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal belonging. The getting-ahead perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of getting ahead in the social world, while regarding low anxiety/neuroticism as a sociometer of getting along with others. The 3 perspectives make contrasting predictions on the relation between the Big Five personality traits and self-esteem across cultures. We tested these predictions in a self-report study (2,718,838 participants from 106 countries) and an informant-report study (837,655 informants from 64 countries). We obtained some evidence for cultural norm fulfillment, but the effect size was small. Hence, this perspective does not satisfactorily account for self-esteem's function. We found a strong relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem, but no such relation between Agreeableness and self-esteem. These 2 traits are pillars of interpersonal belonging. Hence, the results do not fit the interpersonal-belonging perspective either. However, the results closely fit the getting-ahead perspective. The relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem is consistent with this perspective, because Extraversion is the Big Five driver for getting ahead in the social world. The relation between Agreeableness and lower neuroticism is also consistent with this perspective, because Agreeableness is the Big Five driver for getting along with others.

  7. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  8. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×10⁶ CFU/ml and 4.9×10⁶ CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316 was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6-99.6% and the sensitivity (11/12 was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8-99.6%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8-91.1% and 99.7% (95% CI:98-100%. CONCLUSION: The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  9. A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Z.; Liao, Q.; Hu, Y.; You, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhao, Y. [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-10

    Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

  10. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2016-06-13

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains.

  11. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Audrey Rennó Campos; Langoni, Hélio; Lucheis, Simone Baldini

    2014-02-24

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis.

  12. A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

  13. Microbial identification and automated antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattal, C; Oberoi, J K

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the utility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using VITEK MS and the VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) system for direct identification (ID) and timely AST from positive blood culture bottles using a lysis-filtration method (LFM). Between July and December 2014, a total of 140 non-duplicate mono-microbial blood cultures were processed. An aliquot of positive blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer before the bacteria were filtered and washed. Micro-organisms recovered from the filter were first identified using VITEK MS and its suspension was used for direct AST by VITEK 2 once the ID was known. Direct ID and AST results were compared with classical methods using solid growth. Out of the 140 bottles tested, VITEK MS resulted in 70.7 % correct identification to the genus and/ or species level. For the 103 bottles where identification was possible, there was agreement in 97 samples (94.17 %) with classical culture. Compared to the routine method, the direct AST resulted in category agreement in 860 (96.5 %) of 891 bacteria-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. The results of direct ID and AST were available 16.1 hours before those of the standard approach on average. The combined use of VITEK MS and VITEK 2 directly on samples from positive blood culture bottles using a LFM technique can result in rapid and reliable ID and AST results in blood stream infections to result in early institution of targeted treatment. The combination of LFM and AST using VITEK 2 was found to expedite AST more reliably.

  14. Culture Qualitatively but Not Quantitatively Influences Performance in the Boston Naming Test in a Chinese-Speaking Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Bin Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Boston Naming Test (BNT is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. Methods: A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Results: Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. Conclusion: For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  15. Culture qualitatively but not quantitatively influences performance in the Boston naming test in a chinese-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Bin; Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Ker-Neng; Yeh, Yen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ta; Wang, Kuo-Shu; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  16. Comparison between traditional laboratory tests, permeability measurements and CT-based fluid flow modelling for cultural heritage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, Wesley; Bultreys, Tom; Derluyn, Hannelore; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the possibility to use on-site permeability measurements for cultural heritage applications as an alternative for traditional laboratory tests such as determination of the capillary absorption coefficient. These on-site measurements, performed with a portable air permeameter, were correlated with the pore network properties of eight sandstones and one granular limestone that are discussed in this paper. The network properties of the 9 materials tested in this study were obtained from micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared to measurements and calculations of permeability and the capillary absorption rate of the stones under investigation, in order to find the correlation between pore network characteristics and fluid management characteristics of these sandstones. Results show a good correlation between capillary absorption, permeability and network properties, opening the possibility of using on-site permeability measurements as a standard method in cultural heritage applications.

  17. A comparative study of Widal test with blood culture in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andualem, Gizachew; Abebe, Tamrat; Kebede, Nigatu; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Mihret, Adane; Alemayehu, Haile

    2014-09-17

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries and its diagnosis on clinical ground is difficult. Diagnosis in developing countries including Ethiopia is mostly done by Widal test. However, the value of the test has been debated. Hence, evaluating the result of this test is necessary for correct interpretation of the result. The main aim of this study was to compare the result of Widal test and blood culture in the diagnosis of typhoid fever in febrile patients. Blood samples were collected from 270 febrile patients with symptoms clinically similar to typhoid fever and visiting St. Paul's General Specialized Hospitals from mid December 2010 to March 2011. Blood culture was used to isolate S.typhi and S.paratyphi. Slide agglutination test and tube agglutination tests were used for the determination of antibody titer. An antibody titer of ≥1:80 for anti TO and ≥1:160 for anti TH were taken as a cut of value to indicate recent infection of typhoid fever. One hundred and eighty six (68.9%) participants were females and eighty four (31.1%) were males. 7 (2.6%) cases of S. typhi and 4 (1.5%) cases of S. paratyphi were identified with the total prevalence of typhoid fever 4.1%. The total number of patients who have indicative of recent infection by either of O and H antigens Widal test is 88 (32.6%). The sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive Value and Negative predictive Value of Widal test were 71.4%, 68.44%, 5.7% and 98.9% respectively. Widal test has a low sensitivity, specificity and PPV, but it has good NPV which indicates that negative Widal test result have a good indication for the absence of the disease.

  18. Culture medium optimization for osmotolerant yeasts by use of a parallel fermenter system and rapid microbiological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannebecker, Jens; Schiffer-Hetz, Claudia; Fröhlich, Jürgen; Becker, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a culture medium for qualitative detection of osmotolerant yeasts, named OM, was developed. For the development, culture media with different concentrations of glucose, fructose, potassium chloride and glycerin were analyzed in a Biolumix™ test incubator. Selectivity for osmotolerant yeasts was guaranteed by a water activity (aw)-value of 0.91. The best results regarding fast growth of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (WH 1002) were achieved in a culture medium consisting of 45% glucose, 5% fructose and 0.5% yeast extract and in a medium with 30% glucose, 10% glycerin, 5% potassium chloride and 0.5% yeast extract. Substances to stimulate yeast fermentation rates were analyzed in a RAMOS(®) parallel fermenter system, enabling online measurement of the carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) in shaking flasks. Significant increases of the CTR was achieved by adding especially 0.1-0.2% ammonium salts ((NH4)2HPO4, (NH4)2SO4 or NH4NO3), 0.5% meat peptone and 1% malt extract. Detection times and the CTR of 23 food-borne yeast strains of the genera Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora, Schizosaccharomyces, Candida and Wickerhamomyces were analyzed in OM bouillon in comparison to the selective culture media YEG50, MYG50 and DG18 in the parallel fermenter system. The OM culture medium enabled the detection of 10(2)CFU/g within a time period of 2-3days, depending on the analyzed yeast species. Compared with YEG50 and MYG50 the detection times could be reduced. As an example, W. anomalus (WH 1021) was detected after 124h in YEG50, 95.5h in MYG50 and 55h in OM bouillon. Compared to YEG50 the maximum CO2 transfer rates for Z. rouxii (WH 1001), T. delbrueckii (DSM 70526), S. pombe (DSM 70576) and W. anomalus (WH 1016) increased by a factor ≥2.6. Furthermore, enrichment cultures of inoculated high-sugar products in OM culture medium were analyzed in the Biolumix™ system. The results proved that detection times of 3days for Z. rouxii and T. delbrueckii can be realized by

  19. Testing the structural and cross-cultural validity of the KIDSCREEN-27 quality of life questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robitail, S.; Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Simeoni, M.-C.; Rajmil, L.; Bruil, J.; Power, M.; Duer, W.; Cloetta, B.; Czemy, L.; Mazur, J.; Czimbalmos, A.; Tountas, Y.; Hagquist, C.; Kilroe, J.; Auquier, P.; Fuerth, K.; Czerny, L.; Erhart, M.; Nickel, J.; Kurth, B.-M.; Gosch, A.; Von Rüden, U.; Dimitrakakis, C.; Aszman, A.; Flannery, E.; Detmar, S.; Veripps, E.; Mierzejeswka, E.; Berra, S.; Tebé, C.; Herdman, M.; Alonso, J.; Abel, T.; Bisegger, C.; Farley, C.; Atherton, C.; Phillips, K.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the structural and cross-cultural validity of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Methods: The 27-item version of the KIDSCREEN instrument was derived from a longer 52-item version and was administered to young people aged 8-18 years in 13 European countrie

  20. Cross-cultural psychometric testing of the Care Dependency Scale with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Coleman, M; Tomas, C; Valimaki, M; Dassen, T

    2003-01-01

    Background. The importance of the present study lies in addressing whether it is justified to compare the care dependency status of older patients from different settings and cultures using the same instrument. Aim. The aim of this international study was to compare the psychometric properties of th

  1. Investigating Pre-Service Teacher Motivation across Cultures Using the Teachers' Ten Statements Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Al-Dhafri, Said; Hannok, Wanwisa; Betts, Shea M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivations for choosing teaching as a career were investigated in 200 pre-service teachers from Canada and Oman. We used a novel structured qualitative approach and two theoretical models to analyze how pre-service teacher career-choice motivation varied according to cultural context. The results of the study showed that Canadian participants…

  2. From culture to symptom: Testing a structural model of "Chinese somatization".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Yunshi; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao; Dere, Jessica; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Ryder, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    "Chinese somatization" has been frequently discussed over the past three decades of cultural psychiatry, and has more recently been demonstrated in cross-national comparisons. Empirical studies of potential explanations are lacking, however. Ryder and Chentsova-Dutton (2012) proposed that Chinese somatization can be understood as a cultural script for depression, noting that the literature is divided on whether this script primarily involves felt bodily experience or a stigma-avoiding communication strategy. Two samples from Hunan province, China-one of undergraduate students (n = 213) and one of depressed psychiatric outpatients (n = 281)-completed the same set of self-report questionnaires, including a somatization questionnaire developed in Chinese. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Chinese somatization could be understood as two correlated factors: one focusing on the experience and expression of distress, the other on its conceptualization and communication. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that traditional Chinese cultural values are associated with both of these factors, but only bodily experience is associated with somatic depressive symptoms. This study takes a first step towards directly evaluating explanations for Chinese somatization, pointing the way to future multimethod investigations of this cultural script. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  4. Toxicity testing of chitosan from tiger prawn shell waste on cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A biomaterial used in oral cavity should not become toxic, irritant, carcinogenic, and allergenic. Chitosan represents a new biomaterial in dentistry. Purpose: To examine the toxicity of chitosan from tiger prawn shell waste on cell culture with MTT assay. Methods: Chitosan with concentration of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% was used in this experiment. Each sample was immersed on eppendorf microtubes containing media culture. After 24 hours, the immersion of media culture was used to examine the toxicity effects on BHK-21 cell based on MTT assay method. The density of optic formazan indicates the number of living cells. All data were then statistically analyzed by one-way Anava. Results: The number of living cells in chitosan from tiger prawn shell waste was 93.16%; 85.07%; 78.48%; 75.66%. Thus, there was no significant difference among groups. Conclusion: Chitosan with 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% concentrations from tiger prawn shell waste were not toxic for BHK-21 cell culture when using parameter CD50.

  5. Cultural bias in the SON-R test: comparative study of Brazilian and dutch children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Tellegen

    Full Text Available The present study, including 83 Brazilian and 51 Dutch children, evaluated the presence of cultural bias in items of the SON-R 5½-17 that make use of concrete objects and situations. Two procedures were followed to detect item bias. The first consisted of asking the children, immediately after an incorrect answer, whether they recognized the pictures. The second procedure compared item difficulties of the Brazilian children with those of the Dutch children belonging to the standardization sample of the SON-R 5½-17. Fourteen items were detected with bias: ten of these favored the Dutch group and four the Brazilian group. The cultural disadvantage for Brazilian children is rather small, taking the large amount of investigated items into account. This study indicated which items of the SON-R 5½-17 should be improved, not only for reasons of cultural bias, but also because children, irrespective of their cultural background, encountered problems with the recognition of several pictures.

  6. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; Applegate, L.J.; Murray, A.L.; Purcell, M.K.; McKibben, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  7. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D G; Applegate, L J; Murray, A L; Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L

    2013-09-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test.

  8. Development of the performance confirmation program at YUCCA mountain, nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCain, G.D.; Barr, D.; Weaver, D.; Snell, R.; Goodin, S.W.; Hansen, F.D.

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Performance Confirmation program consists of tests, monitoring activities, experiments, and analyses to evaluate the adequacy of assumptions, data, and analyses that form the basis of the conceptual and numerical models of flow and transport associated with a proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Performance Confirmation program uses an eight-stage risk-informed, performance-based approach. Selection of the Performance Confirmation activities for inclusion in the Performance Confirmation program was done using a risk-informed performance-based decision analysis. The result of this analysis was a Performance Confirmation base portfolio that consists of 20 activities. The 20 Performance Confirmation activities include geologic, hydrologie, and construction/engineering testing. Some of the activities began during site characterization, and others will begin during construction, or post emplacement, and continue until repository closure.

  9. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  10. Effects of age and cognition on a cross-cultural paediatric adaptation of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Orrico Donnabella Bastos

    Full Text Available To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS16.A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child. A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group.The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years, of which 68.3% were girls. There was an independent effect of age (p<0.05 and PIT-SS16-Child (p<0.001 on the performance on the SS16-Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test.A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration.

  11. Can weak lensing surveys confirm BICEP2 ?

    CERN Document Server

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Schmidt, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The detection of B-modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization by the BICEP2 experiment, if interpreted as evidence for a primordial gravitational wave background, has enormous ramifications for cosmology and physics. It is crucial to test this hypothesis with independent measurements. A gravitational wave background leads to B-modes in galaxy shape correlations (shear) both through lensing and tidal alignment effects. Since the systematics and foregrounds of galaxy shapes and CMB polarization are entirely different, a detection of a cross-correlation between the two observables would provide conclusive proof for the existence of a primordial gravitational wave background. We find that upcoming weak lensing surveys will be able to detect the cross-correlation between B-modes of the CMB and galaxy shapes. However, this detection is not sufficient to confirm or falsify the hypothesis of a primordial origin for CMB B-mode polarization.

  12. Laboratory culture of the freshwater benthic gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa (Reeve) and its utility as a test species for sediment toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Taowu; Gong, Shuangjiao; Zhou, Ke; Zhu, Cheng; Deng, Kaidong; Luo, Qinghua; Wang, Zijian

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop original laboratory culture and sediment toxicity testing protocols for the freshwater gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa (Reeve), a new potential species for sediment toxicity testing. B. aeruginosa was successfully cultured with an effective culture system under proposed laboratory conditions. Optimal ad libitum feeding levels for larvae, juveniles, and adults were 2.0, 6.0, and 16.0 mg fish food/(snail x day), respectively. Mean survival rates of juveniles were higher than 90%. The snails could be sexed at 9 weeks of age, and their generation time is approximately 4 months. Reproduction continued all year around; the mean fecundity was 0.55 newborn/(female x day). The utility of this species for bioassays was evaluated in both 10-day and 28-day case studies with artificial sediments. The 10-day LC50 of Cu for larvae was 480 gg/g dry weight (dw), and the lowest observed effects concentration of Cu for survival and growth of larvae was 195 microg/g dw. Survival and growth are reliable indicators of acute toxicity. Larvae accumulated more Cu than adults. B. aeruginosa exhibited a higher sensitivity to Cu exposure than standard test species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans). The 28-day test of sediment toxicity with adults showed that fecundity was a robust endpoint indicator of reproductive toxicity, and the biochemical endpoints of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione could be used as sensitive biomarkers for Cu-induced oxidative damage. B. aeruginosa can be therefore recommended as a candidate for the standardization of the freshwater sediment toxicity test protocol.

  13. Comparison of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test with the tube coagulase test performed on positive blood cultures for evaluation and application in a clinical routine setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretto, E; Bardaro, M; Russello, G; Mirra, M; Zuelli, C; Barbarini, D

    2013-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that delayed proper therapy in bloodstream infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus increases the mortality rate, emphasizing the need to shorten the turnaround time for positive blood cultures. Different techniques are currently available, from phenotypic methods to more complex tests such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH). This study evaluated the performance of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC test (QFT), a novel FISH methodology, compared with the direct tube coagulase test (DTCT) on blood cultures exhibiting Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 173 blood cultures collected from 128 different patients were analyzed using the DTCT, evaluated after both 4 and 24 h, and the QFT. A total of 179 isolates were identified using the Vitek2 system. Thirty-five out of 35 Staphylococcus aureus were correctly identified by the QFT (sensitivity = 100%), with a specificity of 100% (no green fluorescence was detected for strains different from S. aureus). The DTCT was positive after 4 h for 28 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 80%) and after 24 h for 31 out of the 35 samples (sensitivity = 88.57%). Among the remaining 144 isolates, one was then identified as Corynebacterium striatum and two as Micrococcus luteus. QFT identified 139 out of the 141 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (sensitivity = 98.58%), showing again a specificity of 100% (no fluorescent red signals were detected for strains different from CoNS). We also discuss also the implementation process of this methodology in our setting, with particular emphasis on the workflow and the cost-effectiveness.

  14. Throat Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...

  15. Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Mohamed, Khaled M; Mostafa, Ashraf M

    2011-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 μU/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 μU/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 μM methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolates directly from spiked blood culture media with Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekter, H E; Orelio, C C; Morsink, M C; Tektas, S; Vis, B; Te Witt, R; van Leeuwen, W B

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from bacterial bloodstream infections have an increased risk of developing systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can result in rapid deterioration of the patients' health. Diagnostic methods for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests are time-consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Raman spectroscopy would be able to rapidly provide an antimicrobial susceptibility profile from bacteria isolated directly from positive blood cultures. First, bacterial strains (n = 133) were inoculated in tryptic soy broth and incubated in the presence or absence of antibiotics for 5 h. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Subsequently, a selection of strains was isolated from blood cultures and analyzed similarly. VITEK®2 technology and broth dilution were used as the reference methods. Raman spectra from 67 antibiotic-susceptible strains showed discriminatory spectra in the absence or at low concentrations of antibiotics as compared to high antibiotic concentrations. For 66 antibiotic-resistant strains, no antimicrobial effect was observed on the bacterial Raman spectra. Full concordance with VITEK®2 data and broth dilution was obtained for the antibiotic-susceptible strains, 68 % and 98 %, respectively, for the resistant strains. Discriminative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) profiles were obtained for all bacterial strains isolated from blood cultures, resulting in full concordance with the VITEK®2 data. It can be concluded that Raman spectroscopy is able to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial species isolated from a positive blood culture bottle within 5 h. Although Raman spectroscopy is cheap and rapid, further optimization is required, to fulfill a great promise for future AST profiling technology development.

  17. In vitro cell culture, platelet adhesion tests and in vivo implant tests of plasma-polymerized para-xylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Man [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yeh, Chou-Ming, E-mail: cmchou4301@gmail.com [Taichung Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chung, Chi-Jen [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-01

    Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPX) was developed in a previous study by adjusting the process parameters: pulse frequency of the power supply (ω{sub p}) and para-xylene monomer flow rate (f{sub p}). All the obtained PPX films exhibit an amorphous structure and present hydrophobicity (water contact angle ranging from 98.5° to 121.1°), higher film growth rate and good fibroblast cell proliferation. In this study, in vitro tests (fibroblast cell compatibility and platelet adhesion) and an in vivo animal study were performed by using PPX deposited industrial-grade silicone sheets (IGS) and compared with medical-grade silicone ones (MS), which were commonly manufactured into catheters or drainage tubes in clinical use. The results reveal that PPX deposited at high ω{sub p} or high f{sub p}, in comparison with MS, exhibit better cell proliferation and clearly shows less cell adhesion regardless of ω{sub p} and f{sub p}. PPX also exhibit a comparatively lower level of platelet adhesion than MS. In the animal study, PPX-coated IGS result in similar local tissue responses at 3, 7 and 28 days (short-term) and 84 days (long-term) after subcutaneous implantation the abdominal wall of rodents compared with respective responses to MS. These results suggest that PPX-coated industrial-grade silicone is one alternative to high cost medical-grade silicone.

  18. In vitro cell culture, platelet adhesion tests and in vivo implant tests of plasma-polymerized para-xylene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Man; Yeh, Chou-Ming; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2013-09-01

    Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPX) was developed in a previous study by adjusting the process parameters: pulse frequency of the power supply (ωp) and para-xylene monomer flow rate (fp). All the obtained PPX films exhibit an amorphous structure and present hydrophobicity (water contact angle ranging from 98.5° to 121.1°), higher film growth rate and good fibroblast cell proliferation. In this study, in vitro tests (fibroblast cell compatibility and platelet adhesion) and an in vivo animal study were performed by using PPX deposited industrial-grade silicone sheets (IGS) and compared with medical-grade silicone ones (MS), which were commonly manufactured into catheters or drainage tubes in clinical use. The results reveal that PPX deposited at high ωp or high fp, in comparison with MS, exhibit better cell proliferation and clearly shows less cell adhesion regardless of ωp and fp. PPX also exhibit a comparatively lower level of platelet adhesion than MS. In the animal study, PPX-coated IGS result in similar local tissue responses at 3, 7 and 28 days (short-term) and 84 days (long-term) after subcutaneous implantation the abdominal wall of rodents compared with respective responses to MS. These results suggest that PPX-coated industrial-grade silicone is one alternative to high cost medical-grade silicone.

  19. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  20. Do parental perceptions and motivations towards genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for deafness vary in different cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Risha; Puri, Ratna D; Saxena, Renu; Verma, Ishwar C

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of attitudes of individuals with deafness and their families towards genetic testing or prenatal diagnosis have mostly been carried out in the West. It is expected that the perceptions and attitudes would vary amongst persons of different cultures and economic background. There is little information on the prevailing attitudes for genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for deafness in developing countries. Therefore, this study evaluates the motivations of Indian people with inherited hearing loss towards such testing. Twenty-eight families with history of congenital hearing loss (23 hearing parents with child/family member with deafness, 4 couples with both partners having deafness and 1 parent and child with deafness) participated in a semi-structured survey investigating their interest, attitudes, and intentions for using genetic and prenatal testing for deafness. Participants opinioned that proper management and care of individuals with deafness were handicapped by limited rehabilitation facilities with significant financial and social burden. Nineteen (68%) opted for genetic testing. Twenty-six (93%) expressed high interest in prenatal diagnosis, while 19 (73%) would consider termination of an affected fetus. Three hearing couples, in whom the causative mutations were identified, opted for prenatal diagnosis. On testing, all the three fetuses were affected and the hearing parents elected to terminate the pregnancies. This study provides an insight into the contrasting perceptions towards hearing disability in India and its influence on the desirability of genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis.

  1. Dual-purpose laser irradiation and perfusion testing system for in-vitro experiments using cultured trabecular meshwork endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Brian K.; Roberts, Cynthia J.; Weber, Paul A.

    1998-06-01

    The means by which Argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) is a matter of debate. Mechanical and biological laser-tissue interaction theories have been proposed. To investigate the effect laser irradiation has upon the aqueous outflow facility of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, a suitable in-vitro model is required. Therefore the purpose of this study was to design, construct, and validate a laser irradiation and perfusion testing apparatus. The system was designed to utilize cultured TM cells seeded onto filter supports. Outflow facility will be quantified by calculating the hydraulic conductivity of the monolayer. An appropriate filter support was located, and its perfusion characteristics determined using water. Afterwards, the steady state perfusion flow rate of the filter was ascertained to be 0.096 plus or minus 0.008 ml/min when culture medium is used. Following these tests a single, baseline perfusion experiment was conducted using a TM cell monolayer. Analysis of the data produced a baseline hydraulic conductivity of 0.673 plus or minus 0.076 (mu) l/min/mm Hg/cm2, well within the range found in previous reports. A dual purpose, in vitro-cellular perfusion and laser irradiation testing apparatus has been developed, tested and validates using known baseline cellular perfusion and laser irradiation testing apparatus has been developed, tested, and validated using known baseline cellular perfusion values. Future experiments will be conducted to verify these initial findings, and further experiments will be conducted using Argon laser irradiation. The response of the TM cell monolayer will then be compared to the baseline figures.

  2. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  3. Rapid testing using the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test in combination with antimicrobial stewardship intervention against Gram-negative bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Jacqueline T; Leekha, Surbhi; Heil, Emily L; Zhao, LiCheng; Badamas, Rilwan; Johnson, J Kristie

    2015-03-01

    Rapid identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance is paramount for targeted treatment in serious bloodstream infections (BSI). The Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GN) is a multiplex, automated molecular diagnostic test for identification of eight Gram-negative (GN) organisms and resistance markers from blood culture with a turnaround time of approximately 2 h. Clinical isolates from adult patients at the University Maryland Medical Center with GN bacteremia from 1 January 2012 to 30 June 2012 were included in this study. Blood culture bottles were spiked with clinical isolates, allowed to incubate, and processed by BC-GN. A diagnostic evaluation was performed. In addition, a theoretical evaluation of time to effective and optimal antibiotic was performed, comparing actual antibiotic administration times from chart review ("control") to theoretical administration times based on BC-GN reporting and antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) review ("intervention"). For organisms detected by the assay, BC-GN correctly identified 95.6% (131/137), with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 98.4%) and a specificity of 99.5% (95% CI, 98.8 to 99.8%). CTX-M and OXA resistance determinants were both detected. Allowing 12 h from Gram stain for antibiotic implementation, the intervention group had a significantly shorter duration to both effective (3.3 versus 7.0 h; P < 0.01) and optimal (23.5 versus 41.8 h; P < 0.01) antibiotic therapy. BC-GN with AST intervention can potentially decrease time to both effective and optimal antibiotic therapy in GN BSI.

  4. Culture Matters in Successful Curriculum Change: An International Study of the Influence of National and Organizational Culture Tested With Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Broers, N.J.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: National culture has been shown to play a role in curriculum change in medical schools, and business literature has described a similar influence of organizational culture on change processes in organizations. This study investigated the impact of both national and organizational culture on

  5. DPO multiplex PCR as an alternative to culture and susceptibility testing to detect Helicobacter pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siffré Elodie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrolide resistance in Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for treatment failure when using a proton pump inhibitor-clarithromycin containing therapy. Macrolide resistance is due to a few mutations on the 23S ribomosal subunit encoded by the 23S rRNA gene. The present study aimed at investigating the performance of the dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO-PCR kit named Seeplex® ClaR-H. pylori ACE detection designed to detect H. pylori and two types of point mutations causing clarithromycin resistance in H. pylori. Methods The performance of Seeplex® ClaR-H. pylori ACE detection was evaluated on 127 gastric biopsies in comparison to conventional bacterial culture followed by the determination of susceptibility to clarithromycin by E-test, as well as by an in-house real-time PCR using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET technology. Results Considering culture as the reference test, the sensitivity of DPO-PCR and real-time FRET-PCR was 97.7% and 100% while specificity was 83.1% and 80.7%, respectively. However, both PCR were concordant in detecting 14 H. pylori positive cases which were negative by culture. Globally, E-test and DPO-PCR were concordant with regard to clarithromycin susceptibility in 95.3% of the cases (41/43, while real-time FRET-PCR and DPO-PCR were concordant in 95% (57/60. Conclusion The DPO-PCR is an interesting tool to detect H. pylori on gastric biopsies and to study its susceptibility to clarithromycin in laboratories that cannot perform real-time PCR assays.

  6. Confirmation Tests of Hot and Cold Artillery Shell Drawing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    is often necessary be- tween the initial and the final draw. Prior to cold drawing, the shell body is pickle -cleaned, phosphated and lubricated with...other hard-tool materials, such as titanium carbide. Although die wear normally is not a serious problem, punch breakage commonly occurs due to poor...operarion, both inside and outside of the preform 13 is pickle -cleaied, phosphatad aud lubricated with a commercial soap. In the present investigation

  7. Urinary tract infections in general practice patients: diagnostic tests versus bacteriological culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, S.; Merode, T. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections encountered in general practice. For the optimal treatment the general practitioner (GP) should rely on the results of diagnostic tests and recent antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens. Patients and methods: In total

  8. Urinary tract infections in general practice patients: diagnostic tests versus bacteriological culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, S.; Merode, T. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections encountered in general practice. For the optimal treatment the general practitioner (GP) should rely on the results of diagnostic tests and recent antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens. Patients and methods: In total

  9. Stereotypes of emotional expressiveness of northerners and southerners: a cross-cultural test of Montesquieu's hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennebaker, J W; Rimé, B; Blankenship, V E

    1996-02-01

    Montesquieu argued that residents of warmer climates are more emotionally expressive than those living in cooler ones. More than 2,900 college students from 26 countries completed a brief questionnaire assessing the degree to which they considered Northerners and Southerners within their own countries to be emotionally expressive. In addition, individuals rated themselves on their own degree of expressiveness. In partial confirmation of Montesquieu's hypothesis, it was found that large within-country North-South stereotypes exist. Especially in Old World countries, Northerners are viewed as less emotionally expressive than Southerners. Regression and other analyses revealed that self-ratings of expressiveness were, in fact, related to being from the South and to warmer mean temperatures. Several possible explanations for these effects are discussed.

  10. Quantifying Listeria monocytogenes prevalence and concentration in minced pork meat and estimating performance of three culture media from presence/absence microbiological testing using a deterministic and stochastic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andritsos, Nikolaos D; Mataragas, Marios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health, and the majority of cases of human listeriosis are associated with contaminated food. Reliable microbiological testing is needed for effective pathogen control by food industry and competent authorities. The aims of this work were to estimate the prevalence and concentration of L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat by the application of a Bayesian modeling approach, and also to determine the performance of three culture media commonly used for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods from a deterministic and stochastic perspective. Samples (n = 100) collected from local markets were tested for L. monocytogenes using in parallel the PALCAM, ALOA and RAPID'L.mono selective media according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998 methods. Presence of the pathogen was confirmed by conducting biochemical and molecular tests. Independent experiments (n = 10) for model validation purposes were performed. Performance attributes were calculated from the presence-absence microbiological test results by combining the results obtained from the culture media and confirmative tests. Dirichlet distribution, the multivariate expression of a Beta distribution, was used to analyze the performance data from a stochastic perspective. No L. monocytogenes was enumerated by direct-plating (concentration was estimated at 14-17 CFU/kg. Validation showed good agreement between observed and predicted prevalence (error = -2.17%). The results showed that all media were best at ruling in L. monocytogenes presence than ruling it out. Sensitivity and specificity varied depending on the culture-dependent method. None of the culture media was perfect in detecting L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat alone. The use of at least two culture media in parallel enhanced the efficiency of L. monocytogenes detection. Bayesian modeling may reduce the time needed to draw conclusions regarding L. monocytogenes presence and the uncertainty of the results

  11. Quantification of Lactate Dehydrogenase for Cell Viability Testing Using Cell Lines and Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J; Naumchuk, Yuliya; Koulen, Peter

    2017-05-02

    Drug discovery heavily relies on cell viability studies to assess the potential toxicity of drug candidates. L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the concomitant interconversions of pyruvate to L-lactate and NADH to NAD(+) during glycolysis, and the reverse reactions during the Cori cycle. In response to cellular damage, induced by endogenous cellular mechanisms or as a result of exogenously applied insults, LDH is released from the cytoplasm into the extracellular environment. Its stability in cell culture medium makes it a well-suited correlate for the presence of damage and toxicity in tissues and cells. We herein present protocols for a reproducible and validated LDH assay optimized for several cell types. In contrast to commercially available LDH assays, often associated with proprietary formulations and high cost, our protocols provide ample opportunities for experiment-specific optimization with low variability and cost. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. A Test of Climate, Sun, and Culture Relationships from an 1810-Year Chinese Cave Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingzhong; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Chen, Fahu; Wang, Yongjin; Yang, Xunlin; Liu, Jian; Tan, Ming; Wang, Xianfeng; Liu, Jinghua; An, Chunlei; Dai, Zhibo; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Dezhong; Jia, Jihong; Jin, Liya; Johnson, Kathleen R.

    2008-11-01

    A record from Wanxiang Cave, China, characterizes Asian Monsoon (AM) history over the past 1810 years. The summer monsoon correlates with solar variability, Northern Hemisphere and Chinese temperature, Alpine glacial retreat, and Chinese cultural changes. It was generally strong during Europe’s Medieval Warm Period and weak during Europe’s Little Ice Age, as well as during the final decades of the Tang, Yuan, and Ming Dynasties, all times that were characterized by popular unrest. It was strong during the first several decades of the Northern Song Dynasty, a period of increased rice cultivation and dramatic population increase. The sign of the correlation between the AM and temperature switches around 1960, suggesting that anthropogenic forcing superseded natural forcing as the major driver of AM changes in the late 20th century.

  13. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included.

  14. EXCELLENT CROSS-CULTURAL VALIDITY, INTRA-TEST RELIABILITY AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF THE DUTCH RIVERMEAD MOBILITY INDEX IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE UNDERGOING REHABILITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Leo D.; Green, John; De Kluis, Kiki R. A.; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Bagley, Pam; Smith, Jane; Geurts, Alexander C. H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cross-cultural validity of international Dutch-English comparisons when using the Dutch Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), and the intra-test reliability and construct validity of the Dutch RMI. Methods: Cross-cultural validity was studied in a combined data-set of Dutch a

  15. "It's Important for Them to Know Who They Are": Teachers' Efforts to Sustain Students' Cultural Competence in an Age of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, Melody

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how four urban elementary teachers designed their literacy instruction in ways that sought to sustain students' cultural competence--maintaining their language and cultural practices while also gaining access to more dominant ones--amid expectations to prepare students for high-stakes testing. A large part of their teaching…

  16. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E

    1985-01-01

    Sixty consecutive patients suspected of having bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (BOG) had aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures made of fasting upper jejunal fluid and also a 14C-D-xylose breath test (XBT). Culture-proven BOG was present in 23 patients. In another 15 patients...

  17. Utilizing Organizational Culture to Predict Responses to Planned Change in a Public School: A Test of the OC[superscript 3] Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Eric Christian

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to test the capability of the Organizational Change in Cultural Context (OC[superscript 3]) Model (Latta, 2009, 2011) to predict responses to change. According to Latta, predictions of resistance to or facilitation of change can be predicted by utilizing organizational culture and its alignment with the…

  18. A multi-organ chip co-culture of neurospheres and liver equivalents for long-term substance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materne, Eva-Maria; Ramme, Anja Patricia; Terrasso, Ana Paula; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula Marques; Brito, Catarina; Sakharov, Dmitry A; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2015-07-10

    Current in vitro and animal tests for drug development are failing to emulate the systemic organ complexity of the human body and, therefore, often do not accurately predict drug toxicity, leading to high attrition rates in clinical studies (Paul et al., 2010). The phylogenetic distance between humans and laboratory animals is enormous, this affects the transferability of animal data on the efficacy of neuroprotective drugs. Therefore, many neuroprotective treatments that have shown promise in animals have not been successful when transferred to humans (Dragunow, 2008; Gibbons and Dragunow, 2010). We present a multi-organ chip capable of maintaining 3D tissues derived from various cell sources in a combined media circuit which bridges the gap in systemic and human tests. A steady state co-culture of human artificial liver microtissues and human neurospheres exposed to fluid flow over two weeks in the multi-organ chip has successfully proven its long-term performance. Daily lactate dehydrogenase activity measurements of the medium and immunofluorescence end-point staining proved the viability of the tissues and the maintenance of differentiated cellular phenotypes. Moreover, the lactate production and glucose consumption values of the tissues cultured indicated that a stable steady-state was achieved after 6 days of co-cultivation. The neurospheres remained differentiated neurons over the two-week cultivation in the multi-organ chip, proven by qPCR and immunofluorescence of the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein-2. Additionally, a two-week toxicity assay with a repeated substance exposure to the neurotoxic 2,5-hexanedione in two different concentrations induced high apoptosis within the neurospheres and liver microtissues, as shown by a strong increase of lactate dehydrogenase activity in the medium. The principal finding of the exposure of the co-culture to 2,5-hexanedione was that not only toxicity profiles of two different doses

  19. God's punishment and public goods : A test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dominic D P

    2005-12-01

    Cooperation towards public goods relies on credible threats of punishment to deter cheats. However, punishing is costly, so it remains unclear who incurred the costs of enforcement in our evolutionary past. Theoretical work suggests that human cooperation may be promoted if people believe in supernatural punishment for moral transgressions. This theory is supported by new work in cognitive psychology and by anecdotal ethnographic evidence, but formal quantitative tests remain to be done. Using data from 186 societies around the globe, I test whether the likelihood of supernatural punishment-indexed by the importance of moralizing "high gods"-is associated with cooperation.

  20. Development of methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing of the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and evaluation of the acute toxicity of selenium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a series of studies to evaluate methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing with the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This...

  1. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  2. Cultural-Linguistic Test Adaptations: Guidelines for Selection, Alteration, Use, and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Guerard, Jessika

    2017-01-01

    In 1991, Bracken and Barona wrote an article for "School Psychology International" focusing on state of the art procedures for translating and using tests across multiple languages. Considerable progress has been achieved in this area over the 25 years between that publication and today. This article seeks to provide a more current set…

  3. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  4. Falsification or Confirmation: From Logic to Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Lukyanenko, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Corroboration or confirmation is a prominent philosophical debate of the 20th century. Many philosophers have been involved in this debate most notably the proponents of confirmation led by Hempel and its most powerful criticism by the falsificationists led by Popper. In both cases however the debates were primarily based on the arguments from logic. In this paper we review these debates and suggest that a different perspective on falsification versus confirmation can be taken by grounding arguments in cognitive psychology.

  5. Early detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase from blood culture positive for an Enterobacteriaceae using βLACTA test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Prod'hom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pellets from Enterobacteriaceae positive blood cultures prepared using ammonium chloride were tested for rapid detection of β-lactamase using the commercial βLACTA test and read after 30 minutes. During 7 months, 137 bacterial pellets were tested prospectively. βLACTA test exhibited a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance. False negative tests were mainly observed with hyperproduced chromosomal or plasmid-borne AmpC.

  6. Comparison between traditional laboratory tests, permeability measurements and CT-based fluid flow modelling for cultural heritage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boever, Wesley, E-mail: Wesley.deboever@ugent.be [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Bultreys, Tom; Derluyn, Hannelore [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoorebeke, Luc [UGCT/Radiation Physics, Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, Veerle [UGCT/PProGRess, Dept. of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the possibility to use on-site permeability measurements for cultural heritage applications as an alternative for traditional laboratory tests such as determination of the capillary absorption coefficient. These on-site measurements, performed with a portable air permeameter, were correlated with the pore network properties of eight sandstones and one granular limestone that are discussed in this paper. The network properties of the 9 materials tested in this study were obtained from micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared to measurements and calculations of permeability and the capillary absorption rate of the stones under investigation, in order to find the correlation between pore network characteristics and fluid management characteristics of these sandstones. Results show a good correlation between capillary absorption, permeability and network properties, opening the possibility of using on-site permeability measurements as a standard method in cultural heritage applications. - Highlights: • Measurements of capillary absorption are compared to in-situ permeability. • We obtain pore size distribution and connectivity by using micro-CT. • These properties explain correlation between permeability and capillarity. • Correlation between both methods is good to excellent. • Permeability measurements could be a good alternative to capillarity measurement.

  7. Genotoxicity test of propolis extract, mineral trioksida aggregat, and calcium hydroxide on fibroblast BHK-21 cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceples Dian Kartika W.P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health industry has always used natural products as an alternative. Propolis, a natural antibiotic, is a resinous yellow brown or dark brown substance derived from honey bees (Apis mellifera. The main chemical compounds contained in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds. Flavonoids are well known plant compounds that have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. Propolis is expected to be an alternative used for root canal treatment with lower toxicity compared to calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 . Over the last decade, a new material, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was developed, and has been used as the gold standard. All materials used in mouth should be biocompatible. The initial level of material biocompatibility evaluation involves toxicity and genotoxicity tests. Purpose: This research is aimed to conduct comparison test of genotoxicity effect of propolis extract, MTA and Ca(OH2 on fibroblast BHK-21 cell culture. Methods: This research was conducted with single-cell gel electrophoresis method. Results: The results indicate that propolis extract cannot cause DNA damage, while MTA can cause apoptosis and Ca(OH2 can cause neucrosis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that propolis extract has genotoxicity effect lower than MTA and Ca(OH2 , but MTA has lower effect on fibroblast BHK-21 cell culture.

  8. Simultaneous calcium fluorescence imaging and MR of ex vivo organotypic cortical cultures: a new test bed for functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Klaus, Andreas; Bellay, Tim; Stewart, Craig; Pajevic, Sinisa; Nevo, Uri; Merkle, Hellmut; Plenz, Dietmar; Basser, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Recently, several new functional (f)MRI contrast mechanisms including diffusion, phase imaging, proton density, etc. have been proposed to measure neuronal activity more directly and accurately than blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI. However, these approaches have proved difficult to reproduce, mainly because of the dearth of reliable and robust test systems to vet and validate them. Here we describe the development and testing of such a test bed for non-BOLD fMRI. Organotypic cortical cultures were used as a stable and reproducible biological model of neuronal activity that shows spontaneous activity similar to that of in vivo brain cortex without any hemodynamic confounds. An open-access, single-sided magnetic resonance (MR) "profiler" consisting of four permanent magnets with magnetic field of 0.32 T was used in this study to perform MR acquisition. A fluorescence microscope with long working distance objective was mounted on the top of a custom-designed chamber that keeps the organotypic culture vital, and the MR system was mounted on the bottom of the chamber to achieve real-time simultaneous calcium fluorescence optical imaging and MR acquisition on the same specimen. In this study, the reliability and performance of the proposed test bed were demonstrated by a conventional CPMG MR sequence acquired simultaneously with calcium imaging, which is a well-characterized measurement of neuronal activity. This experimental design will make it possible to correlate directly the other candidate functional MR signals to the optical indicia of neuronal activity in the future.

  9. Equivalency testing of TTC Tergitol 7 agar (ISO 9308-1:2000) with five culture media for the detection of E. coli in water samples in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridou, A; Smeti, E; Mandilara, G; Mandilara, G; Boufa, P; Vagiona-Arvanitidou, M; Vantarakis, A; Vassilandonopoulou, G; Pappa, O; Roussia, V; Tzouanopoulos, A; Livadara, M; Aisopou, I; Maraka, V; Nikolaou, E; Mandilara, G

    2010-01-01

    In this study ten laboratories in Greece compared the performance of reference method TTC Tergitol 7 Agar (with the additional test of beta-glucuronidase production) with five alternative methods, to detect E. coli in water, in line with European Water Directive recommendations. The samples were prepared by spiking drinking water with sewage effluent following a standard protocol. Chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples were used. The statistical analysis was based on the mean relative difference of confirmed counts and was performed in line with ISO 17994. The results showed that in total, three of the alternative methods (Chromocult Coliform agar, Membrane Lauryl Sulfate agar and Trypton Bilex-glucuronidase medium) were not different from TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs Chromocult Coliform agar, 294 samples, mean RD% 5.55; vs MLSA, 302 samples, mean RD% 1; vs TBX, 297 samples, mean RD% -2.78). The other two alternative methods (Membrane Faecal coliform medium and Colilert 18/ Quantitray) gave significantly higher counts than TTC Tergitol 7 agar (TTC Tergitol 7 agar vs MFc, 303 samples, mean RD% 8.81; vs Colilert-18/Quantitray, 76 samples, mean RD% 18.91). In other words, the alternative methods generated performance that was as reliable as, or even better than, the reference method. This study will help laboratories in Greece overcome culture and counting problems deriving from the EU reference method for E. coli counts in water samples.

  10. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  11. Procedures for the isolation and culture of Sertoli cells from the testes of infant, juvenile, and adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S S; Winters, S J; Plant, T M

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish culture conditions for the in vitro study of the rhesus monkey Sertoli cell (Sc) at three major stages of development, namely infancy, adulthood, and the intervening prepubertal period. Conditions for the culture of Sc from juveniles were first established using collagenase and pancreatin digestion of seminiferous tubules. The addition of 1% fetal bovine serum for the first 24 h of culture was necessary for attachment of Sc clusters. Confluency of Sc from juveniles was reached as early as 4 days of culture. Histochemical and ultrastructural observations confirmed that the cultures were enriched with Sc and that contamination by peritubular cells was minimal (2%). Although application of similar culture conditions was successful in establishing cultures of Sc from infants, significant modification of the procedure was required before Sc from adults could be cultured. Specifically, adult testicular tissue required two sequential collagenase digestions at elevated temperature. The yield of adult Sc, however, remained low. Cultures of juvenile Sc produced substantial quantities of 31-kDa inhibin, which was bioactive as reflected by its ability to suppress FSH secretion from rat pituitary cells in vitro. Although aromatase activity in juvenile Sc cultures was stimulated by FSH, inhibin synthesis, as reflected by immunoactive inhibin production and steady-state levels of alpha inhibin mRNA, was not increased by FSH. The establishment of conditions for the culture of infant, juvenile, and adult Sc from the rhesus monkey will provide a model for study of the postnatal ontogeny of Sc function in higher primates.

  12. Specific detection and confirmation of Campylobacter jejuni by DNA hybridization and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, L K; Kingombe, C I; Yan, W; Taylor, D E; Hiratsuka, K; Malik, N; Garcia, M M

    1997-11-01

    Conventional detection and confirmation methods for Campylobacter jejuni are lengthy and tedious. A rapid hybridization protocol in which a 1,475-bp chromogen-labelled DNA probe (pDT1720) and Campylobacter strains filtered and grown on 0.22-micron-pore-size hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) are used was developed. Among the environmental and clinical isolates of C. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei, Campylobacter lari, and Arcobacter nitrofigilis and a panel of 310 unrelated bacterial strains tested, only C. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei isolates hybridized with the probe under stringent conditions. The specificity of the probe was confirmed when the protocol was applied to spiked skim milk and chicken rinse samples. Based on the nucleotide sequence of pDT1720, a pair of oligonucleotide primers was designed for PCR amplification of DNA from Campylobacter spp. and other food pathogens grown overnight in selective Mueller-Hinton broth with cefoperazone and growth supplements. All C. jejuni strains tested, including DNase-producing strains and C. jejuni subsp. doylei, produced a specific 402-bp amplicon, as confirmed by restriction and Southern blot analysis. The detection range of the assay was as low as 3 CFU per PCR to as high as 10(5) CFU per PCR for pure cultures. Overnight enrichment of chicken rinse samples spiked initially with as little as approximately 10 CFU/ml produced amplicons after the PCR. No amplicon was detected with any of the other bacterial strains tested or from the chicken background microflora. Since C. jejuni is responsible for 99% of Campylobacter contamination in poultry, PCR and HGMF hybridization were performed on naturally contaminated chicken rinse samples, and the results were compared with the results of conventional cultural isolation on Preston agar. All samples confirmed to be culture positive for C. jejuni were also identified by DNA hybridization and PCR amplification, thus confirming that

  13. Rural landscape and cultural routes: a multicriteria spatial classification method tested on an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Diti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Europe is characterised by a rich net of itineraries that during the Middle Ages were taken by pilgrims head toward the holy places of Christianity. In Italy the main pilgrimage route is the Via Francigena (the road that comes from France, which starts from Canterbury and arrives in Rome, running through Europe for about 1800 km. Municipalities and local associations are focused on purposes and actions aimed at the promotion of those routes, rich in history and spirituality. Also for the European Union the enhancement of those itineraries, nowadays used both by pilgrims and tourists, is crucial, as shown by the various projects aimed at the identification of tools for the development of sustainable cultural tourism. It is important to understand how landscape, that according to the European Landscape Convention reflects the sense of places and represents the image of their history, has evolved along those roads, and to analyse the relationships between the built and natural environments, since they maintain a remarkable symbolic connection between places and peoples over time and history. This study focuses on the Italian section of the Via Francigena that crosses the Emilia-Romagna region, in the province of Piacenza. A land classification method is proposed, with the aim to take into account different indicators: land zoning provided by regional laws, elements of relevant historical and natural value, urban elements, type of agriculture. The analyses are carried out on suitable buffers around the path, thus allowing to create landscape profiles. As nature is a key element for the spirituality character of these pilgrimage routes, the classification process takes into account both protected and other valuable natural elements, besides agricultural activities. The outcomes can be useful to define tools aimed to help pilgrims and tourists to understand the surrounding places along their walk, as well as to lend support to rural and urban planning

  14. Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Multidrug Resistance Testing by Direct Sputum Culture in Selective Broth without Decontamination or Centrifugation ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Gilman, Robert H.; Valencia, Teresa; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Ramos, Eric; Rivero, Maribel; Montoya, Rosario; Escombe, A. Roderick; Coleman, David; Mitchison, Denis; Evans, Carlton A.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis culture usually requires sputum decontamination and centrifugation to prevent cultures from being overgrown by contaminating bacteria and fungi. However, decontamination destroys many tuberculous bacilli, and centrifugation often is not possible in resource-poor settings. We therefore assessed the performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture with unprocessed samples plated directly by using tuberculosis-selective media and compared this procedure to conventional culture using centrifuge decontamination. Quadruplicate aliquots of strain H37RV were cultured in 7H9 broth with and without selective antimicrobials and after centrifuge decontamination. The subsequent comparison was made with 715 sputum samples. Split paired sputum samples were cultured conventionally with centrifuge decontamination and by direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media containing antibiotics. Centrifuge decontamination reduced tuberculosis H37RV colonies by 78% (P < 0.001), whereas direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media had no inhibitory effect. Similarly, in sputum cultures that were not overgrown by contaminants, conventional culture yielded fewer tuberculosis colonies than direct culture (P < 0.001). However, the sensitivity of conventional culture was greater than that of direct culture, because samples were less affected by contamination. Thus, of the 340 sputum samples that were tuberculosis culture positive, conventional culture detected 97%, whereas direct culture detected 81% (P < 0.001). Conventional and direct cultures both took a median of 8.0 days to diagnose tuberculosis (P = 0.8). In those direct cultures that detected drug resistance or susceptibility, there was a 97% agreement with the results of conventional culture (Kappa agreement statistic, 0.84; P < 0.001). Direct culture is a simple, low-technology, and rapid technique for diagnosing tuberculosis and determining drug susceptibility. Compared to that of conventional culture, direct culture

  15. Tuberculosis diagnosis and multidrug resistance testing by direct sputum culture in selective broth without decontamination or centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Gilman, Robert H; Valencia, Teresa; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Ramos, Eric; Rivero, Maribel; Montoya, Rosario; Escombe, A Roderick; Coleman, David; Mitchison, Denis; Evans, Carlton A

    2008-07-01

    Tuberculosis culture usually requires sputum decontamination and centrifugation to prevent cultures from being overgrown by contaminating bacteria and fungi. However, decontamination destroys many tuberculous bacilli, and centrifugation often is not possible in resource-poor settings. We therefore assessed the performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture with unprocessed samples plated directly by using tuberculosis-selective media and compared this procedure to conventional culture using centrifuge decontamination. Quadruplicate aliquots of strain H37RV were cultured in 7H9 broth with and without selective antimicrobials and after centrifuge decontamination. The subsequent comparison was made with 715 sputum samples. Split paired sputum samples were cultured conventionally with centrifuge decontamination and by direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media containing antibiotics. Centrifuge decontamination reduced tuberculosis H37RV colonies by 78% (P < 0.001), whereas direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media had no inhibitory effect. Similarly, in sputum cultures that were not overgrown by contaminants, conventional culture yielded fewer tuberculosis colonies than direct culture (P < 0.001). However, the sensitivity of conventional culture was greater than that of direct culture, because samples were less affected by contamination. Thus, of the 340 sputum samples that were tuberculosis culture positive, conventional culture detected 97%, whereas direct culture detected 81% (P < 0.001). Conventional and direct cultures both took a median of 8.0 days to diagnose tuberculosis (P = 0.8). In those direct cultures that detected drug resistance or susceptibility, there was a 97% agreement with the results of conventional culture (Kappa agreement statistic, 0.84; P < 0.001). Direct culture is a simple, low-technology, and rapid technique for diagnosing tuberculosis and determining drug susceptibility. Compared to that of conventional culture, direct culture

  16. Cross-cultural comparisons on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ming; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Fleck, David E; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2011-10-30

    We compared executive dysfunction with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) among distinct national and ethnic patients with bipolar disorder in euthymia. Bipolar patients, aged 16-45years, from the United States (n=25) and Taiwan (n=30) did not differ significantly on any measure. The WCST score for number Failure to Maintain Set was significantly positively correlated with residual affective symptoms in Taiwanese and US patients. Selective executive dysfunction in euthymia is inherent to bipolar disorder. Euthymic bipolar patients of various ethnic groups may exhibit similar executive dysfunction.

  17. Microfluidic assay without blocking for rapid HIV screening and confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lusheng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Liying; Liu, Yong; Hao, Yanlin; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-08-01

    The essential step for HIV spreading limitation is the screening tests. However, there are multiple disadvantages in current screening assays which need further confirmation test. Herein we developed a rapid HIV assay combining screening and confirmation test by using the microfluidic network assay. Meanwhile, the assay is accelerated by bypassing the step of blocking. We call this method as microfluidic assay without blocking (MAWB). Both the limit of detection and reagent incubation time of MAWB are determined by screening of one model protein pair: ovalbumin and its antibody. The assay time is accelerated about 25% while the limit of detection (LOD) is well kept. Formatting the method in for both HIV screening (testing 8 HIV-related samples) and confirmation (assaying 6 kinds of HIV antibodies of each sample) within 30 min was successful. Fast HIV screening and confirmation of 20 plasma samples were also demonstrated by this method. MAWB improved the assay speed while keeping the LOD of conventional ELISA. Meanwhile, both the accuracy and throughput of MAWB were well improved, which made it an excellent candidate for a quick HIV test for both screening and confirmation. Methods like this one will find wide applications in clinical diagnosis and biochemical analysis based on the interactions between pairs of molecules.

  18. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? : A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebauer, J.E.; Sedikides, C.; Wagner, J.; Bleidorn, W.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture Test for Direct Identification of Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Cultures in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman K H Siu

    Full Text Available A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance and the time to identifcation of the Verigene Blood Culture Test, the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, to identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their drug resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures collected in Hong Kong.A total of 364 blood cultures were prospectively collected from four public hospitals, in which 114 and 250 cultures yielded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and were tested with the BC-GP and BC-GN assay respectively. The overall identification agreement for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 89.6% and 90.5% in monomicrobial cultures and 62.5% and 53.6% in polymicrobial cultures, respectively. The sensitivities for most genus/species achieved at least 80% except Enterococcus spp. (60%, K.oxytoca (0%, K.pneumoniae (69.2%, whereas the specificities for all targets ranged from 98.9% to 100%. Of note, 50% (7/14 cultures containing K.pneumoniae that were missed by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as K.variicola. Approximately 5.5% (20/364 cultures contained non-target organisms, of which Aeromonas spp. accounted for 25% and are of particular concern. For drug resistance determination, the Verigene test showed 100% sensitivity for identification of MRSA, VRE and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter, and 84.4% for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae based on the positive detection of mecA, vanA, blaOXA and blaCTXM respectively.Overall, the Verigene test provided acceptable accuracy for identification of bacteria and resistance markers with a range of turnaround time 40.5 to 99.2 h faster than conventional methods in our region.

  20. Time-to-positivity, type of culture media and oxidase test performed on positive blood culture vials to predict Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Triguero, N; Zboromyrska, Y; Morata, L; Alejo, I; De La Calle, C; Vergara, A; Cardozo, C; Arcas, M P; Soriano, A; Marco, F; Mensa, J; Almela, M; Martínez, J A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of oxidase test and time-to-positivity (TTP) in aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vials to detect the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteraemia. TTP was recorded for each aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vial of monomicrobial bacteraemia due to GNB. Oxidase test was performed in a pellet of the centrifuged content of the positive blood culture. An algorithm was developed in order to perform the oxidase test efficiently taking into account TTP and type of vial. A total of 341 episodes of GNB bacteraemia were analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the oxidase test performed on positive vials with GNB to predict P. aeruginosa were 95%, 99%, 91%, and 99%, respectively. When growth was first or exclusively detected in anaerobic vials, P. aeruginosa was never identified hence the performance of the oxidase test could be avoided. When growth was only or first detected in aerobic vials, a TTP≥8h predicted P. aeruginosa in 37% or cases (63 of 169), therefore oxidase test is highly recommended. Oxidase test performed onto positive blood culture vials previously selected by TTP and type of vials is an easy and inexpensive way to predict P. aeruginosa. In most cases, this can lead to optimization of treatment in less than 24 hours.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with postnatal confirmation in a phenotypically normal male infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L Y; Kim, H J; Hausknecht, R; Hirschhorn, K

    1976-10-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome mosaicism has always been a diagnostic dilemma. In 21 reported cases of chromosomal mosaicism in cultured amniotic fluid cells, only two cases had cytogenetic confirmation of the mosaicism. All 21 pregnancies resulted in either phenotypically normal liveborns or grossly normal abortuses. We report a case of XO/XY mosaicism detected prenatally and confirmed postnatally in a grossly normal male infant. The indication for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was advanced maternal age (38 years). A diagnosis of XO/XY mosaicism was made from two separate culture flasks of amniotic fluid cells, with 45,X cells predominating (86.4%). The Y chromosome was of normal size but carried no fluorescent band. The parents were counseled and were advised that the phenotype of XO/XY mosaicism can range from relative normality to sexual maldevelopment. They decided to continue this pregnancy. The infant was born at term and was a grossly normal male with normal penis and descended, normal-sized testes. Leukocyte culture from the cord blood and a skin fibroblast culture confirmed the mosaicism of XO/XY. The father's Y chromosome was of identical size and carried a small fluorescent band. It appears that an altered Y chromosome may be predisposed to anaphase lag leading to mosaicism.

  2. Testing the feasibility of the Dignity Therapy interview: adaptation for the Danish culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Lise J; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Chochinov, Harvey M

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 'Dignity Therapy' (DT) is a brief, flexible intervention, which allows patients to complete an interview and create a document regarding their life, identity and what they want to leave in writing for their loved ones. DT is based on the DT Question Protocol. Developed...... patients, and to obtain preliminary estimates of patient uptake for DT. These results will be used to inform a larger evaluation study. METHOD: Ten professionals were interviewed about their perception of DT and the Question Protocol. It was then tested with 20 patients at two palliative care sites and one...... gynecologic oncology department. Data was analyzed using content analysis techniques to evaluate the protocol for relevance, acceptability and comprehension. The interest and relevance of the intervention was also determined by examining the preliminary participation rate. RESULTS: Overall, DT was perceived...

  3. Preliminary indications for antibiotic susceptibility tests in less than six hour in positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Kroumova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid determination of the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens responsible for sepsis represents a significant milestone for a timely correct antibiotic therapy.The system HB&L® (ALIFAX allows reduced time in the detection of bacterial growth and consequently is able to detect the growth or absence of certain microorganisms in the presence of a given antibiotic. In this study three system for rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests among bacteria isolated from blood were compared: HB&L® (ALIFAX,VITEK®2 (bioMérieux and essays Etest® (bioMérieux. Present findings indicate that HB&L® (ALIFAX is rapid reliable instrument that may support the clinician for a rapid and appropriate treatment, particularly in the critical patient.

  4. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, E A; Grünastel, B; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2016-03-01

    Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC) blood culture (BC) method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h). Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  5. Candida glabrata species complex prevalence and antifungal susceptibility testing in a culture collection: First description of Candida nivariensis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza G; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Ivana; Vivot, Walter; Szusz, Wanda; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Córdoba, Susana B

    2016-12-01

    The presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex has not been studied in Argentina. We analyzed a collection of 117 clinical isolates of C. glabrata complex belonging to a National Culture Collection of Instituto Nacional de Microbiología "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" from Argentina (40 isolates from blood samples, 18 from other normally sterile sites, 20 from vagina, 14 from urine, 7 from oral cavity, 3 from catheter, 1 from a stool sample and 14 isolates whose clinical origin was not recorded). The aims of this work were to determine the prevalence of the cryptic species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis and to evaluate the susceptibility profile of isolates against nine antifungal drugs. Identification was carried out by using classical phenotypic tests, CHROMagar™ Candida, PCR and MALDI-TOF. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin were determined according to the EDef 7.3 (EUCAST) reference document. Of the 117 isolates, 114 were identified as C. glabrata and three as C. nivariensis by using PCR and MALDI-TOF. There were no major differences between C. nivariensis and C. glabrata susceptibility profiles. No resistant strains were found to echinocandins. We have found that the percentage of C. nivariensis in our culture collection was 2.56. This is the first description of C. nivariensis in Argentina, and data obtained could contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of this cryptic species.

  6. Influence of culture media in viability test of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi Influência de meios de cultura em teste de viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimara Aparecida Francisco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at investigatimg whether the culture medium used in viability tests affects the conidial germination of Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates. The tests were performed on microscope slides containing one of the culture media: agar-water (AW, minimal medium (MM, potato-dextrose agar (PDA, potato-dextrose-1% yeast extract agar (PDAY, Sabouraud-dextrose-yeast extract agar (SDAY, and complete medium (CM. Three areas per slide were delimited and 0.05ml of a 5.5 x 105 conidia ml-1 suspension was applied to each area. One bioassay was performed for each isolate. Germination was determined after 15 hours of incubation at 26±0.5°C. The culture media influenced the germination of the species studied, verifying within and inter specific variations. CM and PDA provided the highest germination of L. lecanii isolates and the lowest was obtained on SDAY and AW. The germination of B. bassiana isolates was favoured by CM, PDA and PDAY media, a fact not observed in AW and MM. P. fumosoroseus isolates showed the highest germination on CM and PDA media and the lowest on SDAY. However, some isolates presented high germination on nutrient-poor media (AW and MM.O presente trabalho objetivou investigar se meios de cultura utilizados em teste de viabilidade afetam a germinação de conídios de cinco isolados de Lecanicillium lecanii, cinco de Beauveria bassiana e quatro de Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Os testes foram realizados em lâminas de microscopia contendo um dos seguintes meios de cultura: Ágar-água (AA, Meio Mínimo (MM, Batata, dextrose e ágar (BDA, Batata, dextrose, ágar e 1% de extrato de levedura (BDAL, Sabouraud, dextrose, ágar e extrato de levedura (SDAL e Meio Completo (MC. Delimitaram-se três áreas por lâmina e em cada uma aplicou-se 0,05mL de uma suspensão com concentração de 5,5 x 105 conídios ml-1. Para cada isolado foi realizado um bioensaio, com seis tratamentos e cinco repeti

  7. Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163911.html Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms Success rate goes up ... 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The longer patients receive treatment for addiction, the greater their chances of success, a new ...

  8. Comparison of Molecular Detection Method (Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction) with Blood Culture and Paired Widal test for the Rapid Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Miah, R A; Pal, S; Khatun, S; Fatema, N; Roy, R R; Naheen, C R

    2017-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Blood culture & serological tests (specially Widal test) which are invariably done in Bangladesh for typhoid fever diagnosis give unacceptable levels of false negative & false positive results respectively. This cross sectional study was done at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from March 2013 to February 2014. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-based technique (which has 100% specificity for Salmonella Typhi) was compared with blood culture and widal test among 80 clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever. PCR showed maximum positivity rate (70%) followed by widal test (43.75%) and blood culture (16.25%). PCR showed positive results for 17(48.6%) of 35 typhoid patients with negative results with blood culture and widal test. The results of the study revealed that PCR is rapid and reliable diagnostic technique for detection of S. Typhi in clinically suspected typhoid fever cases, as compared to most commonly done methods such as conventional blood culture, widal test applied.

  9. A Clash of Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Clark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines U.S. international broadcasting efforts through the Office of War Information and Voice of America to provide a philosophy and foundation for the use of Alhurra Television. This station was launched during the Iraq war to reach audiences and influence public policy in the Middle East. This study found high percentages of Alhurra viewing classification using the discriminant function, suggesting that the combination of key cultural indicator variables is a sound predictor of viewing this news source. Thus, this study validates the premise of U.S. policy as it confirms the challenges faced by international broadcasting 70 years ago and today—the role key cultural indicators play when these viewers decide to turn to or away from Alhurra for news and other information. Demographic, media usage, and attitudinal variables were used to test a model developed to understand cultural differences for prediction of Alhurra viewing or nonviewing.

  10. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs.

  11. Thick Smear Is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. PMID:27162266

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of culture-based and PCR-based detection tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, J. M.; Hubben, G. A. A.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Bonten, M. J.; Postma, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    P>A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of PCR-based and culture-based diagnostic tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Our analysis included 74 accuracy measurements from 29 publications. Nine tests were

  13. Rapid antibiotic sensitivity testing and trimethoprim-mediated filamentation of clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae assayed on a novel porous culture support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Ende, van den M.; Wever, P.C.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A porous inorganic material (Anopore) was employed as a microbial culture and microcolony imaging support. Rapid Anopore-based antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST) methods were developed to assess the growth of clinical isolates, with the primary focus on testing the response of the Enterobacteriace

  14. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans, J A; Goessens, W H; Mouton, J W; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Niesters, H G; Quint, W G; Habbema, L; Stolz, E; Wagenvoort, J H

    1993-01-01

    The Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens. Specimens were collecte

  15. Evaluation of an immunohistochemical test with polyclonal antibodies raised against mycobacteria used in formalin-fixed tissue compared with mycobacterial specific culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabias, E; Palenque, E; Serrano, R; Aguado, J M; Ballestín, C

    1998-03-01

    An immunohistochemical (IH) test (commercially available polyclonal antiserum rabbit anti-Myco-bacterium bovis; DAKO A/S) was used to detect the presence of mycobacteria in 65 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from different organs, showing necrotizing caseous granuloma lesions on hematoxylin and eosin sections from 65 patients. These 65 samples were dyed using an acid-fast fluorescent technique and compared using the immunohistochemical method. Both results were also compared with the mycobacterial cultures. The IH test, compared with the culture, showed a sensitivity (S) of 52%, a specificity (Sp) of 76%, a positive predictive value (PV pos) of 61% and a negative predictive value (PV neg) of 69%. We analyze these data and discuss the possible causes of false-positive and -negative results of the IH test. This rapid test on paraffin embedded tissue seems valuable in the period when waiting for the culture results.

  16. Analysis of Culture and Drug Sensitivity Tests of Mycoplasmas for 387 Patients with Nongonococcal Urethritis (Cervicitis) in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟志芳; 郝飞; 钟白玉; 黄秀英; 唐书谦; 刁庆春

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mycoplasma infections and the sensitivity to antibiotics among patients with nongonococcal urethritis or cervicitis (NGU) in Chongqing. Methods: 387 NGU cases with mycoplasma-positive results upon culture were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: The majority of patients with mycoplasma infections were in the 20-40 year old age group. No significant difference was found between males and females. Ureaplasma urealyticum is the main pathogen of these NGU cases and no clear relationship between its concentration and pathogenic ability was noted. Drug sensitivity was tested against nine antibiotics; the sensitivity rates to josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline were 94.06%, 88.89% and 86.82% respectively, while the resistance rates to lincomycin, ofloxacin, azithromycin and roxthromycin were 74.94%, 42.12%, 41.60% and 40.31% in turn. Conclusions: Josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline could be used as the first choice to treat NGU with mycoplasma infections in Chongqing. It is important to select antibiotics for NGU treatment with mycoplasma infections based on the results of drug sensitivity tests.

  17. Estimation of bisphenol A-Human toxicity by 3D cell culture arrays, high throughput alternatives to animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Woo; Oh, Woo-Yeon; Yi, Sang Hyun; Ku, Bosung; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yang, Mihi

    2016-09-30

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and has been extensively tested in animals to predict human toxicity. In order to reduce the use of animals for toxicity assessment and provide further accurate information on BPA toxicity in humans, we encapsulated Hep3B human hepatoma cells in alginate and cultured them in three dimensions (3D) on a micropillar chip coupled to a panel of metabolic enzymes on a microwell chip. As a result, we were able to assess the toxicity of BPA under various metabolic enzyme conditions using a high-throughput and micro assay; sample volumes were nearly 2,000 times less than that required for a 96-well plate. We applied a total of 28 different enzymes to each chip, including 10 cytochrome P450s (CYP450s), 10 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), 3 sulfotransferases (SULTs), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Phase I enzyme mixtures, phase II enzyme mixtures, and a combination of phase I and phase II enzymes were also applied to the chip. BPA toxicity was higher in samples containing CYP2E1 than controls, which contained no enzymes (IC50, 184±16μM and 270±25.8μM, respectively, panimal testing for estimating BPA toxicity via human metabolic systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Way to Confirm Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    What was the big deal behind the Kepler news conference yesterday? Its not just that the number of confirmed planets found by Kepler has more than doubled (though thats certainly exciting news!). Whats especially interesting is the way in which these new planets were confirmed.Number of planet discoveries by year since 1995, including previous non-Kepler discoveries (blue), previous Kepler discoveries (light blue) and the newly validated Kepler planets (orange). [NASA Ames/W. Stenzel; Princeton University/T. Morton]No Need for Follow-UpBefore Kepler, the way we confirmed planet candidates was with follow-up observations. The candidate could be validated either by directly imaging (which is rare) or obtaining a large number radial-velocity measurements of the wobble of the planets host star due to the planets orbit. But once Kepler started producing planet candidates, these approaches to validation became less feasible. A lot of Kepler candidates are small and orbit faint stars, making follow-up observations difficult or impossible.This problem is what inspired the development of whats known as probabilistic validation, an analysis technique that involves assessing the likelihood that the candidates signal is caused by various false-positive scenarios. Using this technique allows astronomers to estimate the likelihood of a candidate signal being a true planet detection; if that likelihood is high enough, the planet candidate can be confirmed without the need for follow-up observations.A breakdown of the catalog of Kepler Objects of Interest. Just over half had previously been identified as false positives or confirmed as candidates. 1284 are newly validated, and another 455 have FPP of1090%. [Morton et al. 2016]Probabilistic validation has been used in the past to confirm individual planet candidates in Kepler data, but now Timothy Morton (Princeton University) and collaborators have taken this to a new level: they developed the first code thats designed to do fully

  19. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells with and without Metabolic Activation, Test Article: 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-one (NTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-30

    3110 Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting in a chromosome with two centromeres with or without an accompanying...chromatid union. Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting in a chromosome with two centromeres with or without an...Test for Chemical fuduction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test

  20. Enhanced Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Positive BACTEC 12B Broth Cultures of Respiratory Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of the Gen-Probe enhanced Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in BACTEC 12B broth cultures of respiratory specimens was evaluated by testing aliquots from 268 bottles with a growth index of ≥50. MTD results were compared to those obtained by usual laboratory protocol, whereby MTBC was identified by DNA probe (Gen-Probe, Inc.) testing sediment from broth samples or colonies on a solid medium. For...

  1. The role of laboratory confirmations and molecular epidemiology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... Availability of simple quantitative tests for the measure- ment of measles ... Other laboratory procedures needed to be carried out during any ... Presence of measles virus-specific cytopathic effects. (CPE), that is ... advanced, the complete culture has to be harvested, aliquoted and ..... Standardized approa-.

  2. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivask, Angela; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kapruwan, Pankaj; Stone, Vicki; Yin, Hong; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Lombi, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles.

  3. The Parthenogenetic Cosmopolitan Chironomid, Paratanytarsus grimmii, as a New Standard Test Species for Ecotoxicology: Culturing Methodology and Sensitivity to Aqueous Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Bryant S; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-09-01

    Chironomids from the genus Chironomus are widely used in laboratory ecotoxicology, but are prone to inbreeding depression, which can compromise test results. The standard Chironomus test species (C. riparius, C. dilutus and C. yoshimatsui) are also not cosmopolitan, making it difficult to compare results between geographic regions. In contrast, the chironomid Paratanytarsus grimmii is cosmopolitan, and not susceptible to inbreeding depression because it reproduces asexually by apomictic parthenogenesis. However, there is no standardised culturing methodology for P. grimmii, and a lack of acute toxicity data for common pollutants (metals and pesticides). In this study, we developed a reliable culturing methodology for P. grimmii. We also determined 24-h first instar LC50s for the metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and the insecticide imidacloprid. By developing this culturing methodology and generating the first acute metal and imidacloprid LC50s for P. grimmii, we provide a basis for using P. grimmii in routine ecotoxicological testing.

  4. Confirmed and Potential Sources of Legionella Reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, Eri; Schalk, Johanna A C; Euser, Sjoerd M; Brandsema, Petra S; den Boer, Jeroen W; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-21

    Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous in natural matrices and man-made systems. However, it is not always clear if these reservoirs can act as source of infection resulting in cases of Legionnaires' disease. This review provides an overview of reservoirs of Legionella reported in the literature, other than drinking water distribution systems. Levels of evidence were developed to discriminate between potential and confirmed sources of Legionella. A total of 17 systems and matrices could be classified as confirmed sources of Legionella. Many other man-made systems or natural matrices were not classified as a confirmed source, since either no patients were linked to these reservoirs or the supporting evidence was weak. However, these systems or matrices could play an important role in the transmission of infectious Legionella bacteria; they might not yet be considered in source investigations, resulting in an underestimation of their importance. To optimize source investigations it is important to have knowledge about all the (potential) sources of Legionella. Further research is needed to unravel what the contribution is of each confirmed source, and possibly also potential sources, to the LD disease burden.

  5. The composition of Io - a late confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Celebonovic, V

    1996-01-01

    Nine years ago,working within the framework of theoretical dense matter physics,the present author has determined the chemical composition of the Galileian satellites of Jupiter.A few months ago,in the flyby of the GA- LILEO spaceprobe,some of the theoretical predictions were confirmed.

  6. Adapting Item Format for Cultural Effects in Translated Tests: Cultural Effects on Construct Validity of the Chinese Versions of the MBTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlind, Steven J.; Miao, Danmin; Sheng, Yanyan; Chia, Rosina C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between different cultural groups and item type, and the ensuing effect on construct validity for a psychological inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, Form G). The authors analyzed 94 items from 2 Chinese-translated versions of the MBTI (Form G) for factorial differences among groups of…

  7. The use of the Color Trails Test in the assessment of driver competence: preliminary report of a culture-fair instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Lebowitz, Brian K; Kapust, Lissa R; Hollis, Ann M; O'Connor, Margaret G

    2007-06-01

    Studies have shown that the Trail Making Test (TMT) predicts real-world driving performance in individuals who have cognitive deficits. However, because this test requires knowledge of the Latin alphabet, the TMT may not be appropriate for individuals who are illiterate or for those whom English is not their primary language. Because the Color Trails Test (CTT) is not influenced by knowledge of the alphabet, the CTT may be a culture-fair alternative to the TMT. To date, the utility of the CTT in the evaluation of driver competence has not been established. In the current study, individuals referred for a comprehensive driving assessment underwent testing with the TMT and CTT. The results suggest that the CTT and the TMT provide similar information regarding road-test outcome. Thus, the CTT may be a culture-fair alternative to the TMT in the assessment of driver competence.

  8. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberration in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article: N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl Ethanediamine (TMEDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    union. d Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting in a chromosome with two centromeres with or without an accompanying...Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test...number. 1. REPORT DATE 26 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome

  9. A dynamic multi-organ-chip for long-term cultivation and substance testing proven by 3D human liver and skin tissue co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ilka; Materne, Eva-Maria; Brincker, Sven; Süssbier, Ute; Frädrich, Caroline; Busek, Mathias; Sonntag, Frank; Sakharov, Dmitry A; Trushkin, Evgeny V; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2013-09-21

    Current in vitro and animal tests for drug development are failing to emulate the systemic organ complexity of the human body and, therefore, to accurately predict drug toxicity. In this study, we present a multi-organ-chip capable of maintaining 3D tissues derived from cell lines, primary cells and biopsies of various human organs. We designed a multi-organ-chip with co-cultures of human artificial liver microtissues and skin biopsies, each a (1)/100,000 of the biomass of their original human organ counterparts, and have successfully proven its long-term performance. The system supports two different culture modes: i) tissue exposed to the fluid flow, or ii) tissue shielded from the underlying fluid flow by standard Transwell® cultures. Crosstalk between the two tissues was observed in 14-day co-cultures exposed to fluid flow. Applying the same culture mode, liver microtissues showed sensitivity at different molecular levels to the toxic substance troglitazone during a 6-day exposure. Finally, an astonishingly stable long-term performance of the Transwell®-based co-cultures could be observed over a 28-day period. This mode facilitates exposure of skin at the air-liquid interface. Thus, we provide here a potential new tool for systemic substance testing.

  10. Confirmation via Analogue Simulation: A Bayesian Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dardashti, Radin; Thebault, Karim P Y; Winsberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Analogue simulation is a novel mode of scientific inference found increasingly within modern physics, and yet all but neglected in the philosophical literature. Experiments conducted upon a table-top 'source system' are taken to provide insight into features of an inaccessible 'target system', based upon a syntactic isomorphism between the relevant modelling frameworks. An important example is the use of acoustic 'dumb hole' systems to simulate gravitational black holes. In a recent paper it was argued that there exists circumstances in which confirmation via analogue simulation can obtain; in particular when the robustness of the isomorphism is established via universality arguments. The current paper supports these claims via an analysis in terms of Bayesian confirmation theory.

  11. A Retrospective Study of the Impact of Rapid Diagnostic Testing on Time to Pathogen Identification and Antibiotic Use for Children with Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veesenmeyer, Angela Fimbres; Olson, Jared A; Hersh, Adam L; Stockmann, Chris; Korgenski, Kent; Thorell, Emily A; Pavia, Andrew T; Blaschke, Anne J

    2016-12-01

    Rapid identification of bloodstream pathogens provides crucial information that can improve the choice of antimicrobial therapy for children. Previous impact studies have primarily focused on adults. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of rapid testing in a children's hospital on time to organism identification and antibiotic use in the setting of an established antimicrobial stewardship program. We conducted a retrospective study over three consecutive time periods (spanning January 2013-August 2015) as our hospital sequentially introduced two rapid testing methods for positive blood cultures. An antimicrobial stewardship program was active throughout the study. In the baseline period, no rapid diagnostic methods were routinely utilized. In the second period (PNAFISH), a fluorescent in situ hybridization test was implemented for gram-positive organisms and in the third a rapid multiplex PCR (rmPCR) test was employed. For children with positive blood cultures, time to organism identification use and duration of select antimicrobial therapies were compared between periods. Positive blood cultures were analyzed. Median overall time to organism identification was 23, 11, and 0 h in the baseline, PNAFISH, and rmPCR periods, respectively (p Rapid diagnostic testing for children with positive blood cultures results in faster time to identification and can influence antibiotic prescribing in the setting of active antimicrobial stewardship particularly for gram-positive pathogens. Merck.

  12. How do we assign ourselves social status? A cross-cultural test of the cognitive averaging principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Matthew A

    2015-07-01

    Subjective social status (SSS), or one's perceived social standing, is linked robustly to mental and physical health and is thought to be determined in part by a cognitive average of one's past, present and expected socioeconomic status. However, this averaging principle awaits a formal test. Further, cultures differ with regard to how they perceive and discount time. In this study, I draw upon cross-sectional data from the United States and Japan (2005 MIDUS non-Hispanic whites and 2008 MIDJA), which measured subjective status in terms of one's perceived standing within a personally defined community. I compare equal and unequal cognitive averaging models for their goodness of fit relative to a traditional present-based model. Socioeconomic status is assessed broadly, in terms of past, present and expected overall work and financial situations. In the United States, averaging models do not fit the data consistently better than a present-based model of SSS. However, in Japan, averaging models do fit SSS consistently better. These fit conclusions are robust to controlling for negative affect.

  13. Diffuse panbronchiolitis with histopathological confirmation among Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广顺; 李龙芸; 刘鸿瑞; 张伟宏; 朱元珏

    2004-01-01

    Background Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) was originally and is still primarily reported in Japan, rarely in other countries. As macrolide therapy is effective for this disease with once dismal prognosis, familiarity with its clinical features is urgently needed, especially for clinicians outside Japan. The objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical features of DPB in a Chinese population and propose diagnostic procedures that will lead to increased awareness of this treatable disease among clinicians, ultimately allowing for more rapid diagnosis. Methods After a literature review, the clinical features of DPB were histopathologically confirmed in a series of 9 cases either by open lung biopsy or video-assisted thoracic surgical biopsy, resulting in the largest series of confirmed DPB cases in a non-Japanese population. Here, the cases are retrospectively described and diagnostic procedures are discussed.Conclusions Although its clinical features may vary with disease course and ethnic populations, most cases of DPB can be diagnosed or suggested according to clinical diagnostic criteria. However, underdiagnosis as a result of unfamiliarity with its clinical features and diagnostic criteria prevails. If difficulty in diagnosis arises, the diagnosis should be based on clinicopathological features and the exclusion of other diseases. Few cases can be confirmed by transbronchial biopsies; in these cases, either an open-lung biopsy or a video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy should be recommended.

  14. Comparative evaluation of Vitek 2 identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative rods directly and isolated from BacT/ALERT-positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Dávila, M J; Yagüe, G; Albert, M; García-Lucas, T

    2012-05-01

    The performance of Vitek 2 was evaluated for the identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative bacilli directly from positive blood cultures bottles. Direct inoculation of the positive blood cultures with the Vitek cards ID-GN and AST-NO58 was compared with the standard inoculation method based on the sub-culture of the positive blood culture to agar. A total of 142 blood cultures were included in the study; of those, 119 were from patients' clinical samples, while 23 were artificially prepared with strains showing different mechanisms of resistance. A total of 136 (95.8%) strains were correctly identified to the species level, only 2 (1.4%) were mis-identified and 4 (2.8%) were not identified. Susceptibility results were available for all isolates tested against 17 antibiotics, thus, resulting in a total of 2,414 isolate/anti-microbial combinations. The error rate was 2.8% (67/2,414) overall; 0.6% (14/2,414) very major errors, 0.1% (3/2,414) major errors and 2.1% (50/2,414) minor errors. The direct method detected 88.5% (22/25) of the strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The susceptibility agreement among the added strains with ESBL, AMPc hyperproduction, resistance to ceftazidime, carbapenems and cefepime was very high. Direct identification and susceptibility testing gave rapid and reliable results, reducing by 24 h the turnaround time of the microbiology laboratory.

  15. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CRP) , cultures (e.g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal ... of procalcitonin can be seen with medullary thyroid cancer , but the test is not used to diagnose ...

  16. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  17. Security at the Expense of Liberty: A Test of Predictions Deriving from the Culture of Control Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Justin T.; Mears, Daniel P.; Stewart, Eric A.; Gertz, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In "The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society," David Garland linked contemporary crime control policies and welfare reforms to a cultural formation that he termed the "crime complex of late modernity." According to Garland, once established, the crime complex exerts a contemporaneous effect on…

  18. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  19. Comparison of bacterial culture and qPCR testing of rectal and pen floor samples as diagnostic approaches to detect enterotoxic Escherichia coli in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, N. R.; Nielsen, J. P.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    for one or more adhesin factors and one or more enterotoxins were detected. Results: A total of 208 E. coli colonies from pig samples and 172 E. coli colonies from pen floor samples were isolated. Haemolytic activity was detected on blood agar plates in 111 (29.2%) of the 380 colonies that were isolated......: bacterial culturing of faecal samples from three pigs (per pen) with clinical diarrhoea and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; bacterial culturing of pen floor samples and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; qPCR testing of pen floor samples in order....... The only adhesin factor detected in this study was F18. When comparing bacterial culture or qPCR testing of pen floor samples with detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic pigs by culture, agreement was found in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.665) and 23 (74.2%, Kappa = 0.488) of the pens, respectively. Agreement...

  20. Evaluation of a Semiquantitative Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jette S; Hamacher, Christina; Gross, Birgit; Sparbier, Katrin; Lange, Christoph; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schubert, Sören

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, rapid identification of the pathogen and its individual antibiotic resistance is crucial to ensure adequate antiinfective treatment at the earliest time point. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria directly from the blood culture bottle has been widely established; however, there is still an urgent need for new methods that permit rapid resistance testing. Recently, a semiquantitative MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method for the prediction of antibiotic resistance was described. We evaluated this method for detecting nonsusceptibility against two β-lactam and two non-β-lactam antibiotics. A collection of 30 spiked blood cultures was tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, 99 patient-derived blood cultures were tested for nonsusceptibility against cefotaxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin in parallel with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification from the blood culture fluid. The assay correctly classified all isolates tested for nonsusceptibility against gentamicin and cefotaxime. One misclassification for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility and five misclassifications for piperacillin-tazobactam nonsusceptibility occurred. Identification of the bacterium and prediction of nonsusceptibility was possible within approximately 4 h.

  1. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  2. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); King, Maureen L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Beck, Colleen M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falvey, Lauren W. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Menocal, Tatianna M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  3. Troubleshooting Requests e-mail Confirmation

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve quality of the repair requests, a new e-mail confirmation automatic system will be implemented starting from the 21st October. All repair requests transmitted to the TCR (72201) or the FM Helpdesk (77777) will be confirmed in an e-mail to the requestor, provided that the latter has a valid e-mail address in the HR database. The e-mail will contain a reference number, a brief description of the problem, the location and a contact where more information can be obtained. A second e-mail will be sent when the processing of the repair request is finished. We hope that this initiative will improve the transparency and quality of our service. Helpdesk Troubleshooting Requests (reminder) We remind you that all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN machine buildings have to be transmitted to the TCR via 72201, whereas the ones concerning tertiary buildings are handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equ...

  4. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features.

  5. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  6. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Esther; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A B; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Bessems, Jos G M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2011-06-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds,(1) flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Universal Constitutionalism in an Age of Religious Diversity. Western Secularism Tested by “New” Cultural Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An abridged version of this article (reported by Prof. Nicola Colaianni, University of Bari “Aldo Moro” was presented at the Seminar on “Secularism and Liberal Constitutionalism”, held at the University of LUISS “Guido Carli” (Rome on 6th July 2010.This article is due to be published in the International Review of Sociology, in 2011. SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. Relation-Collaboration between the State and Churches in Constitutional Democracies – 3. The laicité à la française Tested by a Deprivatised Religious Process – 3.1. The French Rigid Secularism. Freedom (of Religion through the State – 4. Canada’s Open Secularism. The  question of Religious-Based Family Law Disputes – 4.1 Reasonable Accommodation and “New” Religious Nomoi Groups – 5. Collaboration-Relation between the State and Churches in Italy – 5.1. The Italian Secularism Tested by the New “Religious Geography” – 6. Conclusion. Abstract Under the pressing process of immigration and globalisation many Western constitutional democracies have moved from a number of religions, sharing a common culture, to today's age of diversity. As opposed to the past, the current democracies are facing the lack of overlapping consensus over the basic constitutional laws: namely, the meaning and the scope of freedom of religion, secularism, the separation Church-State, equal treatment and the rule of law. This is because individuals often come to adopt their basic values by very different ways. The nature, scope and force of such values are likely to be affected by competing and, sometimes, contested fundamental values and worldviews. From here stems the pressing tension – or dilemma – between “unity” and “diversity”. This essay starts with general considerations about the freedom of religion principle, strictly related with the “separation” as well as “collaboration” between secular States and Churches; then the author analyses three case

  8. Preliminary Analysis of Remote Monitoring & Robotic Concepts for Performance Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. McAffee

    1997-02-18

    As defined in 10 CFR Part 60.2, Performance Confirmation is the ''program of tests, experiments and analyses which is conducted to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of the information used to determine with reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the period after permanent closure will be met''. The overall Performance Confirmation program begins during site characterization and continues up to repository closure. The main purpose of this document is to develop, explore and analyze initial concepts for using remotely operated and robotic systems in gathering repository performance information during Performance Confirmation. This analysis focuses primarily on possible Performance Confirmation related applications within the emplacement drifts after waste packages have been emplaced (post-emplacement) and before permanent closure of the repository (preclosure). This will be a period of time lasting approximately 100 years and basically coincides with the Caretaker phase of the project. This analysis also examines, to a lesser extent, some applications related to Caretaker operations. A previous report examined remote handling and robotic technologies that could be employed during the waste package emplacement phase of the project (Reference 5.1). This analysis is being prepared to provide an early investigation of possible design concepts and technical challenges associated with developing remote systems for monitoring and inspecting activities during Performance Confirmation. The writing of this analysis preceded formal development of Performance Confirmation functional requirements and program plans and therefore examines, in part, the fundamental Performance Confirmation monitoring needs and operating conditions. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Describe the operating environment and conditions expected in the emplacement drifts during the preclosure period. (Presented in Section 7.2). (2

  9. Efficacy of ibandronate: a long term confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Munno, Ombretta; Delle Sedie, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Data deriving from randomized clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analyses, including treatment regimens unlicensed for use in clinical practice, clearly support that 150 mg once-monthly oral and 3 mg quarterly i.v. doses of ibandronate are associated with efficacy, safety and tolerability; notably both these marketed regimens, which largely correspond to ACE ≥10.8 mg, may in addition provide a significant efficacy on non-vertebral and clinical fracture (Fx) efficacy. The MOBILE and the DIVA LTE studies confirmed a sustained efficacy of monthly oral and quarterly i.v. regimens respectively, over 5 years. Furthermore, improved adherence rates with monthly ibandronate, deriving from studies evaluating large prescription databases, promise to enhance fracture protection and decrease the social and economic burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Automatic earthquake confirmation for early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyuk, H. S.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.; Allen, R. M.; Erdik, M. O.

    2015-07-01

    Earthquake early warning studies are shifting real-time seismology in earthquake science. They provide methods to rapidly assess earthquakes to predict damaging ground shaking. Preventing false alarms from these systems is key. Here we developed a simple, robust algorithm, Authorizing GRound shaking for Earthquake Early warning Systems (AGREEs), to reduce falsely issued alarms. This is a network threshold-based algorithm, which differs from existing approaches based on apparent velocity of P and S waves. AGREEs is designed to function as an external module to support existing earthquake early warning systems (EEWSs) and filters out the false events, by evaluating actual shaking near the epicenter. Our retrospective analyses of the 2009 L'Aquila and 2012 Emilia earthquakes show that AGREEs could help an EEWS by confirming the epicentral intensity. Furthermore, AGREEs is able to effectively identify three false events due to a storm, a teleseismic earthquake, and broken sensors in Irpinia Seismic Network, Italy.

  11. Spectroscopic Confirmation of the Pisces Overdensity

    CERN Document Server

    Kollmeier, Juna A; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian B; Preston, George W; Simon, Joshua D; Crane, Jeffrey D; Ivezić, Željko; Sesar, Branimir

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of the "Pisces Overdensity", also known as "Structure J", a photometric overdensity of RR Lyrae stars discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at an estimated photometric distance of ~85kpc. We measure radial velocities for 8 RR Lyrae stars within Pisces. We find that 5 of the 8 stars have heliocentric radial velocities within a narrow range of -87 km/s < v < -67 km/s, suggesting that the photometric overdensity is mainly due to a physically associated system, probably a dwarf galaxy or a disrupted galaxy. Two of the remaining 3 stars differ from one another by only 9 km/s, but it would be premature to identify them as a second system.

  12. Optimization of Regression Models of Experimental Data Using Confirmation Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2010-01-01

    A new search metric is discussed that may be used to better assess the predictive capability of different math term combinations during the optimization of a regression model of experimental data. The new search metric can be determined for each tested math term combination if the given experimental data set is split into two subsets. The first subset consists of data points that are only used to determine the coefficients of the regression model. The second subset consists of confirmation points that are exclusively used to test the regression model. The new search metric value is assigned after comparing two values that describe the quality of the fit of each subset. The first value is the standard deviation of the PRESS residuals of the data points. The second value is the standard deviation of the response residuals of the confirmation points. The greater of the two values is used as the new search metric value. This choice guarantees that both standard deviations are always less or equal to the value that is used during the optimization. Experimental data from the calibration of a wind tunnel strain-gage balance is used to illustrate the application of the new search metric. The new search metric ultimately generates an optimized regression model that was already tested at regression model independent confirmation points before it is ever used to predict an unknown response from a set of regressors.

  13. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes test: validation of a French version and exploration of cultural variations in a multi-ethnic city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Marie; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Chowne, Gabrielle; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Joseph, Lawrence; Gold, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of our study was to validate the French version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, a theory of mind test. The second aim was to test whether cultural differences modulate performance on this test. A total of 109 participants completed the original English version and 97 participants completed the French version. Another group of 30 participants completed the French version twice, one week apart. We report a similar overall distribution of scores in both versions and no differences in the mean scores between them. However, 2 items in the French version did not collect a majority of responses, which differed from the results of the English version. Test-retest showed good stability of the French version. As expected, participants who do not speak French or English at home, and those born in Asia, performed worse than North American participants, and those who speak English or French at home. We report a French version with acceptable validity and good stability. The cultural differences observed support the idea that Asian culture does not use theory of mind to explain people's behaviours as much as North American people do.

  14. Assessment of confirmed urinary tract infection in patients treated with dalfampridine for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Daniel; Chancellor, Michael B; Snell, Clayton W; Henney, Herbert R; Rabinowicz, Adrian L

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) were reported frequently with dalfampridine extended-release (dalfampridine-ER) 10 mg relative to placebo in previous multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The objective of this study was to determine whether dalfampridine-ER is associated with increased incidence of confirmed UTIs in MS patients. This post hoc analysis used UTI data from a study comparing the 4-week safety and efficacy of 5 mg (n = 144) and 10 mg (n = 142) twice-daily dalfampridine-ER versus placebo (n = 143). To confirm UTIs, three clinical assessments were used: standard urinalysis (leukocytes > 5/high-power field); urine culture (≥ 100,000 and ≥ 10,000 colony-forming units [CFUs]/mL) for those who reported UTIs as adverse events (AEs) or had positive urinalysis; and UTI symptomatology. Fisher's exact test assessed statistical significance. The proportion of patients who reported UTIs as AEs in the placebo and dalfampridine-ER 5 mg and 10 mg groups were 5.6%, 6.3%, and 9.9%, respectively. In comparison, those with laboratory-confirmed UTIs were lower: ≥ 100,000 CFUs/mL: 4.2%, 2.8%, and 2.8%; and ≥ 10,000 CFUs/mL: 4.2%, 3.5%, and 4.9%, respectively (no significant statistical difference across treatments). The proportion of patients with confirmed UTI was similar between dalfampridine-ER and placebo, thus suggesting that the treatment does not increase the risk of UTIs.

  15. Comparison of bacterial culture and qPCR testing of rectal and pen floor samples as diagnostic approaches to detect enterotoxic Escherichia coli in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, N R; Nielsen, J P; Hjulsager, C K; Jorsal, S E; Haugegaard, S; Hansen, C F; Pedersen, K S

    2017-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrhoea in weaned pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement at pen level among three different diagnostic approaches for the detection of ETEC in groups of nursery pigs with diarrhoea. The diagnostic approaches used were: bacterial culturing of faecal samples from three pigs (per pen) with clinical diarrhoea and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; bacterial culturing of pen floor samples and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; qPCR testing of pen floor samples in order to determine the quantity of F18 and F4 genes. The study was carried out in three Danish pig herds and included 31 pens with a pen-level diarrhoea prevalence of > 25%, as well as samples from 93 diarrhoeic nursery pigs from these pens. All E. coli isolates were analysed by PCR and classified as ETEC when genes for one or more adhesin factors and one or more enterotoxins were detected. A total of 208 E. coli colonies from pig samples and 172 E. coli colonies from pen floor samples were isolated. Haemolytic activity was detected on blood agar plates in 111 (29.2%) of the 380 colonies that were isolated. The only adhesin factor detected in this study was F18. When comparing bacterial culture or qPCR testing of pen floor samples with detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic pigs by culture, agreement was found in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.665) and 23 (74.2%, Kappa = 0.488) of the pens, respectively. Agreement was observed between the detection of ETEC by bacterial culture and qPCR in the same pen floor sample in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.679) pens. We observed an acceptable agreement for the detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic nursery pigs in pen samples for both bacterial culture of pen floor samples and qPCR. This study showed that both bacterial culture and qPCR testing of pen floor samples can be used as a diagnostic approach for detecting groups of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic nursery pigs

  16. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  17. Evaluation of tests performed to confirm the position of the Veress needle for creation of pneumoperitoneum in selected patients: a prospective clinical trial Valor das provas de posicionamento da ponta da agulha de Veress para a criação do pneumoperitônio artificial em pacientes selecionados: ensaio clínico prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Cansanção de Azevedo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate tests performed to confirm the position of the Veress needle inserted into the left hypochondrium for creation of pneumoperitonium. METHODS: One hundred patients were submitted to laparoscopic procedure with left hypochondrium puncturing. Needle positioning tests were evaluated. The aspiration test was considered positive when organic material was aspirated; the injection test was considered positive when no increased resistance to liquid injection was observed; the recovery test was considered positive when the liquid injected was not recovered; the saline drop test was considered positive when drops of saline in the syringe disappeared quickly; the initial intraperitoneal pressure test was considered positive when pressure levels were £ 8 mmHg. A positive aspiration test indicated iatrogenic injury, whereas a positive result in any of the other tests indicated that the tip of the needle was correctly positioned in the peritoneal cavity. Sensitivity (SE, specificity (SP, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the tests were calculated by correlating results considered true positives (a, false positives (b, false negatives (c and true negatives (d, according to the formulas: SE = [a/(a + c] x 100; SP = [d/(b + d] x 100; PPV = [a/(a + b] x 100; NPV = [d(c + d] x 100. RESULTS: With regard to the aspiration test, SE and PPV were not applicable, SP was 100% and NPV was 100%. With regard to the injection test, SE was 0%, SP was 100%, PPV was inexistent and NPV was 90%. Both recovery and saline drop tests yielded the following results: SE was 50%, SP was 100%, PPV was 100% and NPV was 94.7%. The initial intraperitoneal pressure test yielded the following results: SE, SP, PPV and NPV were 100%. CONCLUSIONS: When inserting the Veress needle into the left hypochondrium, a negative aspiration test guarantees the absence of iatrogenic injury; the injection test is not reliable to determine incorrect

  18. Testing the efficacy of culturally adapted coping skills training for Chinese American immigrants with type 2 diabetes using community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Mullan, Joseph T; Kwong, Yulanda; Hsu, Lydia; Huang, Peggy; Strycker, Lisa A; Shum, Tina; To, Diana; Kao, Rudy; Waters, Catherine M

    2013-08-01

    Chinese Americans demonstrate greater prevalence of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites and find standard diabetes care disregards their cultural health beliefs. Academic researchers and Chinatown agencies collaborated to culturally adapt and test an efficacious cognitive-behavioral intervention using community-based participatory research. Using a delayed-treatment repeated-measures design, 145 adult Chinese immigrants with Type 2 diabetes completed treatment. Immediate benefits of treatment were evident in the improvement (p diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes knowledge, bicultural efficacy, family emotional and instrumental support, diabetes quality of life, and diabetes distress. Prolonged benefits were evident in all changed variables 2 months post-intervention. The CBPR approach enabled the development of a culturally acceptable, efficacious behavioral intervention, and provides a model for working with communities that demonstrate health disparities.

  19. Technical and theoretical considerations about gradient perfusion culture for epithelia used in tissue engineering, biomaterial testing and pharmaceutical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minuth, Will W [Department of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, University Street 31 (Germany); Strehl, Raimund [Cellartis AB, S-41346 Goeteborg, Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20 (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Epithelia act as biological barriers, which are exposed to different environments at the luminal and basal sides. To simulate this situation and to improve functional features an in vitro gradient perfusion culture technique was developed in our laboratory. This innovative technique appears to be simple at first sight, but the performance needs practical and theoretical knowledge. To harvest intact epithelia after a long-term gradient culture period of many days, leakage, edge damage and pressure differences in the system have to be avoided so that the epithelial barrier function is maintained continuously. Unexpectedly, one of the major obstacles are micro-injuries in the epithelia caused by gas bubbles, which arise during transportation of the medium or due to respiration of the cultured tissue. Gas bubbles randomly accumulate either at the luminal or basal fluid flow of the gradient perfusion culture container. This phenomenon results in fluid pressure differences between the luminal and basal perfusion compartments of the gradient container, which in turn leads to damage of the barrier function. Consequently, the content of gas bubbles in the transported culture medium has to be minimized. Thus, our technical concept is the reduction of gas bubbles while keeping the content of oxygen constant. To follow this strategy we developed a new type of screw cap for media bottles specifically designed to allow fluid contact only with tube and not with cap material. Furthermore, a gas expander module separates gas bubbles from the liquid phase during transportation of the medium. Finally, a new type of gradient culture container allows a permanent elimination of transported gas bubbles. Application of this innovative equipment optimizes the parallel transportation of fluid in the luminal and basal compartments of a gradient culture container. (topical review)

  20. Observational Confirmations of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennefick, Julia D.; Kennefick, Daniel; Shameer Abdeen, Mohamed; Berrier, Joel; Davis, Benjamin; Fusco, Michael; Pour Imani, Hamed; Shields, Doug; DMS, SINGS

    2017-01-01

    Using two techniques to reliably and accurately measure the pitch angles of spiral arms in late-type galaxies, we have compared pitch angles to directly measured black hole masses in local galaxies and demonstrated a strong correlation between them. Using the relation thus established we have developed a pitch angle distribution function of a statistically complete volume limited sample of nearby galaxies and developed a central black hole mass function for nearby spiral galaxies.We have further shown that density wave theory leads us to a three-way correlation between bulge mass, pitch angle, and disk gas density, and have used data from the Galaxy Disk Mass Survey to confirm this possible fundamental plane. Density wave theory also predicts that the pitch angle of spiral arms should change with observed waveband as each waveband is sampling a different stage in stellar population formation and evolution. We present evidence that this is indeed the case using a sample of galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey. Furthermore, the evolved spiral arms cross at the galaxy co-rotation radius. This gives a new method for determining the co-rotation radius of spiral galaxies that is found to agree with those found using previous methods.

  1. DynaMiTES - A dynamic cell culture platform for in vitro drug testing PART 1 - Engineering of microfluidic system and technical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Kai; Beißner, Nicole; Reichl, Stephan; Dietzel, Andreas

    2017-04-22

    Conventional safety and efficacy test models, such as animal experiments or static in vitro cell culture models, can often not reliably predict the most promising drug candidates. Therefore, a novel microfluidic cell culture platform, called Dynamic Micro Tissue Engineering System (DynaMiTES), was designed to allow online analysis of drugs permeating through barrier forming tissues under dynamic conditions combined with monitoring of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) by electrodes optimized for homogeneous current distribution. A variety of pre-cultivated cell culture inserts can be integrated and exposed to well controlled dynamic micro flow conditions, resulting in a tightly regulated exposure of the cells to tested drugs, drug formulations and shear forces. With these qualities, the new system can provide more relevant information compared to static measurements. As a first in vitro model, a three-dimensional hemicornea construct consisting of human keratocytes (HCK-Ca) and epithelial cells (HCE-T) was successfully tested in the DynaMiTES. Thereby, we were able to demonstrate the functionality and cell compatibility of this new organ on chip test platform. The modular design of the DynaMiTES allows fast adaptation suitable for the investigation of drug permeation through other important cellular barriers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The usefulness of commercially available 'culture fair' tests in the assessment of educational success in Grade 1 Black pupils in South Africa - an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, André; Bham, Amina

    2003-03-01

    School failure among Grade 1 pupils and the subsequent drop out rate is of major concern in South Africa, especially as far as Black pupils are concerned. The school drop out rate is estimated to be four times higher in Black pupils than White children. The dilemma for the professionals in assessing children, who are experiencing difficulty at school, and who are from disadvantaged, non-English speaking communities, is the paucity of reliable, objective tests to identify children at risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available 'culture fair' tests could be used to evaluate Black pupils early in Grade 1 and if they were associated with educational success. A parental questionnaire was used to examine non-academic predictors of educational success, such as birth history, socio-economic status and the medical profile. One hundred and three Grade 1 pupils were tested in the first term. The tests used were the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, WISC mazes, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI), Motor-free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPT), Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (TVPS) and the Draw-a-Person Test (DAP). Several backward elimination stepwise regression analysis procedures were used to examine the multivariate associations between the psychometric and nonacademic variables and three outcome variables, namely the mid and end of year aggregates and a pass/fail dichotomous variable. Non-academic variables that were significantly associated with academic success were asphyxia, overcrowding and maternal education. The psychometric subtests that were significantly associated with academic achievement were the VMI, DAP, the Raven's Progressive Matrices, TVPS and WISC mazes. Commercially available 'culture fair' tests are significantly associated with educational success in Black Grade 1 pupils where standardised, comprehensive tests are not available. To evaluate to what extent these tests

  3. Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

    2014-07-17

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy.

  4. Will gravitational waves confirm Einstein's General Relativity?

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Even if Einstein's General Relativity achieved a great success and overcame lots of experimental tests, it also showed some shortcomings and flaws which today advise theorists to ask if it is the definitive theory of gravity. In this proceeding paper it is shown that, if advanced projects on the detection of Gravitational Waves (GWs) will improve their sensitivity, allowing to perform a GWs astronomy, accurate angular and frequency dependent response functions of interferometers for GWs arising from various Theories of Gravity, i.e. General Relativity and Extended Theories of Gravity, will be the ultimate test for General Relativity. This proceeding paper is also a short review of the Essay which won Honorable Mention at the 2009 Gravity Research Foundation Awards.

  5. Clinical confirmation of trichothecene mycotoxicosis in patient urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, William A; Jastromski, Bonnie M; Croft, Amanda L; Peters, Henry A

    2002-07-01

    The investigations of four Cases involving mold-contaminated buildings and human reaction to exposure, documents tests of extracted urine containing trichothecene mycotoxins confirming exposure and the diagnosis of mycotoxicosis in humans. In each of four Cases, the urine demonstrated antibiotic activity, sulfuric acid charring, and protein release. Urine was extracted using ethyl acetate 40V/60V[EA]. Extracted mycotoxin spotted on (TLC) displayed color and a range of (rf) between 0.2-0.6 using various solvents. Extract was re-suspended using 50% ethanol V/V to inject mycotoxins into weanling female Sprague-Dawley rats. Degeneration and necrosis of the rat's tissue followed. Koch's Postulates conditions were fulfilled by isolation of the causative agent, the trichothecene mycotoxins and the reproduction of disease. Examination of human tissue within the urine extraction group confirms Koch's Postulates and comparative pathology confirms inhalation Mycotoxicosis, with severe necrosis of the central nervous system and severe scarring within the lungs. Extraction of mycotoxins from human patient urine is a very useful confirmatory test to demonstrate exposure and identify mycotoxicosis. Low concentrations (6%) of sodium hypochlorite were ineffective against the activity of trichothecene mycotoxin. The severity or stages of disease directly correlates the level of exposure or poisoning (Patent Pending).

  6. Testing customer’s Intention to Purchase Online from SMEs Based on Culture, Outcome Evaluation and Strength of Control Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalslam.S.Imham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of online buyers is affected by many factors that impact the intention to purchase online. This paper specified three factors culture, strength of control beliefs, and evaluation of the outcome that have strong relationship with the intention to purchase online from SMEs. The study found that all these factors have positive correlation to support buyers’ intentions to purchase online, but “Culture” was the strongest factor that affects the intention to purchase online. Therefore the study concludes that culture is the main driver that improves online business. A meta-study of the empirical literature on the Culture and other two factors in e-commerce systems was conducted, Samples of 120 postgraduate students in selected university in Malaysia were asked to answer the survey related to various factors that have been empirically found to influence the buyers to increase the intention to purchase online.

  7. An Inflammatory Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture Model to Test Molecular Regenerative Therapies: Validation with Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krupkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organ cultures are practical tools to investigate regenerative strategies for the intervertebral disc. However, most existing organ culture systems induce severe tissue degradation with only limited representation of the in vivo processes. The objective of this study was to develop a space- and cost-efficient tissue culture model, which represents degenerative processes of the nucleus pulposus (NP. Intact bovine NPs were cultured in a previously developed system using Dyneema jackets. Degenerative changes in the NP tissue were induced either by the direct injection of chondroitinase ABC (1–20 U/mL or by the diffusion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α (both 100 ng/mL from the culture media. Extracellular matrix composition (collagens, proteoglycans, water, and DNA and the expression of inflammatory and catabolic genes were analyzed. The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic compound epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG, 10 µM was employed to assess the relevance of the degenerative NP model. Although a single injection of chondroitinase ABC reduced the proteoglycan content in the NPs, it did not activate cellular responses. On the other hand, IL-1β and TNF-α significantly increased the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-8, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13. The cytokine-induced gene expression in the NPs was ameliorated with EGCG. This study provides a proof of concept that inflammatory NP cultures, with appropriate containment, can be useful for the discovery and evaluation of molecular therapeutic strategies against early degenerative disc disease.

  8. Effects of pyridoxine on rat testes by means of Sertoli-germ cell co-culture system in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Houjin

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of pyridoxine on rat testis in vitro. Method an in vitro systen of Sertoligem cell co-culture was applied, the toxic effects of pyridoxine at different concentrations an exposed duration were olserved. Results The detachment of germ cells from sertoli cells showed marked dose-response and time response relafionships with the exposure of pyridoxine. Meanwhile, the characteristic of loosing and ratracting skeletun in the Sertoli cells was found. Conclusions The effects induced by pyridoxine in vitro may reflect damage to Sertoli cells, and testicular cells co-culture could be of value for the study of underlying mechanisms of toxic effects of pyridoxine on rat testis.

  9. Screening Test of Mother Culture Medium Formula of Pleurotus ery ngii%杏鲍菇母种培养基配方筛选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮梦洁; 郝涤非

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen cultivation plan of Pleurotus eryngii ,taking Pleurotus eryngii as test material ,the screening test of mother culture medium formula of pleurotus eryngii were carried out by orthogonal design . The results showed that PDA medium respectively added 30 g bran ,10 g corn meal ,5 g yeast powder and 10 g glucose ,and that had the best culture effect for Pleurotus eryngii .%为优化杏鲍菇培养方案,以杏鲍菇子实体为试材,采用正交设计进行了杏鲍菇母种培养基配方筛选试验。结果表明:在PDA培养基中添加麸皮30 g、玉米粉10 g、酵母粉5 g、葡萄糖10 g对杏鲍菇母种培养效果最好。

  10. Big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept. A cross-cultural (26-country) test of the negative effects of academically selective schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2003-05-01

    Academically selective schools are intended to affect academic self-concept positively, but theoretical and empirical research demonstrates that the effects are negative. The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), an application of social comparison theory to educational settings, posits that a student will have a lower academic self-concept in an academically selective school than in a nonselective school. This study, the largest cross-cultural study of the BFLPE ever undertaken, tested theoretical predictions for nationally representative samples of approximately 4,000 15-year-olds from each of 26 countries (N = 103,558) who completed the same self-concept instrument and achievement tests. Consistent with the BFLPE, the effects of school-average achievement were negative in all 26 countries (M beta = -.20, SD = .08), demonstrating the BFLPE's cross-cultural generalizability.

  11. Design of a tablet computer app for facilitation of a molecular blood culture test in clinical microbiology and preliminary usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Lasse L.; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Meltzer, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: User mobility is an important aspect of the development of clinical information systems for health care professionals. Mobile phones and tablet computers have obtained widespread use by health care professionals, offering an opportunity for supporting the access to patient information...... through specialized applications (apps) while supporting the mobility of the users. The use of apps for mobile phones and tablet computers may support workflow of complex tasks, for example, molecular-based diagnostic tests in clinical microbiology. Multiplex Blood Culture Test (MuxBCT) is a molecular...... of microorganisms from positive blood culture samples. The study participants were observed, and their interactions with the app were recorded. After the study, the participants were debriefed to clarify observations. RESULTS: Four medical laboratory technicians, for example, representative of end users of the app...

  12. Laboratory confirmation of rubella infection in suspected measles cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M

    2016-10-01

    As a part of measles outbreak based surveillance undertaken by the World Health Organization India, suspected measles cases were referred for the laboratory diagnosis at National Institute of Virology (NIV) Pune and NIV Unit Bengaluru. Altogether, 4,592 serum samples were referred during 2010-2015 from the States of Karnataka (n = 1,173), Kerala (n = 559), and Maharashtra (n = 2,860). Initially, serum samples were tested in measles IgM antibody EIA and samples with measles negative and equivocal results (n = 1,954) were subjected to rubella IgM antibody detection. Overall, 62.9% (2,889/4,592) samples were laboratory confirmed measles, 27.7% (542/1,954) were laboratory confirmed rubella and remaining 25.2% (1,161/4,592) were negative for measles and rubella. The measles vaccination status was available for 1,206 cases. Among the vaccinated individuals, 50.7% (612/1,206) were laboratory confirmed measles. The contribution of laboratory confirmed measles was 493 (40.8%) from Maharashtra, 90 (7.5%) from Karnataka, and 29 (2.4%) from Kerala. Since, 1/3rd of suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed rubella, an urgent attention needed to build rubella surveillance in India. Additional efforts are required to rule out other exanthematous disease including Dengue and Chikungunya in measles and rubella negatives. J. Med. Virol. 88:1685-1689, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery-VMI): lessons from exploration of cultural variations in visual-motor integration performance of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C Y; Tan, P C; Koh, C; Koh, E; Guo, H; Yusoff, N D; See, C Q; Tan, T

    2015-03-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) is important in children's development because it is associated with the performance of many functional skills. Deficits in VMI have been linked to difficulties in academic performance and functional tasks. Clinical assessment experience of occupational therapists in Singapore suggested that there is a potential difference between the VMI performance of Singaporean and American children. Cross-cultural studies also implied that culture has an influence on a child's VMI performance, as it shapes the activities that a child participates in. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore if there was a difference between the VMI performance of Singaporean and American preschoolers, and (2) determine if there were ethnic differences in the VMI performance of Singaporean preschoolers. The Beery-VMI, which was standardized in America, is commonly used by occupational therapists in Singapore to assess the VMI ability of children. We administered the Beery-VMI (fifth edition) full form test (excluding the supplemental tests) to 385 preschoolers (mean age = 63.3 months) from randomly selected schools in Singapore. We compared the scores of Singaporean preschoolers with those of the American standardization norms using the one-sample t-test. Scores of different ethnic groups among the Singapore population were also compared using a one-way anova, followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Singaporean preschoolers and the standardization sample of American children performed significantly differently in all age groups (P VMI performance. Certain cultural beliefs and practices may affect VMI performance. Clinicians should exercise caution when using an assessment in communities and cultures outside the ones on which it was standardized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  15. The Role of 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing in Confirmation of Suspected Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gawhary, Somaia; El-Anany, Mervat; Hassan, Reem; Ali, Doaa; El Gameel, El Qassem

    2016-02-01

    Different molecular assays for the detection of bacterial DNA in the peripheral blood represented a diagnostic tool for neonatal sepsis. We targeted to evaluate the role of 16S rRNA gene sequencing to screen for bacteremia to confirm suspected neonatal sepsis (NS) and compare with risk factors and septic screen testing. Sixty-two neonates with suspected NS were enrolled. White blood cells count, I/T ratio, C-reactive protein, blood culture and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. Blood culture was positive in 26% of cases, and PCR was positive in 26% of cases. Evaluation of PCR for the diagnosis of NS showed sensitivity 62.5%, specificity 86.9%, PPV 62.5%, NPV 86.9% and accuracy of 79.7%. 16S rRNA PCR increased the sensitivity of detecting bacterial DNA in newborns with signs of sepsis from 26 to 35.4%, and its use can be limited to cases with the most significant risk factors and positive septic screen. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Testing the Validity of the Emotional and Personality-Related Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire in Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztemel, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties of high school students in Turkish culture, using the model proposed by Saka and Gati. A sample of 523 high school students filled out the Turkish version of the Emotional and Personality-Related Aspects of Career Decision-Making…

  17. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  18. Testing the Validity of the Emotional and Personality-Related Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire in Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztemel, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties of high school students in Turkish culture, using the model proposed by Saka and Gati. A sample of 523 high school students filled out the Turkish version of the Emotional and Personality-Related Aspects of Career Decision-Making…

  19. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Hoon Chung; Sung-Chul Lim; Na-Ra Yun; Sung-Heui Shin; Choon-Mee Kim; Dong-Min Kim

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O.tsutsugamushi).We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens,serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction.Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O.tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes.This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis.Thus,scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses,which causes severe Iobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration,necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis,such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  20. Autoimmune encephalitis: Clinical diagnosis versus antibody confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Caroline Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Autoimmune encephalitis is a heterogeneous disorder which is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. The diagnosis of these disorders is based on the detection of autoantibodies and characteristic clinical profiles. Aims: We aimed to study the antibody profile in encephalitis patients with suspected autoimmune etiology presenting to a tertiary care center. Settings and Design: The subjects were selected by screening all patients with clinical profile suggesting autoimmune encephalitis admitted in the neuromedical intensive care unit (ICU of a tertiary care center in South India. Materials and Methods: Patients who fulfilled modified Zuliani et al.′s, criteria for autoimmune encephalitis were identified during the period December 2009-June 2013. Blood samples from these subjects were screened for six neuronal antibodies. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to compare the antibody positive and negative patients. Results: Out of 1,227 patients screened, 39 subjects (14 males: 25 females were identified with a mean age of 15.95 years and 19 cases were assessed in the acute and 20 in the convalescent phase of the illness. Seizure (87.8 % was the most common presenting symptom; status epilepticus occurred in 23 (60.5% patients during the course of the illness. Fourteen (35.9% patients were N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR antibody-positive and all were negative for the other antibodies tested. Conclusions: One-third of patients presenting with acute noninfective encephalitis would be positive for NMDAR antibodies with the remaining two-thirds with clinically suspected autoimmune encephalitis being antibody-negative. There are few markers in the clinical and investigative profiles to distinguish antibody-positive and -negative patients.

  1. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  2. Evaluation of the Accelerate Pheno System for Fast Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing from Positive Blood Cultures in Bloodstream Infections Caused by Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschal, Matthias; Bachmaier, Johanna; Autenrieth, Ingo; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Willmann, Matthias; Peter, Silke

    2017-07-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Increasing rates of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens limit treatment options, prompting an empirical use of broad-range antibiotics. Fast and reliable diagnostic tools are needed to provide adequate therapy in a timely manner and to enable a de-escalation of treatment. The Accelerate Pheno system (Accelerate Diagnostics, USA) is a fully automated test system that performs both identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) directly from positive blood cultures within approximately 7 h. In total, 115 episodes of BSI with Gram-negative bacteria were included in our study and compared to conventional culture-based methods. The Accelerate Pheno system correctly identified 88.7% (102 of 115) of all BSI episodes and 97.1% (102 of 105) of isolates that are covered by the system's identification panel. The Accelerate Pheno system generated an AST result for 91.3% (95 of 104) samples in which the Accelerate Pheno system identified a Gram-negative pathogen. The overall category agreement between the Accelerate Pheno system and culture-based AST was 96.4%, the rates for minor discrepancies 1.4%, major discrepancies 2.3%, and very major discrepancies 1.0%. Of note, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, and carbapenem resistance was correctly detected in blood culture specimens with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (n = 7) and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 3) strains. The utilization of the Accelerate Pheno system reduced the time to result for identification by 27.49 h (P based methods in our laboratory setting. In conclusion, the Accelerate Pheno system provided fast, reliable results while significantly improving turnaround time in blood culture diagnostics of Gram-negative BSI. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Comparison of the tuberculin test, histopathological examination, and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Lima, Danillo Henrique da Silva; da Silva e Silva, Natália; Cardoso, Douglas Pinheiro; Lopes, Cinthia Távora Albuquerque; Brito, Marilene de Farias; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with a great zoonotic potential. It is considered a major obstacle to cattle production and is responsible for severe losses in several production systems. A comparative cervical test (CCT) was performed in 1140 buffaloes from different mesoregions of the state of Pará, Brazil, with the aim of comparing the sensitivity and specificity of CCT with histopathological examination and bacterial culture. Of the animals tested using CCT, 4.65% (53/1140) were positive, 2.98% (34/1140) were inconclusive, and 92.36% (1053/1140) were negative. Among the 168 sacrificed animals, 33 were positive, 18 were inconclusive, and 117 were negative by CCT, and samples from the sacrificed animals were collected for histopathological examination and bacterial culture. A qualitative evaluation of the tuberculin test was performed by comparing the test results with the histopathological and bacteriological results. The latter two tests yielded a prevalence of 4.16%, a sensitivity of 71.43%, and a specificity of 82.61%. Based on these results, we concluded that CCT yielded satisfactory results and can be applied in diagnostic studies in buffaloes. The prevalence rate obtained using three distinct diagnostic methods suggests that Mycobacterium bovis was present in a few animals in the population evaluated.

  4. A comparative assessment of culture and serology in the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, D; Byrne, W; Kelleher, P; O'Callaghan, H; Kenny, K; Heneghan, T; Power, S; Egan, J; Ryan, F

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the usefulness of culture for the confirmation of brucellosis in cattle, a comparison of culture and serology was undertaken on 248 animals in four dairy herds where the disease was active. Paired supramammary (SM), retropharyngeal (RP), and internal iliac (IL) lymph nodes were cultured, and five serological tests were deployed: the microserum agglutination test (MSAT), complement fixation test (CFT), the indirect (iELISA) and competitive ELISA, and the fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA). Brucella abortus was isolated from 86.8% of animals on combined culture of all three lymph nodes. Individually, the highest isolation rate was from the RP (90.5% of culture positives). Of culture positive animals, 13.7% and 6.2% were positive from the RP and SM alone, respectively. Approximately half of the positive cultures yielded diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. While the MSAT and FPA were the most sensitive serological tests, a significant percentage of infected animals were undetectable using these standard serological assays.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk...

  6. Adapting Tests of Sign Language Assessment for Other Sign Languages--A Review of Linguistic, Cultural, and Psychometric Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…

  7. An Autonomous System for Experimental Evolution of Microbial Cultures: Test Results Using Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Escherichia Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouandji, Cynthia; Wang, Jonathan; Arismendi, Dillon; Lee, Alonzo; Blaich, Justin; Gentry, Diana

    2017-01-01

    At its core, the field of microbial experimental evolution seeks to elucidate the natural laws governing the history of microbial life by understanding its underlying driving mechanisms. However, observing evolution in nature is complex, as environmental conditions are difficult to control. Laboratory-based experiments for observing population evolution provide more control, but manually culturing and studying multiple generations of microorganisms can be time consuming, labor intensive, and prone to inconsistency. We have constructed a prototype, closed system device that automates the process of directed evolution experiments in microorganisms. It is compatible with any liquid microbial culture, including polycultures and field samples, provides flow control and adjustable agitation, continuously monitors optical density (OD), and can dynamically control environmental pressures such as ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation and temperature. Here, the results of the prototype are compared to iterative exposure and survival assays conducted using a traditional hood, UV-C lamp, and shutter system.

  8. Testing the committee approach to translating measures across cultures: Translating primary communication inventory from English to Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ryoko; Driessnack, Martha

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the initial translation process and follow-up psychometric evaluation of the Japanese version of the Primary Communication Inventory (J-PCI). The J-PCI was developed using the committee approach to translation and then used in a study exploring Japanese couples' communication satisfaction while separated during Satogaeri Bunben - a Japanese perinatal tradition. The committee approach attends to cultural nuance and context and is especially useful when languages have dissimilar linguistic roots and cultures, such as Japanese and English. The translation process and evaluation included five steps; (i) selection of the original PCI for research; (ii) selection of translators; (iii) development of the J-PCI using a committee approach; (iv) an initial small pilot study; and (v) a larger follow-up study. The J-PCI has good initial validity and reliability, although some nuances were observed in scoring.

  9. State-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Alépée, N.; Bahinski, A.; Daneshian, M.; B. de Wever; Fritsche, E.; Goldberg, A.; Hansmann, J.; Hartung, T; Haycock, J; Hogberg, H.; Hoelting, L.; Kelm, J M; Kadereit, S.; McVey, E.; Landsiedel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated approaches using different in vitro methods in combination with bioinformatics can (i) increase the success rate and speed of drug development; (ii) improve the accuracy of toxicological risk assessment; and (iii) increase our understanding of disease. An important building block of this strategy that has emerged during the last years are threedimensional (3D) cell culture models. The majority of these models are organotypic, i.e., they aim to reproduce major functions of an organ ...

  10. Book review: Seeing Lithics: A Middle-range Theory for Testing for Cultural Transmission in the Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Davenport-Mackey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeing Lithics represents a doctoral thesis submitted to Harvard University by Gilbert Tostevin in 2000. Tostevin is currently a professor of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota and has written extensively on human evolution, lithic technology, Old World archaeology, and Palaeolithic archaeology. These interests can be clearly seen in this book which develops a new theoretical and analytical approach to the study of cultural transmission in the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition. 

  11. Direct Susceptibility Testing with Positive BacT/Alert Blood Cultures by Using MicroScan Overnight and Rapid Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Waites, Ken B.; Brookings, E S; Moser, S. A.; Zimmer, B. L.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a method of direct inoculation of MicroScan dried overnight and of rapid panels with positive aerobic blood cultures obtained from the BacT/Alert to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities. Inocula were limited to specimens that appeared unimicrobic on Gram stain. Results were compared to those obtained from panels inoculated following subculture. For 133 gram-negative bacilli, there were 94.7 and 93.5% categorical agreements between direct and standard methods for ...

  12. Rating leniency and halo in multisource feedback ratings: testing cultural assumptions of power distance and individualism-collectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Yee; Koh, Christine; Ang, Soon; Kennedy, Jeffrey C; Chan, Kim-Yin

    2011-09-01

    This study extends multisource feedback research by assessing the effects of rater source and raters' cultural value orientations on rating bias (leniency and halo). Using a motivational perspective of performance appraisal, the authors posit that subordinate raters followed by peers will exhibit more rating bias than superiors. More important, given that multisource feedback systems were premised on low power distance and individualistic cultural assumptions, the authors expect raters' power distance and individualism-collectivism orientations to moderate the effects of rater source on rating bias. Hierarchical linear modeling on data collected from 1,447 superiors, peers, and subordinates who provided developmental feedback to 172 military officers show that (a) subordinates exhibit the most rating leniency, followed by peers and superiors; (b) subordinates demonstrate more halo than superiors and peers, whereas superiors and peers do not differ; (c) the effects of power distance on leniency and halo are strongest for subordinates than for peers and superiors; (d) the effects of collectivism on leniency were stronger for subordinates and peers than for superiors; effects on halo were stronger for subordinates than superiors, but these effects did not differ for subordinates and peers. The present findings highlight the role of raters' cultural values in multisource feedback ratings.

  13. Design and prototyping of a chip-based multi-micro-organoid culture system for substance testing, predictive to human (substance) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Frank; Schilling, Niels; Mader, Katja; Gruchow, Mathias; Klotzbach, Udo; Lindner, Gerd; Horland, Reyk; Wagner, Ilka; Lauster, Roland; Howitz, Steffen; Hoffmann, Silke; Marx, Uwe

    2010-07-01

    Dynamic miniaturized human multi-micro-organ bioreactor systems are envisaged as a possible solution for the embarrassing gap of predictive substance testing prior to human exposure. A rational approach was applied to simulate and design dynamic long-term cultures of the smallest possible functional human organ units, human "micro-organoids", on a chip the shape of a microscope slide. Each chip contains six identical dynamic micro-bioreactors with three different micro-organoid culture segments each, a feed supply and waste reservoirs. A liver, a brain cortex and a bone marrow micro-organoid segment were designed into each bioreactor. This design was translated into a multi-layer chip prototype and a routine manufacturing procedure was established. The first series of microscopable, chemically resistant and sterilizable chip prototypes was tested for matrix compatibility and primary cell culture suitability. Sterility and long-term human cell survival could be shown. Optimizing the applied design approach and prototyping tools resulted in a time period of only 3 months for a single design and prototyping cycle. This rapid prototyping scheme now allows for fast adjustment or redesign of inaccurate architectures. The designed chip platform is thus ready to be evaluated for the establishment and maintenance of the human liver, brain cortex and bone marrow micro-organoids in a systemic microenvironment.

  14. Capabilities for identification and confirmation of bacterial biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Popescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military Medical Service is able for detection, identification and confirmation of biological agents; it is part of medical protection against CBRN weapons. We are specialized capabilities for in vitro tests, under construction, the maximum containment laboratory designed for work with Risk Group Microorganisms. An efficient primary containment system must be in place, consisting of one or a combination of the following: Class III safety cabinet laboratory, passage of two doors, suit laboratory, controlled access, controlled air system. Negative pressure in the facility, supply and exhaust air must be HEPA-filtered, decontamination of effluents, sterilization of waste and materials, airlock entry ports for specimens, materials and animals must be provided etc. Complementary is an Animal facility for in vivo tests. This is suitable for work with animals that are deliberately inoculated with microorganisms in Risk Group.

  15. Evaluation of the Merlin MICRONAUT system for rapid direct susceptibility testing of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellinghausen, Nele; Pietzcker, Tim; Poppert, Sven; Belak, Syron; Fieser, Nicole; Bartel, Melanie; Essig, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Bloodstream infections are life-threatening conditions which require the timely initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We evaluated the automated Merlin MICRONAUT system for rapid direct microtiter broth antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli from BACTEC 9240 bottles with positive blood cultures in comparison to the standard method for the Merlin MICRONAUT system. This prospective study was conducted under routine working conditions during a 9-month period. Altogether, 504 isolates from 409 patients and 11,819 organism-antibiotic combinations were evaluated for comparison of direct and standard AST methods. For gram-negative bacilli, direct and standard AST of 110 isolates was evaluated and MIC agreement was found for 98.1% of 2,637 organism-antibiotic combinations. Category (susceptible, intermediate susceptible, resistant [SIR]) agreement was found for 99.0%, with results for 0.04% of combinations showing very major errors, those for 0.2% showing major errors, and those for 0.8% showing minor errors. For gram-positive cocci, 373 isolates were evaluated and MIC agreement was found for 95.6% of 8,951 organism-antibiotic combinations. SIR agreement was found for 98.8%, with results for 0.3% of combinations showing very major errors, those for 0.4% showing major errors, and those for 0.5% showing minor errors. Although the number of tested isolates was limited (n = 33), direct AST of streptococci was performed for the first time, yielding promising results with SIR agreement for 98.6% of 363 organism-antibiotic combinations. In conclusion, direct AST of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci from positive blood cultures with the MICRONAUT system is a reliable technique that allows for the omission of repeat testing of subcultured isolates. Thereby, it reduces the time to results of blood culture testing and may have a positive impact on patient care.

  16. Primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic wounds: a methodology to produce human cell lines and test putative growth factor therapy such as GMCSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppock Donald L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple physiologic impairments are responsible for chronic wounds. A cell line grown which retains its phenotype from patient wounds would provide means of testing new therapies. Clinical information on patients from whom cells were grown can provide insights into mechanisms of specific disease such as diabetes or biological processes such as aging. The objective of this study was 1 To culture human cells derived from patients with chronic wounds and to test the effects of putative therapies, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF on these cells. 2 To describe a methodology to create fibroblast cell lines from patients with chronic wounds. Methods Patient biopsies were obtained from 3 distinct locations on venous ulcers. Fibroblasts derived from different wound locations were tested for their migration capacities without stimulators and in response to GM-CSF. Another portion of the patient biopsy was used to develop primary fibroblast cultures after rigorous passage and antimicrobial testing. Results Fibroblasts from the non-healing edge had almost no migration capacity, wound base fibroblasts were intermediate, and fibroblasts derived from the healing edge had a capacity to migrate similar to healthy, normal, primary dermal fibroblasts. Non-healing edge fibroblasts did not respond to GM-CSF. Six fibroblast cell lines are currently available at the National Institute on Aging (NIA Cell Repository. Conclusion We conclude that primary cells from chronic ulcers can be established in culture and that they maintain their in vivo phenotype. These cells can be utilized for evaluating the effects of wound healing stimulators in vitro.

  17. Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Capability on Human Automation Trust: A Case Study of Auto-GCAS Experimental Test Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Cacanindin, Artemio; Johnson, Walter; Lyons, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Force's newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the case's politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerability/ high risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  18. Rapid identification and multiple susceptibility testing of pathogens from positive-culture sterile body fluids by a combined MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry and Vitek Susceptibility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Yue Tian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections of the bloodstream, central nervous system, peritoneum, joints and other sterile areas are associated with high morbidity and sequelae risk. Timely initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is crucial to improving patient prognosis. However, standard final identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs are reported 16–48 hours after a positive alert. For a rapid, effective and low-cost diagnosis, we combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry with a Vitek AST system, and performed rapid microbial identification (RMI and rapid multiple AST (RMAST on non-duplicated positive body fluid cultures collected from a hospital in Shanghai, China. Sterile body fluid positive culture and blood positive culture caused by Gram negative (GN or polymicrobial were applied to the MALDI–TOF measurement directly. When positive blood culture caused by Gram positive (GP bacteria or yeasts, they were resuspended in 1 ml brain heart infusion for 2h or 4h enrichment, respectively. Regardless of enrichment, the RMI (completed in 40 min per sample accurately identified GN and GP bacteria (98.9% and 87.2%, respectively, fungi (75.7% and anaerobes (94.7%. Dominant species in multiple cultures and bacteria that failed to grow on the routing plates were correctly identified in 81.2% and 100% of cases, respectively. The category agreements of RMAST results, determined in the presence of various antibiotics, were similarly to previous studies. The RMI and RMAST results not only reduce the turnaround time of the patient report by 18–36 hours, but also indicate whether a patient’s antibiotic treatment should be accelerated, ceased or de-escalated, and adjusted the essential drugs modification for an optimised therapy.

  19. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by morphine, confirmed by positive patch test and lymphocyte transformation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, Sylvia H.; de Monchy, Jan G.

    Morphine, an opium alkaloid, frequently causes side effects such as hyperhidrosis and facial flushing, but serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions are seldom observed. Best known are Urticaria, erythema, and pruritus; sometimes pseudoallergic anaphylactoid reactions, and blisters are reported.

  20. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by morphine, confirmed by positive patch test and lymphocyte transformation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, Sylvia H.; de Monchy, Jan G.

    2006-01-01

    Morphine, an opium alkaloid, frequently causes side effects such as hyperhidrosis and facial flushing, but serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions are seldom observed. Best known are Urticaria, erythema, and pruritus; sometimes pseudoallergic anaphylactoid reactions, and blisters are reported.

  1. Roles of guilt and culture in normative influence: testing moderated mediation in the anti-secondhand smoking context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study simultaneously explored direct, indirect, and joint effects of types of norm messages, guilt, and culture on smokers' behavioral intentions in the anti-secondhand smoking context. An online study among 310 smoking students in an individualistic (United States) and a collectivistic (Korea) country indicated that (1) norm messages had no conditional indirect effects on behavioral intention, (2) guilt arousal had a strong and direct impact on behavioral intention, and (3) guilt arousal and its impact on behavioral intention were stronger among Korean smokers than among US smokers.

  2. Combination of Culture, Antigen and Toxin Detection, and Cytotoxin Neutralization Assay for Optimal Clostridium difficile Diagnostic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Alfa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been a growing interest in developing an appropriate laboratory diagnostic algorithm for Clostridium difficile, mainly as a result of increases in both the number and severity of cases of C difficile infection in the past decade. A C difficile diagnostic algorithm is necessary because diagnostic kits, mostly for the detection of toxins A and B or glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH antigen, are not sufficient as stand-alone assays for optimal diagnosis of C difficile infection. In addition, conventional reference methods for C difficile detection (eg, toxigenic culture and cytotoxin neutralization [CTN] assays are not routinely practiced in diagnostic laboratory settings.

  3. Assessment of Creative Thinking across Cultures Using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT): Translation and Validity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Nükhet D.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a project to translate and administer the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) to Turkish elementary and secondary students, 35 professionals were trained in a full-day workshop to learn to score the verbal TTCT. All trainees scored the same 4 sets of TTCT verbal criterion tests for fluency, flexibility, and originality by filling…

  4. Comparison of clinical findings between dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and dogs with confirmed sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Andrea M; O'Brien, Mauria A; Selmic, Laura E; McMichael, Maureen A

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To compare clinical signs, laboratory test results, and imaging findings between dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and dogs with sepsis. DESIGN Retrospective case-case study. ANIMALS 10 dogs with suspected anaphylaxis and 22 dogs with confirmed sepsis that met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. PROCEDURES Medical records for dogs in each group were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment; reason for hospital admission; physical examination findings; results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, coagulation testing, cytologic examination, and microbial culture; and imaging reports. RESULTS All dogs in the anaphylaxis group fulfilled the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Dogs in both groups had gastrointestinal signs, lethargy, mentation change, and bleeding abnormalities. Dogs with suspected anaphylaxis had a significantly higher eosinophil count and serum alanine aminotransferase activity and lower blood pH than dogs with sepsis. Dogs with sepsis had a significantly higher band neutrophil count, serum globulins concentration, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity and lower serum glucose concentration. Dogs in both groups had intracavitary free fluid and ultrasonographic findings of thickened intestines, gas or fluid-filled intestines, and a thickened gallbladder wall. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Clinical signs, laboratory values, and imaging findings may be similar in dogs with sepsis or anaphylaxis. Given the marked difference in prognosis and treatment, early differentiation is important. Anaphylaxis should be considered if a septic nidus cannot be identified, and supportive care should be considered for such patients.

  5. Point-Counterpoint: A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Streptococcus pyogenes Should Replace Antigen Detection and Culture for Detection of Bacterial Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Patel, Robin; Kirn, Thomas J; Thomson, Richard B

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have frequently been the standard diagnostic approach when specific infectious agents are sought in a clinic specimen. They can be applied for specific agents such as S. pyogenes, or commercial multiplex NAATs for detection of a variety of pathogens in gastrointestinal, bloodstream, and respiratory infections may be used. NAATs are both rapid and sensitive. For many years, S. pyogenes testing algorithms used a rapid and specific group A streptococcal antigen test to screen throat specimens, followed, in some clinical settings, by a throat culture for S. pyogenes to increase the sensitivity of its detection. Now S. pyogenes NAATs are being used with increasing frequency. Given their accuracy, rapidity, and ease of use, should they replace antigen detection and culture for the detection of bacterial pharyngitis? Bobbi Pritt and Robin Patel of the Mayo Clinic, where S. pyogenes NAATs have been used for well over a decade with great success, will explain the advantages of this approach, while Richard (Tom) Thomson and Tom Kirn of the NorthShore University HealthSystem will discuss their concerns about this approach to diagnosing bacterial pharyngitis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Cross-cultural studies using a modified mini mental test for healthy subjects and patients with various forms of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajeb, Peterus; Thajeb, Teguh; Dai, Daofu

    2007-03-01

    Existing neuropsychological tests are often complex and time-consuming. We designed a modified Mini Mental Test (MMT) battery for clinical assessment of the global and regional higher cortical functions of the brain. We tested its applicability in healthy subjects with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds. The usefulness of our MMT as a tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with various forms of vascular dementia was determined. The MMT comprises five subtests, including clinical evaluations of: (A) orientation (6 points); (B) attention, right-left discrimination, speech, and calculation (20); (C) immediate recall, and recent and remote memory retrieval (10); (D) praxis (10); and (E) visuospatial orientation, agnosia, hemianopsia, and visual hemineglect (14). The MMT was administered to 100 healthy subjects from two different ethnic backgrounds (Indonesian and Chinese/Taiwanese) and diverse cultural and educational backgrounds, and to 61 patients with various forms of vascular dementia. MMT scores were significantly lower in healthy subjects with a low level of education regardless of their ethnic background (p<0.001). Patients with vascular dementia had much lower MMT scores than did the comparable age-adjusted normal controls (p<0.001). Of the patients with vascular dementia, those with Binswanger's disease had the lowest MMT scores (25.5+/-28.9), followed by those with large cerebral infarcts (48.0+/-7.1), cerebral haemorrhage (49.0+/-8.5), and multiple lacunar infarctions (55.0+/-0.5) (P<0.001). With a cut-off point of 33/55 (partial score/total score), the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the MMT were 0.98 and 0.94, respectively. The MMT is a simple and useful tool for clinical assessment of the cognitive functions of healthy subjects and patients with or without vascular dementia. It can be used for individuals with different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds.

  7. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 8. Archeological Test Excavations: 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Analysis Euro-American Settlement Site Testing Rock Shelters Environmental Studies Osage River Sac River Pomme de Terre River Grand River...interpretation of the Euro-American settlement of the lower Pomme de Terre River valley. Volume VII is a study of the re- sults of preliminary testing at...several sites in the lower Pomme de Terre River valley. Volume VITI contains the results of excavations in rock shelters along the Osage River. Volume

  8. Non-culturable Bacteria and Test Methods%活的不可培养细菌及其检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 张明; 姜明洪; 吴光虹

    2015-01-01

    Viable But Non-culturable State(VBNC)is a special condition of the bacteria in the bad environment,but it is difficult or unable to separate culture,and can not detected in this state. It is harm for food safety and public health. Introduction to inducements and recovery conditions ofSalmonella,Staphylococcusaureus,Escherichiacoli,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Klebsiella peneumoniae, Enterococcus faecal, Vibrio cholerae,Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella bacteria, and current commonly used detection methods of VBNC state of bacteria commonly used detection methods,and current situation of pathogenic microorganisms VBNC in water environment in pathogenic microorganisms and susceptible VBNC in beer VBNC will provide some reference of bacteria in CBNC State for researchers.%活的不可培养(viable but non-culturable state,VBNC)细菌是细菌抵抗恶劣生存环境的一种自我保护形式。细菌在不良环境中,其细胞缩成球形或表现为细胞伸长,体积增大,用常规方法较难或无法进行分离培养,也不能进行检测,但仍具有代谢活性,在一定条件下仍可诱导复苏,具有潜在致病性,给食品安全、公共卫生带来隐患。介绍食品和环境中常见的沙门氏菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希氏菌、副溶血弧菌、肺炎克雷伯氏菌、粪链球菌、霍乱弧菌、空肠弯曲菌、志贺氏菌等细菌的诱导和复苏条件,和目前对VBNC状态细菌常用的检测方法,以及水环境中致病微生物VBNC和啤酒中易感微生物VBNC研究现状,希望能够对细菌VBNC状态的研究者提供一定的参考。

  9. PCR identification of bacteria in blood culture does not fit the daily workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumaa, Santra; Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2012-03-01

    We have evaluated the GenoType blood culture assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) for the identification of bacteria in 233 positive blood cultures and assessed its suitability in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. In 68/233 (29.2%) samples, the culture result could not be confirmed by the GenoType assay due to a lack of primers in the test, multiple organisms in the sample, or inconsistency with respect to the identification by culture. Although the GenoType blood culture assay gives satisfactory results for bacteria for which primers are available, there are difficulties in applying the test in the routine microbiology laboratory.

  10. Cultural Resource Protection Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Brenda Ringe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie Kae [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This plan addresses cultural resource protection procedures to be implemented during construction of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The plan proposes pre-construction review of proposed ground disturbing activities to confirm avoidance of cultural resources. Depending on the final project footprint, cultural resource protection strategies might also include additional survey, protective fencing, cultural resource mapping and relocation of surface artifacts, collection of surface artifacts for permanent curation, confirmation of undisturbed historic canal segments outside the area of potential effects for construction, and/or archaeological test excavations to assess potential subsurface cultural deposits at known cultural resource locations. Additionally, all initial ground disturbing activities will be monitored for subsurface cultural resource finds, cultural resource sensitivity training will be conducted for all construction field personnel, and a stop work procedure will be implemented to guide assessment and protection of any unanticipated discoveries after initial monitoring of ground disturbance.

  11. Development and testing of a recorder and controller for a microalgae culture reactor; Desarrollo y prueba de un registrador y controlador para un reactor de cultivo de microalgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Wilson; Reyes, Jose Fernando; Bruijn, Johannes; Hernandez, Alejandro [Universidad de Concepcion, Chilan (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria Agricola. Dept. de Mecanizacion y Energia], Emails: wesquive@udec.cl., jreyes@udec.cl., jdebruij@udec.cl., alehernandez@udec.cl

    2010-07-01

    An electronic system to monitor and control operational variables in a Raceway type of reactor for the culture of the Scenedesmus spinosus microalgae and later production for biodiesel and mitigating CO{sub 2} was developed and tested. The electronic system is constituted by a micro controller, a card reader SD, a card SD, a real-time clock, a power supply, a screen GLCD, a keyboard and a card for data acquisition, all implemented for 4-20 mA and 0-5 V output sensors. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and solar radiation were measured digitalized and saved every 10 minutes. These variables were digitalized and kept in the SD memory every 10 minutes. It was determined that the most favorable conditions for the proliferation of the culture are near pH neutral and a temperature of 30 deg C, existing a strong correlation between pH and the dissolved CO{sub 2} level. Using the digital outputs of temperature and pH of the microcontroller, the CO{sub 2} injection and the elimination of O{sub 2} were controlled to maintain an adequate environment for the development of the culture. (author)

  12. Rectal culture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  13. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  14. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  15. Determinación de los tejidos y medios de elección para la confirmación microbiológica de los resultados serológicos de las campañas de control de Brucella melitensis en el ganado ovino Determination of best tissues and culture media for microbiological confirmation of the serological results of the control campaigns of Brucella melitensis in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El sacrificio de animales seropositivos para el control de la brucelosis ovina requiere del aislamiento microbiológico como técnica de confirmación del proceso. Debido a la dificultad de realización de las técnicas microbiológicas en un elevado número de animales, así como de la gran cantidad de muestras, es necesario establecer qué tejidos son los más adecuados para ello. No existen datos al respecto obtenidos de animales infectados naturalmente y representativos de las distintas situaciones epidemiológicas tal y como recomienda la Organización Internacional de Epizootias. En nuestro trabajo realizamos la necropsia de 92 animales sospechosos de infección brucelar efectuando posteriormente el cultivo e identificación microbiológica de 10 tejidos diferentes. Los animales fueron clasificados en función de una encuesta epidemiológica como pertenecientes a Rebaños con Brucelosis Crónica, Activa o de muy Baja Prevalencia. Los resultados muestran diferencias en función del tipo de rebaño, así como indican que la toma de muestras de mama y linfonódulos mamarios es la más adecuada para la confirmación de la infección en un rebaño sospechoso. El uso combinado de los medios de cultivo Farrell y Thayer Martin mostró una mayor eficacia según los resultados obtenidos por nosotros.Slaughtering seropositive animals in order to control ovine brucellosis requires a microbiological culture as a confirmatory technique. It is necessary to establish the most adequate tissues, due to difficulties involved in performing microbiological techniques in a large number of animals and samples. In this sense, there is a lack of data obtained from naturally infected sheep representatives of the different epidemiological situations, as recommended by OIE. In our study we carried out the necropsy of 92 ewes suspicious to be infected by Brucella and we performed microbiological culture and identification of 10 tissues per animal. Animals were

  16. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    guideline. Therefore, we have evaluated other diets based on a review of the published literature and report here the results for different feeds: namely, cabbage leaves, fish flakes, lettuce leaves or sliced sweet potato. For the feeding trial, 5 snails (shell size ca. 2.6 cm) were held in 1 L freshwater...... (snails fed lettuce ad libitum (0.09 mm/snail/day) followed by snails fed fish flake>sweet potato>cabbage leave diets (0.03 mm/snail/day). Similarly, in a 56-d ring-test study with 7 laboratories, the lettuce diet gave...... mean specific growth rates of 0.06-0.09 mm/snail/day. Fecundity in the same test ranged from 519-1424 total embryos per snail. These data will be used towards developing a reference database of growth and reproduction for L. stagnalis and to aid the statistical optimization of the draft OECD test...

  17. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures.

  18. Confirmation of antiphospholipid antibody positivity: a year’s results in a cohort of 113 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruffatti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the confirmation rate of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, to analyze their behaviour at confirmation time, and to study the clinical value of their confirmation. Methods: Blood samples from 380 subjects, enrolled in this study from June 1, 2007 to May 31, 2008, were tested for anti-cardiolipin (aCL and anti-beta2glycoprotein (aβ2GPI antibodies using an ELISA method and for Lupus anticoagulant (LA using a series of clotting tests. The samples of the 113 subjects resulting positive at the first testing time were assayed again to confirm antiphospholipid positivity. Results: aPL positivity was confirmed in 67 out of the 113 subjects (59.3%. Medium-high antibody levels of all, except IgM aCL, aPL/ELISA had a significantly higher confirmation rate with respect to that in subjects with low levels. The confirmation rate in the category I antibody patients (multiple positivity was higher than that in the category II antibody subjects (single positivity. LA positivity was confirmed only when it was associated to other aPL. The cut-off of 40 GPL produced a confirmation rate equal to that resulting from a 99th percentile cut-off. Confirmation of aPL positivity made it possible for us to confirm the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS in 8 out of the 113 subjects originally resulting positive (7,1%. APS clinical features were vascular thrombosis in 4 of these and pregnancy morbidity in the other 4. Conclusions: Our data emphasize aPL positivity confirmation selectivity, and medium-high antibody levels and category I antibodies (multiple positivity had the best confirmation rates.

  19. Experimenter Confirmation Bias and the Correction of Science Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael; Coole, Hilary

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a randomised educational experiment ( n = 47) that examined two different teaching methods and compared their effectiveness at correcting one science misconception using a sample of trainee primary school teachers. The treatment was designed to promote engagement with the scientific concept by eliciting emotional responses from learners that were triggered by their own confirmation biases. The treatment group showed superior learning gains to control at post-test immediately after the lesson, although benefits had dissipated after 6 weeks. Findings are discussed with reference to the conceptual change paradigm and to the importance of feeling emotion during a learning experience, having implications for the teaching of pedagogies to adults that have been previously shown to be successful with children.

  20. Evaluation of fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic cultures for in vitro skin corrosion and irritation testing of chemicals according to OECD TG 431 and 439.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mariana; Pérez, David; Correa, Luis; Restrepo, Luz

    2016-10-01

    Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have been used for in vitro testing of the potential harmful effects of exposure to chemical compounds on health. In the past, skin irritation and corrosion were evaluated in animal models; however, in recent years, due to the bioethics implications of the method and, to minimize the use of experimental animals, alternative procedures have been proposed. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in its test guidelines (TG) 431 and 439 indicates the requirements for validating new methods for the evaluation of skin corrosion and irritation, respectively. Here, we present an in-house human dermal-epidermal model, useful for the performance of these tests. Using the methods described in this work, it was possible to obtain human fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic skin cultures (ORGs) displaying similar histological characteristics to native skin and expressing specific differentiation epithelial proteins. The end points to classify a substance as irritant or corrosive were cell viability evaluated by MTT assay, and cytokine release measured by BD CBA for human inflammatory cytokines. According to the MTT test, the ORGs correctly classified irritating and corrosive substances. Moreover, the cytokine release assay was difficult to interpret in the context of testing chemical hazard classification. Further experiments are needed to validate this new model for the evaluation of surfactants because the fibrin matrix was affected in the presence of these substances.

  1. 8 October 2012 - Taipei Cultural and Economic Delegation, Geneva Office Ambassador A. Tah-Ray Yui visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    8 October 2012 - Taipei Cultural and Economic Delegation, Geneva Office Ambassador A. Tah-Ray Yui visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss.

  2. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge st...

  3. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test: phases I-III of a cross-cultural item bank development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamper, E.M.; Groenvold, M.; Petersen, M.; Young, T.; Constantini, A.; Aaronson, N.; Giesinger, J.; Meraner, V.; Kemmler, G.; Holzner, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item b

  4. Cross-cultural development of an item list for computer-adaptive testing of fatigue in oncological patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesinger, Johannes M; Aa Petersen, Morten; Groenvold, Mogens;

    2011-01-01

    Within an ongoing project of the EORTC Quality of Life Group, we are developing computerized adaptive test (CAT) measures for the QLQ-C30 scales. These new CAT measures are conceptualised to reflect the same constructs as the QLQ-C30 scales. Accordingly, the Fatigue-CAT is intended to capture...

  5. The EORTC emotional functioning computerized adaptive test: phases I-III of a cross-cultural item bank development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Gamper; M. Groenvold; M. Petersen; T. Young; A. Constantini; N. Aaronson; J. Giesinger; V. Meraner; G. Kemmler; B. Holzner

    2013-01-01

    Background: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is currently developing computerized adaptive testing measures for the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) scales. The work presented here describes the development of an EORTC item b

  6. Comparison of Culture, Cytotoxin Assay and Two Eia Tests with Clinical Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Binning

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common etiology of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients is Clostridium difficile. No single laboratory test yields a definitive diagnosis. Four methods were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity in patients who had clinically defined C difficile-associated diarrhea.

  7. Cross-cultural development of an item list for computer-adaptive testing of fatigue in oncological patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesinger, J.M.; Petersen, M.A.; Groenvold, M.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Conroy, T.; Gamper, E.M.; Kemmler, G.; King, M.T.; Oberguggenberger, A.S.; Velikova, G.; Young, T.; Holzner, B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Within an ongoing project of the EORTC Quality of Life Group, we are developing computerized adaptive test (CAT) measures for the QLQ-C30 scales. These new CAT measures are conceptualised to reflect the same constructs as the QLQ-C30 scales. Accordingly, the Fatigue-CAT is intended to c

  8. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  9. Cross-cultural development of an item list for computer-adaptive testing of fatigue in oncological patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesinger, J.M.; Petersen, M.A.; Groenvold, M.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Conroy, T.; Gamper, E.M.; Kemmler, G.; King, M.T.; Oberguggenberger, A.S.; Velikova, G.; Young, T.; Holzner, B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Within an ongoing project of the EORTC Quality of Life Group, we are developing computerized adaptive test (CAT) measures for the QLQ-C30 scales. These new CAT measures are conceptualised to reflect the same constructs as the QLQ-C30 scales. Accordingly, the Fatigue-CAT is intended to

  10. Cross-cultural development of an item list for computer-adaptive testing of fatigue in oncological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberguggenberger Anne S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Within an ongoing project of the EORTC Quality of Life Group, we are developing computerized adaptive test (CAT measures for the QLQ-C30 scales. These new CAT measures are conceptualised to reflect the same constructs as the QLQ-C30 scales. Accordingly, the Fatigue-CAT is intended to capture physical and general fatigue. Methods The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases (literature search, operationalisation, pre-testing, and field testing. Phases I-III are described in detail in this paper. A literature search for fatigue items was performed in major medical databases. After refinement through several expert panels, the remaining items were used as the basis for adapting items and/or formulating new items fitting the EORTC item style. To obtain feedback from patients with cancer, these English items were translated into Danish, French, German, and Spanish and tested in the respective countries. Results Based on the literature search a list containing 588 items was generated. After a comprehensive item selection procedure focusing on content, redundancy, item clarity and item difficulty a list of 44 fatigue items was generated. Patient interviews (n = 52 resulted in 12 revisions of wording and translations. Discussion The item list developed in phases I-III will be further investigated within a field-testing phase (IV to examine psychometric characteristics and to fit an item response theory model. The Fatigue CAT based on this item bank will provide scores that are backward-compatible to the original QLQ-C30 fatigue scale.

  11. Correlation between Clostridium difficile bacterial load, commercial real-time PCR cycle thresholds, and results of diagnostic tests based on enzyme immunoassay and cell culture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Léa-Laurence; Raymond, Frédéric; Corbeil, Jacques; Longtin, Jean; Gervais, Philippe; Longtin, Yves

    2013-11-01

    The impact of Clostridium difficile fecal loads on diagnostic test results is poorly understood, but it may have clinical importance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between C. difficile fecal load and the results of four assays: a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme immunoassay (EIA), a toxin A/B antigen EIA (ToxAB), a cell culture cytotoxicity assay (CCA), and PCR targeting the tcdB gene. We also compared the PCR cycle threshold (CT) with the results of quantitative culture using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Finally, we sequenced the genomes of 24 strains with different detection profiles. A total of 203 clinical samples harboring toxigenic C. difficile were analyzed and sorted into one of four groups: 17 PCR(+) (group 1), 37 PCR(+) GDH(+) (group 2), 24 PCR(+) GDH(+) CCA(+) (group 3), and 125 PCR(+) GDH(+) ToxAB(+) (group 4). The overall median fecal load in log10 CFU/g was 6.67 (interquartile range [IQR], 5.57 to 7.54). The median fecal bacterial load of groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 4.15 (IQR, 3.00 to 4.98), 5.74 (IQR, 4.75 to 6.16), 6.20 (IQR, 5.23 to 6.80), and 7.08 (IQR, 6.35 to 7.83), respectively. Group 1 samples had lower fecal loads than those from each of the other groups (P tests.

  12. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. 2012 FRAME.

  13. Optical response of the cultured bovine lens; testing opaque or partially transparent semi-solid/solid common consumer hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W; Sivak, J G; Moran, K L

    2003-01-01

    This study determines the relative ocular lens irritancy of 16 common partially transparent or non-transparent consumer hygiene products. The irritancy was found by measuring the changes in the sharpness of focus [referred to as the back vertex distance (BVD) variability] of the cultured bovine lens using a scanning laser In Vitro Assay System. This method consists of a laser beam that scans across the lens, and a computer, which then analyses the average focal length (mm), the BVD variability (mm), and the intensity of the beam transmitted. Lenses were exposed to the 16 hygiene products and the lens' focusing ability was monitored over 192 h. The products are semi-solids or solids (e.g. gels, lotions, shampoos). They are categorized into six groups: shampoos, body washes, lotions, toothpastes, deodorant, and anti-perspirant. Damage (measured by > 1 mm BVD variability) occurred slower for the shampoos, especially in the case of baby shampoo. The results indicate that shampoos exhibit the lowest level of ocular lens toxicity (irritability) while the deodorant is the most damaging.

  14. St. John’s Bayou Cultural Resources Survey and Testing in Scott, Mississippi and New Madrid Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Objectives 22 Natural Environment and Site Locations 22 Landforms 23 Biotic Communities 24 Soil Associations 24 Site Significance and Lithic Analysis 25 Nature...survey records accumulated over many decades and should be tested by intensive on-the-ground pedestrian survey. SITE SIGNIFICANUE AND LITHIC ANALYSIS While... lithic analysis has been an important part of the overall research effort in the Lower Valley for the past decade, there are still many basic

  15. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  16. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    ) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Therefore, the objec-tive of this study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR,bacterial culture (BC) and California mastitis test (CMT) for the diagnosis of the naturallyoccurring IMI with S. aureus in routinely collected milk samples using......Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely takencow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison toconventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control ofintramammary infections (IMI...... cow-level (composite) milk samples were analyzed by PCR and at thesame milking, 2436 quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for BC and CMT. Resultsshowed that 140 cows (23%) were positive for S. aureus IMI by BC while 170 cows (28%)were positive by PCR. Estimates of Se and Sp for PCR were...

  17. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus infective endocarditis confirmed by broad-range PCR diagnosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hirano

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: A rare disease, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus infective endocarditis was successfully treated with surgical repair and appropriate antibiotic therapy. To avoid misdiagnosis, br-PCR testing should be performed in patients with blood culture-negative endocarditis.

  18. [Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric tests of a self-efficacy scale and an adherence scale for French adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Sébastien; Coté, José; Collombier, Madeleine; Debout, Christophe; Bonnel, Galadriel; Reynaud, Rachel; Lagouanelle-Simeoni, Marie-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Introduction : many structured educational programs, using the concept of self-efficacy, have been studied in English-speaking countries. Background : tools were developed in English to assess this concept along with treatment adherence. However, there seems to be no French version of these tools in scientific literature. Aim : to adapt the tools to the French language and to test the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Self-Management (SEDM) and the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP). Methods : a cross-cultural adaptation of the SEDM and DSMP in French was performed. The psychometric properties were tested in a pilot study that took place between January 1st and December 31st, 2015. Results : Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of SEDM in French was 0.84, test-retest reliability 0.80 and sensitivity to change was moderate. The Cronbach’s alpha and sensitivity to change of the French DSMP were low, and the test-retest was 0.71. Discussion and conclusions : the first results of the psychometric properties of French SEDM were rather encouraging. The use of the French version of DSMP seems compromised in terms of psychometric properties and the opinion of the participants.

  19. Evaluation of BD BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus medium using AOAC and ISO culture methods. Performance tested method 100503.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Vicki; Kircher, Susan; Sturm, Krista; Warns, Patty; Dick, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus (CSA) medium was evaluated internally and externally for the isolation and enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in cooked roast beef, smoked salmon, and shell eggs. All food matrixes were processed according to the AOAC Official Method 975.55 and ISO 6888-1:1999. Bacterial counts of S. aureus were compared on CSA to the reference media, Baird-Parker, at low, medium, and high contamination levels. Colony counts were converted to log10 for statistical analysis. Based on the paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance, no statistical difference was noted with the CSA method compared to the AOAC Official Method for the recovery of S. aureus for all food types and contamination levels. Compared to the ISO reference method, no statistical difference was found with the CSA method for any food type or contamination level, with the exception of low-level smoked salmon. A statistical difference was seen in the internal testing with the low-level contaminated smoked salmon where CSA recovered more colonies. The external testing showed no statistical difference with smoked salmon at the low level. The correlation coefficients ranged from 92.6 to 99.4%, demonstrating good correlation for overall levels in all food types and methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the CSA method using known isolates was 100%. The results of this study demonstrate that CSA is an effective medium for the isolation, enumeration, and presumptive identification of S. aureus in cooked roast beef, smoked salmon, and shell eggs in 24 h using ISO and AOAC official methods.

  20. Confirmation and Disconfirmation in Nurse/Physician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Bonnie J.; Kennedy, Carol W.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the quality of interprofessional relationships, research used a confirmation/disconfirmation framework to analyze communication in nurse-physician dyads. Results indicated that nurses and physicians were primarily confirming in their interaction. (SRT)