WorldWideScience

Sample records for culture conditions relevant

  1. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  2. Examining Hip-Hop as Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Pulido, Isaura

    2015-01-01

    Culturally relevant pedagogy is a framework that conceptualizes the process of student learning as contingent upon educators' deep understanding of students' cultural backgrounds to co-construct knowledge and develop academic skills. Concurrently, there are a growing number of studies that explore hip-hop as a culturally relevant curriculum for…

  3. Is the Appropriateness of Emotions Culture-Dependent? The Relevance of Social Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welpinghus Anna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the question to what extent the socio-cultural context is relevant for the appropriateness of emotions, while appropriateness of an emotion means that the emotion entails a correct, or adequate, evaluation of its object. In a first step, two adequacy conditions for theories of emotions are developed: the first condition ensures that the socio-cultural context is not neglected: theories must allow for the fact that appropriateness often depends on the social meaning of the emotion’s particular object. The second condition rules out implausible forms of cultural determinism. In a second step, an account that meets both conditions is presented: the Acceptance within Social Context account.

  4. The Cultural Relevance of Mindfulness Meditation as a Health Intervention for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592

  5. Supporting pre-service science teachers in developing culturally relevant pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajeski, Stephen

    This study employed a case study methodology to investigate a near-authentic intervention program designed to support the development of culturally relevant pedagogy and its impact on pre-service science teachers' notions of culturally relevant pedagogy. The unit of analysis for this study was the discourse of pre-service science teachers enrolled in a second semester science methods course, which was the site of the intervention program. Data for this study was collected from videos of classroom observations, audio recordings of personal interviews, and artifacts created by the pre-service science teachers during the class. To determine how effective science teacher certification programs are at supporting the development of culturally relevant pedagogy without an immersion aspect, two research questions were investigated: 1) How do pre-service science teachers view and design pedagogy while participating in an intervention designed to support the development of culturally relevant pedagogy? 2) How do pre-service science teachers view the importance of culturally relevant pedagogy for supporting student learning? How do their practices in the field change these initial views?

  6. Clinically applied medical ethnography: relevance to cultural competence in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Medical anthropology provides an excellent resource for nursing research that is relevant to clinical nursing. By expanding the understanding of ethnographic research beyond ethnicity, nurses can conduct research that explores patient's constructions and explanatory models of health and healing and how they make meaning out of chronic conditions and negotiate daily life. These findings can have applicability to culturally competent care at both the organizational or systems level, as well as in the patient/provider encounter. Individual patient care can be improved by applying ethnographic research findings to build provider expertise and then using a cultural negotiation process for individualized patient care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Nanoparticle dispersion in environmentally relevant culture media: a TiO2 case study and considerations for a general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Allison M.; Ji, Zhaoxia; Holden, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle exposure in toxicity studies requires that nanoparticles are bioavailable by remaining highly dispersed in culture media. However, reported dispersion approaches are variable, mostly study-specific, and not transferable owing to their empirical basis. Furthermore, many published approaches employ proteinaceous dispersants in rich laboratory media, both of which represent end members in environmental scenarios. Here, a systematic approach was developed to disperse initially agglomerated TiO 2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik, NJ; primary particle size range 6.4–73.8 nm) in oligotrophic culture medium for environmentally relevant bacterial toxicity studies. Based on understanding particle–particle interactions in aqueous media and maintaining environmental relevance, the approach involves (1) quantifying the relationship between pH and zeta potential to determine the point of zero charge of select nanoparticles in water; (2) nominating, then testing and selecting, environmentally relevant stabilizing agents; and (3) dispersing via “condition and capture” whereby stock dry powder nanoparticles are sonicated in pre-conditioned (with base, or acid, plus stabilizing agent) water, then diluted into culture media. The “condition and capture” principle is transferable to other nanoparticle and media chemistries: simultaneously, mechanically and electrostatically, nanoparticles can be dispersed with surrounding stabilizers that coat and sterically hinder reagglomeration in the culture medium.

  8. Cultural relevance of a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Judy; Greenberg, Marlene; Haines, Jess

    2005-01-01

    Canada's multicultural population poses challenges for culturally competent nutrition research and practice. In this qualitative study, the cultural relevance of a widely used semi-quantitative fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was examined among convenience samples of adults from Toronto's Cantonese-, Mandarin-, Portuguese-, and Vietnamese-speaking communities. Eighty-nine participants were recruited through community-based organizations, programs, and advertisements to participate in semi-structured interviews moderated in their native language. Data from the interviews were translated into English and transcribed for analysis using the constant comparative approach. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: the cultural relevance of the foods listed on the FFQ, words with multiple meanings, the need for culturally appropriate portion-size prompts, and the telephone survey as a Western concept. This research highlights the importance of investing resources to develop culturally relevant dietary assessment tools that ensure dietary assessment accuracy and, more important, reduce ethnocentric biases in food and nutrition research and practice. The transferability of findings must be established through further research.

  9. Searching for Mirrors: Preservice Teachers' Journey toward More Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2018-01-01

    Culturally relevant text selection and pedagogy support students' motivation, engagement, literacy outcomes, and positive identity formation. Nevertheless, there is limited research on teacher preparation that fosters these outcomes. We explore 17 preservice teachers' challenges and successes with culturally relevant text selection and pedagogy…

  10. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  11. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  12. Silk-polypyrrole biocompatible actuator performance under biologically relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Jo'elen; Peterson, Ben; Murphy, Amanda; Leger, Janelle

    Biocompatible actuators that are capable of controlled movement and can function under biologically relevant conditions are of significant interest in biomedical fields. Previously, we have demonstrated that a composite material of silk biopolymer and the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) can be formed into a bilayer device that can bend under applied voltage. Further, these silk-PPy composites can generate forces comparable to human muscle (>0.1 MPa) making them ideal candidates for interfacing with biological tissues. Here silk-PPy composite films are tested for performance under biologically relevant conditions including exposure to a complex protein serum and biologically relevant temperatures. Free-end bending actuation performance, current response, force generation and, mass degradation were investigated . Preliminary results show that when exposed to proteins and biologically relevant temperatures, these silk-PPy composites show minimal degradation and are able to generate forces and conduct currents comparable to devices tested under standard conditions. NSF.

  13. Perceptions and Practices of Culturally Relevant Science Teaching in American Indian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Roehrig, Gillian; Kern, Anne; Reynolds, Bree

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions of culturally relevant science teaching of 35 teachers of American Indian students. These teachers participated in professional development designed to help them better understand climate change science content and teaching climate change using both Western science and traditional and cultural knowledge. Teacher…

  14. A Framework for Culturally Relevant Online Learning: Lessons from Alaska's Tribal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Cueva, Melany; Revels, Laura; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2018-03-22

    Culturally relevant health promotion is an opportunity to reduce health inequities in diseases with modifiable risks, such as cancer. Alaska Native people bear a disproportionate cancer burden, and Alaska's rural tribal health workers consequently requested cancer education accessible online. In response, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium cancer education team sought to create a framework for culturally relevant online learning to inform the creation of distance-delivered cancer education. Guided by the principles of community-based participatory action research and grounded in empowerment theory, the project team conducted a focus group with 10 Alaska Native education experts, 12 culturally diverse key informant interviews, a key stakeholder survey of 62 Alaska Native tribal health workers and their instructors/supervisors, and a literature review on distance-delivered education with Alaska Native or American Indian people. Qualitative findings were analyzed in Atlas.ti, with common themes presented in this article as a framework for culturally relevant online education. This proposed framework includes four principles: collaborative development, interactive content delivery, contextualizing learning, and creating connection. As an Alaskan tribal health worker shared "we're all in this together. All about conversations, relationships. Always learn from you/with you, together what we know and understand from the center of our experience, our ways of knowing, being, caring." The proposed framework has been applied to support cancer education and promote cancer control with Alaska Native people and has motivated health behavior change to reduce cancer risk. This framework may be adaptable to other populations to guide effective and culturally relevant online interventions.

  15. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrifying Biofilm Relevant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, biological monochloramine removal (i.e., cometabolism) by a pure culture ammonia–oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea, and a nitrifying mixed–culture have been shown to increase monochloramine demand. Although important, these previous suspended culture batch kinetic experiments were not representative of drinking water distribution systems where bacteria grow predominantly as biofilm attached to pipe walls or sediments and physiological differences may exist between suspension and biofilm growth. Therefore, the current research was an important next step in extending the previous results to investigate monochloramine cometabolism by biofilm grown in annular reactors under drinking water relevant conditions. Estimated monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (25–40% of the observed monochloramine loss). These results demonstrated that monochloramine cometabolism occurred in drinking water relevant nitrifying biofilm; thus, cometabolism may be a significant contribution to monochloramine loss during nitrification episodes in distribution systems. Investigate whether or not nitrifying biofilm can biologically transform monochloramine under drinking water relevant conditions.

  16. A Vietnamese man with selective mutism: the relevance of multiple interacting 'cultures' in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, Michael; Geppert, Cynthia; Johnson, Yuam; Fryer, Carol

    2003-09-01

    Multiple cultural variables have effects on the psychobiology and behavioral manifestations of illness, as do patient and physician perceptions of illness. The interaction among these variables is at the heart of clinical psychiatry. This case of a Vietnamese man with selective mutism underscores the relevance of the 'cultures' of medicine, psychiatry, and war and trauma on the manifestations of illness and illness perceptions by patient and physician. The discussion focuses on how these cultures interact and play a crucial role in formulating diagnosis and treatment planning. Suggestions are given for shifts in medical education that will encourage relevant cultural paradigms to make their way into educational and clinical systems, which in turn should improve cultural competence in clinical psychiatry.

  17. Improving the Science and Mathematic Achievement of Mexican American Students Through Culturally Relevant Science. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinez, Diana I.; Ortiz de Montellano, Bernardo R.

    There are many ways in which science can be made culturally relevant: archeoastronomy, mathematics, geology, ethnobotany, chemistry, and art can all be taught from a perspective celebrating the accomplishments of Mexican American and American Indian science and encouraging exploration. A culturally relevant curriculum provides teachers with…

  18. Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Relevance to Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620

  19. Lift Every Voice and Sing: Constructing Community through Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in the University of Illinois Black Chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sheelagh

    2011-01-01

    For Gloria Ladson-Billings, culturally relevant pedagogy is characterized by three criteria: academic success, cultural competence and critical consciousness. Those engaged in culturally relevant pedagogy are connected by how they see themselves as teachers and how they see their students, how they view knowledge and how they structure social…

  20. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy 20 Years Later: Progress or Pontificating? What Have We Learned, and Where Do We Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Rodriguez-Scheel, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the concept of culturally relevant pedagogy 20 years after its introduction to the professional literature. The authors discuss key tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy, examine empirical examples of it, and makes recommendations on how the concept may inform and influence the outcomes of culturally diverse…

  1. Microfluidic perfusion culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells under fully defined culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Ryosuke; Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kondo, Yuki; Yamada, Rotaro; Tachikawa, Saoko; Satoh, Taku; Kurisaki, Akira; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Asashima, Makoto; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source for drug screening. For this application, self-renewal or differentiation of the cells is required, and undefined factors in the culture conditions are not desirable. Microfluidic perfusion culture allows the production of small volume cultures with precisely controlled microenvironments, and is applicable to high-throughput cellular environment screening. Here, we developed a microfluidic perfusion culture system for hiPSCs that uses a microchamber array chip under defined extracellular matrix (ECM) and culture medium conditions. By screening various ECMs we determined that fibronectin and laminin are appropriate for microfluidic devices made out of the most popular material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We found that the growth rate of hiPSCs under pressure-driven perfusion culture conditions was higher than under static culture conditions in the microchamber array. We applied our new system to self-renewal and differentiation cultures of hiPSCs, and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the state of the hiPSCs was successfully controlled. The effects of three antitumor drugs on hiPSCs were comparable between microchamber array and 96-well plates. We believe that our system will be a platform technology for future large-scale screening of fully defined conditions for differentiation cultures on integrated microfluidic devices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Glimmers for Cultural Relevance: The Pedagogical Knowledge of an Indigenous Cabécar Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielos Vargas Morales

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous education is becoming a priority to be dealt with in Higher Education. Therefore, efforts are oriented towards newly nourishing inclusive proposals for education; for them to take cultural diversity on and generate quality learning processes while also promoting the vindication of the right towards a culturally-relevant education for indigenous populations. Hence, the article sets forth an analysis of the pedagogical practice by an indigenous cabécar teacher, which unveils elements and cultural aspects that constitute valuable input to be considered in teacher education proposals. This research took place in the educative community of Sharabata, which is part of the High Chirripó Cábecar Indigenous Territory, which in turn is located in the province of Cartago in the Central American country of Costa Rica. The current research was conducted as a case study. Obtained results now create curricular content that responds to socio-cultural, linguistic and natural needs and characteristics of the cabécar culture. The present research recovers oral communication and the value of words, of learning by imitation, cosmovision as cultural heritage and the importance of recognizing mother languages in originary populations. It is forewarned that, though handled under the discourse of cultural displacement, practical and ritualistic practices still persist, all of which must be acknowledged and valued in school by young people in order for culture as ancestral heritage to be prolonged. It is given the mentioned situations where education must be made present; as a fight towards respect, inclusion and the strengthening of originary cultures. In that sense and in order to achieve cultural relevance, the process of the construction of knowledge with children must be inserted in its historical, social and cultural context, for which knowledge, experience and the practice of cabécar cosmovision is transcendental. As part of cultural relevance

  3. Pedagogical Conditions of Future Philologists’ Research Culture Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Trufkina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of - the pedagogical conditions- and it discloses the give phenomenon. In the following work there are outlined three kinds of pedagogical conditions that determine the formation of the future philologist's research culture and it also gives their detailed analysis. The urgency of the paper is determined by progressive methods of contemporary higher education. The aim of the work is to analyse pedagogical conditions that contribute to the research culture formation. The outlook of our investigations is connected with the detailed analysis of the Ŗresearch cultureŗ phenomenon, its components and pedagogical conditions contributing to its development.

  4. Culturally Relevant Teaching: Hip-Hop Pedagogy in Urban Schools. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.

    2012-01-01

    "Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…

  5. Culturally Relevant Literature: What Matters Most to Primary-Age Urban Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keesey, Susan; Bennett, Jessica G.; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III.

    2016-01-01

    The ratings and rationales primary-age urban learners gave culturally relevant reading passages was the focus of this descriptive study. First- and second-grade students each read 30 researcher-developed passages reflecting the students' immediate and historical backgrounds. The students rated the passages and gave a reason for their ratings. A…

  6. Cultural Factors relevant to Korean Americans in Health Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Keller, Colleen; Sim, Jeongha

    2018-04-01

    To eliminate health disparities in the United States, identifying cultural contexts salient to the target populations in an intervention study is critical; however, little research has been conducted on the identification of cultural contexts among Korean Americans who have significant risk factors for chronic diseases. This systematic review identifies critical cultural contexts central to the literature discussed in health research on Korean Americans. We examined 14 research reports of 801 potentially eligible articles published between 2000 and 2016 and analyzed their contribution to cultural contexts among Korean Americans based on the PEN-3 model. This review highlights how cultural contexts impact health and health behaviors of Korean Americans, and may contribute to health disparities in the United States. The key cultural contexts highlighted in this review include social support/social network, family, gender role expectations, and a holistic view of health and illness. These cultural contexts should be incorporated in designing culturally relevant, effective, and sustainable health interventions for Korean Americans, which will contribute to eliminating health disparities for this ethnic group who experience great obstacles to healthcare access and healthy behaviors.

  7. Teaching for Change: New Teachers' Experiences with and Visions for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Noah; Ziauddin, Asra; Ahn, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the voices of thirteen pre- and in-service teachers to showcase their perspectives of culturally relevant pedagogy as a teaching framework. Positionality, critical consciousness, and cultural assets are used as foundations to explore social justice pedagogy. These new teachers discuss the challenges they face in making the…

  8. A Study of Novice Science Teachers' Conceptualizations of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Elizabeth Horst

    This qualitative study examined new science teachers' conceptualization of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP). The study followed six novice science teachers from their preservice teaching placements into their first jobs as instructors of record, observing in their classrooms and interviewing them about their use of CRP. The study sought to understand (1) how the participating teachers conceptualize CRP in science, and (2) what challenges the teachers faced in trying to implement CRP. Findings suggest that the teachers conceptualized CRP in ways that were consistent with Enyedy, Danish and Fields' (2011) interpretations of relevance: relevance of authentic purpose, relevance of content and/or context, and relevance of practices. The teachers, however, translated those interpretations of relevance into their conceptualizations and classroom practice in a variety of ways. While they encountered difficulties in conceptualizing and practicing CRP, they also made productive moves in their practice and evidenced positive elements in their conceptualizations of CRP. In order to address the challenges these teachers faced in implementing CRP, I suggest an approach to teacher preparation in CRP that builds upon the understandings and productive moves the teachers evidenced in this study.

  9. Promoting culturally competent chronic pain management using the clinically relevant continuum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane B

    2011-06-01

    This article reviews the culture of biomedicine and current practices in pain management education, which often merge to create a hostile environment for effective chronic pain care. Areas of cultural tensions in chronic pain frequently involve the struggle to achieve credibility regarding one's complaints of pain (or being believed that the pain is real) and complying with pain medication protocols. The clinically relevant continuum model is presented as a framework allowing providers to approach care from an evidence-based, culturally appropriate (patient centered) perspective that takes into account the highest level of evidence available, provider expertise, and patient preferences and values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of relevant ICF categories in patients with chronic health conditions: a Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Martin; Cieza, Alarcos; Andersen, Christina; Kollerits, Barbara; Amann, Edda; Stucki, Gerold

    2004-07-01

    To identify the most typical and relevant categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for patients with low back pain, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, chronic generalized pain, stroke, depression, obesity, chronic ischaemic heart disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. An international expert survey using the Delphi technique was conducted. Data were collected in 3 rounds. Answers were linked to the ICF and analysed for the degree of consensus. Between 21 (osteoporosis, chronic ischaemic heart disease, and obstructive pulmonary disease) and 43 (stroke) experts responded in each of the conditions. In all conditions, with the exception of depression, there were categories in all ICF components that were considered typical and/or relevant by at least 80% of the responders. While all conditions had a distinct typical spectrum of relevant ICF categories, there were also some common relevant categories throughout the majority of conditions. Lists of ICF categories that are considered relevant and typical for specific conditions by international experts could be created. This is an important step towards identifying ICF Core Sets for chronic conditions.

  11. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  12. They Have "Verve": Preservice Teachers' Perceptions about Culturally Relevant/Responsive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kindel

    2018-01-01

    Based on concerns about the permanence of racism in our society and its impact on opportunities for children's equitable education, this empirical study used narrative inquiry to explore four preservice teachers' developing dispositions as they studied and implemented culturally relevant/responsive pedagogy (CR/RP) in an early literacy education…

  13. Integration of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy Into the Science Learning Progression Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cyntra

    This study integrated elements of culturally relevant pedagogy into a science learning progression framework, with the goal of enhancing teachers' cultural knowledge and thereby creating better teaching practices in an urban public high school science classroom. The study was conducted using teachers, an administrator, a science coach, and students involved in science courses in public high school. Through a qualitative intrinsic case study, data were collected and analyzed using traditional methods. Data from primary participants (educators) were analyzed through identification of big ideas, open coding, and themes. Through this process, patterns and emergent ideas were reported. Outcomes of this study demonstrated that educators lack knowledge about research-based academic frameworks and multicultural education strategies, but benefit through institutionally-based professional development. Students from diverse cultures responded positively to culturally-based instruction. Their progress was further manifested in better communication and discourse with their teacher and peers, and increased academic outcomes. This study has postulated and provided an exemplar for science teachers to expand and improve multicultural knowledge, ultimately transferring these skills to their pedagogical practice.

  14. THE CULTURAL RELEVANCE OF INDONESIAN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AS CONTRASTED WITH POLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Wiatrowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Indonesian set phrases, a research area not previously investigated by Polish scholars. The aim is to analyze expressions which reveal the cultural specificity of the Indonesian speech community. Specifically, the author is concerned with two categories of multiword expressions. One of them is lexical combinations which preserve observations characteristic of the Indonesian speech community. These are reflected in a system of lexical connotations drawn upon in the process of semantic motivation of idioms. The other is expressions made up of units which are specific to Indonesian culture. The cultural relevance of Indonesian multi-word combinations is examined against the background of the Polish language. By examining research material derived from dictionaries of phrases and collocations and general dictionaries of the Indonesian language, the author provides insights into the way of thinking and responding to reality which is embedded in the language and in the collective experience of members of the Indonesian community.

  15. Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different culture conditions (photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic) and the auxin indole-butyric acid on the in vitro acclimatization of papaya ( Carica papaya L. var. Red Maradol) plants using zeolite as support.

  16. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... acid under certain culture conditions similar to cocoa fermentation stress. However ... Keywords: Acetic acid bacteria, acetic acid production, Cocoa fermentation, culture conditions ..... American Society Microbiology Press, pp.

  17. Cultural Relevance and Working with Inner City Youth Populations to Achieve Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shakoor; Webster, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals consider the cultural relevant needs of inner city residents in hopes of achieving ongoing civic engagement and appropriate program activities in these communities. Having a deep understanding of how the various dimensions of marginalized community life among inner city populations affect participation in…

  18. Optimization of culture conditions of Streptomyces rochei (MTCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and culture conditions were studied in shaken-flask culture to induce the production of greater amounts of antimicrobial metabolites by Streptomyces rochei (10109). Antimicrobial metabolite production started after 48 h incubation and reached its optimum level at 20% inoculum size at 120 h, at which point the ...

  19. Growth of microbial mixed cultures under anaerobic, alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Cement and concrete are the most important engineered barrier materials in a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste and thus represent the most significant component of the total disposal inventory. Based on the chemical composition of the concrete used in the repository and the groundwater fluxes in the modelled host rock, it is to be expected that the pH in the near vicinity of the repository could exceed a value of 10.5 for more than a million years. The groundwater in the repository environment also has a limited carbon concentration. Since microorganisms will be present in a repository and can even find suitable living conditions within the waste itself, investigations were carried out in order to establish the extent to which microbial activity is possible under the extreme conditions of the repository near-field. For the investigations, alkalophilic cultures were enriched from samples from alkaline habitats and from Valanginian Marl. Anaerobic bacteria with fermentative, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic metabolism were selected. The growth and activity of the mixed cultures were studied under alkaline conditions and the dependence on pH and carbon concentration determined. All the mixed cultures investigated are alkalophilic. The optimum growth range for the cultures is between pH 9.0 and pH 10.0. The activity limit for the fermentative mixed culture is at pH 12, for the sulfate-reducers at pH 11 and for the methanogens at pH 10.5. Given the limited supply of carbon, the mixed cultures can only grow under slightly alkaline conditions. Only the fermentative cultures are capable of surviving with limited carbon supply at pH 13. (author) 24 figs., 18 tabs., 101 refs

  20. Culture conditions affect photoreactivating enzyme levels in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Oliver, R.

    1976-01-01

    Photoreactivation of pyrimidine dimers occured under the experimental conditions given in this study, but has not been observed under conditions used by others. Three possible differences were tested in experimental procedures including dimer separation and analysis methods, illumination conditions and cell culture techniques. The methods in this study of dimer separation and analysis indeed measure cis-syn pyrimidine dimers and give results in quantitative agreement with the methods of others. It was found that white light pre-illumination of fibroblasts from the xeroderma pigmentosum line XP12BE or of normal cells does not affect the cellular capacity for dimer photoreactivation. However, the cell culture conditions can affect photoreactivating enzyme levels, and thus cellular dimer photoreactivation capacity. Cells grown in Eagle's minimal essential medium (supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum) contain very low levels of photoreactivating enzyme and cannot photoreactivate dimers in their DNA; but companion cultures maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal medium do contain photoreactivating enzyme and can reactivate photoreactive cellular dimers

  1. The Power of Digital Storytelling as a Culturally Relevant Health Promotion Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, Katherine J; Halter, Amy; Marchello, Nathan; Escareño, Monica; Thompson, Beti

    2016-11-01

    Digital storytelling is an emergent method in health promotion. It addresses health inequities by combining technology with the voices of members of vulnerable, often underrepresented populations. The overall goal of this pilot project was to explore if digital storytelling could be a culturally relevant health promotion tool for Hispanics/Latinos to share their experiences with cancer, or other diseases. Promotores participated in a train-the-trainer workshop. Community members worked with trained promotores to create digital stories through community workshops. We conducted one-on-one interviews with digital story creators to elicit perspectives and assess their experience. One overarching theme among storytellers was the power of storytelling. Supporting subthemes that emerged in the interviews were (1) connection and communication, (2) lack of opportunities and barriers to telling stories, and (3) potential for disease prevention awareness and education. This study found digital storytelling to be culturally relevant for Hispanics/Latinos of Mexican origin. For these storytellers it was a uniquely valuable tool for sharing personal stories of overcoming or managing health issues. Participants found the digital story experience to be positive and beneficial. It provided a healing outlet to reflect on a difficult experience and find support within one's own community. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Metabolite profiling of microfluidic cell culture conditions for droplet based screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Sara M.; Sjoström, Staffan L.; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of droplet culture conditions on cell metabolic state by determining key metabolite concentrations in S. cerevisiae cultures in different microfluidic droplet culture formats. Control of culture conditions is critical for single cell/clone screening in droplets......, such as directed evolution of yeast, as cell metabolic state directly affects production yields from cell factories. Here, we analyze glucose, pyruvate, ethanol, and glycerol, central metabolites in yeast glucose dissimilation to establish culture formats for screening of respiring as well as fermenting yeast...... limited cultures, whereas the metabolite profiles of cells cultured in the alternative wide tube droplet incubation format resemble those from aerobic culture. Furthermore, we demonstrate retained droplet stability and size in the new better oxygenated droplet incubation format....

  3. Developmental Psychopathology in a Racial/Ethnic Minority Group: Are Cultural Risks Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiaying; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Wall, Melanie; Chen, Chen; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  5. Three-dimensional culture conditions differentially affect astrocyte modulation of brain endothelial barrier function in response to transforming growth factor β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian T; Grego, Sonia; Sellgren, Katelyn L

    2015-05-22

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) function is regulated by dynamic interactions among cell types within the neurovascular unit, including astrocytes and endothelial cells. Co-culture models of the BBB typically involve astrocytes seeded on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which recent studies indicate cause astrocytes to express a phenotype similar to that of reactive astrocytes in situ. We hypothesized that the culture conditions of astrocytes would differentially affect their ability to modulate BBB function in vitro. Brain endothelial cells were grown alone or in co-culture with astrocytes. Astrocytes were grown either as conventional (2D) monolayers, or in a collagen-based gel which allows them to grow in a three-dimensional (3D) construct. Astrocytes were viable in 3D conditions, and displayed a marked reduction in their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting reduced activation. Stimulation of astrocytes with transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reduced expression of claudin-5 in co-cultures, whereas treatment of endothelial cells in the absence of astrocytes was without effect. The effect of TGFβ1 on TEER was significantly more pronounced in endothelial cells cultured with 3D astrocytes compared to 2D astrocytes. These results demonstrate that astrocyte culture conditions differentially affect their ability to modulate brain endothelial barrier function, and suggest a direct relationship between reactive gliosis and BBB permeability. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the potential importance of physiologically relevant culture conditions to in vitro modeling of disease processes that affect the neurovascular unit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Media Compositions for Three-Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue.The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  7. Media Compositions for Three Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth Under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  8. Batch culture of Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen limitation conditionS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Rubio, F.; Martinez Nieto, L.; Fernandez Serrano, M.; Jimenez Moleon, M.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The batch culture of Azotobacter vinealandii on glucose under nitrogen-fixing conditions, seeking oxygen limitation conditions, has been studied in order to use it as a Biological Test System for the experimental study of oxygen transfer enhancement methods in aerobic fermenters. overall kinetic parameters for exponential growth and for linear growth (under oxygen limitation) have been determined. It was noted an appreciable influence of the oxygen transfer rate on glucose and oxygen uptake, which seems to be due to alginate production, excreted as a nitrogenase protection mechanisms. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2004-01-01

    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...... to facilitate technology change processes that lead to improved working conditions. The research based project described here has developed a special homepage that explains how this might be achieved. The homepage is targeted at working life professionals. The homepage presents theoretical explanations...... of the concept of organizational culture, a model for analysis and several practical case stories. This paper explains how the project tries to reach a broad spectrum of professionals in order to facilitate their use of a cultural perspective. It also discusses the ethical consequences of the cultural...

  10. Culture conditions defining glioblastoma cells behavior: what is the impact for novel discoveries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pítia Flores; Onzi, Giovana Ravizzoni; Zong, Hui; Lenz, Guido

    2017-09-15

    In cancer research, the use of established cell lines has gradually been replaced by primary cell cultures due to their better representation of in vivo cancer cell behaviors. However, a major challenge with primary culture involves the finding of growth conditions that minimize alterations in the biological state of the cells. To ensure reproducibility and translational potentials for research findings, culture conditions need to be chosen so that the cell population in culture best mimics tumor cells in vivo . Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous tumor types and the GBM research field would certainly benefit from culture conditions that could maintain the original plethora of phenotype of the cells. Here, we review culture media and supplementation options for GBM cultures, the rationale behind their use, and how much those choices affect drug-screening outcomes. We provide an overview of 120 papers that use primary GBM cultures and discuss the current predominant conditions. We also show important primary research data indicating that "mis-cultured" glioma cells can acquire unnatural drug sensitivity, which would have devastating effects for clinical translations. Finally, we propose the concurrent test of four culture conditions to minimize the loss of cell coverage in culture.

  11. Conditional conservatism and value relevance of financial reporting: A study in view of converging accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Maximiliaan Willem Pierre; Iatridis, George Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between conditional conservatism and value relevance in the EU and US. Specifically, it investigates whether this relationship differs under US GAAP and IFRS compliance. In addition, this study examines the trend in value relevance, conditional conservatism and

  12. Impact of Culturally Relevant Contextualized Activities on Elementary and Middle School Students' Perceptions of Science: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espada, Wilson; Llerandi-Román, Pablo; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; Ortiz-Vega, Nicole; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Colón-Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have argued that textbooks should be customized to local cultures and experiences, they rarely are. Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit group interested in promoting science literacy and education among Latino(a)s/Hispanics, identified a need to provide schools with culturally relevant materials. The result was the publication…

  13. Screening of culture condition for xylanase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study demonstrated not only the importance of the nature of the substrate in obtaining a system resistant to catabolic repression, but also the importance of the culture conditions for biosynthesis of this enzyme. T. viride showed a high potential for xylanase production under the conditions presented in these assays.

  14. Making diabetes self-management education culturally relevant for Filipino Americans in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L; McMullen, Carmit K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the cultural values, traditions, and perceptions of diabetes risk and self-care among Filipino Americans in Hawaii with type 2 diabetes that facilitate or impede engagement in diabetes self-management behaviors and education classes. This qualitative study used 2 rounds of semistructured focus groups and interviews. Participants included 15 patients with type 2 diabetes recruited from a large health-maintenance organization in Hawaii and 7 health care and cultural experts recruited from the community. The taped and transcribed focus groups and interviews were coded thematically. Participants evaluated example materials for diabetes self-management education (DSME) with Filipino Americans. Several aspects of Filipino American culture were identified as central to understanding the challenges of engaging in self-management behaviors and DSME: (1) undertaking self-management while prioritizing the family and maintaining social relationships, (2) modifying diet while upholding valued symbolic and social meanings of food, (3) participating in storytelling in the face of stigma associated with diabetes, and (4) reconciling spiritual and biomedical interpretations of disease causality and its management. Respondents also emphasized the role of several qualitative aspects of perceived risk (eg, dread, control) in moderating their behaviors. Participants suggested ways to make DSME culturally relevant. Awareness of cultural values and qualitative aspects of perceived risk that influence Filipino Americans' engagement in diabetes self-care behaviors and classes may help to improve teaching methods, materials, and recruitment strategies.

  15. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This report describes later stages of a program to develop culturally relevant science and math programs for Hispanic students. Part of this effort was follow-up with 17 teachers who participated in early stages of the program. Response was not very good. Included with the report is a first draft effort for curriculum materials which could be used as is in such a teaching effort. Several of the participating teachers were invited to a writing workshop, where lesson plans were drafted, and critiqued and following rework are listed in this publication. Further work needs to be completed and is ongoing.

  16. Second-Grade Urban Learners: Preliminary Findings for a Computer-Assisted, Culturally Relevant, Repeated Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jessica G.; Gardner, Ralph, III; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a multicomponent, supplemental intervention on the reading fluency of second-grade African-American urban students who showed reading and special education risk. The packaged intervention combined repeated readings and culturally relevant stories, delivered through a novel computer software program to enhance…

  17. Sensitive and selective culture medium for detection of environmental Clostridium difficile isolates without requirement for anaerobic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadnum, Jennifer L; Hurless, Kelly N; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2014-09-01

    Effective and easy-to-use methods for detecting Clostridium difficile spore contamination would be useful for identifying environmental reservoirs and monitoring the effectiveness of room disinfection. Culture-based detection methods are sensitive for detecting C. difficile, but their utility is limited due to the requirement of anaerobic culture conditions and microbiological expertise. We developed a low-cost selective broth medium containing thioglycolic acid and l-cystine, termed C. difficile brucella broth with thioglycolic acid and l-cystine (CDBB-TC), for the detection of C. difficile from environmental specimens under aerobic culture conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of CDBB-TC (under aerobic culture conditions) were compared to those of CDBB (under anaerobic culture conditions) for the recovery of C. difficile from swabs collected from hospital room surfaces. CDBB-TC was significantly more sensitive than CDBB for recovering environmental C. difficile (36/41 [88%] versus 21/41 [51%], respectively; P = 0.006). C. difficile latex agglutination, an enzyme immunoassay for toxins A and B or glutamate dehydrogenase, and a PCR for toxin B genes were all effective as confirmatory tests. For 477 total environmental cultures, the specificity of CDBB-TC versus that of CDBB based upon false-positive yellow-color development of the medium without recovery of C. difficile was 100% (0 false-positive results) versus 96% (18 false-positive results), respectively. False-positive cultures for CDBB were attributable to the growth of anaerobic non-C. difficile organisms that did not grow in CDBB-TC. Our results suggest that CDBB-TC provides a sensitive and selective medium for the recovery of C. difficile organisms from environmental samples, without the need for anaerobic culture conditions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  19. Cross-cultural relevance of the Interpersonal Theory of suicide across Korean and U.S. undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sooyeon; Ebesutani, Chad K; Hagan, Christopher R; Rogers, Megan L; Hom, Melanie A; Ringer, Fallon B; Bernert, Rebecca A; Kim, Soohyun; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural relevance and validity of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS) utilizing young adult samples from South Korea (n =554) and the United States (U.S.; n =390). To examine the ITS, all participants completed self-report questionnaires measuring Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide. We examined whether each construct significantly predicted the severity of suicidal risk in both samples. We also determined whether the strength of the effects of Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness on suicidal ideation differed between the two samples due to the greater degree of importance placed on interpersonal relationships in collectivistic cultures such as South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to examine these hypotheses. Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide significantly predicted elevated suicidal risk. However, there were no significant differences in the paths from Thwarted Belongingness or Perceived Burdensomeness to suicide risk between the South Korean and U.S. These findings support the cross-cultural relevance and applicability of the ITS, whereby Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness serve as indicators of suicide risk in both Western (U.S.) and East Asian (Korean) samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Erythroid differentiation and commitment in rat erythroleukemia cells with hypertonic culture conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Y; Kluge, N; Ostertag, W; Furusawa, M

    1981-01-01

    Cell cultures of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat erythroleukemia can be stimulated to synthesize hemoglobin when cultured in hypertonic media. During hypertonic treatment the intracellular osmotic conditions immediately readjust to those of the extracellular medium. None of the Friend virus-induced mouse erythroleukemia cell lines was inducible for differentiation with the same hypertonic culture conditions used for rat cells. Earliest commitment to erythroid terminal differentiati...

  1. Statistical optimization of cultural conditions by response surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Statistical optimization of cultural conditions by response surface methodology for phenol degradation by a novel ... Phenol is a hydrocarbon compound that is highly toxic, ... Microorganism.

  2. Culturally Relevant Human Subjects Protection Training: A Case Study in Community-Engaged Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha

    2018-02-01

    Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.

  3. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This progress report summarizes results of a teacher workshop. A letter sent to 17 teachers who had participated in the workshop requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed. Only nine responses were received, and not all of them demonstrated a satisfactory level of activity. Teachers who submitted materials showing the most promise were invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. A partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual was written which provides a rationale for culturally relevant science and presents the cultural and scientific background needed. The outline of the book is presented in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a sample chapter from the book.

  4. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  5. Electrical in situ and post-irradiation properties of ceramics relevant to fusion irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Zinkle, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical properties of ceramic candidate materials for the next-generation nuclear fusion devices under relevant irradiation conditions are reviewed. A main focal point is placed on the degradation behavior of the electrical insulating ability during and after irradiation. Several important radiation induced effects play important roles: radiation induced conductivity, thermally stimulated electrical conductivity, radiation induced electrical charge separation, and radiation induced electromotive force. These phenomena will interact with each other under fusion relevant irradiation conditions. The design of electrical components for the next-generation fusion devices should take into account these complicated interactions among the radiation induced phenomena

  6. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex

  7. [Preliminary Study of Lonicera hypoglauca on Germination Conditions of Sand Culture Seeds and Sterilization Method of Sand Culture Seedling Sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mu-xiu; Zeng, Wen-wen; Wei, Peng-xiao; Mo, Qiao-cheng; Pu, Zu-ning; Cen, Xiu-fen; Shi, Feng-hua

    2015-05-01

    To explore the germination conditions of Lonicera hypoglauca sand culture seeds and the effects of sand culture seedlings sterilization. 0.1% HgCl2 with different sterilization time, different illumination time and temperature culture condition were adopted to study the germination conditions of sand culture seeds. Different sterilization treatments and different hardening-seedling days were used to test the sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings. The sterilization effect of the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min on Lonicera hypoglauca seeds was the optimum,with the average pollution rate of 15.56%, and the average germination rate reached 51.11%. The combination of varied temperature-room temperature under light for 12 h/d was the best, with the average germination rate peaked at 75.49%, and the average germination potential reached 68.36%. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash on the part above the hypocotyl, which was sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, showed the best sterilization effect, with the average pollution rate was zero, and the average survival rate peaked at 100.00%. The sterilization effect of sand culture seedlings, which was disinfected after cleaning by detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash after hardening-seeding for 30 days, was the best, with the average pollution rate of 50.00%, and the average survival rate of 100.00%. The best sterilization effect is the combination of 75% ethanol 30 s + 0.1% HgCl2 5 min; Lighting for 12 h/d of varied temperature-room temperature is regarded as the optimum culture condition. The treatment of detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash treatment on the part above the hypocotyl,which is sand cultured under the opening condition and had no root, shows the best sterilization effect. For the sand culture seedlings, before inoculated in subculture medium, should be hardening-seedling for some days and sterilized after detergent liquor scrub-tap water wash.

  8. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  9. Genomic instability of osteosarcoma cell lines in culture: impact on the prediction of metastasis relevant genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Muff

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages.The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines.Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.

  10. Genomic instability of osteosarcoma cell lines in culture: impact on the prediction of metastasis relevant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muff, Roman; Rath, Prisni; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Husmann, Knut; Born, Walter; Baudis, Michael; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages. The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines. Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.

  11. [Influence of liquid or solid culture conditions on the volatile components of mycelia of Isariacateinannulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ruili; Li, Kangle; Hu, Fenglin

    2011-12-01

    To determine the volatile components of mycelia of Isaria cateinannulata cultured under different culture conditions, and to analyze the relationships between the culture conditions and volatile metabolites. Mycelia were cultured in solid plates with SDAY medium and liquid shake flasks with SDY medium. The culture conditions were at 25 degrees C and 8 days. Volatile components in the mycelia of I. cateinannulata were extracted with simultaneous distillation extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Alkenes, alkanes, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were existed abundantly both in the mycelia of liquid and solid cultures, but the kinds and relative concentrations of the volatile components in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were very different. Forty-one compounds were identified from the mycelia of solid culture and 32 compounds were identified from the mycelia of liquid culture. Esters, quinones and oximes were only found in solid cultured mycelia whereas carboxylic acids were only discovered in the mycelia of liquid culture. At the same time, mycelia of liquid culture contained much more phenols. The most abundant compounds in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were hydrocarbons. The volatile extracts of solid cultured mycelia contained 57.6% alkenes and 9.19% alkanes. The volatile extracts of liquid cultured mycelia contained 7.85% alkenes and 22.4% alkanes. Liquid or solid culture conditions influenced the volatile components of mycelia of I. cateinannulata.

  12. Relevance feature selection of modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition in structural health assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Qing Mu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modal frequency is an important indicator for structural health assessment. Previous studies have shown that this indicator is substantially affected by the fluctuation of ambient conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Therefore, recognizing the pattern between modal frequency and ambient conditions is necessary for reliable long-term structural health assessment. In this article, a novel machine-learning algorithm is proposed to automatically select relevance features in modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition based on structural dynamic response and ambient condition measurement. In contrast to the traditional feature selection approaches by examining a large number of combinations of extracted features, the proposed algorithm conducts continuous relevance feature selection by introducing a sophisticated hyperparameterization on the weight parameter vector controlling the relevancy of different features in the prediction model. The proposed algorithm is then utilized for structural health assessment for a reinforced concrete building based on 1-year daily measurements. It turns out that the optimal model class including the relevance features for each vibrational mode is capable to capture the pattern between the corresponding modal frequency and the ambient conditions.

  13. Attempts at establishing the culture conditions for Lemna minor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krzychowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration, composition and pH of the substrate as well as of light intensity on the growth and vegetative propagation of Lemna minor L. was investigated. The media of Hutner, Hoagland and Pirson and Seidel were used. At first the experiments were carried out under unsterile conditions. Later sterilized duckweed was cultured in aseptic conditions. The dry matter was determined. Surface area increment and an increase in the number of fronds were evaluated by the planimetric method. For total protein determination in Lemna minor L. from unsterile and sterile cultures Lowry's method was used.

  14. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  15. Influence of flow conditions and matrix coatings on growth and differentiation of three-dimensionally cultured rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Henning C; Havers, Joerg; Kneser, Ulrich; Smith, Molly K; Moeller, Tim; Kluth, Dietrich; Mooney, David J; Rogiers, Xavier; Kaufmann, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    Maintenance of liver-specific function of hepatocytes in culture is still difficult. Improved culture conditions may enhance the cell growth and function of cultured cells. We investigated the effect of three-dimensional culture under flow conditions, and the influence of surface modifications in hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were harvested from Lewis rats. Cells were cultured on three-dimensional polymeric poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) matrices in static culture, or in a pulsatile flow-bioreactor system. Different surface modifications of matrices were investigated: coating with collagen I, collagen IV, laminin, or fibronectin; or uncoated matrix. Hepatocyte numbers, DNA content, and albumin secretion rate were assessed over the observation period. Culture under flow condition significantly enhanced cell numbers. An additional improvement of this effect was observed, when matrix coating was used. Cellular function also showed a significant increase (4- to 5-fold) under flow conditions when compared with static culture. Our data showed that culture under flow conditions improves cell number, and strongly enhances cellular function. Matrix modification by coating with extracellular matrix showed overall an additive stimulatory effect. Our conclusion is that combining three-dimensional culture under flow conditions and using matrix modification significantly improves culture conditions and is therefore attractive for the development of successful culture systems for hepatocytes.

  16. Indigenous Knowledge and Language: Decolonizing Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in a Mapuche Intercultural Bilingual Education Program in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricio R.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates how Mapuche Indigenous knowledge (Kimun) and language (Mapudungun) incorporated into an Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) program of a school within a Mapuche context in Chile creates decolonizing counter-hegemonic narratives as forms of culturally relevant pedagogy. Based on a six-month school ethnography, this…

  17. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  18. A Case Study of Culturally Relevant School-Based Programming for First Nations Youth: Improved Relationships, Confidence and Leadership, and School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Burleigh, Dawn; Snowshoe, Angela; Lapp, Andrea; Hughes, Ray; Sisco, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Schools are expected to promote social and emotional learning skills among youth; however, there is a lack of culturally-relevant programming available. The Fourth R: Uniting Our Nations programs for Aboriginal youth include strengths-based programs designed to promote healthy relationships and cultural connectedness, and improve school success…

  19. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: when does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.

  20. Impact of culture conditions on β-carotene encapsulation using Yarrowia lipolytica cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Hai; Minh, Ho Thi Thu; Van Nhi, Tran Nguyen; Ngoc, Ta Thi Minh

    2017-09-01

    Yeast cell was reported as an effective natural preformed material for use in encapsulation of hydrophobic compounds. The encapsulation process was normally considered as passive transfer through cellular wall and cellular membrane. Beside solubility of hydrophobic compound in phospholipid membrane or plasmolysis, membrane characteristics of yeast cell which are differed between strains and influenced by culture conditions are main factors involving the accumulation of hydrophobic compound into yeast cell. In this study, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was used as micro-container shell to encapsulate a high hydrophobic compound - β-carotene. Yeast cell was cultured under different conditions and wet yeast biomass was incubated with β-carotene which was dissolved in soybean oil overnight. β-carotene accumulation was then extracted and evaluated by UV-VIS spectrometry. Optimization of culture condition was investigated using the Box-Behnken model. β-carotene encapsulation efficiency in Y. lipolytica was showed to be affected by both pH of medium and agitation conditions. The highest β-carotene encapsulation efficiency was optimized at 42.8 μg/g with Y. lipolytica cultured at pH 4.5, medium volume equal to 115 ml and agitation speed at 211 rpm.

  1. A long-term three dimensional liver co-culture system for improved prediction of clinically relevant drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska; Applegate, Dawn; Suter, Laura; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas; Naughton, Brian; Roth, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitro three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ► 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ► Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ► 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver toxicity

  2. A long-term three dimensional liver co-culture system for improved prediction of clinically relevant drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland); Applegate, Dawn [RegeneMed, 9855 Towne Centre Drive Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Suter, Laura; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland); Naughton, Brian [RegeneMed, 9855 Towne Centre Drive Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roth, Adrian, E-mail: adrian_b.roth@roche.com [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitro three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ► 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ► Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ► 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver toxicity

  3. Motivating Young Native American Students to Pursue STEM Learning Through a Culturally Relevant Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sally; Andrade, Rosi; Page, Melissa

    2016-12-01

    Data indicate that females and ethnic/race minority groups are underrepresented in the science and engineering workforce calling for innovative strategies to engage and retain them in science education and careers. This study reports on the development, delivery, and outcomes of a culturally driven science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) program, iSTEM, aimed at increasing engagement in STEM learning among Native American 3rd-8th grade students. A culturally relevant theoretical framework, Funds of Knowledge, informs the iSTEM program, a program based on the contention that the synergistic effect of a hybrid program combining two strategic approaches (1) in-school mentoring and (2) out-of-school informal science education experiences would foster engagement and interest in STEM learning. Students are paired with one of three types of mentors: Native American community members, university students, and STEM professionals. The iSTEM program is theme based with all program activities specifically relevant to Native people living in southern Arizona. Student mentees and mentors complete interactive flash STEM activities at lunch hour and attend approximately six field trips per year. Data from the iSTEM program indicate that the program has been successful in engaging Native American students in iSTEM as well as increasing their interest in STEM and their science beliefs.

  4. The Relevance of Cultural and Media Studies to Theatre and Television in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hobart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A critical approach to Balinese society presents a starkly different picturefrom the representations that Balinese usually tell themselves, whichare largely myths to disguise a painful reality. Bali no longer belongsto Balinese but to international capital, a process of alienation by whichBalinese energetically commoditize their culture while claiming theopposite. Even the frames of reference for discussing what is happeningare inadequate because they predate the rise of contemporary consumercapitalism and the mass media. That is why critical media and culturalstudies, disciplines designed precisely to address such phenomena, arepotentially so relevant for Indonesian intellectuals.

  5. Colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles in biologically relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCuspie, Robert I.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the colloidal stability of nanoparticles (NPs) plays a key role in phenomenological interpretation of toxicological experiments, particularly if single NPs or their aggregates or agglomerates determine the dominant experimental result. This report examines a variety of instrumental techniques for surveying the colloidal stability of aqueous suspensions of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), including atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and colorimetry. It was found that colorimetry can adequately determine the concentration of single AgNPs that remained in solution if morphological information about agglomerates is not required. The colloidal stability of AgNPs with various surface capping agents and in various solvents ranging from cell culture media to different electrolytes of several concentrations, and in different pH conditions was determined. It was found that biocompatible bulky capping agents, such as bovine serum albumin or starch, that provided steric colloidal stabilization, as opposed to purely electrostatic stabilization such as with citrate AgNPs, provided better retention of single AgNPs in solution over a variety of conditions for up to 64 h of observation.

  6. Rapid Induction of Aldosterone Synthesis in Cultured Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes under High Glucose Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Fujisaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to classical adrenal cortical biosynthetic pathway, there is increasing evidence that aldosterone is produced in extra-adrenal tissues. Although we previously reported aldosterone production in the heart, the concept of cardiac aldosterone synthesis remains controversial. This is partly due to lack of established experimental models representing aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 expression in robustly reproducible fashion. We herein investigated suitable conditions in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs culture system producing CYP11B2 with considerable efficacy. NRCMs were cultured with various glucose doses for 2–24 hours. CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone concentrations secreted from NRCMs were determined using real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. We found that suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction included four-hour incubation with high glucose conditions. Under these particular conditions, CYP11B2 expression, in accordance with aldosterone secretion, was significantly increased compared to those observed in the cells cultured under standard-glucose condition. Angiotensin II receptor blocker partially inhibited this CYP11B2 induction, suggesting that there is local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation under high glucose conditions. The suitable conditions for CYP11B2 induction in NRCMs culture system are now clarified: high-glucose conditions with relatively brief period of culture promote CYP11B2 expression in cardiomyocytes. The current system will help to accelerate further progress in research on cardiac tissue aldosterone synthesis.

  7. Microfluidically supported biochip design for culture of endothelial cell layers with improved perfusion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, Martin; Rennert, Knut; Jahn, Tobias; Peters, Sven; Henkel, Thomas; Huber, Otmar; Schulz, Ingo; Becker, Holger; Lorkowski, Stefan; Funke, Harald; Mosig, Alexander

    2015-03-02

    Hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow are of central importance for the function of endothelial cells (ECs), which form a biologically active cellular monolayer in blood vessels and serve as a selective barrier for macromolecular permeability. Mechanical stimulation of the endothelial monolayer induces morphological remodeling in its cytoskeleton. For in vitro studies on EC biology culture devices are desirable that simulate conditions of flow in blood vessels and allow flow-based adhesion/permeability assays under optimal perfusion conditions. With this aim we designed a biochip comprising a perfusable membrane that serves as cell culture platform multi-organ-tissue-flow (MOTiF biochip). This biochip allows an effective supply with nutrition medium, discharge of catabolic cell metabolites and defined application of shear stress to ECs under laminar flow conditions. To characterize EC layers cultured in the MOTiF biochip we investigated cell viability, expression of EC marker proteins and cell adhesion molecules of ECs dynamically cultured under low and high shear stress, and compared them with an endothelial culture in established two-dimensionally perfused flow chambers and under static conditions. We show that ECs cultured in the MOTiF biochip form a tight EC monolayer with increased cellular density, enhanced cell layer thickness, presumably as the result of a rapid and effective adaption to shear stress by remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, endothelial layers in the MOTiF biochip express higher amounts of EC marker proteins von-Willebrand-factor and PECAM-1. EC layers were highly responsive to stimulation with TNFα as detected at the level of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and modulation of endothelial permeability in response to TNFα/IFNγ treatment under flow conditions. Compared to static and two-dimensionally perfused cell culture condition we consider MOTiF biochips as a valuable tool for studying EC biology in vitro under

  8. Properties of Dental Pulp-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Effects of Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Noda, Sonoko; Yamamoto, Mioko; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) highly express mesenchymal stem cell markers and possess the potential to differentiate into neural cells, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Thus, DPMSCs are considered suitable for tissue regeneration. The colony isolation method has commonly been used to collect relatively large amounts of heterogeneous DPMSCs. Homogenous DPMSCs can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using antibodies against mesenchymal stem cell markers, although this method yields a limited number of cells. Both quality and quantity of DPMSCs are critical to regenerative therapy, and cell culture methods need to be improved. We thus investigated the properties of DPMSCs cultured with different methods. DPMSCs in a three-dimensional spheroid culture system, which is similar to the hanging drop culture for differentiation of embryonic stem cells, showed upregulation of odonto-/osteoblastic markers and mineralized nodule formation. This suggests that this three-dimensional spheroid culturing system for DPMSCs may be suitable for inducing hard tissues. We further examined the effect of cell culture density on the properties of DPMSCs because the properties of stem cells can be altered depending on the cell density. DPMSCs cultured under the confluent cell density condition showed slight downregulation of some mesenchymal stem cell markers compared with those under the sparse condition. The ability of DPMSCs to differentiate into hard tissue-forming cells was found to be enhanced in the confluent condition, suggesting that the confluent culture condition may not be suitable for maintaining the stemness of DPMSCs. When DPMSCs are to be used for hard tissue regeneration, dense followed by sparse cell culture conditions may be a better alternative strategy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pseudomonads Isolated from Pristine Background Groundwater Proliferate More Effectively in Co-culture than in Monoculture Under Denitrifying Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaring, A. B.; Lancaster, A.; Novichkov, P.; Adams, M. W. W.; Deutschbauer, A. M.; Chakraborty, R.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Ecosystems and Networks Integrated with Genes and Molecular Assemblies (ENIGMA) consortium, we study the microbial community at the U.S. Department of Energy's Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge. The groundwater at this site contains plumes of nitrate with concentrations up to 14,000mg/L among other contaminants, though molybdenum concentrations are low. Because molybdenum is essential to nitrate reduction, this can be inhibitory to growth. Several strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from the same background groundwater sample. These isolates utilized diverse carbon sources ranging from acetate to glucose while growing under denitrifying conditions. The strains were also screened for nitrate tolerance and a couple of them were shown to be tolerant to 300-400 mM nitrate under anaerobic conditions. In the field site the bacteria live in consortia rather than in isolation, therefore we hypothesized that growth of these strains will be more robust in co-culture, as the denitrification pathway was segmented between the species. Three of the isolates (Pseudomonas fluorescens strains N1B4, N2E2, N2E3) were selected for in-depth analysis based on growth in pairwise co-cultures relative to monocultures, and the availability of the relevant genetic tools, such as transposon mutant libraries. Full genome sequencing showed that strain N2E3 has a truncated dentrification pathway: it lacks nitrous oxide reductase. Our results show strain N2E2 grow to maximum cell density an average of 45 hours more quickly when grown with strain N2E3 than in monoculture. Utilizing RB-TnSeq libraries of our strains, it was also found that some genes involved in nitrate reduction, sulfate permeability, molybdenum utilization, and anaerobic reduction are important for growth under these conditions. In addition, a few unexpected genes were also shown to be positively correlated to growth, such as genes homologous to genes for DNA proofreading or antibiotic production. These

  10. Conditional intrinsic voltage oscillations in mature vertebrate neurons undergo specific changes in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guertin, Pierre A; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    cord of adult turtles maintainable for several weeks in culture conditions. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced-tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage oscillations in motoneurons were approximately 10 times faster in culture than in acute preparations. Oscillations in culture were abolished by NMDA...

  11. Rating the Relevant Factors of Business Conditions for Entrepreneurs in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Popovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were processed and analyzed the attitudes and opinions of potential entrepreneurs regarding to starting their own businesses, in order to scan favorable conditions for development of entrepreneurship in Serbia. As a basic research instrument, a questionnaire with questions about the possibilities and limitations of entrepreneurial business was designed, with the task of identification and assessment of relevant factors that condition the operations of entrepreneurs in Serbia. Throughout the conducted research, it was concluded there are numerous obstacles to business start-ups and successful growth and development of entrepreneurship in Serbia. Participants of the survey believe they have competencies for starting their own business, but due to the unfavorable market conditions and the lack of financial resources, do not see themselves as employers. Analyzing of efforts and time, as well as the risks they take, it is concluded that most of them are not motivated to engage in entrepreneurship and does not plan a professional career in that field.

  12. Cell death in Tetrahymena thermophila: new observations on culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, S T; Sørensen, H; Beyer, N H; Kristiansen, K; Rasmussen, L; Rasmussen, M I

    2001-01-01

    We previously suggested that the cell fate of the protozoan ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, effectively relates to a quorum-sensing mechanism where cell-released factors support cell survival and proliferation. The cells have to be present above a critical initial density in a chemically defined nutrient medium in order to release a sufficient level of these factors to allow a new colony to flourish. At a relatively high rate of metabolism and/or macromolecular synthesis and below this critical density, cells began to die abruptly within 30 min of inoculation, and this death took the form of an explosive disintegration lasting less than 50 milliseconds. The cells died at any location in the culture, and the frequency of cell death was always lower in well-filled vials than those with medium/air interface. Cell death was inhibited by the addition of Actinomycin D or through modifications of the culture conditions either by reducing the oxygen tension or by decreasing the temperature of the growth medium. In addition, plastic caps in well-filled vials release substances, which promote cell survival. The fate of low-density cultures is related to certain 'physical' conditions, in addition to the availability of oxygen within closed culture systems. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Transformation of Corporate Culture in Conditions of Transition to Knowledge Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakova, Tatiana V.; Chelnokova, Elena A.; Kaznacheeva, Svetlana N.; Bicheva, Irena B.; Lazutina, Antonina L.; Perova, Tatyana V.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of corporate culture transformations which are conditioned by changes in social-economic situation. The modern paradigm of knowledge management is assumed to become the main value for forming a new vision of corporate culture. The starting point for transformations can be found in the actual corporate culture…

  14. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  15. Cholera toxin expression by El Tor Vibrio cholerae in shallow culture growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaxin, Mayra; Martínez, Haydee; Ayala, Guadalupe; Holmgren, Jan; Sjöling, Asa; Sánchez, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical, El Tor and O139 are the primary biotypes that cause epidemic cholera, and they also express cholera toxin (CT). Although classical V. cholerae produces CT in various settings, the El Tor and O139 strains require specific growth conditions for CT induction, such as the so-called AKI conditions, which consist of growth in static conditions followed by growth under aerobic shaking conditions. However, our group has demonstrated that CT production may also take place in shallow static cultures. How these type of cultures induce CT production has been unclear, but we now report that in shallow culture growth conditions, there is virtual depletion of dissolved oxygen after 2.5 h of growth. Concurrently, during the first three to 4 h, endogenous CO2 accumulates in the media and the pH decreases. These findings may explain CT expression at the molecular level because CT production relies on a regulatory cascade, in which the key regulator AphB may be activated by anaerobiosis and by low pH. AphB activation stimulates TcpP synthesis, which induces ToxT production, and ToxT directly stimulates ctxAB expression, which encodes CT. Importantly, ToxT activity is enhanced by bicarbonate. Therefore, we suggest that in shallow cultures, AphB is activated by initial decreases in oxygen and pH, and subsequently, ToxT is activated by intracellular bicarbonate that has been generated from endogenous CO2. This working model would explain CT production in shallow cultures and, possibly, also in other growth conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How to offer culturally relevant type 2 diabetes screening: lessons learned from the South asian diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Draanen, Jenna; Shafique, Ammara; Farissi, Aziz; Wickramanayake, Dilani; Kuttaiya, Sheela; Oza, Shobha; Stephens, Neil

    2014-10-01

    The literature on diabetes mellitus in the South Asian population clearly states the high-risk status of this group, yet there is a lack of effective models of culturally relevant, community-based screening and education programs for such a group. The South Asian Diabetes Prevention Program (SADPP) was developed to enhance equitable access to diabetes prevention resources for the South Asian communities in Toronto by offering language-specific and culturally relevant services. The SADPP model works through 3 participant education sessions plus an additional attachment and enrolment component. The screening tool that SADPP uses to provide participants with their individual risk score at the first education session is derived from the multiculturally validated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK), which has been modified to reflect the distinctive characteristics of the South Asian population. After analyzing the risk scores, 32% of participants were at increased risk, 40% were at high risk, 21% were at very high risk and only 7% were found to be at low risk of diabetes development. Evaluations of the program conducted in 2010 and 2013 revealed that the program is achieving its objectives and that participants increase their knowledge and self-efficacy related to diabetes prevention after program participation. Participants reported that the presentation from the nurse and dietitian, the question-and-answer time, the healthy eating demonstration, the multiple languages of delivery and the convenient location were especially beneficial. Those working in the field are encouraged to adapt this model and to contribute to the development of culturally relevant, community-driven diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Transporter of Ibuprofen is Upregulated in MDCK I Cells under Hyperosmotic Culture Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Rasmussen, Rune N; Mo, Junying

    2016-01-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used drug. It has been identified as an inhibitor of several transporters, but it is not clear if ibuprofen is a substrate of any transporter itself. In the present work, we have characterized a transporter of ibuprofen, which is upregulated by hyperosmotic culture conditions...... in Madin-Darby canine kidney I (MDCK I) renal cells. [(3)H]-Ibuprofen uptake rate was measured in MDCK I cell cultured under normal (300 mOsm) and hyperosmotic (500 mOsm) conditions. Hyperosmotic conditions were obtained by supplementing urea, NaCl, mannitol, or raffinose to culture medium. The effect...... of increased osmolarity was investigated for different incubation times. [(3)H]-Ibuprofen uptake in MDCK I cells was upregulated by hyperosmotic culture condition, and was saturable with a Km value of 0.37 ± 0.08 μM and a Vmax of 233.1 ± 17.2 pmol· cm(-2)· min(-1). Racemic [(3)H]-ibuprofen uptake could...

  18. A pilot project to design culturally-relevant curriculum for Movima indigenous students in the Bolivian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Cristina Afán

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of a colonialist, assimilationist educational system in countries such as Bolivia is the under-representation of the indigenous in the large sphere encompassed by the schools - knowledge, teachers, and modes of instruction. Many indigenous students feel alienated from schooling and experience limited academic success. The calculated intervention of transforming traditional knowledge into culturally-relevant curriculum material has been suggested as a way to fortify their identities...

  19. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  20. State-dependent cognition and its relevance to cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel

    2018-02-05

    Individuals cope with their worlds by using information. In humans in particular, an important potential source of information is cultural tradition. Evolutionary models have examined when it is advantageous to use cultural information, and psychological studies have examined the cognitive biases and priorities that may transform cultural traditions over time. However, these studies have not generally incorporated the idea that individuals vary in state. I argue that variation in state is likely to influence the relative payoffs of using cultural information versus gathering personal information; and also that people in different states will have different cognitive biases and priorities, leading them to transform cultural information in different ways. I explore hunger as one example of state variable likely to have consequences for cultural evolution. Variation in state has the potential to explain why cultural traditions and dynamics are so variable between individuals and populations. It offers evolutionarily-grounded links between the ecology in which individuals live, individual-level cognitive processes, and patterns of culture. However, incorporating heterogeneity of state also makes the modelling of cultural evolution more complex, particularly if the distribution of states is itself influenced by the distribution of cultural beliefs and practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of culture conditions for clinically isolated non-albicans Candida biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Ma, Su; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-11-01

    Non-albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. Moreover, they are adept at forming biofilms. This study analyzed biofilm formation of clinically isolated non-albicans Candida, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis under the influence of different growth media (RPMI 1640, YPD and BHI) and several culture variables (inoculum concentration, incubation period and feeding conditions). The results showed that culture conditions strongly influenced non-albicans Candida species biofilm formation. YPD and BHI resulted in larger amount of biofilm formation with higher metabolic activity of biofilms. Furthermore, the growth media seems to have varying effects on adhesion and biofilm development. Growth conditions may also influence biofilm formation, which was enhanced when starting the culture with a larger inoculum, longer incubation period and using a fed-batch system. Therefore, the potential influences of external environmental factors should be considered when studying the non-albicans Candida biofilms in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Montellano, B.

    1996-11-14

    As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.

  3. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    . Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells...... derived in one condition can be reprogrammed to another developmental state merely by adaptation to another culture condition....

  4. Cell-cycle distributions and radiation responses of Chinese hamster cells cultured continuously under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, N.; Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Cell-cycle distributions were measured by flow cytometry for Chinese hamster (CHO) cells cultured continuously under hypoxic conditions. DNA histograms showed an accumulation of cells in the early S phase followed by a traverse delay through the S phase, and a G 2 block. During hypoxic culturing, cell viability decreased rapidly to less than 0.1% at 120 h. Radiation responses for cells cultured under these conditions showed an extreme radioresistance at 72 h. Results suggest that hypoxia induces a condition similar to cell synchrony which itself changes the radioresistance of hypoxic cells. (author)

  5. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Measurements at Stellar-Relevant Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madison E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the simulation of radiation transport in systems such as inertial con nement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would bene t from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Overall, short pulse laser heated iron experiments reaching stellar-relevant conditions have been designed with consideration of minimizing tamper emission and optical depth effects while meeting plasma condition and x-ray emission goals.

  6. Slice cultures of the imprinting-relevant forebrain area MNH of the domestic chick: quantitative characterization of neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, H; Braun, K

    1995-05-26

    The persistence of morphological features of neurons in slice cultures of the imprinting-relevant forebrain area MNH (mediorostral neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale) of the domestic chick was analysed at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in vitro. After having been explanted and kept in culture the neurons in vitro have larger soma areas, longer and more extensively branched dendritic trees and lower spine frequencies compared to the neurons in vivo. During the analyzed culturing period, the parameters soma area, total and mean dendritic length, number of dendrites, number of dendritic nodes per dendrite and per neuron as well as the spine densities in different dendritic segments showed no significant differences between early and late periods. Highly correlated in every age group were the total dendritic length and the number of dendritic nodes per neuron, indicating regular ramification during dendritic growth. Since these morphological parameters remain stable during the first 4 weeks in vitro, this culture system may provide a suitable model to investigate experimentally induced morphological changes.

  7. Estimating alcohol content of traditional brew in Western Kenya using culturally relevant methods: the case for cost over volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S; Okumu, Thomas O; Bryant, Kendall L; Goulet, Joseph L; Maisto, Stephen A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Justice, Amy C

    2010-08-01

    Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang'aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang'aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang'aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang'aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.

  8. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  9. Surface-engineered substrates for improved human pluripotent stem cell culture under fully defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Krishanu; Mei, Ying; Reisterer, Colin M; Pyzocha, Neena Kenton; Yang, Jing; Muffat, Julien; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-11-15

    The current gold standard for the culture of human pluripotent stem cells requires the use of a feeder layer of cells. Here, we develop a spatially defined culture system based on UV/ozone radiation modification of typical cell culture plastics to define a favorable surface environment for human pluripotent stem cell culture. Chemical and geometrical optimization of the surfaces enables control of early cell aggregation from fully dissociated cells, as predicted from a numerical model of cell migration, and results in significant increases in cell growth of undifferentiated cells. These chemically defined xeno-free substrates generate more than three times the number of cells than feeder-containing substrates per surface area. Further, reprogramming and typical gene-targeting protocols can be readily performed on these engineered surfaces. These substrates provide an attractive cell culture platform for the production of clinically relevant factor-free reprogrammed cells from patient tissue samples and facilitate the definition of standardized scale-up friendly methods for disease modeling and cell therapeutic applications.

  10. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices are analysed as means for the reinforcement of present conditions or as ways for changing them. The concepts of empowerment of and advocacy for our clients are put forward as main components in the challenging new roles of the counseling profession. Implications for counselors are suggested.

  11. Culturally-Relevant Online Cancer Education Modules Empower Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners to Disseminate Cancer Information and Reduce Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Revels, Laura; Cueva, Melany; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2017-04-12

    To address a desire for timely, medically accurate cancer education in rural Alaska, ten culturally relevant online learning modules were developed with, and for, Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps). The project was guided by the framework of Community-Based Participatory Action Research, honored Indigenous Ways of Knowing, and was informed by Empowerment Theory. A total of 428 end-of-module evaluation surveys were completed by 89 unique Alaska CHA/Ps between January and December 2016. CHA/Ps shared that as a result of completing the modules, they were empowered to share cancer information with their patients, families, friends, and communities, as well as engage in cancer risk reduction behaviors such as eating healthier, getting cancer screenings, exercising more, and quitting tobacco. CHA/Ps also reported the modules were informative and respectful of their diverse cultures. These results from end-of-module evaluation surveys suggest that the collaboratively developed, culturally relevant, online cancer education modules have empowered CHA/Ps to reduce cancer risk and disseminate cancer information. "brought me to tears couple of times, and I think it will help in destroying the silence that surrounds cancer".

  12. Freezing of perchlorate and chloride brines under Mars-relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, K. M.; Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V. F.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Perchlorate and chloride salts on Mars could readily absorb water vapor and deliquesce into aqueous solutions. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) as well as the efflorescence (recrystallization) RH of several Mars-relevant salts are now well known; however, the conditions that could cause a brine to freeze are not well established. It is often assumed that ice formation will occur whenever the saturation with respect to ice, Sice, of the system is greater than or equal to unity; however, ice nucleation is often hindered due to a kinetic barrier. For ice to form, a critical cluster of the ice crystal must first be achieved, often requiring Sice > 1. Here we use a Raman microscope and an environmental cell to examine the RH and temperature conditions required for Mg(ClO4)2 and MgCl2 brines to freeze into ice. By examining the salt phase present both optically and spectrally under different low temperature conditions, it is found that both salts exhibit Sice values much greater than unity, meaning that supersaturation readily occurs and brines can persist under conditions previously thought to lead to freezing. The RH range of ice formation for Mg(ClO4)2 from 218 to 245 K is 83-95%, respectively, corresponding to Sice = 1.30-1.54. The RH of ice formation for MgCl2 ranges from 80 to 100% for temperatures between 221 and 252 K, corresponding to Sice = 1.30-1.35. In addition to ice nucleation, the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidity values for MgCl2 were determined. Two hydrates for MgCl2 were observed, and exhibited different deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) values. The DRH for MgCl2·4H2O was found to be 12.8 ± 0.3% at 243 K with slightly increasing DRH as temperature decreased. The DRH for MgCl2·6H2O was found to be 31.3 ± 0.6% at 242 K with little temperature dependence. The DRH of MgCl2·6H2O was measured below the previously reported eutectic, 240 K, suggesting that the eutectic might be incorrect or that there is a different relevant

  13. Mutual Relevance of Mainstream and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that mainstream and cross-cultural psychology address many of the same basic issues and that cross-cultural studies may be a direct and logical extension of the search for causes of variation in human psychology and psychopathology. Discusses differences in theoretical orientation and methodological approach and barriers to communication…

  14. Screening of penicillium species and optimisation of culture conditions for the production of ergot alkaloids using surface culture fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The present study deals with the screening of fungal species and suitable fermentation medium for the production of ergot alkaloids. Various species of genus Penicillium were grown on different fermentation media by employing surface culture fermentation technique to achieve the most suitable medium and the best Penicillium sp. The results showed that medium M5 gave maximum yield with Penicillium commune. Different culture conditions such as effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources, their concentration levels, different pH values and sizes of inoculum on the production of ergot alkaloids were also studied to improve the yield. Maximum production of ergot alkaloids (4.32 mg/L) was achieved with 15 mL spore suspension at pH 5 in fermentation medium containing 35% (w/v) sucrose. All these results indicate that culture conditions are very much crucial to improve the yield of ergot alkaloids produced by Penicillium commune through surface culture process. (author)

  15. Recommendations for a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight young African American women, Alabama, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Nefertiti H; Joseph, Rodney P; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J

    2014-01-16

    Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population.

  16. Culture Conditions Affect Expression of DUX4 in FSHD Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachchida Nand Pandey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is believed to be caused by aberrant expression of double homeobox 4 (DUX4 due to epigenetic changes of the D4Z4 region at chromosome 4q35. Detecting DUX4 is challenging due to its stochastic expression pattern and low transcription level. In this study, we examined different cDNA synthesis strategies and the sensitivity for DUX4 detection. In addition, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone and knockout serum replacement (KOSR on DUX4 expression in culture. Our data showed that DUX4 was consistently detected in cDNA samples synthesized using Superscript III. The sensitivity of DUX4 detection was higher in the samples synthesized using oligo(dT primers compared to random hexamers. Adding dexamethasone to the culture media significantly suppressed DUX4 expression in immortalized (1.3 fold, p < 0.01 and primary (4.7 fold, p < 0.01 FSHD myoblasts, respectively. Culture medium with KOSR increased DUX4 expression and the response is concentration dependent. The findings suggest that detection strategies and culture conditions should be carefully considered when studying DUX4 in cultured cells.

  17. Proteomic analysis of extracellular proteins from Aspergillus oryzae grown under submerged and solid-state culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ken; Kakizono, Dararat; Yamada, Osamu; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Akita, Osamu; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2006-05-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used for the production of homologous and heterologous proteins. Recently, there has been increasing interest in Aspergillus oryzae because of its ability to produce heterologous proteins in solid-state culture. To provide an overview of protein secretion by A. oryzae in solid-state culture, we carried out a comparative proteome analysis of extracellular proteins in solid-state and submerged (liquid) cultures. Extracellular proteins prepared from both cultures sequentially from 0 to 40 h were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and protein spots at 40 h were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also attempted to identify cell wall-bound proteins of the submerged culture. We analyzed 85 spots from the solid-state culture and 110 spots from the submerged culture. We identified a total of 29 proteins, which were classified into 4 groups. Group 1 consisted of extracellular proteins specifically produced in the solid-state growth condition, such as glucoamylase B and alanyl dipeptidyl peptidase. Group 2 consisted of extracellular proteins specifically produced in the submerged condition, such as glucoamylase A (GlaA) and xylanase G2 (XynG2). Group 3 consisted of proteins produced in both conditions, such as xylanase G1. Group 4 consisted of proteins that were secreted to the medium in the solid-state growth condition but trapped in the cell wall in the submerged condition, such as alpha-amylase (TAA) and beta-glucosidase (Bgl). A Northern analysis of seven genes from the four groups suggested that the secretion of TAA and Bgl was regulated by trapping these proteins in the cell wall in submerged culture and that secretion of GlaA and XynG2 was regulated at the posttranscriptional level in the solid-state culture.

  18. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  19. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  20. Development of a theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), culturally relevant intervention on cervical cancer prevention among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.

  1. Three-dimensional culture conditions lead to decreased radiation induced cytotoxicity in human mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Chrisler, William B.; Zens, Kyra D.; Ashjian, Emily J.; Opresko, Lee K.

    2010-01-01

    For both targeted and non-targeted exposures, the cellular responses to ionizing radiation have predominantly been measured in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Although convenient for biochemical analysis, the true interactions in vivo depend upon complex interactions between cells themselves and the surrounding extracellular matrix. This study directly compares the influence of culture conditions on radiation induced cytotoxicity following exposure to low-LET ionizing radiation. Using a three-dimensional (3D) human mammary epithelial tissue model, we have found a protective effect of 3D cell culture on cell survival after irradiation. The initial state of the cells (i.e., 2D versus 3D culture) at the time of irradiation does not alter survival, nor does the presence of extracellular matrix during and after exposure to dose, but long term culture in 3D which offers significant reduction in cytotoxicity at a given dose (e.g. ∼4-fold increased survival at 5 Gy). The cell cycle delay induced following exposure to 2 and 5 Gy was almost identical between 2D and 3D culture conditions and cannot account for the observed differences in radiation responses. However the amount of apoptosis following radiation exposure is significantly decreased in 3D culture relative to the 2D monolayer after the same dose. A likely mechanism of the cytoprotective effect afforded by 3D culture conditions is the down regulation of radiation induced apoptosis in 3D structures.

  2. Development of an inspection robot under iter relevant vacuum and temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchressian, J-C; Bruno, V; Gargiulo, L; Bayetti, P; Cordier, J-J; Samaille, F [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Keller, D; Perrot, Y; Friconneau, J-P [CEA, LIST, Service de Robotique Interactive, 18 route du Panorama, BP6, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 France (France); Palmer, J D [EFDA-CSU Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 Garching Germany (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning could be very mandatory. Within this framework, the aim of the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system. It is a long reach, composed of 5 segments with in all 8 degrees of freedom, limited payload carrier (up to 10kg) and a total range of 8m. The project is currently developed by the CEA within the European work program. Some tests will validate chosen concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. The presence of magnetic fields, radiation and neutron beams will not be considered. This paper deals with the choices of the materials to minimize the out-gassing under vacuum and high temperature during conditioning, the implantation of the electronics which are enclosed in boxes with special gaskets, the design of the first embedded process which is a viewing system.

  3. Molecular biological and immunohistological characterization of canine dermal papilla cells and the evaluation of culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Fujisawa, Akiko; Amagai, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Ohyama, Manabu

    2011-10-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) plays pivotal roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. However, our understanding of the biology of the canine DP is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate molecular biological and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine DP cells and determine appropriate conditions for in vitro expansion. Histological investigation revealed that the canine DP expressed biomarkers of human and rodent DP, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and versican. When microdissected, canine DP, but not fibroblasts, strongly expressed the DP-related genes for alkaline phosphatase, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1, confirming successful isolation. The growth rate of isolated canine DP cells was moderate in conventional culture conditions for rodent and human DP; however, AmnioMAX-C100 complete medium allowed more efficient cultivation. Dermal papilla marker gene expression was maintained in early passage cultured DP cells, but gradually lost after the third passage. Approaches to mimic the in vivo DP environment in culture, such as supplementation of keratinocyte-conditioned medium or use of extracellular matrix-coated dishes, moderately ameliorated loss of DP gene expression in canine DP cells. It is possible that constituent factors in AmnioMAX may influence culture. These findings suggested that further refinements of culture conditions may enable DP cell expansion without impairing intrinsic properties and, importantly, demonstrated that AmnioMAX-cultured early passage canine DP cells partly maintained the biological characteristics of in vivo canine DP cells. This study provides crucial information necessary for further optimization of culture conditions of canine DP. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes.

  5. A Novel Method for Culturing of Leptothrix sp. Strain OUMS1 in Natural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Suzuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although some strains of Leptothrix spp. isolated from aquatic environments have been characterized by culturing them in laboratory conditions, they often show morphological and chemical features distinct from those found in natural environments. To resolve this discrepancy, a novel cultivation method was devised for culturing such strains in natural groundwater. Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 was pre-cultured in a medium lacking Fe for 2 days, and then injected into a small dialysis tube bag and immersed in a container with continuously flowing groundwater for 1–3 and 14 days. Microscopic analysis of the initial phase of sheath formation and arbitrary comparisons with medium cultures revealed that in groundwater the surface coat of the sheath comprised much thinner fibrils, and an inner sheath wall that was much thinner and more indistinct compared with medium cultures. These differences were probably attributable to poorer secretion from the cell surface in groundwater conditions. A nutrient-rich medium likely activates cell metabolism and promotes secretion, resulting in a thicker inner sheath wall and thicker outer coat fibrils. Aqueous-phase Fe was deposited on immature sheaths in a similar manner in both cultures. These results indicate that laboratory culture of isolated microbes does not always reflect their characteristics in natural environments.

  6. Vegetation relevés and soil measurements in the Netherlands: the Ecological Conditions Database (EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Dobben, van H.F.; Frissel, J.Y.; Held, den M.E.; Joosten, V.; Malinowska, A.H.; Slim, P.A.; Wegman, R.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its establishment around 1990, the Ecological Conditions Database (EC; GIVD ID EU-00-006) has been accumulating vegetation relevés from the Netherlands, each accompanied by at least one abiotic soil measurement (e.g. pH or nutrient availability). On 1-1-2010, the database contained 8,229

  7. Characterization of primary human mammary epithelial cells isolated and propagated by conditional reprogrammed cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Qu, Ying; Gomez, Liliana J; Chung, Stacey; Han, Bingchen; Gao, Bowen; Yue, Yong; Gong, Yiping; Liu, Xuefeng; Amersi, Farin; Dang, Catherine; Giuliano, Armando E; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-02-20

    Conditional reprogramming methods allow for the inexhaustible in vitro proliferation of primary epithelial cells from human tissue specimens. This methodology has the potential to enhance the utility of primary cell culture as a model for mammary gland research. However, few studies have systematically characterized this method in generating in vitro normal human mammary epithelial cell models. We show that cells derived from fresh normal breast tissues can be propagated and exhibit heterogeneous morphologic features. The cultures are composed of CK18, desmoglein 3, and CK19-positive luminal cells and vimentin, p63, and CK14-positive myoepithelial cells, suggesting the maintenance of in vivo heterogeneity. In addition, the cultures contain subpopulations with different CD49f and EpCAM expression profiles. When grown in 3D conditions, cells self-organize into distinct structures that express either luminal or basal cell markers. Among these structures, CK8-positive cells enclosing a lumen are capable of differentiation into milk-producing cells in the presence of lactogenic stimulus. Furthermore, our short-term cultures retain the expression of ERα, as well as its ability to respond to estrogen stimulation. We have investigated conditionally reprogrammed normal epithelial cells in terms of cell type heterogeneity, cellular marker expression, and structural arrangement in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) systems. The conditional reprogramming methodology allows generation of a heterogeneous culture from normal human mammary tissue in vitro . We believe that this cell culture model will provide a valuable tool to study mammary cell function and malignant transformation.

  8. Cellular Adaptation: Culture conditions of R. opacus and bioflotation of apatite and quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gutiérrez Merma

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that the culture conditions of microorganisms may affect their surface properties, zeta potential and hydrophobicity via the modification of the cell wall functional groups or metabolic products. The R. opacus bacteria strain was separately adapted to the presence of apatite and quartz, after which a cellular adaptation procedure was developed by repeated sub-culturing with a successive increase in the mineral content. Zeta potential, surface tension, FTIR and microflotation studies were used to evaluate the behavior of the cells that were developed under defined culture conditions. The cellular adaptation induced a modification of the bacterial surface charge. The FTIR results showed a modification of its functional groups. The surface tension results suggested that longer growing time promoted a higher production of metabolites. The use of mineral-adapted cells promoted an improvement in the flotability of both minerals, but it was more significant for apatite flotation. Additionally, the mineral flotability remained unchanged when the cells developed under a longer culture time. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the surface tension.

  9. Popular culture and the "new human condition": Catastrophe narratives and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Ailise

    2017-09-01

    Striking popular culture images of burnt landscapes, tidal waves and ice-bound cities have the potential to dramatically and emotively convey the dangers of climate change. Given that a significant number of people derive a substantial proportion of their information on the threat of climate change, or the ;new human condition;, from popular culture works such as catastrophe movies, it is important that an investigation into the nature of the representations produced be embedded in the attempt to address the issue. What climate change-related messages may be encoded in popular films, television and novels, how are they being received, and what effects may they have? This article adopts the cultural studies perspective that popular culture gives us an important means by which to access the ;structures of feeling; that characterise a society at a particular historic juncture: the views held and emotional states experienced by significant amounts of people as evident in disparate forms of cultural production. It further adopts the related viewpoint that popular culture has an effect upon the society in which it is consumed, as well as reflecting that society's desires and concerns - although the nature of the effect may be difficult to quantify. From this position, the article puts forward a theory on the role of ecological catastrophe narratives in current popular culture, before going on to review existing critical work on ecologically-charged popular films and novels which attempts to assess their effects on their audiences. It also suggests areas for future research, such as the prevalent but little studied theme of natural and environmental disaster in late-Victorian science fiction writing. This latter area is of interest because it reveals the emergence of an ecological awareness or structure of feeling as early as the late-nineteenth century, and allows the relationship of this development to environmental policy making to be investigated because of the

  10. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal-Cell Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan; Doeselaar, Marina van; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M; Ito, Keita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  11. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal Cell-Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan A H; van Doeselaar, Marina; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Ito, K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  12. Modification of growth conditions by mm-waves of wood-decaying mushrooms cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avagyan, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Basidial macromycetes are not only value food, but can be used as source of such biological active compounds as the genistein, β -glucans, glioxal-oxidase et al. In this work we used different frequencies of extremely high frequency of electromagnetic irradiation (EHF EMI) with the aim of obtaining mushroom cultures with increased fermentative activity by the modulation of its growth conditions during growth on the peptone media. We investigated the influence of the non-thermal extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves in the interval of 45-53 GHz on β-glucosidase activities of two species of wood-decaying mushroom. In this study we examined the most popular edible wood-decaying mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which is wide-spread in the forests and commercial mushroom Lentinula edodes, under influence of such an abiotic factor as the extremely high frequency waves in the interval of 45 GHz - 53 GHz during 20 and 40 min on the 7th day of mycelial culture's growth. After the treatment of cultures we continued their growth and on the 3th day we examined the influence of these waves on fermentative activity of mycelial extracts. The some conditions of such treatment led to significant rising of β-glucosidase activities in the extracts of mycelial cultures

  13. Crack propagation rate modelling for 316SS exposed to PWR-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankeerberghen, M.; Weyns, G.; Gavrilov, S.; Martens, B.; Deconinck, J.

    2009-01-01

    The crack propagation rate of Type 316 stainless steel in boric acid-lithium hydroxide solutions under PWR-relevant conditions was modelled. A film rupture/dissolution/repassivation mechanism is assumed and extended to cold worked materials by including a stress-dependent bare metal dissolution current density. The chemical and electrochemical conditions within the crack are calculated by finite element calculations, an analytical expression is used for the crack-tip strain rate and the crack-tip stress is assumed equal to 2.5 times the yield stress (plane-strain). First the model was calibrated against a literature published data set. Afterwards, the influence of various variables - dissolved hydrogen, boric acid and lithium hydroxide content, stress intensity, crack length, temperature, flow rate - was studied. Finally, other published crack growth rate tests were modelled and the calculated crack growth rates were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported ones

  14. Optimization of Conditions for In Vitro Culture of the Microphallid Digenean Gynaecotyla adunca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna West

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of digeneans would aid the development of effective treatments and studies of the biology of the parasites. The goal of this study was to optimize culture conditions for the trematode, Gynaecotyla adunca. Metacercariae of the parasite from fiddler crabs, Uca pugnax, excysted in trypsin, were incubated overnight to permit fertilization, and were cultured in different conditions to find those that resulted in maximum worm longevity and egg production. When cultured in media lacking serum, worms lived longer in Hanks balanced salt solution and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium/F-12 (DME/F-12 than in RPMI-1640 but produced the most eggs in DME/F-12. Worm longevity and egg production increased when worms were grown in DME/F-12 supplemented with 20% chicken, horse, or newborn calf serum but the greatest number of eggs was deposited in cultures containing horse or chicken serum. Horse serum was chosen over chicken serum due to the formation of a precipitate in chicken serum. The optimal concentration of horse serum with respect to egg production ranged from 5 to 20%. Infectivity of eggs deposited by worms in culture was tested by feeding eggs to mud snails, Ilyanassa obsoleta. None of these snails produced G. adunca cercariae.

  15. Optimization of culture conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid production in fermented adzuki bean milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Yi Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA, a nonprotein amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and fulfills several physiological functions. In this study, various lactic acid strains commonly used to produce fermented milk products were inoculated into adzuki bean milk for producing GABA. The high GABA producing strain was selected in further experiment to improve the GABA production utilizing culture medium optimization. The results demonstrated that adzuki bean milk inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increased GABA content from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.44 mg/mL after 36 hours of fermentation, which showed the greatest elevation in this study. Furthermore, the optimal cultural condition to adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG to improve the GABA content was performed using response surface methodology. The results showed that GABA content was dependent on the addition of galactose, monosodium glutamate, and pyridoxine with which the increasing ratios of GABA were 23–38%, 24–68%, and 8–36%, respectively. The optimal culture condition for GABA production of adzuki bean milk was found at the content of 1.44% galactose, 2.27% monosodium glutamate, and 0.20% pyridoxine. Under the optimal cultural condition, the amount of GABA produced in the fermented adzuki bean milk was 1.12 mg/mL, which was 22.4-fold higher than that of the unfermented adzuki bean milk (0.05 mg/100 mL. The results suggested that the optimized cultural condition of adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG can increase GABA content for consumers as a daily supplement as suggested.

  16. Organizational culture: essence and basic characteristics in the conditions of the globalizatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Bannikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the concept of «organizational culture» through the prism of a phenomenon of culture and different approaches to organizational culture are crystallizes. Culture is defined as historically certain level of society development and man, that expressed in the types and forms of human life organization, and material and spiritual values, which created by them. It is shown that one of the classifications of culture divided it into three types: monoactive (or linearly arranged, poliactive and reactive. Each of these types is characterized by a particular style of the information collection that defines the possibility of decisions making management when using this classification in organizations. The features of the interpretation of the concept of «organizational culture» are defined. The essence of the organizational culture is a set of values, which are the guidelines of behavior of employees, management decision-making guidelines, as well as a system of symbols and rituals that serve as a set of rules approved behavior of employees in an organization. Marked constituent elements of organizational culture: system of values, leadership style, the characters of organization, ceremonies and rituals, cultural organization’s network. The main characteristics of organizational culture are: universality, informality, stability. It is shown that the components of organizational culture changing in the conditions of globalization, which calls for new forms and methods of work with personnel in modern organizations.

  17. Associations between Culturally Relevant Recruitment Strategies and Participant Interest, Enrollment and Generalizability in a Weight-loss Intervention for African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Lyerly, Jordan E; Gause, Haylee M; Resnicow, Ken

    2016-07-21

    Culturally relevant recruitment strategies may be an important approach for recruiting ethnic minorities for interventions. Previous research has examined associations between recruitment strategies and enrollment of African Americans (AA), but has not explored more deeply the role of incorporating sociocultural values into recruitment strategies. Our current study explores whether sociocultural recruitment mediums were associated with demographics, interest and enrollment in a weight-loss intervention. Sociocultural mediums included community partnerships, culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth. Non-sociocultural mediums included community/school events that did not specifically target AAs. Analyses examined whether demographics of enrolled families differed by recruitment strategy and if recruitment strategy predicted scheduling a baseline visit, enrolling in a run-in phase, and enrolling in the intervention program. Families recruited from culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth were 1.96 times more likely to schedule a baseline visit (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.05, 3.68) than families recruited from non-sociocultural mediums. No differences were found for sociocultural mediums on enrolling in the run-in phase or the intervention. However, among enrolled families, those recruited from sociocultural mediums were less likely to be employed (X(2) [1, N=142] =5.53, P<.05) and more likely to have lower income (X(2) [1, N=142] =13.57, P<.05). Sociocultural mediums were associated with scheduling a baseline visit, but not enrollment. They were, however, effective in recruiting a more generalizable sample among enrolled participants based on demographic characteristics. Integrating sociocultural values into recruitment methods may be a valuable strategy for increasing interest in participation among underrepresented AA families.

  18. Relevance of culture-bound syndromes in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Ayonrinde, Oyedeji; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Culture-bound syndromes were first described over 60 years ago. The underlying premise was that certain psychiatric syndromes are confined to specific cultures. There is no doubt that cultures influence how symptoms are perceived, explained and from where help is sought. Cultures determine what idioms of distress are employed to express distress. Rapid globalization and industrialization have made the world a smaller place and cultures are being more influenced by other cultures. This has led to social and economic changes in parts of the world where such syndromes were seen more frequently. In this review we illustrate these changes using the example of dhat syndrome (semen-loss anxiety). The number of syndromes in the DSM-5 has been reduced, acknowledging that these syndromes may be changing their presentations. Clinicians need to be aware of social and economic changes that may affect presentation of various psychiatric syndromes. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Towards sociology of poverty: the relevance of cultural dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Bayón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available mensions affect both the relations between social classes, the public discourse on poverty, the representations and experiences, as policies and institutions that emerge in relation to it. In the contemporary debate on poverty, while recognizing their importance, these dimensions have not been suffi ciently explored in the literature on the subject. In order to investigate possible routes theoretical and empirical implications for their approach, we analyze the concepts of frames and cultural repertoires, symbolic boundaries, narratives and cultural capital, emphasizing its use in various poverty researches. The potential of these concepts lies in its openness to account for the heterogeneity of experiences, meanings and possible responses against similar structural constraints, allowing remove the stigmas and stereotypes about “the poor” and “their culture” emerging from the thesis of the “culture of poverty”. Finally, we emphasize the need to inquire about the mechanisms by which cultural dimensions contribute to generate and reproduce inequality in a particular society.

  20. Low calcium culture condition induces mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in normal human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Murakami, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Okano, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Normal human epidermal keratinocytes serially cultured under low calcium concentration were cytokeratin and vimentin double positive cells. → The human keratinocytes expressed some epithelial stem/progenitor cell makers, mesenchymal cell markers, and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. → Mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in the keratinocytes was suppressed under high-calcium condition. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular phenomenon in organ developments, cancer invasions, and wound healing, and many types of transformed cell lines are used for investigating for molecular mechanisms of EMT. However, there are few reports for EMT in normal human epithelial cells, which are non-transformed or non-immortalized cells, in vitro. Therefore, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) serially cultured in low-calcium concentration medium (LCM) were used for investigating relations between differentiation and proliferation and mesenchymal-like phenotype in the present study, since long-term cultivation of NHEK is achieved in LCM. Interestingly, NHEK serially cultured in LCM consisted essentially of cytokeratin-vimentin double positive cells (98%), although the NHEK exhibited differentiation under high-calcium culture condition with 3T3 feeder layer. The vimentin expression was suppressed under high-calcium condition. These results may indicate the importance of mesenchymal-like phenotype for serially cultivation of NHEK in vitro.

  1. Shaping the Organizational Culture in Conditions of Increasing the Competitiveness of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rębisz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The organizational culture is one of key factors which can influence the organizational success in building the long-lasting domination of an enterprise. The article is an attempt to introduce and at the same time to present the understanding of the culture in terms of expected bearings which can explain why organizational individuals (or entire organizations promote only the behaviors which are in accordance with the value and the mission of the enterprises. The author draws attention to the level of expectations and behavior, which is usually the result of team work. A lot of attention has also been paid to the phenomenon of crossing of two relations: organizational culture with the function of leadership. The author has also discussed the role of a manager as a means of shaping and supporting an organization culture in conditions of increasing competition.

  2. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  3. Exploring Culturally Relevant Texts with Kindergartners and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrodt, Katie; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam; Hasty, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This article shares a monthly curricular model that can help teachers and families bridge the gap between home and school by using literature and response inspired from the cultures in the classroom. Integrating culturally responsive texts and family response journals into the classroom and the home can help children, their families, and peers…

  4. In Vitro Culture Conditions for Maintaining a Complex Population of Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stable intestinal microbiota is important in maintaining human physiology and health. Although there have been a number of studies using in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine the impact of diet and xenobiotics on intestinal microbiota, there is no consensus for the best in vitro culture conditions for growth of the human gastrointestinal microbiota. To investigate the dynamics and activities of intestinal microbiota, it is important for the culture conditions to support the growth of a wide range of intestinal bacteria and maintain a complex microbial community representative of the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we compared the bacterial community in three culture media: brain heart infusion broth and high- and low-carbohydrate medium with different growth supplements. The bacterial community was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. Based on the molecular analysis, this study indicated that the 3% fecal inoculum in low-concentration carbohydrate medium with 1% autoclaved fecal supernatant provided enhanced growth conditions to conduct in vitro studies representative of the human intestinal microbiota.

  5. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    The FDA hydrolysis capacities and bacterial biomass concentrations (estimated by determination of ATP content) of growth cultures prepared from activated sludge and wastewater, were measured to find out whether the FDA activity would reflect bacterial biomass under different physiological states...... of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...... revealed differences up to two orders of magnitude of the ratio. Based on these results it was concluded that the FDA activity should not be applied for measurements of viable biomass in environments in which different physiological conditions occur....

  6. Peculiarities of Corporate Culture Development under Conditions of Remote Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinina Ludmila V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the significance and peculiarities of corporate culture formation for remote employees. Particular attention is paid to instruments that allow creating a team in the absence of the usual office environment. There have been defined the signs of trust manifestation that distinguish the corporate culture in a team with experience of teamwork and without such experience — a level of weakness manifestation and recognition of mistakes, presence of critics from colleagues, asking for recourse, interest in colleagues’ experience and skills. According to the signs the necessary management practices for the development and creation of the corporate culture has been offered. It is noted that the team with the experience of teamwork at the early stages acts quite consistently adhering to the declared standards, rules and basic values. However, even under these conditions, the corporate culture is growing weaker in time. And here it would be helpful to use the management practices that do not replace personal contact but are maximally close to it. All management practices are classified in accordance with the directions of the corporate culture development, namely, creation of effective social intranet, establishment of quality communication, transparent motivation and clear description of the control sequences, description and establishment of clear guidelines, development of personal effectiveness of employees, simplification of the project communication process, creation of “virtual coolers”, the philosophy of “getting into the body” of a remote employee, monitoring professional burnout, etc.

  7. Conditioned Subjective Responses to Socially Relevant Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder and Subclinical Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Pailhez, Guillem; Farré, Magí; Andión, Oscar; Perez, Víctor; Torrubia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced fear conditioning has been implicated in the origins of social anxiety disorder (SAD), laboratory evidence in support of this association is limited. Using a paradigm employing socially relevant unconditioned stimuli, we conducted two separate studies to asses fear conditioning in individuals with SAD and non-clinical individuals with high social anxiety (subclinical social anxiety [SSA]). They were compared with age-matched and gender-matched individuals with another anxiety disorder (panic disorder with agoraphobia) and healthy controls (Study 1) and with individuals with low social anxiety (Study 2). Contrary to our expectations, in both studies, self-report measures (ratings of anxiety, unpleasantness and arousal to the conditioned stimuli) of fear conditioning failed to discriminate between SAD or SSA and the other participant groups. Our results suggest that enhanced fear conditioning does not play a major role in pathological social anxiety. We used a social conditioning paradigm to study fear conditioning in clinical and subclinical social anxiety. We found no evidence of enhanced fear conditioning in social anxiety individuals. Enhanced fear conditioning may not be a hallmark of pathological social anxiety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Encouraging Family Involvement through Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kela; Hooks, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's experience using an integrated approach to provide preservice teachers with both knowledge of and experience with diverse cultures. Included are three important components within this program that strive to assist preservice teachers as they develop an understanding of…

  9. On the assessment of the productivity of suspension cultures of unicellular green algae at defined light conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiss, U; Borns, E; Boehm, H

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of the possibility of a comparison of the production between different suspension cultures of microalgae at equal and defined light conditions. For this, a variant of the turbidostat technique is used by which with the acid of a phototransistor and the filter combination of red filter/opal glass filter a chlorophyll-equivalent signal is applied for control. The equal light conditions are compared and set by the preparation of the respective absorption profiles. From this one can derive the mean level of irradiation within the suspension cultures and use it as the reference value for the light conditions. By this technique it is possible to set equal light conditions in suspension cultures independent of the given cell sizes, cell shapes and dry matter contents.

  10. The influence of culture conditions on the identification of Mycobacterium species by MALDI-TOF MS profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balážová, Tereza; Makovcová, Jitka; Šedo, Ondrej; Slaný, Michal; Faldyna, Martin; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2014-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) represents a simple reliable approach for rapid bacterial identification based on specific peptide/protein fingerprints. However, cell-wall characteristics of mycobacterial species, and their well known stability, complicate MALDI-TOF MS profiling analysis. In this study, we tested two recently published protocols for inactivation and disruption of mycobacteria, and we also examined the influence of different culture conditions (four culture media and five cultivation times) on mass spectral quality and the discriminatory power of the method. We found a significant influence of sample pretreatment method and culture medium on species identification and differentiation for a total of 10 strains belonging to Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Optimum culture conditions yielding the highest identification success rate against the BioTyper database (Bruker Daltonics) and permitting the possibility of automatic acquisition of mass spectra were found to be distinct for the two mycobacterial species examined. Similarly, individual changes in growth conditions had diverse effects on the two species. For these reasons, thorough control over cultivation conditions should always be employed to maximize the performance and discriminatory power of MALDI-TOF MS profiling, and cultivation conditions must be optimized separately for individual groups of mycobacterial species/strains. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultural Change: The How and the Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-11-01

    More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change. Ecological approaches provide insights into the why of cultural change: They identify specific environmental pressures, which evoke shifts in psychology and thereby enable greater precision in predictions of specific cultural changes based on changes in ecological conditions. Complementary insights from the ecological and cultural evolutionary approaches can jointly clarify the process by which cultures change. We end by discussing the relevance of cultural change research for the contemporary societal shifts and by highlighting several critical challenges and future directions for the emerging field of cross-temporal research on culture and psychology.

  12. Print versus a culturally-relevant Facebook and text message delivered intervention to promote physical activity in African American women: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2015-03-27

    African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population. Social media platforms (i.e. Facebook) and text messaging represent potential mediums to promote physical activity. This paper reports the results of a randomized pilot trial evaluating a theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory) multi-component intervention using Facebook and text-messages to promote physical activity among African American women. Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to receive one of two multi-component physical activity interventions over 8 weeks: a culturally-relevant, Social Cognitive Theory-based, intervention delivered by Facebook and text message (FI) (n = 14), or a non-culturally tailored print-based intervention (PI) (n = 15) consisting of promotion brochures mailed to their home. The primary outcome of physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, physical activity-related psychosocial variables, and participant satisfaction. All randomized participants (N = 29) completed the study. Accelerometer measured physical activity showed that FI participants decreased sedentary time (FI = -74 minutes/week vs. PI = +118 minute/week) and increased light intensity (FI = +95 minutes/week vs. PI = +59 minutes/week) and moderate-lifestyle intensity physical activity (FI = + 27 minutes/week vs. PI = -34 minutes/week) in comparison to PI participants (all P's  .05). Results of secondary outcomes showed that in comparison to the PI, FI participants self-reported greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (FI = +62 minutes/week vs. PI = +6 minutes/week; P = .015) and had greater enhancements in self-regulation for physical activity (P program to a friend

  13. Systematic Transcreation of Self-Help Smoking Cessation Materials for Hispanic/Latino Smokers: Improving Cultural Relevance and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; Díaz, Diana R; Monsalve, Luis M; Martínez, Úrsula; Meade, Cathy D; Meltzer, Lauren R; Brandon, Karen O; Unrod, Marina; Brandon, Thomas H; Simmons, Vani N

    2018-01-01

    Smoking-related illnesses are the leading causes of death among Hispanics/Latinos. Yet, there are few smoking cessation interventions targeted for this population. The goal of this study was to "transcreate" an existing, previously validated, English language self-help smoking cessation intervention, titled Forever Free ® : Stop Smoking for Good, for Spanish-speaking smokers. Rather than simply translating the materials, our transcreation process involved culturally adapting the intervention to enhance acceptability and receptivity of the information. We utilized a multiphase qualitative approach (focus groups and learner verification interviews) to develop a linguistically and culturally relevant intervention for the diverse sub-ethnic groups of Hispanic/Latino smokers. Focus group findings indicated a need to underscore several additional cultural characteristics and themes such as the need to address familism and unique stressors faced by immigrants and to provide information regarding nicotine replacement therapy. Learner verification findings indicated a need to further emphasize financial and social benefits of quitting smoking and to discuss how family and friends can support the quit attempt. These steps led to the development of a Spanish-language smoking cessation intervention titled, Libre del cigarillo, por mi familia y por mí: Guía para dejar de fumar, that is currently being tested in a national randomized controlled trial.

  14. Use of artificial sputum medium to test antibiotic efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in conditions more relevant to the cystic fibrosis lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Sebastian; Fothergill, Joanne L; Wright, Elli A; James, Chloe E; Mowat, Eilidh; Winstanley, Craig

    2012-06-05

    There is growing concern about the relevance of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests when applied to isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Existing methods rely on single or a few isolates grown aerobically and planktonically. Predetermined cut-offs are used to define whether the bacteria are sensitive or resistant to any given antibiotic. However, during chronic lung infections in CF, P. aeruginosa populations exist in biofilms and there is evidence that the environment is largely microaerophilic. The stark difference in conditions between bacteria in the lung and those during diagnostic testing has called into question the reliability and even relevance of these tests. Artificial sputum medium (ASM) is a culture medium containing the components of CF patient sputum, including amino acids, mucin and free DNA. P. aeruginosa growth in ASM mimics growth during CF infections, with the formation of self-aggregating biofilm structures and population divergence. The aim of this study was to develop a microtitre-plate assay to study antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa based on growth in ASM, which is applicable to both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions. An ASM assay was developed in a microtitre plate format. P. aeruginosa biofilms were allowed to develop for 3 days prior to incubation with antimicrobial agents at different concentrations for 24 hours. After biofilm disruption, cell viability was measured by staining with resazurin. This assay was used to ascertain the sessile cell minimum inhibitory concentration (SMIC) of tobramycin for 15 different P. aeruginosa isolates under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions and SMIC values were compared to those obtained with standard broth growth. Whilst there was some evidence for increased MIC values for isolates grown in ASM when compared to their planktonic counterparts, the biggest differences were found with bacteria tested in microaerophilic conditions, which showed a much

  15. The Effect of Primary Cancer Cell Culture Models on the Results of Drug Chemosensitivity Assays: The Application of Perfusion Microbioreactor System as Cell Culture Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Dao; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To precisely and faithfully perform cell-based drug chemosensitivity assays, a well-defined and biologically relevant culture condition is required. For the former, a perfusion microbioreactor system capable of providing a stable culture condition was adopted. For the latter, however, little is known about the impact of culture models on the physiology and chemosensitivity assay results of primary oral cavity cancer cells. To address the issues, experiments were performed. Results showed that minor environmental pH change could significantly affect the metabolic activity of cells, demonstrating the importance of stable culture condition for such assays. Moreover, the culture models could also significantly influence the metabolic activity and proliferation of cells. Furthermore, the choice of culture models might lead to different outcomes of chemosensitivity assays. Compared with the similar test based on tumor-level assays, the spheroid model could overestimate the drug resistance of cells to cisplatin, whereas the 2D and 3D culture models might overestimate the chemosensitivity of cells to such anticancer drug. In this study, the 3D culture models with same cell density as that in tumor samples showed comparable chemosensitivity assay results as the tumor-level assays. Overall, this study has provided some fundamental information for establishing a precise and faithful drug chemosensitivity assay. PMID:25654105

  16. Modernization of Management: Social and Socio-Cultural Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Marina V.; Babakaev, Sergy V.; Larionova, Anna A.; Kobyak, Marina V.; Layko, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is determined by the new challenges faced by the Russian state in modern conditions that have a significant impact on public administration, which entails the need for its comprehensive modernization. In this regard, this article is aimed at the disclosure of social and socio-cultural aspects of the modernization of…

  17. Effects of culture conditions on monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide and on activities of related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Qiao, Shuangkui; Xu, Zhenghong; Guan, Feng; Ding, Zhongyang; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Guiyang

    2015-11-20

    We investigated the relationship between monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide (EPS) and activities of EPS synthesis enzymes under various culture temperatures and initial pH values. The mole percentages of three major EPS monosaccharides, glucose, galactose and mannose, varied depending on culture conditions and the resulting EPS displayed differing anti-tumor activities. In nine tested enzymes, higher enzyme activities were correlated with higher temperature and lower initial pH. Altered mole percentages of galactose and mannose under various culture conditions were associated with activities of α-phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), respectively, and that of mannose was also associated with phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) activity only under various pH. Our findings suggest that mole percentages of G. lucidum EPS monosaccharides can be manipulated by changes of culture conditions that affect enzyme activities, and that novel fermentation strategies based on this approach may enhance production and biological activity of EPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On negotiating White science: a call for cultural relevance and critical reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina; Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford; Carlone, Heidi B.; Cooper, Jewell E.

    2011-12-01

    This article is a response to Randy Yerrick and Joseph Johnson's article "Negotiating White Science in Rural Black America: A Case for Navigating the Landscape of Teacher Knowledge Domains". They write about research conducted by Yerrick in which videos of his teaching practice as a White educator in a predominately Black rural classroom were examined. Their analysis is framed through Shulman's (1986) work on "domains of teacher knowledge" and Ladson-Billings' (1999) critical race theory (CRT). Although we appreciate a framework that attends to issues of power, such as CRT, we see a heavier emphasis on Shulman's work in their analysis. We argue that a culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) framework has the potential to provide a more nuanced analysis of what occurred in Yerrick's classroom from a critical lens. Thus we examine Yerrick and Johnson's work through the five main CRP components (as defined by Brown-Jeffy and Cooper 2011) and ultimately argue that science educators who want to promote equity in their classrooms should engage in continuous critical reflexivity, aid students in claiming voice, and encourage students to become not only producers of scientific knowledge but also users and critics of such knowledge.

  19. Cultured bovine granulosa cells rapidly lose important features of their identity and functionality but partially recover under long-term culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Vanselow, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cell culture models are essential for the detailed study of molecular processes. We analyze the dynamics of changes in a culture model of bovine granulosa cells. The cells were cultured for up to 8 days and analyzed for steroid production and gene expression. According to the expression of the marker genes CDH1, CDH2 and VIM, the cells maintained their mesenchymal character throughout the time of culture. In contrast, the levels of functionally important transcripts and of estradiol and progesterone production were rapidly down-regulated but showed a substantial up-regulation from day 4. FOXL2, a marker for granulosa cell identity, was also rapidly down-regulated after plating but completely recovered towards the end of culture. In contrast, expression of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9 and the lesion/inflammation marker PTGS2 increased during the first 2 days after plating but gradually decreased later on. We conclude that only long-term culture conditions (>4 days) allow the cells to recover from plating stress and to re-acquire characteristic granulosa cell features.

  20. Regeneration efficiency based on genotype, culture condition and growth regulators of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Muktadir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were carried out to establish an efficient regenerating protocol for cultivated eggplant varieties. Among the five varieties cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium with free plant growth regulator (PGR, Nayantara performed better considering the number of shoots/explant (2.48. Considering explant types and culture conditions, better performance was observed (3.68 shoots/explant when seed germination in the dark was proceeded by bottom hypocotyl segments cultured under dark conditions. A higher rate of shoot regeneration was observed in Nayantara when cultured in Zeatin Riboside (ZR and Thidizuron (TDZ supplemented MS medium. The highest number of shoots per explant was produced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L ZR and 0.1 mg/L indole acetic acid (6.65 shoots/explant. Proliferation and elongation of the regenerated shoots were obtained in the MS medium with free PGR. The best rooting performance was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L indole butyric acid. Plantlets with well developed roots and shoots were successfully transferred to soil.

  1. Comparison of different culture conditions for human mesenchymal stromal cells for clinical stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sorensen, M.; Friis, T.; Bindslev, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from adult bone marrow (BM) are considered potential candidates for therapeutic neovascularization in cardiovascular disease. When implementing results from animal trials in clinical treatment, it is essential to isolate and expand the MSCs under...... conditions following good manufacturing practice (GMP). The aims of the study were first to establish culture conditions following GMP quality demands for human MSC expansion and differentiation for use in clinical trials, and second to compare these MSCs with MSCs derived from culture in four media commonly...... analysis showed that the plastic-adherent MSCs cultured in EMEA medium or in the other four media were identically negative for the haematopoietic surface markers CD45 and CD34 and positive for CD105, CD73, CD90, CD166 and CD13, which in combined expression is characteristic of MSCs. MSC stimulation...

  2. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  3. Influence of copper ions on the viability and cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under conditions relevant to drinking water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwidjosiswojo, Zenyta; Richard, Jessica; Moritz, Miriam M; Dopp, Elke; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2011-11-01

    Copper plumbing materials can be the source of copper ions in drinking water supplies. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of copper ions on the viability and cytotoxicity of the potential pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that presents a health hazard when occurring in building plumbing systems. In batch experiments, exposure of P. aeruginosa (10(6)cells/mL) for 24h at 20°C to copper-containing drinking water from domestic plumbing systems resulted in a loss of culturability, while total cell numbers determined microscopically did not decrease. Addition of the chelator diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to copper-containing water prevented the loss of culturability. When suspended in deionized water with added copper sulfate (10 μM), the culturability of P. aeruginosa decreased by more than 6 log units, while total cell counts, the concentration of cells with intact cytoplasmic membranes, determined with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit, and the number of cells with intact 16S ribosomal RNA, determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, remained unchanged. When the chelator DDTC was added to copper-stressed bacteria, complete restoration of culturability was observed to occur within 14 d. Copper-stressed bacteria were not cytotoxic towards Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-9) cells, while untreated and resuscitated bacteria caused an almost complete decrease of the concentration of viable CHO-9 cells within 24 h. Thus, copper ions in concentrations relevant to drinking water in plumbing systems seem to induce a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in P. aeruginosa accompanied by a loss of culturability and cytotoxicity, and VBNC cells can regain both culturability and cytotoxicity, when copper stress is abolished. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Morten, K.; Go, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures have gained much attention in biomedical sciences because of the closer relevance between in vitro cell cultures and in vivo environments. This paper presents a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system with consistent control of long-term culture conditions to mimic an in vivo microenvironment. It consists of two sudden expansion reservoirs to trap incoming air bubbles, gradient generators to provide a linear concentration, and microchannel mixers. Specifically, the air bubbles disturb a flow in the microfluidic channel resulting in the instability of the perfusion cell culture conditions. For long-term stable operation, the sudden expansion reservoir is designed to trap air bubbles by using buoyancy before they enter the culture system. The performance of the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system was examined experimentally and compared with analytical results. Finally, it was applied to test the cytotoxicity of cells infected with Ewing’s sarcoma. Cell death was observed for different concentrations of H2O2. For future work, the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system can be used to examine the behavior of cells treated with various drugs and concentrations for high-throughput drug screening.

  5. Thermal resistivity of tungsten grades under fusion relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, M.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). EURATOM Association

    2010-05-15

    Controlled nuclear fusion on earth is a very promising but also a very challenging task. Fusion devices like ITER and DEMO are major steps on the way of solving the energy problems of the future. However, the realisation of such thermonuclear fusion reactors still needs high efforts in many areas of research. One of the most critical issues is the field of in - vessel materials and components and in particular the plasma facing material (PFM). This not only has to be compatible to the heat sink material being able to withstand thermal fatigue loading conditions during steady state heat loading (up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}) but also has to withstand extreme thermal loads during transient events. The latter are divided into normal and off normal events, such as plasma disruptions or vertical displacement events (VDEs), resulting in irreversible damage of the material. Therefore they have to be avoided in future fusion devices by an improved plasma control. In contrast, edge localized modes (ELMs) occur during normal operation and are the result of complex plasma configuration. In the next step experiment ITER they are generated with a frequency of {>=} 1 Hz and a duration of 200 - 500 {mu}s depositing energies of {<=} 1 MJ/m{sup 2}. One of the most promising materials for the application as PFM in particular in the divertor region is tungsten. Its main advantages are a high thermal conductivity, a high melting temperature, a low tritium inventory and a low erosion rate. However there are some drawbacks like a high ductile to brittle transitions temperature (DBTT), its high atomic number Z and the remarkable neutron irradiation induced activation and degradation of its mechanical properties. The main aim of future R and D will be to understand the mechanisms of thermal induced damages and subsequently to minimize these types of damages. Therefore various tungsten grades have to be tested under fusion relevant conditions, e.g. by electron, ion or plasma beam exposure; the

  6. In Vivo-Like Culture Conditions in a Bioreactor Facilitate Improved Tissue Quality in Corneal Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Richard; Tarau, Ioana-Sandra; Rossi, Angela; Leonhardt, Stefan; Schwarz, Thomas; Schuerlein, Sebastian; Lotz, Christian; Hansmann, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The cornea is the most-transplanted tissue worldwide. However, the availability and quality of grafts are limited due to the current methods of corneal storage. In this study, a dynamic bioreactor system is employed to enable the control of intraocular pressure and the culture at the air-liquid interface. Thereby, in vivo-like storage conditions are achieved. Different media combinations for endothelium and epithelium are tested in standard and dynamic conditions to enhance the viability of the tissue. In contrast to culture conditions used in eye banks, the combination of the bioreactor and biochrom medium 1 allows to preserve the corneal endothelium and the epithelium. Assessment of transparency, swelling, and the trans-epithelial-electrical-resistance (TEER) strengthens the impact of the in vivo-like tissue culture. For example, compared to corneas stored under static conditions, significantly lower optical densities and significantly higher TEER values were measured (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, healing of epithelial defects is enabled in the bioreactor, characterized by re-epithelialization and initiated stromal regeneration. Based on the obtained results, an easy-to-use 3D-printed bioreactor composed of only two parts was derived to translate the technology from the laboratory to the eye banks. This optimized bioreactor facilitates noninvasive microscopic monitoring. The improved storage conditions ameliorate the quality of corneal grafts and the storage time in the eye banks to increase availability and reduce re-grafting. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Optimization to the Culture Conditions for Phellinus Production with Regression Analysis and Gene-Set Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwei; Xin, Yuezhen; Wang, Xun; Sun, Beibei; Xia, Shengyu; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Phellinus is a kind of fungus and is known as one of the elemental components in drugs to avoid cancers. With the purpose of finding optimized culture conditions for Phellinus production in the laboratory, plenty of experiments focusing on single factor were operated and large scale of experimental data were generated. In this work, we use the data collected from experiments for regression analysis, and then a mathematical model of predicting Phellinus production is achieved. Subsequently, a gene-set based genetic algorithm is developed to optimize the values of parameters involved in culture conditions, including inoculum size, PH value, initial liquid volume, temperature, seed age, fermentation time, and rotation speed. These optimized values of the parameters have accordance with biological experimental results, which indicate that our method has a good predictability for culture conditions optimization. PMID:27610365

  8. Current Needs for the Experimental Investigation of the CHF Phenomenon Relevant to LWR Core Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corre, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The current achievements and needs toward the investigation, understanding and mechanistic prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) event, under PWR and BWR core conditions, are addressed in this paper. It is shown that, even when using advanced 3-D CFD simulation tools, the current approach to CHF mechanistic modeling has serious limitations. This is mainly due to the lack of information regarding the relevant two-phase flow pattern(s) (in particular near the heated wall) and associated mechanisms (at the meso and micro-scale) leading to the CHF event. Areas of current experimental needs are identified in order to address these shortcomings. In addition, the use of 1-D and 3-D numerical tools to mechanistically predict the CHF is discussed. It is shown that 3-D two-phase CFD codes may not be superior to 1-D codes without proper consideration of relevant constitutive relations. (author)

  9. Photophysiological variability of microphytobenthic diatoms after growth in different types of culture conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Microphytobenthic diatoms have great ecological importance in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystenis, yet many aspects of their physiology have not been investigated under controlled conditions. This work describes patterns in growth rates and photosynthesis in different types of culture for

  10. Antenatal services for Aboriginal women: the relevance of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Tracy; Walker, Roz

    2010-01-01

    Due to persistent significantly poorer Aboriginal perinatal outcomes, the Women's and Newborns' Health Network, Western Australian Department of Health, required a comprehensive appraisal of antenatal services available to Aboriginal women as a starting point for future service delivery modelling. A services audit was conducted to ascertain the usage frequency and characteristics of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women in Western Australia (WA). Telephone interviews were undertaken with eligible antenatal services utilising a purpose specific service audit tool comprising questions in five categories: 1) general characteristics; 2) risk assessment; 3) treatment, risk reduction and education; 4) access; and 5) quality of care. Data were analysed according to routine antenatal care (e.g. risk assessment, treatment and risk reduction), service status (Aboriginal specific or non-specific) and application of cultural responsiveness. Significant gaps in appropriate antenatal services for Aboriginal women in metropolitan, rural and remote regions in WA were evident. Approximately 75% of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women have not achieved a model of service delivery consistent with the principles of culturally responsive care, with few services incorporating Aboriginal specific antenatal protocols/programme, maintaining access or employing Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). Of 42 audited services, 18 Aboriginal specific and 24 general antenatal services reported utilisation by Aboriginal women. Of these, nine were identified as providing culturally responsive service delivery, incorporating key indicators of cultural security combined with highly consistent delivery of routine antenatal care. One service was located in the metropolitan area and eight in rural or remote locations. The audit of antenatal services in WA represents a significant step towards a detailed understanding of which services are most highly utilised and their defining characteristics

  11. Stability of silver nanoparticles: agglomeration and oxidation in biological relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Laura E.; Giacomelli, Carla E.

    2017-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are the most used nanomaterial in consumer products due to the intrinsic antimicrobial capacity of silver. However, Ag-NP may be also harmful to algae, aquatic species, mammalian cells, and higher plants because both Ag+ and nanoparticles are responsible of cell damages. The oxidative dissolution of Ag-NP would proceed to completion under oxic conditions, but the rate and extent of the dissolution depend on several factors. This work correlates the effect of the capping agent (albumin and citrate) with the stability of Ag-NP towards agglomeration in simulated body fluid (SBF) and oxidation in the presence of ROS species (H2O2). Capping provides colloidal stability only through electrostatic means, whereas albumin acts as bulky ligands giving steric and electrostatic repulsion, inhibiting the agglomeration in SBF. However, citrate capping protects Ag-NP from dissolution to a major extent than albumin does because of its reducing power. Moreover, citrate in solution minimizes the oxidation of albumin-coated Ag-NP even after long incubation times. H2O2-induced dissolution proceeds to completion with Ag-NP incubated in SBF, while incubation in citrate leads to an incomplete oxidation. In short, albumin is an excellent capping agent to minimize Ag-NP agglomeration whereas citrate provides a mild-reductive medium that prevents dissolution in biological relevant media as well as in the presence of ROS species. These results provide insight into how the surface properties and media composition affect the release of Ag+ from Ag-NP, related to the cell toxicity and relevant to the storage and lifetime of silver-containing nanomaterials.

  12. Stability of silver nanoparticles: agglomeration and oxidation in biological relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Laura E.; Giacomelli, Carla E., E-mail: giacomel@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Instituto de Investigaciones en Físico Química de Córdoba (INFIQC) CONICET-UNC, Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas (Argentina)

    2017-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are the most used nanomaterial in consumer products due to the intrinsic antimicrobial capacity of silver. However, Ag-NP may be also harmful to algae, aquatic species, mammalian cells, and higher plants because both Ag{sup +} and nanoparticles are responsible of cell damages. The oxidative dissolution of Ag-NP would proceed to completion under oxic conditions, but the rate and extent of the dissolution depend on several factors. This work correlates the effect of the capping agent (albumin and citrate) with the stability of Ag-NP towards agglomeration in simulated body fluid (SBF) and oxidation in the presence of ROS species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Capping provides colloidal stability only through electrostatic means, whereas albumin acts as bulky ligands giving steric and electrostatic repulsion, inhibiting the agglomeration in SBF. However, citrate capping protects Ag-NP from dissolution to a major extent than albumin does because of its reducing power. Moreover, citrate in solution minimizes the oxidation of albumin-coated Ag-NP even after long incubation times. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced dissolution proceeds to completion with Ag-NP incubated in SBF, while incubation in citrate leads to an incomplete oxidation. In short, albumin is an excellent capping agent to minimize Ag-NP agglomeration whereas citrate provides a mild-reductive medium that prevents dissolution in biological relevant media as well as in the presence of ROS species. These results provide insight into how the surface properties and media composition affect the release of Ag{sup +} from Ag-NP, related to the cell toxicity and relevant to the storage and lifetime of silver-containing nanomaterials.

  13. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS STERILANTS AND CULTURE CONDITIONS ON IN-VITRO SEED GERMINATION IN TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM)

    OpenAIRE

    K.B.Himabindu; M.Shanthi Priya; D.Mohan Reddy; P.Sudhakar; Y.Srinivasulu; M.Reddisekhar; P.Latha; B.Rupesh Kumar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of various sterilants and culture conditions on in-vitro seed germination in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. PKM-1 revealed that among three sterilants used, surface sterilization of seeds with 5 % NaOCl for 20 minutes was found to be more effective resulting in high germination rate and contamination free cultures. Similarly among the different media and culture conditions considered in the present experiment, MS medium without sucrose with dark incubation f...

  14. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and the Public Speaking Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Janet Weston; Tobler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    From the earliest roots of rhetoric, practitioners emphasized the need for analyzing one's audience before developing a speech. Textbooks for most basic public speaking courses spend at least one chapter discussing audience analysis. Authors discuss adapting messages to various demographic, cultural, and individual differences. As a result,…

  15. Intercultural Interpretations: Making Public Relations Education Culturally Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…

  16. High heat flux tests at divertor relevant conditions on water-cooled swirl tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Boscary, J.

    1994-01-01

    High heat flux experiments were performed to provide a technology for heat flux removal under NET/ITER relevant conditions. The water-cooled rectangular test sections were made of hardened copper with a stainless steel twisted tape installed inside a circular channel and one-side heated. The tests aimed to investigate the heat transfer and the critical heat flux in the subcooled boiling regime. A CHF data base of 63 values was established. Test results have shown the thermalhydraulic ability of swirl tubes to sustain an incident heat flux up to a 30 MW.m -2 range. (author) 10 refs.; 7 figs

  17. Kinetic Study of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation in Continuous Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Edward A.; Mesbah, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by clostridia has shown promise for industrial-scale production of biobutanol. However, the continuous ABE fermentation suffers from low product yield, titer, and productivity. Systems analysis of the continuous ABE fermentation will offer insights into its metabolic pathway as well as into optimal fermentation design and operation. For the ABE fermentation in continuous Clostridium acetobutylicum culture, this paper presents a kinetic model that includes the effects of key metabolic intermediates and enzymes as well as culture pH, product inhibition, and glucose inhibition. The kinetic model is used for elucidating the behavior of the ABE fermentation under the conditions that are most relevant to continuous cultures. To this end, dynamic sensitivity analysis is performed to systematically investigate the effects of culture conditions, reaction kinetics, and enzymes on the dynamics of the ABE production pathway. The analysis provides guidance for future metabolic engineering and fermentation optimization studies. PMID:27486663

  18. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain OLL2712 Culture Conditions on the Anti-inflammatory Activities for Murine Immune Cells and Obese and Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, T; Ozaki, S; Mochizuki, J; Furuichi, K; Asami, Y

    2017-04-01

    Studies on the health-promoting effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are numerous, but few provide examples of the relationship between LAB function and culture conditions. We verified the effect of differences in culture conditions on Lactobacillus plantarum OLL2712 functionality; this strain exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and preventive effects against metabolic disorders. We measured interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 production in murine immune cells treated with OLL2712 cells prepared under various culture conditions. The results showed that the IL-10-inducing activities of OLL2712 cells on murine immune cells differed dramatically between OLL2712 groups at different culture phases and using different culture medium components, temperatures, and neutralizing pHs. In particular, exponential-phase cells had much more IL-10-inducing activity than stationary-phase cells. We confirmed that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulation activity of OLL2712 cells depended on culture conditions in conjunction with IL-10-inducing activity. We also demonstrated functional differences by culture phases in vivo ; OLL2712 cells at exponential phase had more anti-inflammatory activity and anti-metabolic-disorder effects on obese and diabetic mice than those by their stationary-phase counterparts. These results suggest that culture conditions affect the functionality of anti-inflammatory LAB. IMPORTANCE While previous studies demonstrated that culture conditions affected the immunomodulatory properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), few have comprehensively investigated the relationship between culture conditions and LAB functionality. In this study, we demonstrated several culture conditions of Lactobacillus plantarum OLL2712 for higher anti-inflammatory activity. We also showed that culture conditions concretely influenced the health-promoting functions of OLL2712 in vivo , particularly against metabolic disorders. Further, we characterized a novel mechanism by which

  19. Primary Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cell Culture Quality Control: Some Properties of Myometrial Cells Cultured under Serum Deprivation Conditions in the Presence of Ovarian Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Camila; Andrade, Sheila Siqueira; Sumikawa, Joana Tomomi; Batista, Fabrício Pereira; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Girão, Manoel J B C; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Castro, Rodrigo Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture is considered the standard media used in research to emulate the in vivo cell environment. Crucial in vivo experiments cannot be conducted in humans and depend on in vitro methodologies such as cell culture systems. However, some procedures involving the quality control of cells in culture have been gradually neglected by failing to acknowledge that primary cells and cell lines change over time in culture. Thus, we report methods based on our experience for monitoring primary cell culture of human myometrial cells derived from uterine leiomyoma. We standardized the best procedure of tissue dissociation required for the study of multiple genetic marker systems that include species-specific antigens, expression of myofibroblast or myoblast markers, growth curve, serum deprivation, starvation by cell cycle synchronization, culture on collagen coated plates, and 17 β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) effects. The results showed that primary myometrial cells from patients with uterine leiomyoma displayed myoblast phenotypes before and after in vitro cultivation, and leiomyoma cells differentiated into mature myocyte cells under the appropriate differentiation-inducing conditions (serum deprivation). These cells grew well on collagen coated plates and responded to E2 and P4, which may drive myometrial and leiomyoma cells to proliferate and adhere into a focal adhesion complex involvement in a paracrine manner. The establishment of these techniques as routine procedures will improve the understanding of the myometrial physiology and pathogenesis of myometrium-derived diseases such as leiomyoma. Mimicking the in vivo environment of fibrotic conditions can prevent false results and enhance results that are based on cell culture integrity.

  20. USING OXYGEN-CONSUMING THERMOSET PLASTICS TO GENERATE HYPOXIC CONDITIONS IN MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR POTENTIAL CELL CULTURE APPLICATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sticker, Drago; Rothbauer, Mario; Ehgartner, Josef

    The precise control of the oxygen concentration in a cellular environment allows the study of cells under physiologically relevant conditions. This work reports on a novel method for the generation of reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations in microfluidic chambers for cell- and organ-on-chip app......The precise control of the oxygen concentration in a cellular environment allows the study of cells under physiologically relevant conditions. This work reports on a novel method for the generation of reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations in microfluidic chambers for cell- and organ...

  1. Feline Neural Progenitor Cells I: Long-Term Expansion under Defined Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural progenitor cells (NPCs of feline origin (cNPCs have demonstrated utility in transplantation experiments, yet are difficult to grow in culture beyond the 1 month time frame. Here we use an enriched, serum-free base medium (Ultraculture and report the successful long-term propagation of these cells. Primary cultures were derived from fetal brain tissue and passaged in DMEM/F12-based or Ultraculture-based proliferation media, both in the presence of EGF + bFGF. Cells in standard DMEM/F12-based medium ceased to proliferate by 1-month, whereas the cells in the Ultraculture-based medium continued to grow for at least 5 months (end of study with no evidence of senescence. The Ultraculture-based cultures expressed lower levels of progenitor and lineage-associated markers under proliferation conditions but retained multipotency as evidenced by the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia following growth factor removal in the presence of FBS. Importantly, later passage cNPCs did not develop chromosomal aberrations.

  2. Cultural condition for the formation of starchlike polysaccharide from glucose by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, S; Wang, P.Y, Taketomi, N.

    1964-01-01

    A starch like polysaccharide (I) was produced in the culture medium of A. niger during the process of citric acid fermentation from glucose under certain conditions. I could be produced in high aerobic conditions in the presence of (NH/sub 4/) SO/sub 4/ as a N source. The use of NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, urea, or NaNO/sub 3/ as the N sources or the addition of 2% MeOH reduced the production of I.

  3. Differential Radiosensitizing Effect of Valproic Acid in Differentiation Versus Self-Renewal Promoting Culture Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Xu Wei; Mok, Henry; Li Li; Robertson, Fredika; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, Jim; Lucci, Anthony; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that valproic acid (VA) enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and that breast cancer stem/progenitor cells can be resistant to radiation. From these data, we hypothesized that VA would fail to radiosensitize breast cancer stem/progenitor cells grown to three-dimensional (3D) mammospheres. Methods and Materials: We used the MCF7 breast cancer cell line grown under stem cell-promoting culture conditions (3D mammosphere) and standard nonstem cell monolayer culture conditions (two-dimensional) to examine the effect of pretreatment with VA on radiation sensitivity in clonogenic survival assays and on the expression of embryonic stem cell transcription factors. Results: 3D-cultured MCF-7 cells expressed higher levels of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. The 3D passage enriched self-renewal and increased radioresistance in the 3D mammosphere formation assays. VA radiosensitized adherent cells but radioprotected 3D cells in single-fraction clonogenic assays. Moreover, fractionated radiation sensitized VA-treated adherent MCF7 cells but did not have a significant effect on VA-treated single cells grown to mammospheres. Conclusion: We have concluded that VA might preferentially radiosensitize differentiated cells compared with those expressing stem cell surrogates and that stem cell-promoting culture is a useful tool for in vitro evaluation of novel cancer therapeutic agents and radiosensitizers.

  4. Osteogenic stimulatory conditions enhance growth and maturation of endothelial cell microvascular networks in culture with mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjorn O Pedersen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To optimize culture conditions for in vitro prevascularization of tissue-engineered bone constructs, the development of organotypic blood vessels under osteogenic stimulatory conditions (OM was investigated. Coculture of endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells was used to assess proangiogenic effects of mesenchymal stem cells on endothelial cells. Four different culture conditions were evaluated for their effect on development of microvascular endothelial cell networks. Mineralization, deposition of extracellular matrix, and perivascular gene expression were studied in OM. After 3 days, endothelial cells established elongated capillary-like networks, and upregulated expression of vascular markers was seen. After 15 days, all parameters evaluated were significantly increased for cultures in OM. Mature networks developed in OM presented lumens enveloped by basement membrane-like collagen IV, with obvious mineralization and upregulated perivascular gene expression from mesenchymal stem cells. Our results suggest osteogenic stimulatory conditions to be appropriate for in vitro development of vascularized bone implants for tissue engineering.

  5. Culture, Prevention, and the Politics of Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The following article is a response to Adams's (2007 [this issue]) and Griffin and Miller's (2007 [this issue]) reactions to the Major Contribution articles presented on Culturally Relevant Prevention. Each reaction article identifies important implications for engaging in culturally relevant prevention efforts that are relevant to developing this…

  6. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  7. Synthetic surface for expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells in xeno-free, chemically defined culture conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J Dolley-Sonneville

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCS possess three properties of great interest for the development of cell therapies and tissue engineering: multilineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and production of trophic factors. Efficient ex vivo expansion of hMSCs is a challenging requirement for large scale production of clinical grade cells. Low-cost, robust, scalable culture methods using chemically defined materials need to be developed to address this need. This study describes the use of a xeno-free synthetic peptide acrylate surface, the Corning® Synthemax® Surface, for culture of hMSCs in serum-free, defined medium. Cell performance on the Corning Synthemax Surface was compared to cells cultured on biological extracellular matrix (ECM coatings in xeno-free defined medium and in traditional conditions on tissue culture treated (TCT plastic in fetal bovine serum (FBS supplemented medium. Our results show successful maintenance of hMSCs on Corning Synthemax Surface for eight passages, with cell expansion rate comparable to cells cultured on ECM and significantly higher than for cells in TCT/FBS condition. Importantly, on the Corning Synthemax Surface, cells maintained elongated, spindle-like morphology, typical hMSC marker profile and in vitro multilineage differentiation potential. We believe the Corning Synthemax Surface, in combination with defined media, provides a complete synthetic, xeno-free, cell culture system for scalable production of hMSCs.

  8. Cardiac Remote Conditioning and Clinical Relevance: All Together Now!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Luther

    2015-12-01

    mechanisms related to cardioprotection, and in the last five to ten years, it has become clear that the mechanisms are similar, whether induced by ischemic or non-ischemic stimuli. Taking together much of the data in the literature, we propose that all of these cardioprotective “conditioning” phenomena represent activation from different entry points of a cardiac conditioning network that converges upon specific mediators and effectors of myocardial cell survival, including NF-кB, Stat3/5, protein kinase C, bradykinin, and the mitoKATP channel. Nervous system pathways may represent a novel mechanism for initiating conditioning of the heart and other organs. IPC and RIPC have proven difficult to translate clinically, as they have associated risks and cannot be used in some patients. Because of this, the use of neural and nociceptive stimuli is emerging as a potential non-ischemic and non-traumatic means to initiate cardiac conditioning. Clinical relevance is underscored by the demonstration of postconditioning with one of these modalities, supporting the conclusion that the development of pharmaceuticals and electroceuticals for this purpose is an area ripe for clinical development.

  9. The Noisy Counter-Revolution: Understanding the Cultural Conditions and Dynamics of Populist Politics in Europe in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article argues for a cultural turn in the study of populist politics in Europe. Integrating insights from three fields—political sociology, political psychology, and media studies—a new, multi-disciplinary framework is proposed to theorize particular cultural conditions favorable to the electoral success of populist parties. Through this lens, the fourth wave of populism should be viewed as a “noisy”, anti-cosmopolitan counter-revolution in defense of traditional cultural identity. Reflective of a deep-seated, value-based great divide in European democracies that largely trumps economic cleavages, populist parties first and foremost politically mobilize long lingering cultural discontent and successfully express a backlash against cultural change. While the populist counter-revolution is engendered by profoundly transformed communicative conditions in the age of social media, its emotional force can best be theorized with the political psychology of authoritarianism: as a new type of authoritarian cultural revolt.

  10. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  11. Determination of Intracellular Vitrification Temperatures for Unicellular Micro Organisms under Conditions Relevant for Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Meneghel, Julie; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie; Morris, G John

    2016-01-01

    During cryopreservation ice nucleation and crystal growth may occur within cells or the intracellular compartment may vitrify. Whilst previous literature describes intracellular vitrification in a qualitative manner, here we measure the intracellular vitrification temperature of bacteria and yeasts under conditions relevant to cryopreservation, including the addition of high levels of permeating and nonpermeating additives and the application of rapid rates of cooling. The effects of growth conditions that are known to modify cellular freezing resistance on the intracellular vitrification temperature are also examined. For bacteria a plot of the activity on thawing against intracellular glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrated matrix (Tg') shows that cells with the lowest value of intracellular Tg' survive the freezing process better than cells with a higher intracellular Tg'. This paper demonstrates the role of the physical state of the intracellular environment in determining the response of microbial cells to preservation and could be a powerful tool to be manipulated to allow the optimization of methods for the preservation of microorganisms.

  12. Environmental conditions of some paddy cum prawn culture fields of Cochin backwaters, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    ecological distortions because of its proximity to the sea. The results indicate that the fields in areas 1 and 3 have environmental conditions highly suited for prawn culture whereas in area 2 the salinity conditions are not very conducive for prawn growth...

  13. Physical culture beyond the conditions of soviet totalitarian culture development (1920-s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko Y.O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the state and development of physical culture and sports in the USSR the interwar years. Found a place of physical culture in the formation of Soviet totalitarianism. The study used mainly archival documents. It focuses on the paradigmatic orientation of physical education, in fact - for her militarnost. It substantiates the idea that physical culture in the study period served not so much a sport or recreational functions as ideological. It is noted that the sports policy of the Communist Party is granted the benefit of multisport events. It is proved that a decisive role in the development of physical culture and sports areas in the USSR played amateur men.

  14. Culture-specific delusions. Sense and nonsense in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, A D

    1995-06-01

    It can be said that a definition of delusions requires the invocation of cultural understandings, standards of acceptability, as well as conceptions of reality and the forces that animate it. For these reasons, the determination of delusional or normative ideation can only be effected properly within particular cultural contexts. The cross-cultural record suggests that it is difficult to separate the delusional from the cultural; a belief that is patterened and culturally specific is, by definition a cultural, not a delusional belief. One must rely upon particular, relevant local cultural understandings to ascertain when the bounds of culture have been transgressed and meaning has given way to unshareable nonsense.

  15. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  16. Creating a Model of Acceptance: Preservice Teachers Interact with Non-English-Speaking Latino Parents Using Culturally Relevant Mathematics and Science Activities at Family Learning Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Olga; McCollough, Cherie A.; Diaz, Zulmaris

    2016-01-01

    The following describes a culturally relevant mathematics and science content program implemented by preservice teachers (PSTs) at Family Math/Science Learning Events (FM/SLEs) conducted through two different university programs in south Texas. These experiences are required course activities designed to inform PSTs of the importance of…

  17. Primary Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cell Culture Quality Control: Some Properties of Myometrial Cells Cultured under Serum Deprivation Conditions in the Presence of Ovarian Steroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bonazza

    Full Text Available Cell culture is considered the standard media used in research to emulate the in vivo cell environment. Crucial in vivo experiments cannot be conducted in humans and depend on in vitro methodologies such as cell culture systems. However, some procedures involving the quality control of cells in culture have been gradually neglected by failing to acknowledge that primary cells and cell lines change over time in culture. Thus, we report methods based on our experience for monitoring primary cell culture of human myometrial cells derived from uterine leiomyoma. We standardized the best procedure of tissue dissociation required for the study of multiple genetic marker systems that include species-specific antigens, expression of myofibroblast or myoblast markers, growth curve, serum deprivation, starvation by cell cycle synchronization, culture on collagen coated plates, and 17 β-estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 effects. The results showed that primary myometrial cells from patients with uterine leiomyoma displayed myoblast phenotypes before and after in vitro cultivation, and leiomyoma cells differentiated into mature myocyte cells under the appropriate differentiation-inducing conditions (serum deprivation. These cells grew well on collagen coated plates and responded to E2 and P4, which may drive myometrial and leiomyoma cells to proliferate and adhere into a focal adhesion complex involvement in a paracrine manner. The establishment of these techniques as routine procedures will improve the understanding of the myometrial physiology and pathogenesis of myometrium-derived diseases such as leiomyoma. Mimicking the in vivo environment of fibrotic conditions can prevent false results and enhance results that are based on cell culture integrity.

  18. GENDER GENEALOGY OF READING AS CULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kryvda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the cultural aspect of texts using in European culture. The paper found out methodological basis of correctly interpreting the term "practice" in the philosophical and sociological discourses. In the first case the concept reveals human nature; appealing to the field of ethics and intersubjective interactions. In sociological approach the term practice is contrasted to institutional life. It seems to be an organic; vital relevance of actions for contrast to the mechanically regulated community life. Methodology. The paper considered the typology of human intellectual conditions according to Kant’s divided into pure and practical reason. The last one directs action-willed individual efforts so as to meet the universal relevance and ethical coherence. Gottlieb Fichte interpreted practice reason as the way to combine intellectual intentions and material conditions of human being. G. W. F. Hegel enriched the concept with terms of "objectification" and "alienation” of labour. Karl Marx formulated the main features of activity approach to the human nature exploring. In sociological discourse the term practice is opposed to mechanically done actions (according to institutional normativity. Given the philosophical and sociological methodological contexts the reading is studied as activity that aimed emotional and volitional contact with sense. Originality. The paper analysed the genealogy of reading practices. There were selected two types of text perception – rapid "masculine" and prudent "women's" reading. Women salon environment of the XVIII-th century capitalistic Europe was the main condition for the forming of literary-aware public. The authors analysed the process of reading of the text-as-satisfaction and text-as-pleasure (R. Barthes. The work presents the overview of classical studies of sociocultural field: Thorstein Veblen; Vladimir Toporov; Rolan Barthes and contemporary researchers such as T. Markova

  19. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  20. Controlling Laser Plasma Instabilities Using Temporal Bandwidths Under Shock Ignition Relevant Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2017-10-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temporal bandwidth under plasma conditions relevant to experiments on the Nike laser with induced spatial incoherence (ISI). With ISI, the instantaneous laser intensity can be 3-4 times larger than the average intensity, leading to the excitation of additional TPD modes and producing electrons with larger angular spread. In our simulations, we observe that although ISI can increase the interaction regions for short bursts of time, time-averaged (over many pico-seconds) laser plasma interactions can be reduced by a factor of 2 in systems with sufficiently large bandwidths (where the inverse bandwidth is comparable with the linear growth time). We will quantify these effects and investigate higher dimensional effects such as laser speckles and the effects of Coulomb collisions. Work supported by NRL, NNSA, and NSF.

  1. In vitro culture of individual mouse preimplantation embryos: the role of embryo density, microwells, oxygen, timing and conditioned media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L; Gardner, David K

    2017-05-01

    Single embryo culture is suboptimal compared with group culture, but necessary for embryo monitoring, and culture systems should be improved for single embryos. Pronucleate mouse embryos were used to assess the effect of culture conditions on single embryo development. Single culture either before or after compaction reduced cell numbers (112.2 ± 3.1; 110.2 ± 3.5) compared with group culture throughout (127.0 ± 3.4; P media volume from 20 µl to 2 µl increased blastocyst cell numbers in single embryos cultured in 5% oxygen (84.4 ± 3.2 versus 97.8 ± 2.8; P Culture in microwell plates for the EmbryoScope and Primo Vision time-lapse systems changed cleavage timings and increased inner cell mass cell number (24.1 ± 1.0; 23.4 ± 1.2) compared with a 2 µl microdrop (18.4 ± 1.0; P media to single embryos increased hatching rate and blastocyst cell number (91.5 ± 4.7 versus 113.1 ± 4.4; P culture before or after compaction is therefore detrimental; oxygen, media volume and microwells influence single embryo development; and embryo-conditioned media may substitute for group culture. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-03-10

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (Pcultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (Pculture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of culture conditions on biomass and active components of adventitious roots culture in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Juan; Cao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    To optimize the culture condition of adventitious roots of Panax ginseng. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture by manipulation of inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The multiplication of adventitious roots reached the peak when the inoculum was 20 g x L(-1). The effects of sucrose concentration and salt strength on adventitious roots were observed. The contents of polysaccharides were higher when the medium contained more sucrose. 40 g x L(-1) sucrose was favorable for roots growth and biosynthesis of Re, while 30 g x L(-1) was favorable for the biosynthesis of Rb1 and Rg1. 3/4MS medium was benefit for the growth of adventitious roots and the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. The contents of polysaccharides were decreased with the increase of salt strength. The results showed that inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength have significant influences on adventitious roots growth, secondary metabolite and polysaccharide synthesis in P. ginseng.

  4. Enhancing inulinase yield by irradiation mutation associated with optimization of culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Gou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new inulinase-producing strain was isolated from rhizosphere soils of Jerusalem artichoke collected from Shihezi (Xinjiang, China using Jerusalem artichoke power (JAP as sole carbon source. It was identified as an Aspergillus niger strain by analysis of 16S rRNA. To improve inulinase production, this fungus was subjected to mutagenesis induced by 60Co γ-irradiation. A genetically stable mutant (designated E12 was obtained and it showed 2.7-fold higher inulinase activity (128 U/mL than the parental strain in the supernatant of a submerged culture. Sequential methodology was used to optimize the inulinase production of stain E12. A screening trial was first performed using Plackett-Burman design and variables with statistically significant effects on inulinase bio-production were identified. These significant factors were further optimized by central composite design experiments and response surface methodology. Finally, it was found that the maximum inulinase production (185 U/mL could be achieved under the optimized conditions namely pH 7.0, yeast extract concentration of 5.0 g/L, JAP concentration of 66.5 g/L, peptone concentration of 29.1 g/L, solution volume of 49.4 mL in 250-mL shake flasks, agitation speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 60 h. The yield of inulinase under optimized culture conditions was approximately 1.4-fold of that obtained by using basal culture medium. These findings are of significance for the potential industrial application of the mutant E12.

  5. Culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention for Latino immigrants: the need to integrate fidelity and cultural relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Cardona, Jose Ruben; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2012-03-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce despite extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (2) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training principles, and (3) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. © FPI, Inc.

  6. Culture conditions tailored to the cell of origin are critical for maintaining native properties and tumorigenicity of glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pítia F; Liu, Chong; He, Hua; Harris, Alexandra R; Minussi, Darlan C; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Shaffrey, Mark E; Asthagiri, Ashok; Lopes, Maria Beatriz S; Schiff, David; Lu, Yi-Cheng; Mandell, James W; Lenz, Guido; Zong, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Cell culture plays a pivotal role in cancer research. However, culture-induced changes in biological properties of tumor cells profoundly affect research reproducibility and translational potential. Establishing culture conditions tailored to the cancer cell of origin could resolve this problem. For glioma research, it has been previously shown that replacing serum with defined growth factors for neural stem cells (NSCs) greatly improved the retention of gene expression profile and tumorigenicity. However, among all molecular subtypes of glioma, our laboratory and others have previously shown that the oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) rather than the NSC serves as the cell of origin for the proneural subtype, raising questions regarding the suitability of NSC-tailored media for culturing proneural glioma cells. OPC-originated mouse glioma cells were cultured in conditions for normal OPCs or NSCs, respectively, for multiple passages. Gene expression profiles, morphologies, tumorigenicity, and drug responsiveness of cultured cells were examined in comparison with freshly isolated tumor cells. OPC media-cultured glioma cells maintained tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles, and morphologies similar to freshly isolated tumor cells. In contrast, NSC-media cultured glioma cells gradually lost their OPC features and most tumor-initiating ability and acquired heightened sensitivity to temozolomide. To improve experimental reproducibility and translational potential of glioma research, it is important to identify the cell of origin, and subsequently apply this knowledge to establish culture conditions that allow the retention of native properties of tumor cells. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Collective action in culturally similar and dissimilar groups: An axperiment on parochialism, conditional cooperation, and their linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Rebers, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility ("parochialism"), as well as of conditionally cooperative strategies, in explaining contributions to experimental public goods games. The experimental conditions vary group composition along two culturally inheritable

  8. Conditioning Factors of an Organizational Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…

  9. Conditional net survival: Relevant prognostic information for colorectal cancer survivors. A French population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The culture of Tilapia species in tropical and subtropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maeseneer, J.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Although since long known by African fishermen it is only in the last 40 years that Tilapia has been recognized as one of the most promising groups of fish species for culture. The initial successes for culture in Central Africa were followed by several failures mainly because of excessive breeding and early sexual maturity in shallow waterbodies as ponds. From the present knowledge it appears that tilapia has a great future for increasing the productivity in unmanaged environments as man-made lakes and reservoirs primarily destined for the production of hydro-electricity. Careful stocking of paddies and irrigation canals can solve a number of biological problems associated with them and provide an additional though valuable high-protein food source. Great future offers also the culture of tilapia in traditional pond culture especially in polyculture with members of the carp family, mullets and waterfowl in areas of the tropical and subtropical belt. In coastal ponds T, mossambica is a valuable species for sanitary reasons. The culture of tilapia in small farm ponds often meets with failure owing to excessive breeding and stunting unless the all-male technique can be applied through government input and encouragement. As a rule this type of production will be the least attractive. Although Tilapia spp. do not achieve the largest individu al growth their tolerance towards adverse conditions and their acceptance of a wide variety of foodstuffs, primarily waste products from agriculture, their resistance to diseases and (at least in some species their tolerance of crowded environments make them suitable subject for cultures in raceways, circular tanks and cages. Through heavy inputs of water and pelletized feeds nearly incredible annual yields as 2 000 tonnes per ha of water surface (1 and more were realized. This means that this type of production surpasses by far any other known form of animal husbandry but it needs high technological input (thus

  11. Clinical condition and comorbidity as determinants for blood culture positivity in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, F. V.; Kallen, M. C.; van den Bosch, C. M. A.; Hulscher, M. E. J. L.; Geerlings, S. E.; Prins, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The utility of performing blood cultures in patients with a suspected skin infection is debated. We investigated the association between blood culture positivity rates and patients' clinical condition, including acute disease severity and comorbidity. We performed a retrospective study, including

  12. Effects of culture conditions and biofilm formation on the iodine susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, K. L.; Pyle, B. H.; Sauer, R. L.; McFeters, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to iodination was studied with cultures grown in well water, on rich agar media, and attached to stainless-steel surfaces. Legionella pneumophila grown in water cultures in association with other microorganisms were less sensitive to disinfection by chlorine and iodine than were agar-passaged cultures. Differences in sensitivity to disinfection between water-cultured and agar-grown legionellae were determined by comparing C x T values (concentration in milligrams per litre multiplied by time in minutes to achieve 99% decrease in viability) and CM x T values (concentration in molarity). Iodine (1500x) gave a greater difference in CM x T values than did chlorine (68x). Iodine was 50 times more effective than chlorine when used with agar-grown cultures but was only twice as effective when tested against water-grown Legionella cultures. C x T x S values (C x T multiplied by percent survivors), which take into consideration the percent surviving bacteria, were used to compare sensitivities in very resistant populations, such as those in biofilms. Water cultures of legionellae associated with stainless-steel surfaces were 135 times more resistant to iodination than were unattached legionellae, and they were 210,000 times more resistant than were agar-grown cultures. These results indicate that the conditions under which legionellae are grown can dramatically affect their susceptibility to some disinfectants and must be considered when evaluating the efficacy of a disinfecting agent.

  13. Cultural diversity and patient teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cordell, B

    1994-01-01

    Cultural diversity challenges health care providers to facilitate bridging cross-cultural gaps with clients. It is through providing culturally relevant care that health care practitioners truly serve the needs of all clients in our diverse society. A theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality offers a framework for building linkages of clinical knowledge to cultural care. A four-step approach to providing culturally sensitive patient teaching is described: (1) health care providers should assess their own cultural beliefs and be aware of general ethnic, regional, and religious beliefs and practices in their area; (2) develop a teaching plan; (3) implement the plan; (4) evaluate the success of the teaching-learning process and make alterations based on evaluation. When providers assess clients' beliefs and practices and incorporate them into the teaching plan design, teaching becomes more relevant and clients become more successful at learning.

  14. Low cycle fatigue behavior of ITER-like divertor target under DEMO-relevant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; Werner, Ewald [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • LCF behavior of the cooling tube and the interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is studied. • For the cooling tube, LCF failure will not be an issue under an HHF load of up to 18 MW/m{sup 2}. • Plastic strain in the interlayer is concentrated at the free surface edge of the bond interface. • The predicted LCF lifetime of the interlayer may not meet the design requirement. - Abstract: In this work the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of the copper alloy cooling tube and the copper interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is reported for nine different combinations of loading and cooling conditions relevant to DEMO divertor operation. The LCF lifetime is presented as a function of loading and cooling conditions considered here by means of cyclic plasticity simulation and using LCF data of materials relevant for ITER. The numerical predictions indicate, that fatigue failure will not be an issue for the copper alloy tube under a high heat flux (HHF) load of up to 18 MW/m{sup 2} as long as it preserves its initial strength. In contrast, the copper interlayer exhibits significant plastic dissipation at the free surface edge of the bond interface adjacent to the cooling tube, where the LCF lifetime is predicted to be below 3000 load cycles for HHF loads higher than 15 MW/m{sup 2}. Most of the bulk region of the copper interlayer away from the free surface edge does not experience severe plastic fatigue and hence does not pose any critical concern as the LCF lifetime is predicted to be at least 7000 load cycles. LCF lifetime decreases as HHF load is increased or coolant temperature is decreased.

  15. Optimization of culture condition for ACEI and GABA production by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Bao-Hong; Liu, Chin-Feng; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) are compounds which can influence hypertension. The goal of this study is to optimize the culture condition for GABA and ACEI production by Lactobacillus plantarum NTU 102 fermented skim milk. In this study, we used 3-factor-3-level Box-Behnken design combining with response surface methodology, where the 3 factors represent the concentration of skim milk, the concentration of monosodium glutamate, and culture temperature. Best conditions for GABA and ACEI production differed. The results indicated that L. plantarum NTU 102 produced the highest combined levels of GABA and ACEI at 37 °C, in milk having 8% to 12% nonfat solids supplemented with 0.6% to 1% MSG. Agitation of the medium during fermentation had no effect on GABA or ACEI production but extended incubation (up to 6 d) increases levels of the bioactive compounds. L. plantarum NTU 102 fermented products may be a potential functional food source for regulating hypertension. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. [Culture conditions for gametes and embryos: Which culture medium? Which impact on newborn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscinski, I; Merten, M; Kazdar, N; Guéant, J-L

    2018-05-01

    Many studies have examined the impact of cell/embryo culture media on the development of human embryo during IVF process, but few studies have followed up and compared the effects of these culture media on the developmental outcome of children conceived by IVF. As recurrent experimental evidence from animal studies suggests potential long-term effects of embryo culture media on the health outcome of IVF-conceived children, more studies are needed to clarify the role of the culture media and mechanisms underlying such effects. In human, however, the effects of culture media are difficult to pinpoint due to complications stem from both the influence of maternal nutrition during the gestational period and the parental genetic. Based on a simple review of the literature integrating animal experimentations and human clinic studies, we suggest that the composition of culture medium should be considered beyond the character of unique or sequential medium, corresponding to "let embryo choose" or "back to nature" respectively. Instead, we suggest that the main components of embryo culture media should be considered from the point of view of metabolic consequences and potential epigenetic effects. Given that energetic metabolites can regulate epigenetic machinery, we hypothesize that metabolic abnormalities linked to morphological abnormalities could reveal epigenetic defects in embryos. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The Theory of Translation as a Condition of Chance for of Cultures Protection: The Case of Cultural Community Protocols in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Benini Agne Tybusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to study the theory of translation of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and its application in crop protection. As well as examining the case of Community biocultural protocols in Colombia in search for alternative protection for traditional knowledge. The questions in this study were performed: A Theory of Translation Boaventura de Sousa Santos could be a condition of possibility for the protection of culture and traditional knowledge? And the biocultural community protocols could be an example of the theory of translation? To answer these research questions we used the combination of two methods: deductive and monographic. The first was used to guide the documentary and doctrinal research as it relates to globalization and culture. The monographic method was used for the second part, to address the translation theory of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and the case of bio-cultural Community Protocols in Colombia.

  18. Jakarta socio-cultural ecology: a sustainable architecture concept in urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaksono, Sigit; Sasmoko; Indrianti, Y.; Widhoyoko, SA

    2017-12-01

    As a metropolitan city with densely populated and fast residential development Jakarta should be able to implement a concept that is Jakarta socio-cultural ecology Architecture as the basis of settlement development. The concept of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology architecture is characterized by residential development capabilities that reflect and express the indigenous culture, the settlements built by linking the social and economic activities of the people of Jakarta and the settlements built by maintaining the building with the value of existing heritage. The objectives of this research are 1) to find a relevant construct to housing condition in Jakarta which then called Jakarta socio-cultural ecology, and 2) to see the tendency of complex condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology settlement. This research uses Neuroresearch method, which is one of mix-method research method as a mixture research method between qualitative research (exploration) and quantitative research method (explanatory and confirmatory). The population of research as well as unit analysis are all settlements in Jakarta. Sampling technique using probability sampling that is with multistage sampling. The results show that nowadays the Jakarta residential complex tends to lead to socio-cultural ecology and rather reflects and expresses the indigenous culture, the residential complex in Jakarta tends to form the building has been linked fully with the social and economic activities of Jakarta society but tends to occasionally maintain buildings with existing heritage values. This study also found that indigenous culture is a significant determinant of the formation of the condition of Jakarta socio-cultural ecology.

  19. Protein secretory patterns of rat Sertoli and peritubular cells are influenced by culture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierszenbaum, A.L.; Crowell, J.A.; Shabanowitz, R.B.; DePhilip, R.M.; Tres, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    An approach combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography was used to correlate patterns of secretory proteins in cultures of Sertoli and peritubular cells with those observed in the incubation medium from segments of seminiferous tubules. Sertoli cells in culture and in seminiferous tubules secreted three proteins designated S70 (Mr 72,000-70,000), S45 (Mr 45,000), and S35 (Mr 35,000). Cultured Sertoli and peritubular cells and incubated seminiferous tubules secreted two proteins designated SP1 (Mr 42,000) and SP2 (Mr 50,000). SP1 and S45 have similar Mr but differ from each other in isoelectric point (pI). Cultured peritubular cells secreted a protein designated P40 (Mr 40,000) that was also seen in intact seminiferous tubules but not in seminiferous tubules lacking the peritubular cell wall. However, a large number of high-Mr proteins were observed only in the medium of cultured peritubular cells but not in the incubation medium of intact seminiferous tubules. Culture conditions influence the morphology and patterns of protein secretion of cultured peritubular cells. Peritubular cells that display a flat-stellate shape transition when placed in culture medium free of serum (with or without hormones and growth factors), accumulate various proteins in the medium that are less apparent when these cells are maintained in medium supplemented with serum. Two secretory proteins stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (designated SCm1 and SCm2) previously found in the medium of cultured Sertoli cells, were also observed in the incubation medium of seminiferous tubular segments stimulated by FSH. Results of this study show that, although cultured Sertoli and peritubular cells synthesize and secrete proteins also observed in segments of incubated seminiferous tubules anther group of proteins lacks seminiferous tubular correlates

  20. Optimization of the culturing conditions of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells under xeno-free conditions applying a transcriptomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zoller, Stefan; Riegel, Mariluce; Chen, Shuhua; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Zisch, Andreas H.

    Establishment of fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell culture conditions is essential for transplantation therapies. Blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications. ECFCs were isolated from term umbilical cord blood units and

  1. Elimination of remaining undifferentiated induced pluripotent stem cells in the process of human cardiac cell sheet fabrication using a methionine-free culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Kodama, Fumiko; Sugiyama, Kasumi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Okano, Teruo

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising method for regenerative medicine. Although we have developed human cardiac cell sheets by integration of cell sheet-based tissue engineering and scalable bioreactor culture, the risk of contamination by induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in cardiac cell sheets remains unresolved. In the present study, we established a novel culture method to fabricate human cardiac cell sheets with a decreased risk of iPS cell contamination while maintaining viabilities of iPS cell-derived cells, including cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, using a methionine-free culture condition. When cultured in the methionine-free condition, human iPS cells did not survive without feeder cells and could not proliferate or form colonies on feeder cells or in coculture with cells for cardiac cell sheet fabrication. When iPS cell-derived cells after the cardiac differentiation were transiently cultured in the methionine-free condition, gene expression of OCT3/4 and NANOG was downregulated significantly compared with that in the standard culture condition. Furthermore, in fabricated cardiac cell sheets, spontaneous and synchronous beating was observed in the whole area while maintaining or upregulating the expression of various cardiac and extracellular matrix genes. These findings suggest that human iPS cells are methionine dependent and a methionine-free culture condition for cardiac cell sheet fabrication might reduce the risk of iPS cell contamination.

  2. On relevant boundary perturbations of unitary minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.; Roggenkamp, D.; Schomerus, V.

    2000-01-01

    We consider unitary Virasoro minimal models on the disk with Cardy boundary conditions and discuss deformations by certain relevant boundary operators, analogous to tachyon condensation in string theory. Concentrating on the least relevant boundary field, we can perform a perturbative analysis of renormalization group fixed points. We find that the systems always flow towards stable fixed points which admit no further (non-trivial) relevant perturbations. The new conformal boundary conditions are in general given by superpositions of 'pure' Cardy boundary conditions

  3. Cross-culture Communications in Tourism under Conditions of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldoshyna Mariia V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cross-cultural specific features of interaction within social and business communication in the international tourism. The goal of the article is analysis of the cross-cultural environment of Ukraine in the context of the world globalisation for efficient interaction in the sphere of international management and marketing. The article shows a necessity of a study of influence of national cultural features upon business activity of tourist enterprises with consideration of their international and cross-cultural nature of activity. The article identifies functions of culture and presents basic classifications of the world cultures by Geert Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars and Edward Twitchell Hall Jr. It considers specific features of activity of tourist enterprises in the spheres of cross-cultural management and marketing, formulates problems of manifestation of cultural differences in these spheres. It offers main advertising strategies in the international communication policy, which help enterprises to promote their tourist products to international markets more efficiently.

  4. Brain stem slice conditioned medium contains endogenous BDNF and GDNF that affect neural crest boundary cap cells in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Kale, Ajay; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Siratirakun, Piyaporn; Aquino, Jorge B; Thonabulsombat, Charoensri; Ernfors, Patrik; Olivius, Petri

    2014-05-30

    Conditioned medium (CM), made by collecting medium after a few days in cell culture and then re-using it to further stimulate other cells, is a known experimental concept since the 1950s. Our group has explored this technique to stimulate the performance of cells in culture in general, and to evaluate stem- and progenitor cell aptitude for auditory nerve repair enhancement in particular. As compared to other mediums, all primary endpoints in our published experimental settings have weighed in favor of conditioned culture medium, where we have shown that conditioned culture medium has a stimulatory effect on cell survival. In order to explore the reasons for this improved survival we set out to analyze the conditioned culture medium. We utilized ELISA kits to investigate whether brain stem (BS) slice CM contains any significant amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We further looked for a donor cell with progenitor characteristics that would be receptive to BDNF and GDNF. We chose the well-documented boundary cap (BC) progenitor cells to be tested in our in vitro co-culture setting together with cochlear nucleus (CN) of the BS. The results show that BS CM contains BDNF and GDNF and that survival of BC cells, as well as BC cell differentiation into neurons, were enhanced when BS CM were used. Altogether, we conclude that BC cells transplanted into a BDNF and GDNF rich environment could be suitable for treatment of a traumatized or degenerated auditory nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancement in irradiated mononuclear cells in culture of mitogen-induced incorporation of [3H]thymidine by homologous conditioned medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, G.; Greiner, R.

    1994-01-01

    Incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine in irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures irradiated in vitro was stimulated significantly by either concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin only in the presence of homologous conditioned medium. Production of this activity by mononuclear cells was enhanced by irradiation and/or pulsed exposure to puromycin but was abolished by actinomycin D. Addition of anti-interleukin 1 or anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibodies to the conditioned medium before assay did not influence the stimulatory action. A similar significant stimulation of mononuclear cell cultures irradiated with 6 Gy by concanavalin A was obtained when purified preparations of homologous conditioned medium were used in the assay. Purification was done by ultrafiltration and concentration, heparin agarose chromatography, ammonium sulfate precipitation, concanavalin A agarose chromatography, DEAE-ion exchange chromatography and HPLC gel filtration chromatography. With SDS-PAGE and silver staining, the active HPLC fraction gave one band of 50 kDa, suggesting that this protein is responsible for the co-stimulatory effect of homologous conditioned medium for both mitogen-induced irradiated and nonirradiated mononuclear cell cultures. 42 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. What Kind of Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Samson B.

    The question of what should be taught as the cultural component of language instruction is discussed, with special reference to German. A present-directed humanism is urged, with emphasis on the relevance and immediacy of cultural materials. Mistaken and irrelevant directions in the teaching of German culture are discussed in some detail; similar…

  7. Culturally Adapting an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention for Latino Immigrants: The Need to Integrate Fidelity and Cultural Relevance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Jose Ruben Parra; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the US. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce in spite of extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (b) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training (PMT) principles, and (c) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. PMID:22428711

  8. The Role of Culture Theory in Cross-Cultural Training: A Multimethod Study of Culture-Specific, Culture-General, and Culture Theory-Based Assimilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawuk, Dharm P. S.

    1998-01-01

    In a multimethod evaluation of cross-cultural training tools involving 102 exchange students at a midwestern university, a theory-based individualism and collectivism assimilator tool had significant advantages over culture-specific and culture-general assimilators and a control condition. Results support theory-based culture assimilators. (SLD)

  9. Finite element study of scaffold architecture design and culture conditions for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Andy L; Marsal, Elia; Planell, Josep A; Lacroix, Damien

    2009-10-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds provide temporary mechanical support for tissue regeneration and transfer global mechanical load to mechanical stimuli to cells through its architecture. In this study the interactions between scaffold pore morphology, mechanical stimuli developed at the cell microscopic level, and culture conditions applied at the macroscopic scale are studied on two regular scaffold structures. Gyroid and hexagonal scaffolds of 55% and 70% porosity were modeled in a finite element analysis and were submitted to an inlet fluid flow or compressive strain. A mechanoregulation theory based on scaffold shear strain and fluid shear stress was applied for determining the influence of each structures on the mechanical stimuli on initial conditions. Results indicate that the distribution of shear stress induced by fluid perfusion is very dependent on pore distribution within the scaffold. Gyroid architectures provide a better accessibility of the fluid than hexagonal structures. Based on the mechanoregulation theory, the differentiation process in these structures was more sensitive to inlet fluid flow than axial strain of the scaffold. This study provides a computational approach to determine the mechanical stimuli at the cellular level when cells are cultured in a bioreactor and to relate mechanical stimuli with cell differentiation.

  10. The Value Relevance Of Value Added And Stakeholder Compensation Across Business Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    John Darcy

    2011-01-01

    This research performed a partial test of the instrumental validity of the stakeholder model by examining the value relevance of value added relative to income and the incremental value relevance of two stakeholder compensation components of value added, wages and interest for Japan, Germany, United States, and United Kingdom.

  11. The relevance of cultural activities in ethnic identity among California Native American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.

  12. Production of Trametes pubescens Laccase under Submerged and Semi-Solid Culture Conditions on Agro-Industrial Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F.; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sánchez, Oscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69±0.28 U mg-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08±0.001 and 2.86±0.05 U mg-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  13. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Medina, Sandra C; Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1) of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1) of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct.

  14. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM, and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1 and 60 kDa (Lac2. Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct.

  15. Living Conditions and Psychological Distress in Latino Migrant Day Laborers: The Role of Cultural and Community Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, Kurt C; Ngo, Samantha; Neilands, Torsten B; Kral, Alex H

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between typically difficult living conditions and psychological distress in Latino migrant day laborers (LMDLs), with attention to the potentially protective roles of contact with family in country of origin (i.e., communication, sending money, etc.), availability of local culture (i.e., food, music, people from one's country of origin), and utilization of community resources perceived to be culturally competent (i.e., services that are respectful, able to serve Latinos, able to solve problems, in Spanish, etc.). Participants were 344 LMDLs surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area. As hypothesized: (a) difficult living conditions were related to depression, anxiety, and desesperación [desperation], the latter a popular Latino idiom of psychological distress recently validated on LMDLs; (b) contact with family moderated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety and (c) access to local culture, and utilization of community resources, mediated the relation between difficult living conditions and depression and desesperación but not anxiety. Implications for intervening at local and larger levels in order to provide some protection against distress built into the LMDL experience in the United States are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  16. Oxygen Partial Pressure Is a Rate-Limiting Parameter for Cell Proliferation in 3D Spheroids Grown in Physioxic Culture Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Aurélie; Guillaume, Ludivine; Grimes, David Robert; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The in situ oxygen partial pressure in normal and tumor tissues is in the range of a few percent. Therefore, when studying cell growth in 3D culture systems, it is essential to consider how the physiological oxygen concentration, rather than the one in the ambient air, influences the proliferation parameters. Here, we investigated the effect of reducing oxygen partial pressure from 21% to 5% on cell proliferation rate and regionalization in a 3D tumor spheroid model. We found that 5% oxygen concentration strongly inhibited spheroid growth, changed the proliferation gradient and reduced the 50% In Depth Proliferation index (IDP50), compared with culture at 21% oxygen. We then modeled the oxygen partial pressure profiles using the experimental data generated by culturing spheroids in physioxic and normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia occurred at similar depth in spheroids grown in the two conditions, oxygen partial pressure was a major rate-limiting factor with a critical effect on cell proliferation rate and regionalization only in spheroids grown in physioxic condition and not in spheroids grown at atmospheric normoxia. Our findings strengthen the need to consider conducting experiment in physioxic conditions (i.e., tissue normoxia) for proper understanding of cancer cell biology and the evaluation of anticancer drugs in 3D culture systems.

  17. Provision of water by halite deliquescence for Nostoc commune biofilms under Mars relevant surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by findings of new mineral related water sources for organisms under extremely dry conditions on Earth we studied in an interdisciplinary approach the water sorption behaviour of halite, soil component and terrestrial Nostoc commune biofilm under Mars relevant environmental conditions. Physicochemical methods served for the determination of water sorption equilibrium data and survival of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilm samples with different water contents was assured by recultivation. Deliquescence of halite provides liquid water at temperatures <273 K and may serve as water source on Mars during the morning stabilized by the CO2 atmosphere for a few hours. The protecting biofilm of N. commune is rather hygroscopic and tends to store water at lower humidity values. Survival tests showed that a large proportion of the Alphaproteobacteria dominated microbiota associated to N. commune is very desiccation tolerant and water uptake from saturated NaCl solutions (either by direct uptake of brine or adsorption of humidity) did not enhance recultivability in long-time desiccated samples. Still, a minor part can grow under highly saline conditions. However, the salinity level, although unfavourable for the host organism, might be for parts of the heterotrophic microbiota no serious hindrance for growing in salty Mars-like environments.

  18. Effect of cultural conditions on antrodin C production by basidiomycete Antrodia camphorata in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongjun; Wang, Yuanlong; Zhang, Bobo; Xu, Ganrong; Ai, Lianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a medicinal fungus and antrodin C is one of the main bioactive components of A. camphorata in the submerged fermentation (SmF). To optimize the culture conditions, the factors influencing the production of antrodin C by A. camphorata under solid-state fermentation (SSF) were investigated in this study. Different solid substrates and external nitrogen sources were tested for their efficiency in producing antrodin C. The response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the influence of several variables, namely, the concentrations of soybean meal, initial moisture content, and inoculum density on antrodin C production in solid-state fermentation. The experimental results show that the optimum fermentation medium for antrodin C production by A. camphorata was composed of 0.578 g soybean meal, 0.05 g Na2 HPO4 , 0.05 g MgSO4 for 100 g rice, with 51.83% initial moisture content, 22 day culture time, 28 °C culture temperature, and 35.54% inoculum density. At optimized conditions, 6,617.36 ± 92.71 mg kg(-1) yield of antrodin C was achieved. Solid-state fermentation is one good cultural method to improve the production of antrodin C by A. camphorata. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Radiological protection, from regulation to culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to encourage a high degree of radiation protection of workers and members of public, the relevant authorities and operators in the nuclear industry should urge those responsible for radiation protection to do more than is required bu the pure and simple application of the regulations related to dose limitation compliance with the technical standards and specifications a necessary but not sufficient condition for quality in radiation protection. Reaching this quality objective is not a matter of forcing improvements bu a regulatory policy of reducing dose limits, but of promoting a real radiation protection culture based on an approach of optimizing the radiation protection formalized at the lightest level of the company structure, as well as on the professionalism individual responsibility, motivation and the freely consented to and understood participation of those involved in implementing this policy. The spread of a radiation protection culture encourages the deliberate adoption in everyday practice of behaviour likely to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, as law as reasonably achievable, and to give life to the 'spirit' of the regulations in the best conditions. This article intends to show that the need to diffuse a radiation protection culture, particularly based on the principle of optimization, is inspired both by the philosophy behind the system recommended by the behavioural and incentive approach implied by the optimization principle. Special attention will be given to the fundamentals likely to contribute in a definition of radiation protection culture. (author)

  20. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  1. How relevant are Hofstede's dimensions for inter-cultural studies? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management is co-published by NISC (Pty) Ltd and Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group ... Hofstede's research among current international business students ..... the different cultures of the students' country of origin.

  2. FGF1 and IGF1-conditioned 3D culture system promoted the amplification and cancer stemness of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Rui; Yu, Wenwen; Ye, Yingnan; Cheng, Yanan; Han, Lei; Dong, Li; Chen, Yongzi; Wei, Xiyin; Yu, Jinpu

    2017-12-01

    Lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) are considered as the cellular origins of metastasis and relapse of lung cancer. However, routine two-dimensional culture system (2D-culture) hardly mimics the growth and functions of LCSCs in vivo and therefore significantly decreases the stemness activity of LCSCs. In this study, we constructed a special BME-based three-dimensional culture system (3D-culture) to amplify LCSCs in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells and found 3D-culture promoted the enrichment and amplification of LCSCs in A549 cells displaying higher proliferation potential and invasion activity, but lower apoptosis. The expression and secretion levels of FGF1 and IGF1 were dramatically elevated in 3D-culture compared to 2D-culture. After growing in FGF1 and IGF1-conditioned 3D-culture, the proportion of LCSCs with specific stemness phenotypes in A549 cells significantly increased compared to that in conventional 3D suspension culture system. Further results indicated that FGF1 and IGF1 promoted the amplification and cancer stemness of LCSCs dependent on MAPK signaling pathway. Our data firstly established a growth factors-conditioned 3D-culture for LCSCs and demonstrated the effects of FGF1 and IGF1 in promoting the enrichment and amplification of LCSCs which might provide a feasible cell model in vitro for both mechanism study and translational research on lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  4. 3D Cell Culture in a Self-Assembled Nanofiber Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wen Chai

    Full Text Available The development and utilization of three-dimensional cell culture platforms has been gaining more traction. Three-dimensional culture platforms are capable of mimicking in vivo microenvironments, which provide greater physiological relevance in comparison to conventional two-dimensional cultures. The majority of three-dimensional culture platforms are challenged by the lack of cell attachment, long polymerization times, and inclusion of undefined xenobiotics, and cytotoxic cross-linkers. In this study, we review the use of a highly defined material composed of naturally occurring compounds, hyaluronic acid and chitosan, known as Cell-Mate3DTM. Moreover, we provide an original measurement of Young's modulus using a uniaxial unconfined compression method to elucidate the difference in microenvironment rigidity for acellular and cellular conditions. When hydrated into a tissue-like hybrid hydrocolloid/hydrogel, Cell-Mate3DTM is a highly versatile three-dimensional culture platform that enables downstream applications such as flow cytometry, immunostaining, histological staining, and functional studies to be applied with relative ease.

  5. A Novel Microgravity Simulator Applicable for Three-Dimensional Cell Culturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Simon L.; Richard, Stéphane; Walther, Isabelle; Furrer, Reinhard; Anderegg, Roland; Sekler, Jörg; Egli, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPM) were introduced decades ago to simulate microgravity. Since then numerous experiments have been carried out to study its influence on biological samples. The machine is valued by the scientific community involved in space relevant topics as an excellent experimental tool to conduct pre-studies, for example, before sending samples into space. We have developed a novel version of the traditional RPM to broaden its operative range. This novel version has now become interesting to researchers who are working in the field of tissue engineering, particularly those interested in alternative methods for three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing. The main modifications concern the cell culture condition and the algorithm that controls the movement of the frames for the nullification of gravity. An incubator was integrated into the inner frame of the RPM allowing precise control over the cell culture environment. Furthermore, several feed-throughs now allow a permanent supply of gas like CO 2. All these modifications substantially improve conditions to culture cells; furthermore, the rewritten software responsible for controlling the movement of the frames enhances the quality of the generated microgravity. Cell culture experiments were carried out with human lymphocytes on the novel RPM model to compare the obtained response to the results gathered on an older well-established RPM as well as to data from space flights. The overall outcome of the tests validates this novel RPM for cell cultivation under simulated microgravity conditions.

  6. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, Diana; Sosef, Marc; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Although ritual plant use is now recognised both for its socio-cultural importance and for its contribution to nature conservation, its potential pharmacological effects remain overlooked. Aim of the study Our objective was to see whether ritual plant use could have

  7. Synchronized mammalian cell culture: part I--a physical strategy for synchronized cultivation under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Oscar Platas; Jandt, Uwe; Becker, Max; Bahnemann, Janina; Pörtner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Conventional analysis and optimization procedures of mammalian cell culture processes mostly treat the culture as a homogeneous population. Hence, the focus is on cell physiology and metabolism, cell line development, and process control strategy. Impact on cultivations caused by potential variations in cellular properties between different subpopulations, however, has not yet been evaluated systematically. One main cause for the formation of such subpopulations is the progress of all cells through the cell cycle. The interaction of potential cell cycle specific variations in the cell behavior with large-scale process conditions can be optimally determined by means of (partially) synchronized cultivations, with subsequent population resolved model analysis. Therefore, it is desirable to synchronize a culture with minimal perturbation, which is possible with different yield and quality using physical selection methods, but not with frequently used chemical or whole-culture methods. Conventional nonsynchronizing methods with subsequent cell-specific, for example, flow cytometric analysis, can only resolve cell-limited effects of the cell cycle. In this work, we demonstrate countercurrent-flow centrifugal elutriation as a useful physical method to enrich mammalian cell populations within different phases of a cell cycle, which can be further cultivated for synchronized growth in bioreactors under physiological conditions. The presented combined approach contrasts with other physical selection methods especially with respect to the achievable yield, which makes it suitable for bioreactor scale cultivations. As shown with two industrial cell lines (CHO-K1 and human AGE1.HN), synchronous inocula can be obtained with overall synchrony degrees of up to 82% in the G1 phase, 53% in the S phase and 60% in the G2/M phase, with enrichment factors (Ysync) of 1.71, 1.79, and 4.24 respectively. Cells are able to grow with synchrony in bioreactors over several cell cycles. This

  8. Radiation transformation studies: are they relevant to radiation protection problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.B.; Mothersill, C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the difficulties of studying radio-carcinogenesis in humans, several in vitro systems are utilised. These cell transformation systems are reviewed, with particular emphasis on their relevance to human radiological protection problems. Most available systems use rodent fibroblasts. These are discussed in detail. Attention is drawn to certain artefacts which can cause problems with interpretation of such data. The relevance of these systems is questionable because of species differences, particularly concerning life span and because most human tumours are derived from epithelial cells. New epithelial culture systems and three-dimensional tissue culture methods becoming available are discussed in the light of their potential for addressing radiation protection problems. (author)

  9. Corporate Culture in Developing Professionalism of Human Resources in LEMHANNAS RI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Theresia Ekowati Purwaning Utami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study by Lemhannas RI, this work attempts to discuss the relation of professionalism of human resources and corporate culture. The change and growth of corporate culture in an organization requires strong commitment from those involved in it. Corporate culture should be continually developed through a persistent socialization, partnership and supervision programs. The right management of human resources, which follows the basis of management, will give a great contribution when applied well. In addition, policy evaluation on corporate culture should include structural and cultural aspects and be conducted in several steps, including identification of goals and ways of completing them, measurement of relevant information activities, analysis of data for a conclusion and recommendation. The recommendation is a crucial step that needs a special attention for the restructurization of culture for better results. This study concludes that interaction between structure and culture is a key and pre-condition for the growth of a better and conducive corporate culture for accomplishing the goals of organization.

  10. The Use of Starter Cultures in Traditional Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Laranjo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starter cultures could play an essential role in the manufacture of traditional cured meat products. In order to achieve objectives related to meat products’ quality and safety improvement, the selection of particular strains constituting a starter culture should be carried out in the context of its application, since its functionality will depend on the type of sausage and process conditions. Also, strain selection should comply with particular requirements to warrant safety. The aim of the current review is to update the knowledge on the use of starter cultures in traditional meat products, with focus on dry-fermented products. In this manuscript, we will try to give answers to some relevant questions: Which starter cultures are used and why? Why are LAB used? What are their role and their specific mode of action? Which other groups of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi are used as starter cultures and how do they act? A particular revision of omics approach regarding starter cultures is made since the use of these techniques allows rapid screening of promising wild strains with desirable functional characteristics, enabling the development of starter cultures better adapted to the meat matrix.

  11. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes the differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes under the designated culturing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Henggui

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is of growing interest to develop novel approaches to initiate differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, a native circulating bioactive lipid metabolite, plays a role in differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs into cardiomyocytes. We also developed an engineered cell sheet from these HUMSCs derived cardiomyocytes by using a temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PIPAAm cell sheet technology. Methods Cardiomyogenic differentiation of HUMSCs was performed by culturing these cells with either designated cardiomyocytes conditioned medium (CMCM alone, or with 1 μM S1P; or DMEM with 10% FBS + 1 μM S1P. Cardiomyogenic differentiation was determined by immunocytochemical analysis of expression of cardiomyocyte markers and patch clamping recording of the action potential. Results A cardiomyocyte-like morphology and the expression of α-actinin and myosin heavy chain (MHC proteins can be observed in both CMCM culturing or CMCM+S1P culturing groups after 5 days' culturing, however, only the cells in CMCM+S1P culture condition present cardiomyocyte-like action potential and voltage gated currents. A new approach was used to form PIPAAm based temperature-responsive culture surfaces and this successfully produced cell sheets from HUMSCs derived cardiomyocytes. Conclusions This study for the first time demonstrates that S1P potentiates differentiation of HUMSCs towards functional cardiomyocytes under the designated culture conditions. Our engineered cell sheets may provide a potential for clinically applicable myocardial tissues should promote cardiac tissue engineering research.

  12. 21st Century Cell Culture for 21st Century Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-17

    There is no good science in bad models. Cell culture is especially prone to artifacts. A number of novel cell culture technologies have become more broadly available in the 21st century, which allow overcoming limitations of traditional culture and are more physiologically relevant. These include the use of stem-cell derived human cells, cocultures of different cell types, scaffolds and extracellular matrices, perfusion platforms (such as microfluidics), 3D culture, organ-on-chip technologies, tissue architecture, and organ functionality. The physiological relevance of such models is further enhanced by the measurement of biomarkers (e.g., key events of pathways), organ specific functionality, and more comprehensive assessment cell responses by high-content methods. These approaches are still rarely combined to create microphysiological systems. The complexity of the combination of these technologies can generate results closer to the in vivo situation but increases the number of parameters to control, bringing some new challenges. In fact, we do not argue that all cell culture needs to be that sophisticated. The efforts taken are determined by the purpose of our experiments and tests. If only a very specific molecular target to cell response is of interest, a very simple model, which reflects this, might be much more suited to allow standardization and high-throughput. However, the less defined the end point of interest and cellular response are, the better we should approximate organ- or tissue-like culture conditions to make physiological responses more probable. Besides these technologic advances, important progress in the quality assurance and reporting on cell cultures as well as the validation of cellular test systems brings the utility of cell cultures to a new level. The advancement and broader implementation of Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) is key here. In toxicology, this is a major prerequisite for meaningful and reliable results, ultimately

  13. Nanoparticle growth and surface chemistry changes in cell-conditioned culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michaela; Hodges, Nikolas J; Whitwell, Harry; Tyrrell, Jess; Cangul, Hakan

    2015-02-05

    When biomolecules attach to engineered nanoparticle (ENP) surfaces, they confer the particles with a new biological identity. Physical format may also radically alter, changing ENP stability and agglomeration state within seconds. In order to measure which biomolecules are associated with early ENP growth, we studied ENPs in conditioned medium from A549 cell culture, using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and linear trap quadrupole electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Two types of 100 nm polystyrene particles (one uncoated and one with an amine functionalized surface) were used to measure the influence of surface type. In identically prepared conditioned medium, agglomeration was visible in all samples after 1 h, but was variable, indicating inter-sample variability in secretion rates and extracellular medium conditions. In samples conditioned for 1 h or more, ENP agglomeration rates varied significantly. Agglomerate size measured by DLS was well correlated with surface sequestered peptide number for uncoated but not for amine coated polystyrene ENPs. Amine-coated ENPs grew much faster and into larger agglomerates associated with fewer sequestered peptides, but including significant sequestered lactose dehydrogenase. We conclude that interference with extracellular peptide balance and oxidoreductase activity via sequestration is worthy of further study, as increased oxidative stress via this new mechanism may be important for cell toxicity. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  15. Cultural Memory Banking in Preservice Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Vicente C.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2012-12-01

    This study focused on the exemplification of cultural memory banking as an ethnographic tool to understand cultural practices relevant to science teaching and learning in a rural coastal village in a central island of the Philippine archipelago. Using the collaborative action ethnography as a research methodology, 10 prospective science teachers and a science teacher educator/doctoral candidate formed a research team and documented community funds of knowledge relevant to science teaching and learning through their participation in a Community Immersion course. The study employed the use of the cultural memory banking as a meditational tool to analyze, make sense of, and represent interview, focus-group discussion, and observation data, among others, for the development of culturally relevant science lessons. Originally used as an anthropological tool to preserve cultural knowledge associated with the cultivation of indigenous plant varieties, the cultural memory banking, as adapted in science education, was used, both as a data collection and analytic tool, to locate relevant science at the intersection of community life. The research team developed a cultural memory bank exemplar, "Ginamos: The Stinky Smell that Sells," to highlight the learning experiences and meaning-making process of those involved in its development. Dilemmas and insights on the development and use of cultural memory banking were discussed with respect to issues of knowledge mining and mainstreaming of indigenous/local funds of knowledge, troubling the privileged position of Western-inspired nature of science.

  16. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin B/sub 12/ production from whey and simulation of optimal cultural conditions. [Propionibacterium shermanii 566

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwaha, S S; Kennedy, J F; Sethi, R P

    1983-12-01

    The paper reports Propionibacterium shermanii 566 to be an efficient culture, among the three propionibacteria tested, for vitamin B/sub 12/ fermentation from whey. On the basis of the results observed and expected values calculated from simulated equations, 24 hours old inoculum, 5 mg/iron and 4% whey lactose concentration were selected as the optimal values for the fermentation. Carbon mixture of whey lactose and D-glucose (3.6% + 0.4%) and supplementation of whey with 0.5% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/ further enhanced the yield of the metabolite. Under optimum cultural conditions, the organism metabolized 5.12 ..mu..g vitamin B/sub 12//ml culture, subsequently reducing the BOD by 90%, thereby reducing the pollution problems.

  18. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  19. Influence of culture conditions and medium composition on the production of antibacterial compounds by marine Serratia sp. WPRA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzade, Mahtab; Yahya, Nur Ain; Shayesteh, Fatemeh; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of culture conditions and medium components on production of antibacterial compounds by Serratia sp. WPRA3 (JX020764) which was isolated from marine water of Port Dickson, Malaysia. Biochemical, morphological, and molecular characteristics suggested that the isolate is a new candidate of the Serratia sp. The isolate showed strong antimicrobial activity against fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This bacterium exhibited optimum antibacterial compounds production at 28°C, pH 7 and 200 rev/min aeration during 72 h of incubation period. Highest antibacterial activity was obtained when sodium chloride (2%), yeast extract (0.5%), and glucose concentration (0.75%) were used as salt, nitrogen, and carbon sources respectively. Different active fractions were obtained by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Flash Column Chromatography (FCC) from ethyl acetate crude extracts namely OCE and RCE in different culture conditions, OCE (pH 5, 200 rev/min) and RCE (pH 7/without aeration). In conclusion, the results suggested different culture conditions have a significant impact on the types of secondary metabolites produced by the bacterium.

  20. The influence of serum substituents on serum-free Vero cell conditioned culture media manufactured from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium in mouse embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Seon; Kim, Ju-Hwan; Seo, Young-Seok; Yang, Jung-Bo; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Ki-Hwan

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influences of supplementation of the serum substituents and available period of serum-free Vero cell conditioned media (SF-VCM) manufactured from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium cultured with Vero cells for in vitro development of mouse preimplantation embryos. A total of 1,099 two-cell embryos collected from imprinting control region mice were cultured in SF-VCM with 10% and 20% human follicular fluid (hFF), serum substitute supplement (SSS), and serum protein substitute (SPS). Development of embryos was observed every 24 hours. Results between different groups were analyzed by chi-square test, and considered statistically significant when P-value was less than 0.05. The rates of embryonic development cultured in SF-VCM supplemented with serum substituents were significantly higher compare with serum-free group (P media up to 4 weeks did not affect on embryonic development.

  1. Cultural Collision and Collusion: Reflections on Hip-Hop Culture, Values, and Schools. Educational Psychology: Critical Pedagogical Perspectives. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    "Cultural Collision and Collusion" addresses the complexity of problems that surround youth culture and school culture. By broadening the scholarly dialogue and examining and disseminating relevant research to practitioners, the book seeks to provide insight into youth culture and some manifestations of popular culture (e.g., hip-hop). In…

  2. Studies of mineralization in tissue culture: optimal conditions for cartilage calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Stiner, D.; Doty, S. B.; Binderman, I.; Leboy, P.

    1992-01-01

    The optimal conditions for obtaining a calcified cartilage matrix approximating that which exists in situ were established in a differentiating chick limb bud mesenchymal cell culture system. Using cells from stage 21-24 embryos in a micro-mass culture, at an optimal density of 0.5 million cells/20 microliters spot, the deposition of small crystals of hydroxyapatite on a collagenous matrix and matrix vesicles was detected by day 21 using X-ray diffraction, FT-IR microscopy, and electron microscopy. Optimal media, containing 1.1 mM Ca, 4 mM P, 25 micrograms/ml vitamin C, 0.3 mg/ml glutamine, no Hepes buffer, and 10% fetal bovine serum, produced matrix resembling the calcifying cartilage matrix of fetal chick long bones. Interestingly, higher concentrations of fetal bovine serum had an inhibitory effect on calcification. The cartilage phenotype was confirmed based on the cellular expression of cartilage collagen and proteoglycan mRNAs, the presence of type II and type X collagen, and cartilage type proteoglycan at the light microscopic level, and the presence of chondrocytes and matrix vesicles at the EM level. The system is proposed as a model for evaluating the events in cell mediated cartilage calcification.

  3. A Cultural Immersion Field Experience: Examining Pre-Service Music Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    With the intent of informing music teacher education practices and developing more culturally responsive and relevant teachers, the purpose of this research was to explore pre-service music teachers' understandings of culture and diversity, and to examine the impact of a short-term cultural immersion field experience on pre-service music teachers'…

  4. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  5. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  6. Taijin kyofusho and social anxiety and their clinical relevance in indonesia and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriends, N; Pfaltz, M C; Novianti, P; Hadiyono, J

    2013-01-01

    Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears. TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms. TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  7. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje eVriends

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. Method: 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears.Results: TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms.Discussion: TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  8. Incorporation of tritium into planctonic algae in a continuous culture under dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Kistner, G.; Emeis, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the purpose of modelling the ecologic behaviour of organically bound tritium (OBT) in aquatic food chains under dynamic conditions (i.e. by changing tritium concentrations), a continuous culture of algae was chosen to which tritium was added by a single injection as tritiated water (HTO). The culture was working according to the chemostatic principle where the concentration of cells is in a steady state. Therefore, according to the growth of algae, tritium is incorporated into the organic substance, while in a parallel process HTO and algae are eliminated from the system at the same rate. From these two processes of first-order kinetics, a special function resulted for the concentration process of OBT in the fermenter that is well known in the field of drug kinetics. Initially it increases until it reaches a maximum value where it intersects the elimination curve of HTO, then decreases and asymptotically approaches the time axis - in the same manner as the elimination curve - only at a superior level. A comparison of this theoretically calculated function with the concentration actually found shows that also under dynamic conditions tritium is undergoing discrimination because of isotopic effects up to a ratio of I=0.80. The calculation of the ratios R=(OBT)/(HTO) in the continuous culture by comparing the function for OBT with the elimination curve for HTO shows a linear increase of R-values during the experiment. At maximum tritium concentration in the algae, the ratio becomes greater than one, and at the end of the experiment it reaches a value of about 6. However, by extrapolating to a time of 40 half-lives, when the absolute concentration of HTO has already decreased by a factor of 10 -12 , a ratio of about 25 was found. The discrimination enters the estimation of R-values at a constant factor of 0.80. (author)

  9. Cultural influences on the neural correlate of moral decision making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Glover, Gary H; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-02-01

    This study compares the neural substrate of moral decision making processes between Korean and American participants. By comparison with Americans, Korean participants showed increased activity in the right putamen associated with socio-intuitive processes and right superior frontal gyrus associated with cognitive control processes under a moral-personal condition, and in the right postcentral sulcus associated with mental calculation in familiar contexts under a moral-impersonal condition. On the other hand, American participants showed a significantly higher degree of activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) associated with conflict resolution under the moral-personal condition, and in the right medial frontal gyrus (MFG) associated with simple cognitive branching in non-familiar contexts under the moral-impersonal condition when a more lenient threshold was applied, than Korean participants. These findings support the ideas of the interactions between the cultural background, education, and brain development, proposed in the field of cultural psychology and educational psychology. The study introduces educational implications relevant to moral psychologists and educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lab-on-a-brane: A novel physiologically relevant planar arterial model to study transendothelial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Karim Ismail

    The tremendous quality of life impact notwithstanding, cardiovascular diseases and Cancer add up to over US$ 700bn each year in financial costs alone. Aging and population growth are expected to further expand the problem space while drug research and development remain expensive. However, preclinical costs can be substantially mitigated by substituting animal models with in vitro devices that accurately model human cardiovascular transport. Here we present a novel physiologically relevant lab-on-a-brane that simulates in vivo pressure, flow, strain, and shear waveforms associated with normal and pathological conditions in large and small blood vessels for studying molecular transport across the endothelial monolayer. The device builds upon previously demonstrated integrated microfluidic loop design by: (a) introducing nanoscale pores in the substrate membrane to enable transmembrane molecular transport, (b) transforming the substrate membrane into a nanofibrous matrix for 3D smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissue culture, (c) integrating electrospinning fabrication methods, (d) engineering an invertible sandwich cell culture device architecture, and (e) devising a healthy co-culture mechanism for human arterial endothelial cell (HAEC) monolayer and multiple layers of human smooth muscle cells (HSMC) to accurately mimic arterial anatomy. Structural and mechanical characterization was conducted using confocal microscopy, SEM, stress/strain analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Transport was characterized using FITC-Dextran hydraulic permeability protocol. Structure and transport characterization successfully demonstrate device viability as a physiologically relevant arterial mimic for testing transendothelial transport. Thus, our lab-on-a-brane provides a highly effective and efficient, yet considerably inexpensive, physiologically relevant alternative for pharmacokinetic evaluation; possibly reducing animals used in pre-clinical testing, clinical trials cost from false

  11. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) as a Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (CRP) in Qatar: a Perspective from Grade 10 Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.; Qureshi, Sheila S.; Vishnumolakala, Venkat Rao; Ojeil, Joseph; Mocerino, Mauro; Southam, Daniel C.

    2018-04-01

    Educational reforms in Qatar have seen the implementation of inquiry-based learning and other student-centred pedagogies. However, there have been few efforts to investigate how these adopted western pedagogies are aligned with the high context culture of Qatar. The study presented in this article highlights the implementation of a student-centred intervention called Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in selected independent Arabic government schools in Qatar. The study followed a theoretical framework composed of culturally relevant pedagogical practice and social constructivism in teaching and learning. A mixed method research design involving experimental and comparison groups was utilised. Carefully structured learning materials when implemented systematically in a POGIL intervention helped Grade 10 science students improve their perceptions of chemistry learning measured from pre- and post-tests as measured by the What Is Happening In this Class (WIHIC) questionnaire and school-administered achievement test. The study further provided school-based mentoring and professional development opportunities for teachers in the region. Significantly, POGIL was found to be adaptable in the Arabic context.

  12. An intervertebral disc whole organ culture system to investigate proinflammatory and degenerative disc disease condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gernot; Liu, Yishan; Geries, Janna; Zhou, Zhiyu; Kubosch, David; Südkamp, Norbert; Richards, R Geoff; Alini, Mauro; Grad, Sibylle; Li, Zhen

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different disease initiators of degenerative disc disease (DDD) within an intervertebral disc (IVD) organ culture system and to understand the interplay between inflammation and degeneration in the early stage of DDD. Bovine caudal IVDs were cultured within a bioreactor for up to 11 days. Control group was cultured under physiological loading (0.02-0.2 MPa; 0.2 Hz; 2 hr/day) and high glucose (4.5 g/L) medium. Detrimental loading (0.32-0.5 MPa, 5 Hz; 2 hr/day) and low glucose (2 g/L) medium were applied to mimic the condition of abnormal mechanical stress and limited nutrition supply. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was injected into the nucleus pulposus (100 ng per IVD) as a proinflammatory trigger. TNF-α combined with detrimental loading and low glucose medium up-regulated interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8 gene expression in disc tissue, nitric oxide, and IL-8 release from IVD, which indicate a proinflammatory effect. The combined initiators up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase 1 gene expression, down-regulated gene expression of Type I collagen in annulus fibrosus and Type II collagen in nucleus pulposus, and reduced the cell viability. Furthermore, the combined initiators induced a degradative effect, as indicated by markedly higher glycosaminoglycan release into conditioned medium. The combination of detrimental dynamic loading, nutrient deficiency, and TNF-α intradiscal injection can synergistically simulate the proinflammatory and degenerative disease condition within DDD. This model will be of high interest to screen therapeutic agents in further preclinical studies for early intervention and treatment of DDD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Use of Culturally Relevant Videos To Draw Attention to Cultural Diversity: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Charlene M.; Rivera, Lourdes M.; Collins, Laura J.

    2000-01-01

    Videos celebrating Hispanic Heritage and Black History month were presented at two regionally and ethnically distinct college campuses. Students (N=62) were interviewed regarding what attracted them to the video. Students of color commented positively on the cultural content as well as the musical and dance components of each video. Presents…

  14. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution. PMID:28989786

  15. Inferring individual-level processes from population-level patterns in cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Wilder, Bryan; Fortunato, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Our species is characterized by a great degree of cultural variation, both within and between populations. Understanding how group-level patterns of culture emerge from individual-level behaviour is a long-standing question in the biological and social sciences. We develop a simulation model capturing demographic and cultural dynamics relevant to human cultural evolution, focusing on the interface between population-level patterns and individual-level processes. The model tracks the distribution of variants of cultural traits across individuals in a population over time, conditioned on different pathways for the transmission of information between individuals. From these data, we obtain theoretical expectations for a range of statistics commonly used to capture population-level characteristics (e.g. the degree of cultural diversity). Consistent with previous theoretical work, our results show that the patterns observed at the level of groups are rooted in the interplay between the transmission pathways and the age structure of the population. We also explore whether, and under what conditions, the different pathways can be distinguished based on their group-level signatures, in an effort to establish theoretical limits to inference. Our results show that the temporal dynamic of cultural change over time retains a stronger signature than the cultural composition of the population at a specific point in time. Overall, the results suggest a shift in focus from identifying the one individual-level process that likely produced the observed data to excluding those that likely did not. We conclude by discussing the implications for empirical studies of human cultural evolution.

  16. Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubal Dena B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is to review the literature to date on sex and hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD with an exclusive focus on interpreting the relevance of findings to the human condition. To this end, we highlight advances in AD and in sex and hormone biology, discuss what these advances mean for merging the two fields, review the current mouse model literature, raise major unresolved questions, and offer a research framework that incorporates human reproductive aging for future studies aimed at translational discoveries in this important area. Unraveling human relevant pathways in sex and hormone-based biology may ultimately pave the way to novel and urgently needed treatments for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Do Cultural Attitudes Matter? The Role of Cultural Orientation on Academic Self-Concept among Black/African College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendi S.; Chung, Y. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between academic self-concept and noncognitive variables (i.e., Africentric cultural orientation, academic class level, gender, and involvement in culturally relevant school and community activities) among Black/African college students. Results indicated that Africentric cultural orientation and academic…

  18. Understanding the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2016-04-01

    A generalized framework for multi-component liquid injections is presented to understand and predict the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions. The analysis focuses on the thermodynamic structure and the immiscibility state of representative gas-liquid interfaces. The most modern form of Helmholtz energy mixture state equation is utilized which exhibits a unique and physically consistent behavior over the entire two-phase regime of fluid densities. It is combined with generalized models for non-linear gradient theory and for liquid injections to quantify multi-component two-phase interface structures in global thermal equilibrium. Then, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized which determines the interfacial species distribution as a consequence. This minimal free energy state is demonstrated to validate the underlying assumptions of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization. However, under certain engine-relevant conditions for which corroborating experimental data are presented, this requirement for interfacial thermal equilibrium becomes unsustainable. A rigorously derived probability density function quantifies the ability of the interface to develop internal spatial temperature gradients in the presence of significant temperature differences between injected liquid and ambient gas. Then, the interface can no longer be viewed as an isolated system at minimal free energy. Instead, the interfacial dynamics become intimately connected to those of the separated homogeneous phases. Hence, the interface transitions toward a state in local equilibrium whereupon it becomes a dense-fluid mixing layer. A new conceptual view of a transitional liquid injection process emerges from a transition time scale analysis. Close to the nozzle exit, the two-phase interface still remains largely intact and more classic two-phase processes prevail as a consequence. Further downstream, however, the transition to dense-fluid mixing

  19. Understanding the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahms, Rainer N., E-mail: Rndahms@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    A generalized framework for multi-component liquid injections is presented to understand and predict the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions. The analysis focuses on the thermodynamic structure and the immiscibility state of representative gas-liquid interfaces. The most modern form of Helmholtz energy mixture state equation is utilized which exhibits a unique and physically consistent behavior over the entire two-phase regime of fluid densities. It is combined with generalized models for non-linear gradient theory and for liquid injections to quantify multi-component two-phase interface structures in global thermal equilibrium. Then, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized which determines the interfacial species distribution as a consequence. This minimal free energy state is demonstrated to validate the underlying assumptions of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization. However, under certain engine-relevant conditions for which corroborating experimental data are presented, this requirement for interfacial thermal equilibrium becomes unsustainable. A rigorously derived probability density function quantifies the ability of the interface to develop internal spatial temperature gradients in the presence of significant temperature differences between injected liquid and ambient gas. Then, the interface can no longer be viewed as an isolated system at minimal free energy. Instead, the interfacial dynamics become intimately connected to those of the separated homogeneous phases. Hence, the interface transitions toward a state in local equilibrium whereupon it becomes a dense-fluid mixing layer. A new conceptual view of a transitional liquid injection process emerges from a transition time scale analysis. Close to the nozzle exit, the two-phase interface still remains largely intact and more classic two-phase processes prevail as a consequence. Further downstream, however, the transition to dense-fluid mixing

  20. Investigation of erosion mechanisms and erosion products in divertor armour materials under conditions relevant to elms and mitigated disruptions in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.M.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Klimov, N.S.; Kovalenko, D.V.; Moskaleva, A.A.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Landman, I.S.; Poznyak, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten were irradiated by intense plasma streams at plasma gun facilities MK-200UG and QSPA-T. The targets were tested by plasma loads relevant to Edge Localised Modes (ELM) and mitigated disruptions in ITER. Onset condition of material erosion and properties of erosion products have been studied

  1. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Jennifer E.; Morse, H. Ruth; Xu, Jinsheng; Donaldson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  2. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Jennifer E., E-mail: Jennifer2.May@uwe.ac.uk; Morse, H. Ruth, E-mail: Ruth.Morse@uwe.ac.uk; Xu, Jinsheng, E-mail: Jinsheng.Xu@uwe.ac.uk; Donaldson, Craig, E-mail: Craig.Donaldson@uwe.ac.uk

    2012-09-15

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  3. Optimization of cell adhesion on mg based implant materials by pre-incubation under cell culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumeit, Regine; Möhring, Anneke; Feyerabend, Frank

    2014-05-05

    Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture.

  4. Optimization of Cell Adhesion on Mg Based Implant Materials by Pre-Incubation under Cell Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Willumeit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture.

  5. The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Combat Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares ] To order the complete...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11081 TITLE: The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Combat Medicine...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 25-1 The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to

  6. Definition of culture conditions for Arxula adeninivorans, a rational basis for studying heterologous gene expression in this dimorphic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckmann, Christoph; Palmen, Thomas G; Schroer, Kirsten; Kunze, Gotthard; Gellissen, Gerd; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    The yeast Arxula adeninivorans is considered to be a promising producer of recombinant proteins. However, growth characteristics are poorly investigated and no industrial process has been established yet. Though of vital interest for strain screening and production processes, rationally defined culture conditions remain to be developed. A cultivation system was evolved based on targeted sampling and mathematical analysis of rationally designed small-scale cultivations in shake flasks. The oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer rates were analyzed as conclusive online parameters. Oxygen limitation extended cultivation and led to ethanol formation in cultures supplied with glucose. Cultures were inhibited at pH-values below 2.8. The phosphorus demand was determined as 1.55 g phosphorus per 100 g cell dry weight. Synthetic SYN6 medium with 20 g glucose l(-1) was optimized for cultivation in shake flasks by buffering at pH 6.4 with 140 mmol MES l(-1). Optimized SYN6 medium and operating conditions provided non-limited cultivations without by-product formation. A maximal specific growth rate of 0.32 h(-1) and short fermentations of 15 h were achieved. A pH optimum curve was derived from the oxygen transfer rates of differently buffered cultures, showing maximal growth between pH 2.8 and 6.5. Furthermore, it was shown that the applied medium and cultivation conditions were also suitable for non-limiting growth and product formation of a genetically modified A. adeninivorans strain expressing a heterologous phytase.

  7. Cultural variation is part of human nature : Literary universals, context-sensitivity, and "shakespeare in the bush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2003-12-01

    In 1966, Laura Bohannan wrote her classic essay challenging the supposition that great literary works speak to universal human concerns and conditions and, by extension, that human nature is the same everywhere. Her evidence: the Tiv of West Africa interpret Hamlet differently from Westerners. While Bohannan's essay implies that cognitive universality and cultural variation are mutually exclusive phenomena, adaptationist theory suggests otherwise. Adaptive problems ("the human condition") and cognitive adaptations ("human nature") are constant across cultures. What differs between cultures is habitat: owing to environmental variation, the means and information relevant to solving adaptive problems differ from place to place. Thus, we find differences between cultures not because human minds differ in design but largely because human habitats differ in resources and history. On this view, we would expect world literature to express both human universals and cultural particularities. Specifically, we should expect to find literary universality at the macro level (e.g., adaptive problems, cognitive adaptations) and literary variation at the micro level (e.g., local solutions to adaptive problems).

  8. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  9. Physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoparticles under physiological conditions: effect of culture media components and particle surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatisson, Julien; Quevedo, Ivan R; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products has increased substantially over the last few years. Some research has been conducted in order to determine whether or not such materials are cytotoxic, but questions remain regarding the role that physiological media and sera constituents play in ENP aggregation or stabilization. In this study, several characterization methods were used to evaluate the particle size and surface potential of 6 ENPs suspended in a number of culture media and in the presence of different culture media constituents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed for size determinations. Results were interpreted on the basis of ENP surface potentials evaluated from particle electrophoretic mobilities (EPM). Measurements made after 24h of incubation at 37°C showed that the cell culture medium constituents had only moderate impact on the physicochemical properties of the ENP, although incubation in bovine serum albumin destabilized the colloidal system. In contrast, most of the serum proteins increased colloidal stabilization. Moreover, the type of ENP surface modification played a significant role in ENP behavior whereby the complexity of interactions between the ENPs and the medium components generally decreased with increasing complexity of the particle surface. This investigation emphasizes the importance of ENP characterization under conditions that are representative of cell culture media or physiological conditions for improved assessments of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultural Conditions in Diversity Management: The Case Study of the Corporation Operating in the Transportation and Logistics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Czerniachowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present selected aspects of organi­sational culture and human capital management, and indicate the deter­minants of cultural conditions in diversity management based on the corporation A. A modern enterprise, in order to remain competitive, poses challenges to its employees to encourage their need for learning, explora­tion of knowledge and the change along with the changing environment. In order to achieve the aim of the paper, the following operational objec­tives have been formulated: (1 to discuss the concepts of organisational culture and cultural factors of changes in the organisation on the example of the corporation operating in the transportation and logistics industry; (2 to identify mutual correlations between organisational culture and diversity management; (3 to assess the impact of cultural factors related to the base of diversity management in the corporation A. The analysis is based on the findings from questionnaire surveys, detailed interviews with the top management and source materials collected from the corporation.

  11. Transformation Strategies for the Operation and Management of Local Cultural Museums in Nantou County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Hsu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Affected by economic recession, reductions in government subsidies, and changes in visitors’ needs and contributions, museums in Taiwan have begun to strengthen their recreational and economic functions. Nantou, which has 13 museums that showcase local cultural industries, is the county most obviously affected by declining tourist numbers and reduced cultural consumption and cultural tourism. Through surveys and interviews, this study examines the current conditions of operational management of these venues and proposes feasible strategies for their future development. Specifically, it reveals that the operation and management of Nantou’s local cultural museums are negatively impacted by the lack of (1 relevant management experience, (2 inter-museum coordination and integration, and (3 financing mechanisms. The recommended development strategies include the establishment of cross-disciplinary value-added platforms.

  12. Promoting Teachers' Implementation of Culturally and Contextually Relevant Class-Wide Behavior Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; Cathcart, Sadie C.; DeFouw, Emily R.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George

    2018-01-01

    Disproportionality in disciplinary actions for certain racial groups has been well documented for several decades. In an effort to support all students, specifically those who are culturally and linguistically diverse, many have called for adopting a multitiered system of support framework that is considerate of student culture and school context.…

  13. Assessing the importance of food for improving noble crayfish culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusch J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Captive breeding and crayfish culture are considered important measures in species protection activities. Thus, knowledge on optimal feeding of crayfish in captivity is needed in order to secure minimal mortality and prevent detrimental effects to health. To optimize conditions of crayfish prior to subsequent stocking, feeding trials were conducted with the aim of investigating the connection between food intake, food preference and temperature under near natural conditions. During a five-month period, noble crayfish were fed on fish, carrots, algae and chironomid-larvae according to a pre-defined rotation system, whereby the ambient water temperature ranged from 5 °C to 13 °C, following the natural temperature regime. The results of these feeding trials demonstrate a direct correlation between rising temperature and increasing food intake for water temperatures exceeding 8 °C. Food intake is further influenced by the variety of food items available at any one time. The results also confirm that Astacus astacus has a strong preference for fish and that alternation of food types has an impact on consumption. Our results prompt the following recommendations for optimized feeding conditions of crayfish in captivity prior to their release: (1 a balanced diet containing not only plant tissue but also a significant proportion of animal tissue and (2 the amount of available food must be adjusted according to the carapace length of the crayfish.

  14. Experiences in assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on several Safety Culture self-assessment applications in nuclear organisations, the paper stresses relevant aspects to be considered when programming an assessment of this type. Reasons for assessing Safety Culture, basic principles to take into account, necessary resources, the importance of proper statistical analyses, the feed-back of results, and the setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture are discussed. (author)

  15. Studies on level of cytokines and expression of connexin43 in tumor and normal cells in culture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asati, V.; Pandey, B.N.

    2016-01-01

    Factors secreted from the tumor cells in culture medium have been known to facilitate the growth of fresh cultures and also to affect the cellular radio-sensitivity. Moreover, expression of gap junction proteins like connexin-43 is known as a key player in cell survival and proliferation. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effects of conditioned medium on the growth of respective tumor/normal cells and the expression of connexin-43 in these cells

  16. Athletes’ careers across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia

    This symposium will introduce a project developed under the auspices of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) in an effort to inspire and support the development of culturally sensitive theoretical frameworks and research methodologies in career studies and career assistance services...... around the world. The cultural approach to the theory and practice of sport psychological research has been recently articulated in two edited books, Cultural Sport Psychology (Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009) and The Cultural Turn in Sport Psychology (Ryba, Schinke, & Tenenbaum, 2010). The presenters...... in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...

  17. QUESTIONS OF REINTRODUCTION AND CULTURE OF CULTIVATION OF HERBS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat’yana Yur’evna Petrishcheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to studying of an ecological condition of some rare herbs of the Lipetsk region on the example of the Thyme of a complex of actions, cretaceous for the purpose of development, for repatriation of a look in natural habitats and possibilities of introduction of the Thyme to culture. Look populations under natural conditions are found. The analysis of their biological and ecological state is carried out.

  18. JOURNALISTIC COMPETENCE AS A CONDITION OF FORMATION EROTIC CULTURE IN NATIONAL JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Evgenevich Petropavlovsky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article:- analysis of the professional competence of  Russian journalists in the erotic industry;- a comparison of the factors affecting the development of professionalism in the erotic themes in Russian journalism;- formulation of the criteria to be met by a modern journalist while covering an erotic theme.The novelty of this work lies in the fact that the value of erotic themes in modern journalism is a problem little studied by science.In the article the following conclusions.The importance of competence journalist on erotic themes in coverage erotic sphere is a scientific problem.The question of raising the level of training of journalists in educational institutions in view of specialization is very relevant in Russia.Covering and analysis erotic culture of modern Russia should only highly competent media professionals.In modern Russia journalism often refers to the erotic category just for economic gain. Professional and competent journalist can find a compromise between the financial side and the quality coverage of the problem.

  19. CULTURE, CULTURE LEARNING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES: TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Levy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple. Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and thereby to provide a valid and useful point of departure for thinking about the practice of culture learning and teaching with new technologies. The referenced literature draws from a broad range of disciplines and definitions of culture. In Part Two, five projects are chosen to represent relevant technologies currently in use for culture learning: e-mail, chat, a discussion forum and a Web-based project. Each project is used to illustrate facets of the culture concept discussed in Part One with a view to identifying key elements within a pedagogical framework that can help us respond effectively to the challenge of culture learning and teaching utilising new technologies. Thus the goal is to align fundamental qualities of the culture concept with specific pedagogical designs, tasks and technologies.

  20. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  1. The influence of fluid shear stress on the expression of Cbfa1 in MG-63 cells cultured under different gravitational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Cao, X. S.; Yang, Z.; Sun, X. Q.

    2008-12-01

    AuthorPurposeThis study was aimed to explore the effect of flow shear stress on the expression of Cbfa1 in human osteosarcoma cells and to survey its functional alteration in simulated microgravity. After culture for 48 h in two different gravitational environments, i.e. 1 G terrestrial gravitational condition and simulated microgravity condition, human osteosarcoma cells (MG-63) were treated with 0.5 or 1.5 Pa fluid shear stress (FSS) in a flow chamber for 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. The total RNA in cells was isolated. RT-PCR analysis was made to examine the gene expression of Cbfa1. The total protein of cells was extracted and the expression of Cbfa1 protein was detected by means of Western blotting. ResultsMG-63 cells cultured in 1 G condition reacted to FSS treatment with an enhanced expression of Cbfa1. Compared with no-FSS control group, Cbfa1 mRNA expression increased significantly at 30 and 60 min with the treatment of FSS ( P cells cultured in simulated microgravity by using clinostat, the expression of Cbfa1 was significantly different between 1 G and simulated microgravity conditions at each test time ( P cultured in simulated microgravity, Cbfa1 mRNA expression increased significantly at 30 and 60 min with the treatment of FSS ( P osteosarcoma cells. And this inducible function of FSS was adversely affected by simulated microgravity.

  2. Data from two different culture conditions of Thalassiosira weissflogii diatom and from cleaning procedures for obtaining monodisperse nanostructured biosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Vona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms microalgae produce biosilica nanoporous rigid outershells called frustules that exhibit an intricate nanostructured pore pattern. In this paper two specific Thalassiosira weissflogii culture conditions and size control procedures during the diatoms growth are described. Data from white field and fluorescence microscopy, evaluation of cell densities and cell parameters (k value and R value according to cell culture conditions are listed. Different cleaning procedures for obtaining bare frustules are described. In addition, FTIR and spectrofluorimetric analyses of cleaned biosilica are shown.The data are related to the research article “Chemically Modified Diatoms Biosilica for Bone Cell Growth with Combined Drug-Delivery and Antioxidant Properties” [1]. Keywords: Biosilica, Diatoms, Cell growth, Biomaterials

  3. Modern education of future teacher of physical culture in the conditions of informatization of educational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The informatization of the educational space is determined by the organizational, scientific-technical, educational processes, which update the creation of the unified information and educational space for the comprehensive use of information technologies in educational process of a future teacher of physical culture at the higher school. Stated that the integration and expansion of the educational space of the orients the higher school not only in the preparation of the literate student on the issues of information culture, but also to help the younger generation in the mastery of basic social abilities and skills in conditions of informatization of the educational space.

  4. Bad, mad and sad: rethinking the human condition in childhood with special relevance to moral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    Identifying the territory, between what is subject to change and what is not in human functioning, is an extremely important strategy for limiting the range in which wisdom (discretion, judgment and the management of uncertainty) must be exercised. Over the last 30 years, child and adolescent psychiatry has seen an immense shift from the 'cannot change' category to the 'change category' and an even bigger shift to the territory between changeable and unchangeable. The question of the capacity for change in humans and the more traditional notion of 'the human condition' are in need of re-evaluation. The possibility that there might be elements of the human condition that are beyond good and evil is especially relevant to the psychiatric treatment of children and young people. The notion of the human condition in children and adolescents becomes problematic if an essential element of the human condition is the irreducibly unchangeable, as the essence of youth is change and the capacity to change. The notion of personality disorder, and the persistence of disturbed behaviour that the diagnosis implies, are completely out of place in childhood and adolescence. There is a telling discrepancy between the small number of mental health treatment facilities and the large number of juvenile detention facilities in Australia. The problem is that we can achieve change, and there is little political or community will to enable it to happen. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  6. TRADITIONAL PHYSICAL CULTURE OF BELARUSIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamak, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Relevance. The study of the history of physical culture makes it possible to reveal the laws of its development, the relationship with socio-political and economic factors. The aim of the research is to substantiate the essence, types and structure of the traditional physical culture of Belarusians. Results of the Research. Traditional physical culture has been the main type of physical culture of the Belarusian people for about a thousand years. It is regarded as the activity of the society ...

  7. Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-24

    Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution. Furthermore, cultural and genetic evolution can interact with one another and influence both transmission and selection. This interaction requires theoretical treatments of gene-culture coevolution and dual inheritance, in addition to purely cultural evolution. In addition, cultural evolutionary theory is a natural component of studies in demography, human ecology, and many other disciplines. Here, we review the core concepts in cultural evolutionary theory as they pertain to the extension of biology through culture, focusing on cultural evolutionary applications in population genetics, ecology, and demography. For each of these disciplines, we review the theoretical literature and highlight relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the societal implications of the study of cultural evolution and of the interactions of humans with one another and with their environment.

  8. Investigations on the biokinetics of carbon 14 in algae cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, W.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of 14 C by Scenedesmus quadricauda is quantitatively investigated by simulation models of radio ecological relevance. Due to the complexing of the procedures in the natural ecosystem, it was only possible to consider idealized conditions. The batch culture ressembles the conditons of still waters or relatively still waters without notable water exchange. The effect of the 14 C enrichment, as well as the drastic carbon reduction in the substrate as a result of algae growth, was avoided in the modified batch culture under conditions of simultaneous substrate diffusion by means of a permeation system. The 14 C and 12 C uptake of the cells thus took place solely under the conditions of constant concentration in the culture medium. The consequences for flowing water resulting from a nuclear power plant accident are to be simulated for the extent of the 14 C uptake by green algae using the continuous culture model with dynamic 14 C exposure. The continuous infusion of 14 C in the continuous culture corresponds to the possible cases where 14 C escapes into a flowing water at a constant rate over a long period of time, whether this may be via chronical release from a nuclear power plant or by 'fallout' resulting from nuclear arms testing. The results shown lead to the conclusion that the emission of 14 C to the environment, which according to prognoses will be considerably higher after the year 2000, presents a serious radioactivity potential which man and environment will have to live with should these developments continue and the prognoses come true. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to zinc: decreased culturability, increased exopolysaccharide production, and formation of resilient biofilms under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events.

  10. Effects of medium components and culture conditions on mycelial biomass and the production of bioactive ingredients in submerged culture of Xylaria nigripes (Ascomycetes), a Chinese medicinal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Zhi; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Fang-Yi; Chang, Shih-Liang; Hsieh, Changwei; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Ho, Wai-Jane; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The optimal culture conditions were investigated to maximize the production of mycelial biomass and bioactive ingredients in submerged cultivation of Xylaria nigripes, a Chinese medicinal fungus. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to explore the effects of medium components, including carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources, and initial pH of the medium and environmental factors, such as culture temperature and rotation speed, on mycelial growth and production of bioactive ingredients. The results indicated that the optimal culture temperature and rotation speed were 25°C and 100 rpm in a medium with 20 g fructose, 6 g yeast extract, and 2 g magnesiun sulfate heptahydrate as carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively, in 1 L distilled water with an initial medium pH of 5.5. With optimal medium components and conditions of cultivation, the maximal production of mycelial biomass was 6.64 ± 0.88 g/L, with maximal production of bioactive ingredients such as extracellular polysaccharides (2.36 ± 0.18 mg/mL), intracellular polysaccharides (2.38 ± 0.07 mg/g), adenosine (43.27 ± 2.37 mg/g), total polyphenols (36.57 ± 1.36 mg/g), and triterpenoids (31.29 ± 1.17 mg/g) in a shake flask culture. These results suggest that different bioactive ingredients including intracellular polysaccharides, adenosine, total polyphenols and triterpenoids in mycelia and extracellular polysaccharides in broth can be obtained from one simple medium for submerged cultivation of X. nigripes.

  11. Topical application of bFGF on acid-conditioned and non-conditioned dentin: effect on cell proliferation and gene expression in cells relevant for periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Regina Godoy Rocha

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodontal regeneration is still a challenge in terms of predictability and magnitude of effect. In this study we assess the biological effects of combining chemical root conditioning and biological mediators on three relevant cell types for periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods: Bovine dentin slices were conditioned with 25% citric acid followed by topical application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, 10 and 50 ng. We used ELISA to assess the dynamics of bFGF release from the dentin surface and RT-qPCR to study the expression of Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap and fibronectin by periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC grown onto these dentin slices. We also assessed the effects of topical application of bFGF on cell proliferation by quantification of genomic DNA. Results: Acid conditioning significantly increased the release of bFGF from dentin slices. Overall, bFGF application significantly (p<0.05 increased cell proliferation, except for BMSC grown on non-conditioned dentin slices. Dentin substrate discretely increased expression of Col1a1 in all cell types. Expression of Runx2, Col1a1 and Fn was either unaffected or inhibited by bFGF application in all cell types. We could not detect expression of the target genes on BMSC grown onto conditioned dentin. Conclusion: Acid conditioning of dentin improves the release of topically-applied bFGF. Topical application of bFGF had a stimulatory effect on proliferation of PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and BMSC, but did not affect expression of Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap and fibronectin by these cells.

  12. Culture Change in the English Classroom: An Anthropological Approach to the Education of Culturally Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Helen Louise Kuster

    This library study investigated the problems of (1) what anthropological generalizations are of greatest value for English teachers of culturally disadvantaged students, and (2) how these generalizations are particularly relevant for classroom use. The theoretical and empirical research literature was surveyed and relevant sections were…

  13. Humanized medium (h7H) allows long-term primary follicular thyroid cultures from human normal thyroid, benign neoplasm, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Susana B; Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E R; Garcia-Rendueles, Angela R; Rodrigues, Joana S; Perez-Romero, Sihara; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Suarez-Fariña, Maria; Barreiro, Francisco; Czarnocka, Barbara; Senra, Ana; Lareu, Maria V; Rodriguez-Garcia, Javier; Cameselle-Teijeiro, Jose; Alvarez, Clara V

    2013-06-01

    Mechanisms of thyroid physiology and cancer are principally studied in follicular cell lines. However, human thyroid cancer lines were found to be heavily contaminated by other sources, and only one supposedly normal-thyroid cell line, immortalized with SV40 antigen, is available. In primary culture, human follicular cultures lose their phenotype after passage. We hypothesized that the loss of the thyroid phenotype could be related to culture conditions in which human cells are grown in medium optimized for rodent culture, including hormones with marked differences in its affinity for the relevant rodent/human receptor. The objective of the study was to define conditions that allow the proliferation of primary human follicular thyrocytes for many passages without losing phenotype. Concentrations of hormones, transferrin, iodine, oligoelements, antioxidants, metabolites, and ethanol were adjusted within normal homeostatic human serum ranges. Single cultures were identified by short tandem repeats. Human-rodent interspecies contamination was assessed. We defined an humanized 7 homeostatic additives medium enabling growth of human thyroid cultures for more than 20 passages maintaining thyrocyte phenotype. Thyrocytes proliferated and were grouped as follicle-like structures; expressed Na+/I- symporter, pendrin, cytokeratins, thyroglobulin, and thyroperoxidase showed iodine-uptake and secreted thyroglobulin and free T3. Using these conditions, we generated a bank of thyroid tumors in culture from normal thyroids, Grave's hyperplasias, benign neoplasms (goiter, adenomas), and carcinomas. Using appropriate culture conditions is essential for phenotype maintenance in human thyrocytes. The bank of thyroid tumors in culture generated under humanized humanized 7 homeostatic additives culture conditions will provide a much-needed tool to compare similarly growing cells from normal vs pathological origins and thus to elucidate the molecular basis of thyroid disease.

  14. Darwinism and cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2012-08-05

    Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles.

  15. Alpha power gates relevant information during working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2014-04-23

    Human working memory (WM) is inherently limited, so we must filter out irrelevant information in our environment or our mind while retaining limited important relevant contents. Previous work suggests that neural oscillations in the alpha band (8-14 Hz) play an important role in inhibiting incoming distracting information during attention and selective encoding tasks. However, whether alpha power is involved in inhibiting no-longer-relevant content or in representing relevant WM content is still debated. To clarify this issue, we manipulated the amount of relevant/irrelevant information using a task requiring spatial WM updating while measuring neural oscillatory activity via EEG and localized current sources across the scalp using a surface Laplacian transform. An initial memory set of two, four, or six spatial locations was to be memorized over a delay until an updating cue was presented indicating that only one or three locations remained relevant for a subsequent recognition test. Alpha amplitude varied with memory maintenance and updating demands among a cluster of left frontocentral electrodes. Greater postcue alpha power was associated with the high relevant load conditions (six and four dots cued to reduce to three relevant) relative to the lower load conditions (four and two dots reduced to one). Across subjects, this difference in alpha power was correlated with condition differences in performance accuracy. In contrast, no significant effects of irrelevant load were observed. These findings demonstrate that, during WM updating, alpha power reflects maintenance of relevant memory contents rather than suppression of no-longer-relevant memory traces.

  16. Keratinocytes propagated in serum-free, feeder-free culture conditions fail to form stratified epidermis in a reconstituted skin model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lamb

    Full Text Available Primary human epidermal stem cells isolated from skin tissues and subsequently expanded in tissue culture are used for human therapeutic use to reconstitute skin on patients and to generate artificial skin in culture for academic and commercial research. Classically, epidermal cells, known as keratinocytes, required fibroblast feeder support and serum-containing media for serial propagation. In alignment with global efforts to remove potential animal contaminants, many serum-free, feeder-free culture methods have been developed that support derivation and growth of these cells in 2-dimensional culture. Here we show that keratinocytes grown continually in serum-free and feeder-free conditions were unable to form into a stratified, mature epidermis in a skin equivalent model. This is not due to loss of cell potential as keratinocytes propagated in serum-free, feeder-free conditions retain their ability to form stratified epidermis when re-introduced to classic serum-containing media. Extracellular calcium supplementation failed to improve epidermis development. In contrast, the addition of serum to commercial, growth media developed for serum-free expansion of keratinocytes facilitated 3-dimensional stratification in our skin equivalent model. Moreover, the addition of heat-inactivated serum improved the epidermis structure and thickness, suggesting that serum contains factors that both aid and inhibit stratification.

  17. Optimization and effects of different culture conditions on growth of Halomicronema hongdechloris – a filamentous cyanobacterium containing chlorophyll f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong eLi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A chlorophyll f containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris (H. hongdechloris was isolated from a stromatolite cyanobacterial community. However, the extremely slower growth rate of H. hongdechloris culture became a critical factor, hindering the research on this newly isolated cyanobacterium and the investigation of chlorophyll f-photosynthesis. Therefore, optimizing H. hongdechloris culture conditions has become an essential requirement for future research. This work investigated the effects of various culture conditions, essential nutrients and light environments to determine the optimal growth conditions for H. hongdechloris and the biosynthetic rate of chlorophyll f. Based on the total chlorophyll concentration, an optimal growth rate of 0.22 ± 0.02 day-1 (doubling time: 3.1 ± 0.3 days was observed when cells were grown under continuous illumination with far-red light with an intensity of 20 µE at 32°C in modified K+ES seawater (pH 8.0 with additional supplements of 11.75 mM NaNO3 and 0.15 mM K2HPO4. High performance liquid chromatography on H. hongdechloris pigments confirmed that chlorophyll a is the major chlorophyll and chlorophyll f constitutes approximately 10% of the total chlorophyll from cells grown under far-red light. Fluorescence confocal image analysis demonstrated changes of photosynthetic membranes and the distribution of photopigments in response to different light conditions. The total photosynthetic oxygen evolution yield per cell showed no changes under different light conditions, which confirms the involvement of chlorophyll f in oxygenic photosynthesis. The implications of the presence of chlorophyll f in H. hongdechloris and its relationship to light environment are discussed.

  18. Geological conditions for lateral sealing of active faults and relevant research methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers worked a lot on geologic conditions for lateral sealing of faults, but none of their studies took the effect of internal structures of fault zones on the lateral sealing capacity of faults. Therefore, the lateral sealing of active faults has rarely been discussed. In this paper, based on the analysis of the composition and structure characteristics of fault fillings, the geological conditions for lateral sealing of active faults and relevant research method were discussed in reference to the lateral sealing mechanisms of inactive fault rocks. It is shown that, in order to satisfy geologically the lateral sealing of active faults, the faults should be antithetic and the faulted strata should be mainly composed of mudstone, so that the displacement pressure of fault fillings is higher than or equal to that of reservoir rocks in oil and gas migration block. Then, a research method for the lateral sealing of active faults was established by comparing the displacement pressure of fillings in the fault with that of reservoir rocks in oil and gas migration block. This method was applied to three antithetic faults (F1, F2 and F3 in No. 1 structure of the Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin. As revealed, the fillings of these three active faults were mostly argillaceous at the stage of natural gas accumulation (the late stage of Neogene Minghuazhen Fm sedimentation, and their displacement pressures were higher than that of reservoir rocks in the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm (F1 and F3 and the Neogene Guantao Fm (F2. Accordingly, they are laterally sealed for natural gas, which is conducive to the accumulation and preservation of natural gas. Industrial gas flow has been produced from the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm in Well Np101, the Guantao Fm in Well Np1-2 and the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm in Well Np1, which is in agreement with the analysis result. It is verified that this method is feasible for investigating the

  19. Effects of nanomolar cadmium concentrations on water plants - comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the effects of the highly toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) on the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum are investigated on the biochemical and biophysical level. The experiments were carried out using environmentally relevant conditions, i.e. light and temperature followed a sinusoidal cycle, a low biomass to water ratio resembled the situation in oligotrophic lakes and a continuous exchange of the defined nutrient solution ensured that metal uptake into the plant...

  20. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  1. Re-enacting the relevance of the moral codes of the un-shrined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also they maintain social justice, give cultural identity and encourage patriotism. The work will, identify the moral codes and analyze the methods of enforcing them. It will also delve into how the gods are appeased. The socio-cultural significance would be treated for a clearer view of the relevance of the moral codes of the ...

  2. Macrophage involvement affects matrix stiffness-related influences on cell osteogenesis under three-dimensional culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Rui-Xin; Xu, Xin-Yue; Wang, Jia; Yin, Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2018-04-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the physicochemical properties of biomaterials exert profound influences on stem cell fate decisions. However, matrix-based regulation selected through in vitro analyses based on a given cell population do not genuinely reflect the in vivo conditions, in which multiple cell types are involved and interact dynamically. This study constitutes the first investigation of how macrophages (Mφs) in stiffness-tunable transglutaminase cross-linked gelatin (TG-gel) affect the osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). When a single cell type was cultured, low-stiffness TG-gels promoted BMMSC proliferation, whereas high-stiffness TG-gels supported cell osteogenic differentiation. However, Mφs in high-stiffness TG-gels were more likely to polarize toward the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype. Using either conditioned medium (CM)-based incubation or Transwell-based co-culture, we found that Mφs encapsulated in the low-stiffness matrix exerted a positive effect on the osteogenesis of co-cultured BMMSCs. Conversely, Mφs in high-stiffness TG-gels negatively affected cell osteogenic differentiation. When both cell types were cultured in the same TG-gel type and placed into the Transwell system, the stiffness-related influences of Mφs on BMMSCs were significantly altered; both the low- and high-stiffness matrix induced similar levels of BMMSC osteogenesis. Although the best material parameter for synergistically affecting Mφs and BMMSCs remains unknown, our data suggest that Mφ involvement in the co-culture system alters previously identified material-related influences on BMMSCs, such as matrix stiffness-related effects, which were identified based on a culture system involving a single cell type. Such Mφ-stem cell interactions should be considered when establishing proper matrix parameter-associated cell regulation in the development of biomimetic biomaterials for regenerative applications. The substrate stiffness

  3. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) shoot cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Bates, Rick; Carlson, John

    2015-01-01

    The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2) evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3) assess the effects of adding a pH stabili...

  4. Irish International Cultural and Educational Exchange: Two Models for Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy.......An account of the cultural and educational foreign policies of Denmark and Canada and a discussion of their relevance for the future of Irish foreign policy....

  5. Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS have a clinically relevant analgesic effect on different pain conditions? A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Naka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS is a standard therapy used in different painful conditions such as low back pain, diabetic polyneuropathy or arthrosis. However, literature reviews focusing on the effects and the clinical implication of this method in various painful conditions are yet scarce. The purpose of this literature research was to determine, whether TENS provides an analgesic effect on common painful conditions in clinical practice. Literature research was performed using three data bases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Database, focusing on papers published in the space of time from 2007 to 2012. Papers were evaluated from two reviewers independently concerning the clinical outcome, taking account for the level of external evidence according to the German Cochrane levels of evidence (Ia – IV. 133 papers of varying methodological quality dealing with different painful conditions were selected in total. A clinically relevant analgesic effect was described in 90 painful conditions (67%. In 30 painful states (22%, the outcome was inconclusive due to the study design. No significant analgesic effect of TENS was observed in 15 painful conditions (11%. The vast majority of the papers were classified as Cochrane evidence level Ib (n = 64; 48%, followed by level Ia (n = 23; 17%, level III (n = 18; 14%, level IV (n = 15; 11%, level IIb (n = 10; 8% and level IIa (n = 3; 2%. Most of the studies revealed an analgesic effect in various painful conditions, confirming the usefulness of TENS in clinical practice.

  6. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  7. Effects of cell culture conditions on antibody N-linked glycosylation--what affects high mannose 5 glycoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacis, Efren; Yu, Marcella; Autsen, Jennifer; Bayer, Robert; Li, Feng

    2011-10-01

    The glycosylation profile of therapeutic antibodies is routinely analyzed throughout development to monitor the impact of process parameters and to ensure consistency, efficacy, and safety for clinical and commercial batches of therapeutic products. In this study, unusually high levels of the mannose-5 (Man5) glycoform were observed during the early development of a therapeutic antibody produced from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, model cell line A. Follow up studies indicated that the antibody Man5 level was increased throughout the course of cell culture production as a result of increasing cell culture medium osmolality levels and extending culture duration. With model cell line A, Man5 glycosylation increased more than twofold from 12% to 28% in the fed-batch process through a combination of high basal and feed media osmolality and increased run duration. The osmolality and culture duration effects were also observed for four other CHO antibody producing cell lines by adding NaCl in both basal and feed media and extending the culture duration of the cell culture process. Moreover, reduction of Man5 level from model cell line A was achieved by supplementing MnCl2 at appropriate concentrations. To further understand the role of glycosyltransferases in Man5 level, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I GnT-I mRNA levels at different osmolality conditions were measured. It has been hypothesized that specific enzyme activity in the glycosylation pathway could have been altered in this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven......-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities....

  9. Evaluation of Culture Conditions for Tannase Production by Aspergillus niger GH1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cruz-Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra- and intracellular tannase production by Aspergillus niger GH1 has been evaluated using submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentation (SSF at different temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C. Effects of initial substrate (tannic acid concentration, incubation time and temperature on tannase production in SSF have been studied. A. niger GH1 produced the highest tannase level (2291 U/L in SSF at 30 °C during the first 20 h of culture at tannic acid concentration of 50 g/L, and under these conditions enzyme production was entirely extracellular. The decline in tannase activity after 20 h of incubation was associated with a concomitant increase in protease activity.

  10. Efficient generation of patient-matched malignant and normal primary cell cultures from clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients: clinically relevant models for research and personalized medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Nazleen C.; Gedye, Craig; Apostoli, Anthony J.; Brown, Kevin R.; Paterson, Joshua; Stickle, Natalie; Robinette, Michael; Fleshner, Neil; Hamilton, Robert J.; Kulkarni, Girish; Zlotta, Alexandre; Evans, Andrew; Finelli, Antonio; Moffat, Jason; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Ailles, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have few therapeutic options, as ccRCC is unresponsive to chemotherapy and is highly resistant to radiation. Recently targeted therapies have extended progression-free survival, but responses are variable and no significant overall survival benefit has been achieved. Commercial ccRCC cell lines are often used as model systems to develop novel therapeutic approaches, but these do not accurately recapitulate primary ccRCC tumors at the genomic and transcriptional levels. Furthermore, ccRCC exhibits significant intertumor genetic heterogeneity, and the limited cell lines available fail to represent this aspect of ccRCC. Our objective was to generate accurate preclinical in vitro models of ccRCC using tumor tissues from ccRCC patients. ccRCC primary single cell suspensions were cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing media or defined serum-free media. Established cultures were characterized by genomic verification of mutations present in the primary tumors, expression of renal epithelial markers, and transcriptional profiling. The apparent efficiency of primary cell culture establishment was high in both culture conditions, but genotyping revealed that the majority of cultures contained normal, not cancer cells. ccRCC characteristically shows biallelic loss of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene, leading to accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and expression of HIF target genes. Purification of cells based on expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a cell surface HIF target, followed by culture in FBS enabled establishment of ccRCC cell cultures with an efficiency of >80 %. Culture in serum-free conditions selected for growth of normal renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transcriptional profiling of ccRCC and matched normal cell cultures identified up- and down-regulated networks in ccRCC and comparison to The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed the clinical validity of our cell cultures. The ability

  11. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Culture conditions and medium components for the production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharides with Paecilomyces japonica in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Jung, Woo Chul; Park, Seok Jae; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the liquid culture conditions were optimized for maximal production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide by Paecilomyces japonica. The effects of medium composition, C/N ratio and physical parameters were investigated. From these experiments, 30 g glucose, 20 g yeast extract, 0.5 g KH2PO4, and 0.1 g CuCl2 2H2O in 1-l distilled water were found to be the most suitable carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively. The optimal temperature, initial pH, agitation, and aeration were determined to be 27°C, uncontrolled pH, 400 rpm, and 1.0 vvm, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the maximum mycelial growth and polysaccharides production were 23.1 g/l and 2.5 g/l, respectively. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Encoding conditions affect recognition of vocally expressed emotions across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Rebecca; Drolet, Matthis; Pirow, Ralph; Scheiner, Elisabeth; Fischer, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed) vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear) were obtained from German radio archives and re-enacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences). Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias toward choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased toward choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation.

  14. Managing culture in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The pap...... through individual sense-making and mutual learning and adjustment as key to the process of cultural negotiation.......The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The paper...... argues that dynamic aspects of culture as enacted by key individual actors and constructed in a given context are far more relevant and critical for the joint venture’s managerial process. With evidence from four Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, the paper proposes a way of managing culture in IJVs...

  15. Integration of Geomatics Techniques for Digitizing Highly Relevant Geological and Cultural Heritage Sites: the Case of San Leo (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, V. A.; Borgatti, L.; Dellapasqua, M.; Mandanici, E.; Spreafico, M. C.; Tini, M. A.; Bitelli, G.

    2017-08-01

    The research activities described in this contribution were carried out at San Leo (Italy). The town is located on the top of a quadrangular rock slab affected by a complex system of fractures and has a wealth of cultural heritage, as evidenced by the UNESCO's nomination. The management of this fragile set requires a comprehensive system of geometrical information to analyse and preserve all the geological and cultural features. In this perspective, the latest Geomatics techniques were used to perform some detailed surveys and to manage the great amount of acquired geometrical knowledge of both natural (the cliff) and historical heritage. All the data were also georeferenced in a unique reference system. In particular, high accurate terrestrial laser scanner surveys were performed for the whole cliff, in order to obtain a dense point cloud useful for a large number of geological studies, among others the analyses of the last rockslide by comparing pre- and post-event data. Moreover, the geometrical representation of the historical centre was performed using different approaches, in order to generate an accurate DTM and DSM of the site. For these purposes, a large scale numerical map was used, integrating the data with GNSS and laser surveys of the area. Finally, many surveys were performed with different approaches on some of the most relevant monuments of the town. In fact, these surveys were performed by terrestrial laser scanner, light structured scanner and photogrammetry, the last mainly applied with the Structure from Motion approach.

  16. Cultural, behavioral, social, and psychological perceptions of saliva: relevance to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sean; Wong, David T

    2006-04-01

    The search for a resource that can be used to detect a broad range of diseases easily and reliably is akin to a search for the diagnostic Holy Grail. Yet, each of us may have inside our mouths, a key to the pathological and disease biomarker library hidden inside our bodies. Saliva--the source of all this information--is the secretory product of glands located in or around the oral cavity. If one could read the stories of diagnostic information present within saliva, then the abundance of information waiting to be found could be comparable to a vast vault of information, such as the Internet. Upon dissection of this data, it would be seen that the source of this information is from saliva's origin as a filtrate of blood, and that the validity of both mediums should be equal. Although one day this may be the view, most people's hold of saliva, current and past cultures, have fared much more diverse meanings to the secretion. Ivan Pavlov's experiments has shown how closely tied salivation is with the thought of food, one of life's primary indulgences. The relationship between salivation and behaviors within our daily lives is undeniable. Yet most people never appreciate the uniqueness of saliva. Throughout the world, saliva carries definite positive and negative connotations, based upon its social, psychological, behavioral, and cultural settings. The thought of saliva may be viewed as grotesque in one population, yet may be the vehicle of blessing in other cultures. Saliva's double nature brings up some interesting cultural, social, behavioral, and psychological points about how saliva is perceived in the world, some of which are subsequently stated in order to present saliva as the spirited fluid it is.

  17. Innovation, Corporate Strategy, and Cultural Context: What Is the Mission for International Business Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijn, Jan; O'Hair, Dan; Weggeman, Mathieu; Ledlow, Gerald; Hall, H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature in the areas of communication and innovation and explores how efforts toward innovative practices are directly related to globalism and business strategy. Focuses on issues associated with national culture, corporate culture, and professional culture that are relevant to strategies for researching business communication…

  18. Encouragement proverbs and their discourse relevance: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proverbs imbue the speaker with the ability to make his or her expressions more flashy and culturally relevant to the topic of discourse. This is the reason why Africans employ them in conversations to accomplish acts which cannot be realised by ordinary words. Be that as it may, certain proverbs in Oghe dialect of Igbo are ...

  19. In vitro conditions for 14C-leucine incorporation into the protein of cultured ovaries of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadai, Toshiaki; Yamashita, Okitsugu

    1980-01-01

    Vitellogenic ovaries of silkworm pupae were incubated in vitro in different media based on the Wyatt's medium to establish an adequate condition for culture of silkworm ovaries. Incorporation of 14 C-leucine into protein fraction was determined to assess the biochemical activity of the ovary. When ovaries were incubated in vitro for a short time by 6 hr, a saturation kinetics of incorporation of the labelled leucine was shown. Sequential substitution of K + ion to Na + ion in the medium had no effect on the incorporation of 14 C-leucine, but Mg 2+ ion appeared to stimulate synthetic activity at more than 10 mM. The activity was not affected at pH range 5.0-7.2. Neither different sugars, nor vitellogenin nor lipoprotein prepared from silkworm haemolymph affected the incorporation of 14 C-leucine, when added into the medium. The synthesis of protein depended upon the developmental stages of the cultured ovaries and was most active in 6-day-old ovary. Ovaries developing in pupal body showed comparable changes in synthetic activity. It is concluded that the chemical composition of the medium does not exert a strict effect on synthetic activity of protein in short-term cultures and the ovaries cultured in vitro maintain the activity comparable with those found in in situ condition. (author)

  20. Stability of SiC-matrix microencapsulated fuel constituents at relevant LWR conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, L. L.; Terrani, K. A.; Katoh, Y.; Silva, C.; Leonard, K. J.; Perez-Bergquist, A. G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses certain key feasibility issues facing the application of SiC-matrix microencapsulated fuels for light water reactor application. Issues addressed are the irradiation stability of the SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix under LWR-relevant irradiation conditions, the presence or extent of reaction of the SiC matrix with zirconium-based cladding, the stability of the inner and outer pyrolytic graphite layers of the TRISO coating system at this uncharacteristically low irradiation temperature, and the state of the particle-matrix interface following irradiation which could possibly affect thermal transport. In the process of determining these feasibility issues microstructural evolution and change in dimension and thermal conductivity was studied. As a general finding the SiC matrix was found to be quite stable with behavior similar to that of CVD SiC. In magnitude the irradiation-induced swelling of the matrix material was slightly higher and irradiation-degraded thermal conductivity was slightly lower as compared to CVD SiC. No significant reaction of this SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix material with Zircaloy was observed. Irradiation of the sample in the 320-360 °C range to a maximum dose of 7.7 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) did not have significant negative impact on the constituent layers of the TRISO coating system. At the highest dose studied, layer structure and interface integrity remained essentially unchanged with good apparent thermal transport through the microsphere to the surrounding matrix.

  1. Manufacturing porcine islets: culture at 22°C has no advantage above culture at 37°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kate R; Martins, Kyra V; Murtaugh, Michael P; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-01-01

    Background The manufacturing process of islets includes a culture step which was originally introduced to ease the logistics of procedures in preparing the graft and transplant recipient. It has been suggested that culture at room temperature has an advantage over culture at 37°C, in part by reducing immunogenicity via preferential elimination of contaminating cells (such as passenger leukocytes) within islets. We investigated this using islets isolated from pancreata of adult pigs. Methods Porcine islets were isolated from three donors and cultured at 37°C for 1 day, and then under three different conditions: 37°C for 6 days (condition A); 22°C for 6 days (condition B); or 22°C for 5 days followed by 37°C for 1 day (condition C). Recovery was assessed by DNA measurement, viability by oxygen consumption rate normalized for DNA (OCR/DNA), and gene expression by RT-PCR for a series of 9 lymphocyte markers, 11 lymphokines and chemokines, and 14 apoptotic and stress markers. Results Post-culture islet recoveries were similar for the three culture conditions. Average OCR/DNA values were 129–159 nmol/min.mgDNA before culture, and 259–291, 204–212, and 207–228 nmol/min•mgDNA, respectively, for culture under conditions A, B, and C, respectively. Irrespective of culture condition, examined gene expression in all three series of lymphocyte markers, lymphokines and chemokines, and apoptotic and stress markers manifested a statistically significant decrease upon culture for 7 days. This decrease was most dramatic for condition A: in particular most of lymphocyte markers showed a >10-fold reduction and also 6 markers in the lymphokine and chemokine series: these reductions are consistent with the elimination of immune cells present within islets during culture. The reduction was less for apoptotic and stress markers. For culture under condition B the reduction in gene expression was less, and culture under condition C resulted in gene expression levels similar

  2. Commentary on “Co-creating Stakeholder and Brand Identities: A Cross-cultural Consumer Perspective”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csaba, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    This commentary raises awareness for the relevance of other cultural dimensions- besides individualism and collectivism - and alternative approaches to cross-cultural research for exploring cultural variations in stakeholders' co-construction of brand identity and their own identities. The author...... influence of various cultures on each other can provide additional, relevant insights into reciprocal identity co-construction processes between brands and stakeholders....

  3. Toward a cogenetic cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way of build......The dialogue between cultural psychology and phenomenological and semiotic philosophy seems to be extremely promising. I have tried to present some relevant aspects of this dialogue and to use them as cornerstones to elaborate a metatheoretical and epistemological discourse about the way...... to account for developmental processes must emerge from a triadic system, rather than following the procedures of a binary logic, in order to have any correspondence between concept building and phenomenological world in psychology. Then, I sketch an epistemological approach called method of complementary...... negation that could help cultural psychology to build more developmental abstract models of very concrete human phenomena....

  4. Biodegradability of carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites under aerobic mixed culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Duc C; Goodwin, David G; Frank, Benjamin P; Bouwer, Edward J; Fairbrother, D Howard

    2018-10-15

    The properties and commercial viability of biodegradable polymers can be significantly enhanced by the incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The environmental impact and persistence of these carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites (CNT/PNCs) after disposal will be strongly influenced by their microbial interactions, including their biodegradation rates. At the end of consumer use, CNT/PNCs will encounter diverse communities of microorganisms in landfills, surface waters, and wastewater treatment plants. To explore CNT/PNC biodegradation under realistic environmental conditions, the effect of multi-wall CNT (MWCNT) incorporation on the biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was investigated using a mixed culture of microorganisms from wastewater. Relative to unfilled PHA (0% w/w), the MWCNT loading (0.5-10% w/w) had no statistically significant effect on the rate of PHA matrix biodegradation. Independent of the MWCNT loading, the extent of CNT/PNC mass remaining closely corresponded to the initial mass of CNTs in the matrix suggesting a lack of CNT release. CNT/PNC biodegradation was complete in approximately 20 days and resulted in the formation of a compressed CNT mat that retained the shape of the initial CNT/PNC. This study suggests that although CNTs have been shown to be cytotoxic towards a range of different microorganisms, this does not necessarily impact the biodegradation of the surrounding polymer matrix in mixed culture, particularly in situations where the polymer type and/or microbial population favor rapid polymer biodegradation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Culture conditions for bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells isolated from blastocysts after external fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Muzi; Wu, Asga; Dorzhin, Sergei; Yue, Qunhua; Ma, Yuzhen; Liu, Dongjun

    2012-01-01

    Although isolation and characterization of embryonic stem cells have been successful in cattle, maintenance of bovine embryonic stem cells in culture remains difficult. In this study, we compared different methods of cell passaging, feeder cell layers and medium conditions for bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells. We found that a murine embryonic fibroblast feeder layer is more suitable for embryonic stem cell-like cells than bovine embryonic fibroblasts. When murine embryonic fibroblasts we...

  6. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 + 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 + 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 + 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 + 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  7. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 ± 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 ± 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 ± 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 ± 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  8. Encoding conditions affect recognition of vocally expressed emotions across cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eJürgens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear were obtained from German radio archives and reenacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences. Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p < .001 and sadness when authentic (z = 6.63, p < .001, replicating previous findings from German populations. German subjects revealed a slight advantage in recognizing emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias towards choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased towards choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation.

  9. The relevance of clinical ethnography: reflections on 10 years of a cultural consultation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominicé Dao, Melissa; Inglin, Sophie; Vilpert, Sarah; Hudelson, Patricia

    2018-01-11

    Training health professionals in culturally sensitive medical interviewing has been widely promoted as a strategy for improving intercultural communication and for helping clinicians to consider patients' social and cultural contexts and improve patient outcomes. Clinical ethnography encourages clinicians to explore the patient's explanatory model of illness, recourse to traditional and alternative healing practices, healthcare expectations and social context, and to use this information to negotiate a mutually acceptable treatment plan. However, while clinical ethnographic interviewing skills can be successfully taught and learned, the "real-world" context of medical practice may impose barriers to such patient-centered interviewing. Creating opportunities for role modeling and critical reflection may help overcome some of these barriers, and contribute to improved intercultural communication in healthcare. We report and reflect on a retrospective analysis of 10 years experience with a "cultural consultation service" (CCS) whose aim is to provide direct support to clinicians who encounter intercultural difficulties and to model the usefulness of clinical ethnographic interviewing for patient care. We analyzed 236 cultural consultation requests in order to identify key patient, provider and consultation characteristics, as well as the cross cultural communication challenges that motivate health care professionals to request a cultural consultation. In addition, we interviewed 51 clinicians about their experience and satisfaction with the CCS. Requests for cultural consultations tended to involve patient care situations with complex social, cultural and medical issues. All patients had a migration background, two-thirds spoke French less than fluently. In over half the cases, patients had a high degree of social vulnerability, compromising illness management. Effective communication was hindered by language barriers and undetected or underestimated patient

  10. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural

  11. Cultural Health Capital on the margins: Cultural resources for navigating healthcare in communities with limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Erin Fanning

    2015-05-01

    Communities struggling with access to healthcare in the U.S. are often considered to be disadvantaged and lacking in resources. Yet, these communities develop and nurture valuable strategies for healthcare access that are underrecognized by health scholars. Combining medical sociology and critical race theory perspectives on cultural capital, this paper examines the health-relevant cultural resources, or Cultural Health Capital, in South Texas Mexican American border communities. Ethnographic data collected during 2011-2013 in Cameron and Hidalgo counties on the U.S.-Mexico border provide empirical evidence for expanding existing notions of health-relevant cultural capital. These Mexican American communities use a range of cultural resources to manage healthcare exclusion and negotiate care in alternative healthcare spaces like community clinics, flea markets and Mexican pharmacies. Navigational, social, familial, and linguistic skills and knowledge are used to access doctors and prescription drugs in these spaces despite social barriers to mainstream healthcare (e.g. cost, English language skills, etc.). Cultural capital used in marginalized communities to navigate limited healthcare options may not always fully counteract healthcare exclusion. Nevertheless, recognizing the cultural resources used in Mexican American communities to facilitate healthcare challenges deficit views and yields important findings for policymakers, healthcare providers, and advocates seeking to capitalize on community resources to improve healthcare access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Viewpoint: Cultural competence and the African American experience with health care: The case for specific content in cross-cultural education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, Arnold R; Ellis, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Achieving cultural competence in the care of a patient who is a member of an ethnic or racial minority is a multifaceted project involving specific cultural knowledge as well as more general skills and attitude adjustments to advance cross-cultural communication in the clinical encounter. Using the important example of the African American patient, the authors examine relevant historical and cultural information as it relates to providing culturally competent health care. The authors identify key influences, including the legacy of slavery, Jim Crow discrimination, the Tuskegee syphilis study, religion's interaction with health care, the use of home remedies, distrust, racial concordance and discordance, and health literacy. The authors propose that the awareness of specific information pertaining to ethnicity and race enhances cross-cultural communication and ways to improve the cultural competence of physicians and other health care providers by providing a historical and social context for illness in another culture. Cultural education, modular in nature, can be geared to the specific populations served by groups of physicians and provider organizations. Educational methods should include both information about relevant social group history as well as some experiential component to emotively communicate particular cultural needs. The authors describe particular techniques that help bridge the cross-cultural clinical communication gaps that are created by patients' mistrust, lack of cultural understanding, differing paradigms for illness, and health illiteracy.

  13. [Detection of biofilm formation by selected pathogens relevant to the food industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilhová-Hrušková, L; Moťková, P; Šilha, D; Vytřasová, J

    2015-09-01

    Detection of biofilm formation by microbial pathogens relevant to the food industry and comparison of biofilm formation under different conditions of culture. The following microorganisms were selected for the study: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter muytjensii, Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli. To detect biofilm formation the microtiter plate assay, as described by Christensen and culture on stainless steel coupons were used. The biofilm forming capacity was confirmed in all microorganisms tested, both on the microtiter plates and stainless steel coupons. Biofilm formation was influenced by the culture medium, material used, and culture duration as well as by the test microorganism. It was found that different species and strains of the same genus differ in biofilm formation. Differences were also found between the collection strains and isolates from the environment. Some bacteria tended to form biofilm more readily on the surface of the polyethylene microtiter plates and less readily on stainless steel coupons while others appeared to have an opposite tendency. Some pathogens were able to increase the planktonic cell density in the initial suspension even by three orders of magnitude within 72 hours while producing plenty of biofilm. The study of biofilm formation by high risk pathogens is of utmost importance, not only to the food industry. From the obtained results, it is evident that bacterial biofilms form rapidly (within 24 hours in the present study). Due to their architecture, these biofilms are difficult to eradicate, and therefore, it is crucial to prevent biofilm formation.

  14. Taking leave from work: the impact of culture on Japanese female nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno-Lewis, Satomi; McAllister, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of nurses' working conditions in Japan, exploring tensions between nurses' rights to take leave from work to fulfil family and personal needs and their actual ability to take such leave. It also considers possible effects of being restricted from taking such leave. Little has been written on the specific needs of nurses who are mothers in the Japanese work environment. Research has focussed on the effects of heavy, stressful workloads and long working hours leading to burnout, death from overwork and suicides in Japanese culture. However, research that considers unique cultural and female issues in Japan affecting nursing work has not been published. Discursive. The paper shows that there are many overlapping, complex issues affecting nurses working in Japan and their needs need to be considered and addressed in order to promote a healthier work environment, as well as a more humanistic environment. Workplace issues are relevant to recruitment and retention and better conditions are likely to improve hospital functioning.

  15. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  16. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblom, Inge, E-mail: inge.lindblom@niku.no

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  17. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  18. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro continuous culture conditions: A comparison of parasite susceptibility and tolerance to anti-malarial drugs throughout the asexual intra-erythrocytic life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M

    2017-12-01

    The continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum is often seen as a means to an end, that end being to probe the biology of the parasite in question, and ultimately for many in the malaria drug discovery arena, to identify means of killing the parasite in order to treat malaria. In vitro continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum is a fundamental requirement when undertaking malaria research where the primary objectives utilise viable parasites of a desired lifecycle stage. This investigation, and resulting data, compared the impact culturing Plasmodium falciparum long term (4 months) in different environmental conditions had on experimental outcomes and thus conclusions. The example presented here focused specifically on the effect culture conditions had on the in vitro tolerance of Plasmodium falciparum to standard anti-malarial drugs, including artemisinin and lumefantrine. Historical data from an independent experiment for 3D7-ALB (5% O 2 ) was also compared with that obtained from this study. We concluded that parasites cultured for several months in media supplemented with a serum substitute such as Albumax II ® or within hyperoxic conditions (21% O 2 ), demonstrate highly variable responses to artemisinin and lumefantrine but not all anti-malarial drugs, when compared to those cultured in human serum in combination with Albumax II ® under normoxic conditions (5% O 2 ) for the parasite. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  20. An Overview on Indications and Chemical Composition of Aromatic Waters (Hydrosols) as Functional Beverages in Persian Nutrition Culture and Folk Medicine for Hyperlipidemia and Cardiovascular Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Moheimani, Seyed Mahmoud; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Etemadfard, Hamed; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2017-01-01

    Hydrosol beverages in Persian nutrition culture and ethnomedicine are the side products of essential oil industry that are used as delicious drinks or safe remedies. To investigate indications and chemical composition of hydrosol beverages for hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular conditions, Fars province was selected as the field of study. Ethnomedical data were gathered by questionnaires. The constituents of hydrosols were extracted with liquid/liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis were used to cluster their constituents and find the relevance of their composition. A literature survey was also performed on plants used to prepare them. Thymol was the major or second major component of these beverages, except for wormwood and olive leaf hydrosols. Based on clustering methods, although some similarities could be found, composition of barberry, will fumitory, dill, and aloe hydrosols have more differences than others. These studies may help in developing some functional beverages or new therapeutics. PMID:29228785

  1. Biomimetic Culture Reactor for Whole-Lung Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman; Rocco, Kevin A; Gheorghe, Ciprian P; Sivarapatna, Amogh; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Balestrini, Jenna L; Raredon, Thomas L; Calle, Elizabeth A; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-01-01

    Decellularized organs are now established as promising scaffolds for whole-organ regeneration. For this work to reach therapeutic practice, techniques and apparatus are necessary for doing human-scale clinically applicable organ cultures. We have designed and constructed a bioreactor system capable of accommodating whole human or porcine lungs, and we describe in this study relevant technical details, means of assembly and operation, and validation. The reactor has an artificial diaphragm that mimics the conditions found in the chest cavity in vivo, driving hydraulically regulated negative pressure ventilation and custom-built pulsatile perfusion apparatus capable of driving pressure-regulated or volume-regulated vascular flow. Both forms of mechanical actuation can be tuned to match specific physiologic profiles. The organ is sealed in an elastic artificial pleura that mounts to a support architecture. This pleura reduces the fluid volume required for organ culture, maintains the organ's position during mechanical conditioning, and creates a sterile barrier allowing disassembly and maintenance outside of a biosafety cabinet. The combination of fluid suspension, negative-pressure ventilation, and physiologic perfusion allows the described system to provide a biomimetic mechanical environment not found in existing technologies and especially suited to whole-organ regeneration. In this study, we explain the design and operation of this apparatus and present data validating intended functions.

  2. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  3. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  4. In vitro culture may be the major contributing factor for transgenic versus nontransgenic proteomic plant differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cátia; Planchon, Sébastien; Serra, Tânia; Chander, Subhash; Saibo, Nelson J M; Renaut, Jenny; Oliveira, M Margarida; Batista, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Identification of differences between genetically modified plants and their original counterparts plays a central role in risk assessment strategy. Our main goal was to better understand the relevance of transgene presence, genetic, and epigenetic changes induced by transgene insertion, and in vitro culture in putative unintended differences between a transgenic and its comparator. Thus, we have used multiplex fluorescence 2DE coupled with MS to characterize the proteome of three different rice lines (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare): a control conventional line (C), an Agrobacterium-transformed transgenic line (Ta) and a negative segregant (NSb). We observed that Ta and NSb appeared identical (with only one spot differentially abundant--fold difference ≥ 1.5), contrasting with the control (49 spots with fold difference ≥ 1.5, in both Ta and NSb vs. control). Given that in vitro culture was the only event in common between Ta and NSb, we hypothesize that in vitro culture stress was the most relevant condition contributing for the observed proteomic differences. MS protein identification support our hypothesis, indicating that Ta and NSb lines adjusted their metabolic pathways and altered the abundance of several stress related proteins in order to cope with in vitro culture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    2008-06-06

    Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997-2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were insignificant). Masculinity

  6. High-flux He+ irradiation effects on surface damages of tungsten under ITER relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu; Liu, Dongping; Hong, Yi; Fan, Hongyu; Ni, Weiyuan; Yang, Qi; Bi, Zhenhua; Benstetter, Günther; Li, Shouzhe

    2016-01-01

    A large-power inductively coupled plasma source was designed to perform the continuous helium ions (He + ) irradiations of polycrystalline tungsten (W) under International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) relevant conditions. He + irradiations were performed at He + fluxes of 2.3 × 10 21 –1.6 × 10 22 /m 2  s and He + energies of 12–220 eV. Surface damages and microstructures of irradiated W were observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study showed the growth of nano-fuzzes with their lengths of 1.3–2.0 μm at He + energies of >70 eV or He + fluxes of >1.3 × 10 22 /m 2  s. Nanometer-sized defects or columnar microstructures were formed in W surface layer due to low-energy He + irradiations at an elevated temperature (>1300 K). The diffusion and coalescence of He atoms in W surface layers led to the growth and structures of nano-fuzzes. This study indicated that a reduction of He + energy below 12–30 eV may greatly decrease the surface damage of tungsten diverter in the fusion reactor.

  7. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes towards ... perceived usefulness, perceived cultural relevance, perceived competence and access to ... and senior phase, completed the Attitudes Towards Computer Scale.

  8. Cultural identity and patient trust among older American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Goins, R Turner; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Garroutte, Eva Marie

    2014-03-01

    Patients' trust in healthcare providers and institutions has been identified as a likely contributor to racial-ethnic health disparities. The likely influence of patients' cultural characteristics on trust is widely acknowledged but inadequately explored. To compare levels of patients' trust in primary care provider (interpersonal trust) with trust in healthcare organizations (institutional trust) among older American Indians (AIs), and determine associations with cultural identity. Patient survey administered following primary care visits. Two-hundred and nineteen American Indian patients ≥ 50 years receiving care for a non-acute condition at two clinics operated by the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. Self-reported sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Trust was measured using three questions about interpersonal trust and one measure of institutional trust; responses ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Finding substantial variation only in institutional trust, we used logistic generalized estimating equations to examine relationships of patient cultural identity with institutional trust. Ninety-five percent of patients reported trusting their individual provider, while only 46 % reported trusting their healthcare institution. Patients who strongly self-identified with an AI cultural identity had significantly lower institutional trust compared to those self-identifying less strongly (OR: 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.4, 0.9). Interpersonal and institutional trust represent distinct dimensions of patients' experience of care that may show important relationships to patients' cultural characteristics. Strategies for addressing low institutional trust may have special relevance for patients who identify strongly with AI culture.

  9. SOME ASPECTS OF THE CONSERVATION OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE OF DAGESTAN REPUBLIC UNDER GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. N. Nabieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Problems of preservation of cultural and natural heritage in the era of globalization, acquiring intensi-ty and penetration in various spheres of human activity in recent decades, are particularly relevant. Republic of Da-gestan is a multi-ethnic region located at the crossroads of world cultures and passed a difficult path of political, so-cio-economic and cultural development. The loss of the heritage can be attributed to one of social disasters, and in its consequences can be compared to the natural disasters on the planet. In this connection, the main aim is to develop proposals for the preservation and use of cultural and natural heritage of the Republic of Dagestan under globalization, a problem that sounds very relevant today. Methods. We used an analytical method to study the problem, based on the study of the scientific sources on heritage conservation in the context of globalization. In addition, we followed the methodology developed by the Russian Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage. Results. In the article we make suggestions that will contribute to the conservation and utilization of cultural and natural heritage of the Republic of Dagestan in the context of globalization. The main task today is to develop the following: 1 long-term strategic policy document for justification of national policies in the field of protection and use of cultural and natural heritage; 2 draft law on measures of state support for the preservation of cultural heritage and heritage man-agement; 3 the priority list of the most endangered and valuable objects of cultural, historical and natural heritage. Conclusions. At the state level, a concept should be developed of preservation of the natural and historical envi-ronment of ethnic groups, ways of life and traditional forms of management, including the creation of socio-cultural programs aimed at improving the living conditions of the indigenous population, the study of its language

  10. Developing Curriculum to Help Students Explore the Geosciences' Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Schoof, J. T.; Therrell, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Even though climate change and an unhealthy environment have a disproportionate affect on persons of color, there is a poor record of diversity in geoscience-related fields where researchers are investigating ways to improve the quality of the environment and human health. This low percentage of representation in the geosciences is equally troubling at the university where we are beginning the third and final year of a project funded through the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG). The purpose of this project is to explore a novel approach to using the social sciences to help students, specifically underrepresented minorities, discover the geosciences' cultural relevance and consider a career in the earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences. To date, over 800 college freshmen have participated in a design study to evaluate the curriculum efficacy of a geoscience reader. Over half of these participants are students of color. The reader we designed allows students to analyze multiple, and sometimes conflicting, sources such as peer-reviewed journal articles, political cartoons, and newspaper articles. The topic for investigation in the reader is the 1995 Chicago Heat Wave, a tragic event that killed over 700 residents. Students use this reader in a core university course required for entering freshmen with low reading comprehension scores on standardized tests. To support students' comprehension, evaluation, and corroboration of these sources, we incorporated instructional supports aligned with the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), reciprocal teaching, historical reasoning, media literacy, and quantitative reasoning. Using a digital format allows students to access multiple versions of the sources they are analyzing and definitions of challenging vocabulary and scientific concepts. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from participating students and their instructors included focus

  11. Cross-Cultural Research and Qualitative Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Liamputtong, Pranee

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural research has become important in this postmodern world where many people have been made, and are still, marginalised and vulnerable by others in more powerful positions like colonial researchers. In this paper, I contend that qualitative research is particularly appropriate for cross-cultural research because it allows us to find answers which are more relevant to the research participants. Cross-cultural qualitative research must be situated within some theoretical frameworks....

  12. Stability of SiC-matrix microencapsulated fuel constituents at relevant LWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Terrani, K.A.; Katoh, Y.; Silva, C.; Leonard, K.J.; Perez-Bergquist, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses certain key feasibility issues facing the application of SiC-matrix microencapsulated fuels for light water reactor application. Issues addressed are the irradiation stability of the SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix under LWR-relevant irradiation conditions, the presence or extent of reaction of the SiC matrix with zirconium-based cladding, the stability of the inner and outer pyrolytic graphite layers of the TRISO coating system at this uncharacteristically low irradiation temperature, and the state of the particle–matrix interface following irradiation which could possibly affect thermal transport. In the process of determining these feasibility issues microstructural evolution and change in dimension and thermal conductivity was studied. As a general finding the SiC matrix was found to be quite stable with behavior similar to that of CVD SiC. In magnitude the irradiation-induced swelling of the matrix material was slightly higher and irradiation-degraded thermal conductivity was slightly lower as compared to CVD SiC. No significant reaction of this SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix material with Zircaloy was observed. Irradiation of the sample in the 320–360 °C range to a maximum dose of 7.7 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) did not have significant negative impact on the constituent layers of the TRISO coating system. At the highest dose studied, layer structure and interface integrity remained essentially unchanged with good apparent thermal transport through the microsphere to the surrounding matrix

  13. [Human papillomavirus infection and its correlates with clinically relevant gynecological and obstetric conditions: A cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hernández, Daniel; Beltrán-Lagunes, Luis; Brito-Aranda, Leticia; López-Hernández, Maria de la Luz

    2016-08-05

    To analyze the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the possible epidemiological association with conditions of clinical relevance in women. A cross-sectional study from Mexico City was conducted from January 2012 to December 2014. HPV molecular detection was performed on cervical samples. Data were analyzed with appropriated statistic tests. A total of 1,604 females (median 47, interquartile range 38-54) were analyzed. Global prevalence of infection for any HPV is 9.91% (95% CI 8.6-11.3). An association between infection with 16-HPV and number of abortions (NA) (OR=1.427; 95% CI 1.091-1.866), by univariate regression model (UVRM) was estimated. Moreover, menarche (OR=1.566; 95% CI 1.079-2.272), NA (OR=1.570; 95% CI 1.106-2.227) and number of pregnancies (NP) (OR=0.461; 95% CI 0.260-0.818) have a direct and inverse association with infection by genotype 18 of HPV, respectively. Also, infection with HR-HPV genotypes has an inverse association with NP (OR=0.791; 95% CI 0.707-0.884) by normal labor (OR=0.867; 95% CI 0.767-0.979) and NA (OR=0.715; 95% CI 0.534-0.959) (UVRM), and a direct association with number of sexual partners (OR=1.082; 95% CI 1.015-1.154). Onset of sexual activity has an inverse association with infection by genotype 16- (UVRM: OR=0.814; 95% CI 0.715-0.926; multinomial regression model (MNRM): OR=0.803; 95% CI 0.702-0.918) and HR-HPV (UVRM: OR=0.933; 95% CI 0.889-0.980, and MNRM: OR=0.912; 95% CI 0.867-0.959), all P values were lower than .03. Prevalence of HPV cervical infection is different according to age and it is associated with several medical conditions of clinical relevance in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Induction of hairy roots of Panax ginseng and studies on suitable culture condition of ginseng hairy roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou-Jing; Li, Chang-Yu; Qian, Yan-Chun; Luo, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xue-Song; Kang, Bo-Yu

    2004-03-01

    Ginseng is a valuable medicinal plant with ginsenosides as its mian effective components. Because ginseng is a perennial plant and has a very strict demand for soil conditions, the way of cultivating ginseng by cutting woods is still used in China at present and thus forest resources has been extremely destroyed. Increasing attention has been paid to the hairy roots induced by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in the production of plant secondary metabolic products for the hairy roots are characterized by rapid growth and stable hereditary and biochemical traits. That has opened a new way for the industrial production of ginseosides. However, there is little report for such studies from China. In this paper, hairy roots of ginseng were induced from the root explants of two-year-old ginseng by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 with directly inoculating. The transformed hairy roots could grow rapidly on MS medium and 1/2 MS medium without hormones. The cultured clones of the hairy roots were established on a solid 1/2 MS medium. After 4 - 5 subcultures the hairy roots still maintained a vigorous growth. A pair of primers were designed and synthesized according to the analytical results of RiA4TL-DNA sequence by Slightom et al . 0.8kb rolC was obtained by PCR using the genome DNA of hairy root of ginseng. Transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rolC genes from the hairy roots of P. ginseng. Growth rate of hairy roots on liquid medium increased by 2 times then that of the solid medium. The growth of the hairy roots can be divided into three stages: high speed in the first two weeks, middle speed in the 3 - 4 weeks and low speed hereafter. Changing the culture solution at 2 weeks regular intervals is conductive to maintaining the rapid growth of the hairy roots. By means of determination for specific growth rate and ginsenosides content, the high-yield hairy root clone R9923 was selected. The content of monomer gisenoside of Rg1, Re, Rf, Rbl, Rc, Rb2 and

  15. Preliminary measurement of the drag force on a porous cylinder with fluid evolution under conditions relevant to pulverised-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijan Supramono; Graham J. Nathan; Peter J. Ashman; Peter J. Mullinger [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, Schools of Chemical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The trajectories of the particles in pulverised coal combustion systems determine their residence times and reaction environments, and hence coal burnout and flame length. The trajectories, in turn, depend upon the drag coefficient of the particle. The effect of the evolution of fluid from the surface of the particle on this coefficient has never been measured before, particularly at the low particle Reynolds numbers that apply during coal combustion. Therefore mathematical models must rely on assumed sphere drag coefficients, which do not account for the effect of fluid evolving from the surface. A technique of using a porous cylinder mounted on a pendulum, instead of a sphere, through which fluid can be forced to evolve, simulating fluid evolution in coal devolatilisation and char burning, is used. The pendulum is capable of measuring drag forces of the order of 10-5 to 10-6 Newton, at Reynolds numbers similar to that experienced by coal particles. This paper presents preliminary measurements of drag force at relevant conditions. The working fluid is water in the first instance, although it will be extended to diluted glycerine in the future. The cross flow is provided by a water tunnel and the ejected fluid is induced by a separate pump. Both the Reynolds number and the ratio of evolution velocity to free-stream velocity are chosen to span conditions relevant to pulverised coal combustion. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinato, Carla A; Montrezor, Luis H; Collares, Cristhianna A V; Vireque, Alessandra A; Rosa e Silva, Alzira A M

    2012-11-22

    Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose-response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (-7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone production was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (-8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  17. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-Chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels both in cultured cells and animal models. It has been suggested that the packaging of chromatin fibers in the interphase nucleus is closely related to genome function, and the changes in transcriptional activity are tightly correlated with changes in chromatin folding. This study explores the changes of chromatin conformation and chromatin-chromatin interactions in the simulated microgravity environment, and investigates their correlation to the expression of genes located at different regions of the chromosome. To investigate the folding of chromatin in interphase under various culture conditions, human epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes were fixed in the G1 phase. Interphase chromosomes were hybridized with a multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) probe for chromosome 3 which distinguishes six regions of the chromosome as separate colors. After images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the 3-dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 was reconstructed at multi-mega base pair scale. In order to determine the effects of microgravity on chromosome conformation and orientation, measures such as distance between homologous pairs, relative orientation of chromosome arms about a shared midpoint, and orientation of arms within individual chromosomes were all considered as potentially impacted by simulated microgravity conditions. The studies revealed non-random folding of chromatin in interphase, and suggested an association of interphase chromatin folding with radiation-induced chromosome aberration hotspots. Interestingly, the distributions of genes with expression changes over chromosome 3 in cells cultured under microgravity environment are apparently clustered on specific loci and chromosomes. This data provides important insights into how mammalian cells respond to microgravity at molecular level.

  18. Some Aspects of Culture Teaching in Foreign Language and ESP Classes: Cultural Scripts and Small Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Baranovskaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problem of teaching culture in the foreign language classes at all levels of education. Cultural studies should not be separated from the language syllabus and foreign language learning should not be limited to formal learning of systems of sounds, words, and syntactic structures, but should also include learning the culture of the target language. Success in intercultural communication depends greatly on the understanding of a number of cultural features. The article emphasizes the importance of teaching and learning target culture, as well as introduces the analysis of cultural scripts and small talk in English, Russian and Polish languages. Understanding the cultural differences will benefit and facilitate cross-cultural communication under diverse circumstances. Thereby, this issue is relevant to foreign language and ESP classes focusing on the improvement of both students’ language and cultural skills.

  19. Optimization of in vitro culture and transfection condition of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to optimize the in vitro culture and transfection efficiency of bovine primary spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To this end, SSCs were obtained from newborn Holstein bull calves by two-step enzymatic digestion. After enrichment and culture, SSCs were characterized by using alkaline phosphatase ...

  20. Perceived usefulness and culture as predictors of teachers attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sumaya Laher

    2015-11-24

    Nov 24, 2015 ... qualitative study on four secondary school teachers, from two schools, found a ... ceived usefulness and perceived cultural relevance predicted attitudes .... relevance, ET com- petence, ET access and personal characteristics.

  1. Use of information technologies in the process of professional preparation of future teacher of physical culture as pre-condition of professional development in the conditions of informatization of higher education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragnev Y.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is marked that exactly application of information technologies in professional preparation must answer the modern world standards of professional development of future teacher of physical culture in the conditions of informatively-educational space. Specified, that presently in connection with sound changes in higher athletic education, which take place in sew on to the country, questions, related to professional self-determination of personality of future teacher of physical culture, rise; ways are determined by his self-realization in future professional activity.

  2. Cox2 and β-Catenin/T-cell Factor Signaling Intestinalize Human Esophageal Keratinocytes When Cultured under Organotypic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Kong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC is rising in the United States. An important risk factor for EAC is the presence of Barrett esophagus (BE. BE is the replacement of normal squamous esophageal epithelium with a specialized columnar epithelium in response to chronic acid and bile reflux. However, the emergence of BE from squamous keratinocytes has not yet been demonstrated. Our research has focused on this. Wnt and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2 are two pathways whose activation has been associated with BE and progression to EAC, but their role has not been tested experimentally. To explore their contribution, we engineered a human esophageal keratinocyte cell line to express either a dominant-active Wnt effector CatCLef or a Cox2 complementary DNA. In a two-dimensional culture environment, Cox2 expression increases cell proliferation and migration, but neither transgene induces known BE markers. In contrast, when these cells were placed into three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions, we observed more profound effects. CatCLef-expressing cells were more proliferative, developed a thicker epithelium, and upregulated Notch signaling and several BE markers including NHE2. Cox2 expression also increased cell proliferation and induced a thicker epithelium. More importantly, we observed cysts form within the epithelium, filled with intestinal mucins including Muc5B and Muc17. This suggests that Cox2 expression in a three-dimensional culture environment induces a lineage of mucin-secreting cells and supports an important causal role for Cox2 in BE pathogenesis. We conclude that in vitro modeling of BE pathogenesis can be improved by enhancing Wnt signaling and Cox2 activity and using three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions.

  3. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Greta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study

  4. RESTORATION AND SUSTAINABLE VALORIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND REGIONAL POLICY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA. CASE STUDY OF REVITALIZATION OF THE ORADEA FORTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dodescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents cultural heritage, cultural tourism potential of North-West Region of Romania face to face with restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage as a major domain of intervention of regional policy in Romania. Due to Romanian regionalization form, the Regional Operational Programme (ROP is currently the only programme of regional policy in Romania in 2007-2013. One of the major domains of intervention of ROP 2007-2013 in Romania was restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage. The first paper specific objective is to explore projects contracted until 31.12.2013 in the field of restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage in North-West Region of Romania and their regional development relevance in the context of existing regional development strategies. The second paper specific objective is to present a model of restoration of cultural heritage in a sustainable way throughout the case study of Revitalization of the Oradea Fortress in order to introduce it in the tourism circuit - that could become an example for other cultural sites around the region and a succes story in the field of cultural tourism based of ROP 2007-2013 experience. Exploring rich cultural heritage of the North-West Region face to face with poor condition of cultural heritage sites and investments required in order to introduce them in touristic circuit, the paper concludes that all contracted projects are relevant for sustainable valorization of regional cultural heritage and cultural tourism potential in the context of existing regional development strategies, but they contributed only partially to regional specific needs. Also, the paper concludes that number of ROP 2007-2013 projects implemented in the field of cultural heritage is surprisingly small, area of interest of these projects is rather narrow and analyzes the most important causes for these gaps. Based on the case study presented, the paper

  5. [Optimization of cultural condition of genetic engineering strain for antibiotic peptide adenoregulin and research on its fed-batch cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Xun; Cao, Wei; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Luo, Qing-Ping; Wang, Jin-Zhi

    2005-07-01

    33 amino acid antibiotic peptide adenoregulin (ADR), which were firstly isolated from the skin of South America arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor, forms alpha-helix amphipathic structure in apolar medium and has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity and high potency of lytic ability. Adr gene was cloned in pET32a and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) . The cultural and inductive conditions of E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET32a-adr have been optimized. The effect of three factors which were time point of induction, concentration of IPTG in the culture and time of induction on the expression level of Trx-ADR was investigated. The results indicated that the expression level was affected by the time point of induction most predominantly. 9 veriaties of media in which BL21 (DE3)/pET32a-adr was cultured and induced were tested to achieve high expression level of target protein. It was found that glucose in the medium played an important role in keeping stable and high expression level of Trx-ADR. The optimal inductive condition is as follows: the culture medium is 2 x YT + 0.5% glucose, the time point of induction is OD600 = 0.9, the final concentration of IPTG in the culture is 0.1 mmol/L and the induction time is 4 h. BL21 (DE3)/pET32a-adr was cultivated according to the strategy of constant pH at early stage and exponential feeding at later stage to obtain high cell density. During the entire fed-batch phase, by controlling the feeding of glucose, the specific growth rate of the culture was controlled at about 0.15 h(-1), the accumulation of acetic acid was controlled at low level (<2 g/L), but the plasmid stability could not be maintained well. At the end of the cultivation, 40% of the bacteria in the culture lost their plasmids. As a result, the expression level of the target protein declined dramatically, but 90% of Trx-ADR was in soluble form. The expressed fusion protein showed no antibacterial activity, while the native form of ADR lysed from Trx-ADR showed

  6. Danish Political Culture: Fair Conditions for Inclusion of Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2011-01-01

    and discursive opportunity structures immigrants face as ethnic and religious minorities. The article analyzes the Danish political culture with regard to the potential barriers it has for the inclusion of immigrants in national political life. It finds that the predominantly liberal, secular and republican......In the age of migration, the inclusion of immigrants in national politics is crucial for democratic reasons, and because it increases the coordination and cooperation ability of society. The informal norms, values and beliefs of the political culture are one aspect of the institutional...

  7. Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: the relevance of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallad, Yacoub

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked.

  8. A direct numerical simulation of cool-flame affected autoignition in diesel engine-relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisman, Alexander; Hawkes, Evatt Robert.; Talei, Mohsen; Bhagatwala, Ankit; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-11-11

    In diesel engines, combustion is initiated by a two-staged autoignition that includes both low- and high-temperature chemistry. The location and timing of both stages of autoignition are important parameters that influence the development and stabilisation of the flame. In this study, a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to provide a fully resolved description of ignition at diesel engine-relevant conditions. The DNS is performed at a pressure of 40 atmospheres and at an ambient temperature of 900 K using dimethyl ether (DME) as the fuel, with a 30 species reduced chemical mechanism. At these conditions, similar to diesel fuel, DME exhibits two-stage ignition. The focus of this study is on the behaviour of the low-temperature chemistry (LTC) and the way in which it influences the high-temperature ignition. The results show that the LTC develops as a “spotty” first-stage autoignition in lean regions which transitions to a diffusively supported cool-flame and then propagates up the local mixture fraction gradient towards richer regions. The cool-flame speed is much faster than can be attributed to spatial gradients in first-stage ignition delay time in homogeneous reactors. The cool-flame causes a shortening of the second-stage ignition delay times compared to a homogeneous reactor and the shortening becomes more pronounced at richer mixtures. Multiple high-temperature ignition kernels are observed over a range of rich mixtures that are much richer than the homogeneous most reactive mixture and most kernels form much earlier than suggested by the homogeneous ignition delay time of the corresponding local mixture. Altogether, the results suggest that LTC can strongly influence both the timing and location in composition space of the high-temperature ignition.

  9. Teaching Science from Cultural Points of Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Bruna Irene; Gummer, Edith

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a professional development program for science teachers near or on American Indian reservations in Montana. This program was framed by culturally relevant pedagogy premises and was characterized by instructional strategies and content foci resulting from the intersection between three cultures: tribal, science teaching, and…

  10. Comparison of net photosynthetic rate and 14C distribution between different cultural conditions on double cropping rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianliang; Li Hesong; Zou Yingbin; Tu Naimei; Li Jianhui

    2002-01-01

    By applying the cultural method 'Vigorous Root-Strong Stem-Heavy Panicle Cultural Method' (VSHM), the yield of double cropping rice reached 18000 kg/hm 2 in large area at Liling county, Hunan province. The net photosynthetic rate and 14 C distribution of rice leaves between VSHM and traditional cultural methods (CK) were compared. The photosynthetic rate of the flag leaves at ripening stages under VSHM was higher than that of controls with both earlier rice or later rice. Regarding the net amount of 14 C-assimilate by a single flag leaf and the second top leaf, there were differences at the significant level of 0.01 and 0.05, respectively between VSHM and controls, and VSHM were 7.72%-35.05% higher. The percentage of distribution at panicles of 14 C-assimilate were 51.93%-61.40% when flag leaf was labelled, and 45.34%-54.25% when the second top leaf was labelled, that of earlier rice was higher than later rice respectively, but the differences were not significant between VSHM and CK. The actual yield of double cropping rice under the cultural condition of VSHM was 17710 kg/hm 2 , and increased by 18.33% when compared with controls

  11. Effects of Macromolecular Crowding on Human Adipose Stem Cell Culture in Fetal Bovine Serum, Human Serum, and Defined Xeno-Free/Serum-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikoski, Mimmi; Lee, Michelle Hui Ching; Mäkinen, Laura; Ang, Xiu Min; Mannerström, Bettina; Raghunath, Michael; Miettinen, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Microenvironment plays an important role for stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Macromolecular crowding (MMC) was recently shown to assist stem cells in forming their own matrix microenvironment in vitro. The ability of MMC to support adipose stem cell (ASC) proliferation, metabolism, and multilineage differentiation was studied under different conditions: fetal bovine serum- (FBS-) and human serum- (HS-) based media and xeno- and serum-free (XF/SF) media. Furthermore, the immunophenotype of ASCs under MMC was evaluated. The proliferative capacity of ASCs under MMC was attenuated in each condition. However, osteogenic differentiation was enhanced under MMC, shown by increased deposition of mineralized matrix in FBS and HS cultures. Likewise, significantly greater lipid droplet accumulation and increased collagen IV deposition indicated enhanced adipogenesis under MMC in FBS and HS cultures. In contrast, chondrogenic differentiation was attenuated in ASCs expanded under MMC. The ASC immunophenotype was maintained under MMC with significantly higher expression of CD54. However, MMC impaired metabolic activity and differentiation capacity of ASCs in XF/SF conditions. Both the supportive and inhibitory effects of MMC on ASC are culture condition dependent. In the presence of serum, MMC maintains ASC immunophenotype and enhances adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation at the cost of reduced proliferation.

  12. Working with culture: culturally appropriate mental health care for Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mijung; Chesla, Catherine A; Rehm, Roberta S; Chun, Kevin M

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe how mental healthcare providers adapted their practice to meet the unique needs of Asian Americans. As the number of ethnic minorities and multicultural patients and families rapidly increases, cultural competency becomes an essential skill for all healthcare providers. The lack of knowledge about how healthcare providers grapple with diverse cultures and cultural competency limits the ability of others to deliver patient-centred care across cultural lines. Interpretive phenomenology guided the design and conduct of this study. Twenty mental healthcare providers who treated Asian Americans were recruited. Narrative data were collected through face-to-face, in-depth interviews between 2006 and 2007. Three characteristics of culturally appropriate care for Asian Americans were identified. Cultural brokering: providers addressed issues stemming from cultural differences via bicultural skills education. Asian American patients generally received broader education than current literature recommended. Supporting families in transition: providers assisted Asian American families during transition from and to professional care. Using cultural knowledge to enhance competent care: providers' knowledge of Asian culture and flexible attitudes affected the care that they provided. Culturally competent providers were able to identify cultural issues that were relevant to the specific situation, and incorporated cultural solutions into the care provided. Culturally appropriate care is nuanced and context specific. Thus, more sophisticated and broader conceptualizations are necessary to prepare nurses for such complex practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Bridging Mediterranean cultures in the IYS: A documentary exhibition on irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Louki, Amina; Ben Slima, Zied; Ezzahra Ghaouch, Fatima; Labaran, Raisa; Raffelli, Giulia; Peli, Marco; Vitale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Brescia, an industrial city in Northern Italy, is now experiencing a crucial change in its traditional structure. In recent years in fact it has been elected as living and working seat by many foreigners and it is now one of the cities with the greatest percentage of migrants in the Country. This is an important challenge for the city and an opportunity to merge, compare and integrate different cultures to build its future. In this context some students of different Courses (engineering and medicine), belonging both to the Arabian and local community, met together and with researchers in the study team 'Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i , for culture, science and society'. The team aims at organising cultural events in which, starting from the figure of the Persian scientist Ab¯u Raih. ¯a n Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i (about 973, 1051), the contribution of the Arabian and Islamic culture to the development of the European one in the middle ages is investigated. Moving from the initial idea of the study team Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i and from the suggestions of the World Soil Day 2014 and of the International Year of Soils 2015, we built a documentary exhibition entitled 'Irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions'. The exhibition, which stresses the importance of the irrigation techniques for the soil conservation, is focused on the idea of disseminating two main concepts, i.e. (1) the technological continuity of some water supply systems in countries, around the Mediterranean Sea, affected by similar conditions of water availability, and (2) the possibility of building environments where, due to severe or extreme climatic conditions, the sustainability is reached when the man lives in equilibrium with the nature. The exhibition, which is written in Italian and will move around in the city during all 2015, consists of about twenty posters organized into three main chapters, corresponding to three main classes of water supply systems which are common in most of the countries surrounding

  14. Tolerances of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Arme, S.C.

    1985-03-01

    Microbial isolates from sites relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes have been subjected to extreme environmental conditions in order to ascertain their tolerance ability. Two groups were chosen, sulphate reducing bacteria and sulphur oxidising bacteria, because of their potential effects on waste containment. They have been subjected to high temperatures, pressures and radiation (delta-emissions) in optimal media conditions and their ability to tolerate the conditions has been ascertained by epifluorescence microscopy and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis followed by 'culture-on' to assess post experimental viability. Results indicate that the sulphate reducers in general, are more tolerant to these conditions than the sulphur oxidisers, some proving to be thermophilic. The sulphate reducer showed increased growth rates, as determined by population numbers, at 50 0 C and survived at 80 0 C, 4,500 psig (310 bar) with no subsequent loss in viability. Gamma irradiation of this group and an isolate of 10 5 rad over 4 hours had no effect on population numbers or viability. Such resistances are not apparent with the sulphur oxidisers whose numbers decreased with increasing radiation dose and are destroyed with pressure. (author)

  15. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  16. FEMALE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT: AN INTERNATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Urbano Pulido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the socio-cultural factors that influence the likelihood of women becoming social entrepreneurs, using institutional economics. Binary logistic regression has been applied as the statistical method to test the hypotheses proposed, using data (40 countries and 56,875 individuals from the World Value Survey (WVS and the World Bank (WB. The main findings of the study reaffirm the relevance of socio-cultural factors to social entrepreneurship. Particularly, we have found that altruistic attitudes and being a member of a social organization are the most relevant socio-cultural factors for social female entrepreneurship.

  17. Monolayer culturing and cloning of human pluripotent stem cells on laminin-521-based matrices under xeno-free and chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Sergey; Antonsson, Liselotte; Hovatta, Outi; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-10-01

    A robust method for culturing human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells under chemically defined and xeno-free conditions is an important tool for stem cell research and for the development of regenerative medicine. Here, we describe a protocol for monolayer culturing of Oct-4-positive hPS cells on a specific laminin-521 (LN-521) isoform, under xeno-free and chemically defined conditions. The cells are dispersed into single-cell suspension and then plated on LN-521 isoform at densities higher than 5,000 cells per cm², where they attach, migrate and survive by forming small monolayer cell groups. The cells avidly divide and expand horizontally until the entire dish is covered by a confluent monolayer. LN-521, in combination with E-cadherin, allows cloning of individual hPS cells in separate wells of 96-well plates without the presence of rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors or any other inhibitors of anoikis. Characterization of cells maintained for several months in culture reveals pluripotency with a minimal degree of genetic abnormalities.

  18. Optimization of cultural conditions for growth associated chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Satarupa, E-mail: dey1919@gmail.com [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Paul, A.K., E-mail: amalk_paul@yahoo.co.in [Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolation of a potent Cr(VI) resistant and reducing Arthrobacter SUK 1201 from chromite mine overburdens of Orissa, India. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phylogenetically (16S rDNA analysis), Arthrobacter SUK 1201 showed 99% nucleotide base pair similarity with Arthrobacter GZK-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Production of insoluble chromium precipitates during chromate reduction under batch culture by the isolate SUK 1201. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Confirmation of formation of insoluble chromium precipitate during reduction studies by EDX analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of cultural conditions for Cr(VI) reduction under batch culture leading to complete reduction of 2 mM of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromium resistant and reducing bacterium having 99% sequence homology of 16S rDNA with Arthrobacter sp. GZK-1 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. The objective of the present study was to optimize the cultural conditions for chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201. The strain showed 67% reduction of 2 mM chromate in 7 days and was associated with the formation of green insoluble precipitate, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. However, Fourier transform infrared spectra have failed to detect any complexation of end products of Cr(VI) reduction with the cell mass. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at 10{sup 10} cells/ml, but the reduction potential decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI) reduction was 7.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II) and DNP. These findings suggest that Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has great promise

  19. A cross-cultural comparison of expatriates’ shopping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, G.J.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Janssen, I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Explored is how shopping centre attributes can be adapted to culture-related shopping behaviour of expatriates. While awareness of consumer ethnicity and effectiveness of culture-based market segmentation are on-going and relevant topics in retailing, there is only limited information available on

  20. Impact of environmental factors on the culturability and viability of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions encountered in food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, Anaïs; Jacques-André-Coquin, Joséphine; Ng, Patricia; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2017-03-06

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L. monocytogenes in pure-culture or dual-culture with a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, application of a drying step after cleaning and disinfection (C&D) and comparison of two strains of L. monocytogenes. Bacterial survival was assessed by culture, qPCR to quantify total cells, and propidium monoazide coupled with qPCR to quantify viable cells and highlight viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Our results showed that failure to apply C&D causes cell persistence on surfaces. Moreover, the sanitation procedure leads only to a loss of culturability and appearance of VBNC populations. However, an additional daily drying step after C&D optimises the effectiveness of these procedures to reduce culturable populations. Our results reinforce the importance to use molecular tools to monitor viable pathogens in food processing plants to avoid underestimating the amounts of cells using only methods based on cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical-Cultural Studies in Research and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Les; McNamara, John; Ryan, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Outlines two paradigms in critical-cultural analysis that seek to identify and explain the meaning of phenomena that make a culture, focusing on their relevance to research and teaching in journalism and mass communication. Identifies key issues and implications for mass communication research and teaching. Suggests ways educators can apply…

  2. Effect of medium components and culture conditions in Bacillus subtilis EA-CB0575 spore production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Uribe, Luisa F; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Villegas-Escobar, Valeska

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores have important biotechnological applications; however, achieving both, high spore cell densities and sporulation efficiencies in fermentation, is poorly reported. In this study, medium components and culture conditions were optimized with different statistical methods to increase spore production of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria B. subtilis EA-CB0575. Key medium components were determined with Plackett-Burman (PB) design, and the optimum concentration levels of two components (glucose, MgSO4·7H2O) were optimized with a full factorial and central composite design, achieving 1.37 × 10(9) CFU/mL of spore cell density and 93.5 % of sporulation efficiency in shake flask. The optimized medium was used to determine the effect of culture conditions on spore production at bioreactor level, finding that maintaining pH control did not affect significantly spore production, while the interaction of agitation and aeration rates had a significant effect on spore cell density. The overall optimization generated a 17.2-fold increase in spore cell density (8.78 × 10(9) CFU/mL) and 1.9-fold increase in sporulation efficiency (94.2 %) compared to that of PB design. These results indicate the potential of B. subtilis EA-CB0575 to produce both, high spore cell densities and sporulation efficiencies, with very low nutrient requirements and short incubation period which can represent savings of process production.

  3. Revisiting diversity: cultural variation reveals the constructed nature of emotion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The extent of cultural variation in emotion perception has long been assumed to be bounded by underlying universality. A growing body of research reveals, however, that evidence of universality in emotion perception is method-bound. Without the assumption of underlying universality, new lines of inquiry become relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that cultures vary in what cues are relevant to perceptions of emotion. Further, cultural groups vary in their spontaneous inferences; mental state inference does not appear to be the only, or even most routine, mode of perception across cultures. Finally, setting universality assumptions aside requires innovation in the theory and measurement of culture. Recent studies reveal the promise of refinements in psychological approaches to culture. Together, the available evidence is consistent with a view of emotion perceptions as actively constructed by perceivers to fit the social and physical constraints of their cultural worlds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Causal and Epistemic Relevance in Appeals to Authority

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    Sebastiano Lommi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Appeals to authority have a long tradition in the history of argumentation theory. During the Middle Age they were considered legitimate and sound arguments, but after Locke’s treatment in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding their legitimacy has come under question. Traditionally, arguments from authority were considered informal arguments, but since the important work of Charles Hamblin (Hamblin, 1970 many attempts to provide a form for them have been done. The most convincing of them is the presumptive form developed by Douglas Walton and John Woods (Woods, Walton, 1974 that aims at taking into account the relevant contextual aspects in assessing the provisional validity of an appeal to authority. The soundness of an appeal depends on its meeting the adequacy conditions set to scrutinize all the relevant questions. I want to claim that this approach is compatible with the analysis of arguments in terms of relevance advanced by David Hitchcock (Hitchcock, 1992. He claims that relevance is a triadic relation between two items and a context. The first item is relevant to the second one in a given context. Different types of relevance relation exist, namely causal relevance and epistemic relevance. “Something is [causally] relevant to an outcome in a given situation if it helps to cause that outcome in the situation” (Hitchcock, 1992, p. 253, whereas it is epistemically relevant when it helps to achieve an epistemic goal in a given situation. I claim that we can adapt this conception to Walton and Krabbe’s theory of dialogue type (Walton, Krabbe, 1995, seeing the items of a relevance relation as the argument and its consequence and the context as the type of dialogue in which these arguments are advanced. According to this perspective, an argument from authority that meets the adequacy conditions has to be considered legitimate because it is an epistemically relevant relation. Therefore, my conclusion is that an analysis of appeals to

  5. Opposing Subjective Temporal Experiences in Response to Unpredictable and Predictable Fear-Relevant Stimuli

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    Qian Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the durations of fear-relevant stimuli were overestimated compared to those of neutral stimuli, even when the fear-relevant stimuli were only anticipated. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the predictability of fear-relevant stimuli on sub-second temporal estimations. In Experiments 1a and 1b, a randomized design was employed to render the emotional valence of each trial unpredictable. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we incorporated a block design and a cueing paradigm, respectively, to render the emotional stimuli predictable. Compared with the neutral condition, the estimated blank interval was judged as being shorter under the unpredictable fear-relevant condition, while it was judged as being longer under the predictable fear-relevant condition. In other words, the unpredictable and predictable fear-relevant stimuli led to opposing temporal distortions. These results demonstrated that emotions modulate interval perception during different time processing stages.

  6. Assessing Culturally Competent Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Elnora P.; Guevara, Edilma B.

    2001-01-01

    Eight criteria for culturally competent scholarship (contextuality, relevance, communication styles, awareness of identity and power differences, disclosure, reciprocation, empowerment, time) were applied to an international education/research nursing program. Appropriate measures for each were developed and ways to improve the program were…

  7. Culture and concepts of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Carlos J; Shavitt, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    Five studies indicate that conceptualizations of power are important elements of culture and serve culturally relevant goals. These studies provide converging evidence that cultures nurture different views of what is desirable and meaningful to do with power. Vertical individualism is associated with a conceptualization of power in personalized terms (i.e., power is for advancing one's personal status and prestige), whereas horizontal collectivism is associated with a conceptualization of power in socialized terms (i.e., power is for benefiting and helping others). Cultural variables are shown to predict beliefs about appropriate uses of power, episodic memories about power, attitudes in the service of power goals, and the contexts and ways in which power is used and defended. Evidence for the cultural patterning of power concepts is observed at both the individual level and the cultural-group level of analysis.

  8. Tissue engineering approaches to develop decellularized tendon matrices functionalized with progenitor cells cultured under undifferentiated and tenogenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele D’Arrigo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures and retractions with an extensive tissue loss represent a major clinical problem and a great challenge in surgical reconstruction. Traditional approaches consist in autologous or allogeneic grafts, which still have some drawbacks. Hence, tissue engineering strategies aimed at developing functionalized tendon grafts. In this context, the use of xenogeneic tissues represents a promising perspective to obtain decellularized tendon grafts. This study is focused on the identification of suitable culture conditions for the generation of reseeded and functional decellularized constructs to be used as tendon grafts. Equine superficial digital flexor tendons were decellularized, reseeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow and statically cultured in two different culture media to maintain undifferentiated cells (U-MSCs or to induce a terminal tenogenic differentiation (T-MSCs for 24 hours, 7 and 14 days. Cell viability, proliferation, morphology as well as matrix deposition and type I and III collagen production were assessed by means of histological, immunohistochemical and semi-quantitative analyses. Results showed that cell viability was not affected by any culture conditions and active proliferation was maintained 14 days after reseeding. However, seeded MSCs were not able to penetrate within the dense matrix of the decellularized tendons. Nevertheless, U-MSCs synthesized a greater amount of extracellular matrix rich in type I collagen compared to T-MSCs. In spite of the inability to deeply colonize the decellularized matrix in vitro, reseeding tendon matrices with U-MSCs could represent a suitable method for the functionalization of biological constructs, considering also any potential chemoattractant capability of the newly deposed extracellular matrix to recruit resident cells. This bioengineering approach can be exploited to produce functionalized tendon constructs for the substitution of large tendon defects.

  9. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  10. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: un...

  11. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  12. Culture in salutogenesis: the scholarship of Aaron Antonovsky

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benz, C.; Bull, T.; Mittelmark, M.; Vaandrager, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aaron Antonovsky wrote extensively, although disjointedly, about the roles of culture in salutogenesis. This paper provides a synopsis of his work in this arena. A literature review identified those of his English language writings in which culture was a subject, and relevant text segments were

  13. The missing dimension: the relevance of people's conception of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgate, Sarah H; Davies, Nigel; Speed, Chris; Cherrett, Tom; Dickinson, Janet

    2014-02-01

    While a timely conceptual innovation for the digital age, the "map" proposed by Bentley et al. would benefit from strengthening through the inclusion of a non-clock-time perspective. In this way, there could be new hypotheses developed which could be applied and tested relevant to more diverse societies, cultures, and individuals.

  14. Human spermatogonial stem cells display limited proliferation in vitro under mouse spermatogonial stem cell culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Jose V; Rombaut, Charlotte; Simon, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Goossens, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    To study the ability of human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) to proliferate in vitro under mouse spermatogonial stem cell (mSSC) culture conditions. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Cryopreserved testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis obtained from three donors subjected to orchiectomy due to a prostate cancer treatment. Testicular cells used to create in vitro cell cultures corresponding to the following groups: [1] unsorted human testicular cells, [2] differentially plated human testicular cells, and [3] cells enriched with major histocompatibility complex class 1 (HLA - )/epithelial cell surface antigen (EPCAM + ) in coculture with inactivated testicular feeders from the same patient. Analyses and characterization including immunocytochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for somatic and germ cell markers, testosterone and inhibin B quantification, and TUNEL assay. Putative hSSCs appeared in singlets, doublets, or small groups of up to four cells in vitro only when testicular cells were cultured in StemPro-34 medium supplemented with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with HLA - /EPCAM + resulted in an enrichment of 27% VASA + /UTF1 + hSSCs, compared to 13% in unsorted controls. Coculture of sorted cells with inactivated testicular feeders gave rise to an average density of 112 hSSCs/cm 2 after 2 weeks in vitro compared with unsorted cells (61 hSSCs/cm 2 ) and differentially plated cells (49 hSSCS/cm 2 ). However, putative hSSCs rarely stained positive for the proliferation marker Ki67, and their presence was reduced to the point of almost disappearing after 4 weeks in vitro. We found that hSSCs show limited proliferation in vitro under mSSC culture conditions. Coculture of HLA - /EPCAM + sorted cells with testicular

  15. PprM is necessary for up-regulation of katE1, encoding the major catalase of Deinococcus radiodurans, under unstressed culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun-Wook; Seo, Ho Seong; Kim, Min-Kyu; Choi, Jong-Il; Lim, Heon-Man; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-06-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is a poly-extremophilic organism, capable of tolerating a wide variety of different stresses, such as gamma/ultraviolet radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress. PprM, a cold shock protein homolog, is involved in the radiation resistance of D. radiodurans, but its role in the oxidative stress response has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of pprM mutation on catalase gene expression. pprM disruption decreased the mRNA and protein levels of KatE1, which is the major catalase in D. radiodurans, under normal culture conditions. A pprM mutant strain (pprM MT) exhibited decreased catalase activity, and its resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decreased accordingly compared with that of the wild-type strain. We confirmed that RecG helicase negatively regulates katE1 under normal culture conditions. Among katE1 transcriptional regulators, the positive regulator drRRA was not altered in pprM (-), while the negative regulators perR, dtxR, and recG were activated more than 2.5-fold in pprM MT. These findings suggest that PprM is necessary for KatE1 production under normal culture conditions by down-regulation of katE1 negative regulators.

  16. Assessment of impact of culture conditions on capability of wastewater's microorganisms to flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater is one of the significant sources of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems of the Kola North. Sewage coming to the ground waters, surface waters and near shore marine basin have a complex negative impact on the biocenosis of water objects. Considering the fact that basin self-purification process in climatic environment of the Far North is slow, it seems to be current problem to research influence of external factors on the native microorganisms involved in the biological transformation of most pollutants. Along with oxygenizing activity microorganisms are able to accumulate pollutant in the cells and to form floccules. As a result, microorganisms fix the dissolved contaminants that may be mechanically derived from water. Using the data on the chemical makeup of some urban and domestic sewage, nutrient media have been developed where microorganisms isolated from effluents have been cultivated. As major characteristics of the cultivation media affecting the intensity and direction of metabolic processes in microorganisms, the ratios C / N, C / P and N / P have been chosen. Intensity growth of bacteria in experimental nutrient media has been studied and the flocculating activity of bacterial suspensions has been determined. The rate of these microorganisms (Pseudomonas spp. and cultures of bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family average has been 70∙103 and 117∙103 cells/h respectively. The growth rate of each culture on different composition nutrient media has varied within three orders, and has correlated with the relative content of phosphates in the nutrient media. The flocculating potential does not depend on the ratio of biogenic elements C / N, C / P and N / P. Both cultures have shown the ability to precipitate suspended matter at the level of 50 % or more after cultivation on nutrient media similar in composition to habitat conditions.

  17. SOCIO-CULTURAL AND MEDICAL INDICATORS OF THE SCHOOLCHILDREN'S QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Bašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimate of life quality is based upon medical, psychological and social indicators. It increasingly engages the attention of doctors of medicine, sociologists and psychologists.The aim of this research is to headlight some more relevant socio-cultural parametres in order to determine the quality of life of schoolchildren, that is, to determine whether the crisis in which our society has found itself has produced such socio-cultural conditions that could have induced changes in the children's quality of life and, if they have, to what extent the crisis has been reflected upon their health. The research has comprised 398 schoolchildren and their parents, three elementary schools from Nish and one in Sokobanja.The research of the socio-cultural and medical indicators of their quality of life has shown that the parent's education and ther material position have had an important influence upon the children's life quality.Since there has been no significant presence of any disease recorded in the observed children's sample, it can be concluded that the socio-cultural features have affected the children's life but they have not any significant impact upon their health.

  18. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  19. Culture, Pedagogy and Equity in a Meritocratic Education System: Teachers' Work and the Politics of Culture in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel; Tan, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Drawing upon insights gained from the extant work on culture and pedagogy, this paper explores the ways in which, in an ostensibly meritocratic education system, ideas about students' cultural backgrounds and its relevance for teaching are interpreted, negotiated, and ultimately drawn upon to engage students in the low-progress academic tracks.…

  20. Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Transmission and Disease among Juvenile Chinook Salmon Exposed in Culture Compared to Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Foott

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of IHNV infection and disease were followed in a juvenile Chinook salmon population both during hatchery rearing and for two weeks post-release. Cumulative weekly mortality increased from 0.03%–3.5% as the prevalence of viral infection increased from 2%–22% over the same four-week period. The majority of the infected salmon was asymptomatic. Salmon demonstrating clinical signs of infection shed 1000 pfu mL-1 of virus into the water during a 1 min observation period and had a mean concentration of 106 pfu mL-1 in their mucus. The high virus concentration detected in mucus suggests that it could act as an avenue of transmission in high density situations where dominance behavior results in nipping. Infected smolts that had migrated 295 km down river were collected at least two weeks after their release. The majority of the virus positive smolts was asymptomatic. A series of transmission experiments was conducted using oral application of the virus to simulate nipping, brief low dose waterborne challenges, and cohabitation with different ratios of infected to naïve fish. These studies showed that asymptomatic infections will occur when a salmon is exposed for as little as 1 min to >102 pfu mL-1, yet progression to clinical disease is infrequent unless the challenge dose is >104 pfu mL-1. Asymptomatic infections were detected up to 39 d post-challenge. No virus was detected by tissue culture in natural Chinook juveniles cohabitated with experimentally IHNV-infected hatchery Chinook at ratios of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20 for either 5 min or 24 h. Horizontal transmission of the Sacramento River strain of IHNV from infected juvenile hatchery fish to wild cohorts would appear to be a low ecological risk. The study results demonstrate key differences between IHNV infections as present in a hatchery and the natural environment. These differences should be considered during risk assessments of the impact of IHNV infections on wild salmon and

  1. An insert-based enzymatic cell culture system to rapidly and reversibly induce hypoxia: investigations of hypoxia-induced cell damage, protein expression and phosphorylation in neuronal IMR-32 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2013-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue hypoxia are of high clinical relevance because they are associated with various pathophysiological conditions such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms causing cell damage are still not fully understood, which is at least partially due to the lack of cell culture systems for the induction of rapid and transient hypoxic conditions. The aim of the study was to establish a model that is suitable for the investigation of cellular and molecular effects associated with transient and long-term hypoxia and to gain insights into hypoxia-mediated mechanisms employing a neuronal culture system. A semipermeable membrane insert system in combination with the hypoxia-inducing enzymes glucose oxidase and catalase was employed to rapidly and reversibly generate hypoxic conditions in the culture medium. Hydrogen peroxide assays, glucose measurements and western blotting were performed to validate the system and to evaluate the effects of the generated hypoxia on neuronal IMR-32 cells. Using the insert-based two-enzyme model, hypoxic conditions were rapidly induced in the culture medium. Glucose concentrations gradually decreased, whereas levels of hydrogen peroxide were not altered. Moreover, a rapid and reversible (onoff generation of hypoxia could be performed by the addition and subsequent removal of the enzyme-containing inserts. Employing neuronal IMR-32 cells, we showed that 3 hours of hypoxia led to morphological signs of cellular damage and significantly increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (a biochemical marker of cell damage. Hypoxic conditions also increased the amounts of cellular procaspase-3 and catalase as well as phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinase Akt, but not Erk1/2 or STAT5. In summary, we present a novel framework for investigating hypoxia-mediated mechanisms at the cellular level. We claim that the model, the first of its kind, enables researchers to rapidly and

  2. We Look More, Listen More, Notice More: Impact of Sustained Professional Development on Head Start Teachers' Inquiry-Based and Culturally-Relevant Science Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Dubosarsky, Mia; Mason, Annie; Carlson, Stephan; Murphy, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Despite many scholars' recommendations, science is often avoided during early childhood education. Among the reasons provided by early childhood teachers for the exclusion of science from their daily routines included science anxiety, low self-efficacy with respect to teaching science, lack of experience participating in science activities as students, or the notion that literacy and language are more important during the early years. In minority populations the problem is even greater due to identification of science with the `culture of. This article presents results from Ah Neen Dush, a sustained and transformative professional development program for Head Start teachers on an American Indian Reservation. The goal of the program is to support early childhood teachers in developing inquiry-based and culturally-relevant teaching practices. Through analysis of teachers' classroom practices, surveys and interviews, we explore changes in teachers' attitudes toward science and inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations were conducted using CLASS (Classroom assessment Scoring System), a tool used to evaluate the quality of classroom interactions. After 1 year of professional development teachers' attitudes were found to improve and after 2 years teachers classroom practices were more inquiry-based with statistically significant increases in CLASS observation scores.

  3. Fibroblast-matrix interplay: Nintedanib and pirfenidone modulate the effect of IPF fibroblast-conditioned matrix on normal fibroblast phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein Shochet, Gali; Wollin, Lutz; Shitrit, David

    2018-03-12

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. Activated fibroblasts are the key effector cells in fibrosis, producing excessive amounts of collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Whether the ECM conditioned by IPF fibroblasts determines the phenotype of naïve fibroblasts is difficult to explore. IPF-derived primary fibroblasts were cultured on Matrigel and then cleared using ammonium hydroxide, creating an IPF-conditioned matrix (CM). Normal fibroblast CM served as control. Normal fibroblasts were cultured on both types of CM, and cell count, cell distribution and markers of myofibroblast differentiation; transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling; and ECM expression were assessed. The effects of the anti-fibrotic drugs nintedanib and pirfenidone at physiologically relevant concentrations were also explored. Normal fibroblasts cultured on IPF-CM arranged in large aggregates as a result of increased proliferation and migration. Moreover, increased levels of pSmad3, pSTAT3 (phospho signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and Collagen1a were found, suggesting a differentiation towards a myofibroblast-like phenotype. SB505124 (10 μmol/L) partially reversed these alterations, suggesting a TGFβ contribution. Furthermore, nintedanib at 100 nmol/L and, to a lesser extent, pirfenidone at 100 μmol/L prevented the IPF-CM-induced fibroblast phenotype alterations, suggesting an attenuation of the ECM-fibroblast interplay. IPF fibroblasts alter the ECM, thus creating a CM that further propagates an IPF-like phenotype in normal fibroblasts. This assay demonstrated differences in drug activities for approved IPF drugs at clinically relevant concentrations. Thus, the matrix-fibroblast phenotype interplay might be a relevant assay to explore drug candidates for IPF treatment. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Programmed cell death of tobacco BY-2 cells induced by still culture conditions is affected by the age of the culture under agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Asahi; Kaneta, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yasushi; Sato, Seiichi

    2010-01-25

    Evans Blue staining indicated that actively growing tobacco BY-2 cells in the exponential phase died more rapidly than quiescent cells in the stationary phase when the cells cultured under agitation were placed under still conditions. Fifty percent cell death was induced at about 18, 26, 80 and 140 h for early, mid, late exponential- and stationary-phase cells, respectively. Actively growing cells became TUNEL (transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling)-positive more rapidly than quiescent cells, suggesting that the cell death evaluated by Evans Blue is accompanied by DNA cleavages. Electrophoresis of genomic DNA showed a typical 'DNA laddering' pattern formed by multiples of about 200 bp internucleosomal units. Chromatin condensation was first detected at least within 24 h by light microscopy, and then cell shrinkage followed. These findings suggest that the death of BY-2 cells induced by still conditions is PCD (programmed cell death).

  5. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2014-01-03

    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: understanding how morality works, and how humans manage and improve morality, as objectively based on the brain and social sciences. This new meta-ethics will simultaneously equip neuroethics for evaluating and revising older cultural ideologies and ethical theories, and direct neuroethics towards scientifically valid views of encultured humans intelligently managing moralities. Bypassing absolutism, cultural essentialisms, and unrealistic ethical philosophies, neuroethics arrives at a small set of principles about proper human flourishing that are more culturally inclusive and cosmopolitan in spirit. This cosmopolitanism in turn suggests augmentations to traditional medical ethics in the form of four principled guidelines for international consideration: empowerment, non-obsolescence, self-creativity, and citizenship.

  6. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: understanding how morality works, and how humans manage and improve morality, as objectively based on the brain and social sciences. This new meta-ethics will simultaneously equip neuroethics for evaluating and revising older cultural ideologies and ethical theories, and direct neuroethics towards scientifically valid views of encultured humans intelligently managing moralities. Bypassing absolutism, cultural essentialisms, and unrealistic ethical philosophies, neuroethics arrives at a small set of principles about proper human flourishing that are more culturally inclusive and cosmopolitan in spirit. This cosmopolitanism in turn suggests augmentations to traditional medical ethics in the form of four principled guidelines for international consideration: empowerment, non-obsolescence, self-creativity, and citizenship. PMID:24387102

  7. Kertha Gosa Court Hall of Klungkung Bali as an effort to conserve cultural heritage based on traditional culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia Widianti, An-nisaa; Bambang Studyanto, Anung

    2018-03-01

    Kertha Gosa Klungkung Court Hall in Bali is one of the relics of the cultural heritage of The Kingdom of Bali which is a part of the Klungkung Castle. The existence of Kertha Gosa Architecture Hall as one of the relics of cultural heritage holds historical values, especially Bali traditional values. Indonesia is a country which has the rich culture heritage history, especially on historical buildings. This research seeks for a redenomination to solve problems being faced recently, namely the lack of activities to conserve a historic building as an asset of the country and source of knowledge in education. Listed in Law Number 11 of 2010 the conservation has some criteria, such as : 1.it has 50 years or more; represents the period of a certain style lat least 50 years; has special meaning for the history, science, education, religion, and culture or cultural value as a nation’s personality. The procedure to conduct this research uses a descriptive method by doing observation, interviews, taking some pictures, official documents or personal and other data that have a relevance to the research related to object to describing the condition of the building systematically, factual and actual. Consideration of the selection of objects is based on research by looking at the criteria of architectural, historical and symbolic criteria. Kertha Gosa Hall classic has been there for 395 years was built with zoning system called Sanga Mandala or similar to a chess board using natural materials such as eben wood, and padas rocks which make it authentic and possesses characteristic values of patriotism expression. During the kingdom of Kertha Gosa, Court Hall was like a court nowadays, but people still trust the constructive value of Hindu religion and culture as a product of thinking and live experience.

  8. Cross-cultural differences in caregiving: The relevance to community care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deinstitutionalization movement in the West brought about community care movement of mentally ill. Because of this, caring for the mentally ill became an important aspect. In resource-rich countries, caregiving is done by trained persons and in resource-poor country (like India, caregiving was done by untrained family members. Cross-cultural factors such as interdependence and greater family involvement in care have contributed for family members′ decision-making in caregiving in India. Nevertheless, cross-cultural similarities in caregiving are more striking than differences. Genuine caregiving of mentally ill will make significant difference to the recipient. In India, majority of the persons with mental illness are cared by family members. Family members lack knowledge about the nature of the illness, have little support and advice by the medical professional, and have difficulties in understanding illness-related behavior. Hence, in India, there is need to develop effective, user-friendly, educational modules in all languages; to increase the knowledge of the carers about the mental illness, and help in decreasing their distress.

  9. Influence of culture conditions on Vero cell propagation on non-porous microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina de Oliveira Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal cell cultures are widely employed for the production of viral vaccines and for recombinant protein expression. The cell line Vero is a continuous, adherent cell line, which has been recommended by the World Health Organization for the production of human vaccines. For the large-scale production of vaccines, microcarriers, which are microspheres that serve as support for the cells, are being increasingly used. The use of microcarriers in stirred bioreactors allows high cell densities and, consequently, high virus titres to be achieved. With the aim of selecting appropriate culture conditions for the cultivation of Vero cells at high cell densities, in this work the influence of several variables (agitation rate, ratio of inoculated cells to microcarrier mass and fetal bovine serum concentration on cell growth on Cytodex 1 microcarriers was studied. Under the best conditions determined, a comparison with Vero cell cultivation on Cytodex 3 microcarriers was carried out.Cultivos de células animais são amplamente utilizados para a produção de vacinas virais e para a expressão de proteínas recombinantes. A linhagem celular Vero é uma linhagem contínua, dependente de ancoragem, recomendada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde para a produção de vacinas de uso humano. Para a produção de vacinas virais em larga escala, vêm sendo cada vez mais empregados microcarregadores, que são microesferas que servem de suporte para as células. O emprego de microcarregadores em biorreatores agitados permite a obtenção de altas densidades celulares e, conseqüentemente, de altos títulos de antígenos virais. Com o objetivo de selecionar condições de cultivo adequadas, estudou-se, neste trabalho, o efeito das variáveis agitação, razão de células inoculadas por microcarregador e concentração de soro fetal bovino sobre o crescimento de células Vero em microcarregadores Cytodex 1. Nas melhores condições selecionadas, o desempenho dos

  10. A proposed abiotic reaction scheme for hydroxylamine and monochloramine under chloramination relevant drinking water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, David G; Speitel, Gerald E; Machavaram, Madhav V

    2014-09-01

    Drinking water monochloramine (NH2Cl) use may promote ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). AOB use (i) ammonia monooxygenase for biological ammonia (NH3) oxidation to hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and (ii) hydroxylamine oxidoreductase for NH2OH oxidation to nitrite. NH2Cl and NH2OH may react, providing AOB potential benefits and detriments. The NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction would benefit AOB by removing the disinfectant (NH2Cl) and releasing their growth substrate (NH3), but the NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction would also provide a possible additional inactivation mechanism besides direct NH2Cl reaction with cells. Because biological NH2OH oxidation supplies the electrons required for biological NH3 oxidation, the NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction provides a direct mechanism for NH2Cl to inhibit NH3 oxidation, starving the cell of reductant by preventing biological NH2OH oxidation. To investigate possible NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction implications on AOB, an understanding of the underlying abiotic reaction is first required. The present study conducted a detailed literature review and proposed an abiotic NH2Cl/NH2OH reaction scheme (RS) for chloramination relevant drinking water conditions (μM concentrations, air saturation, and pH 7-9). Next, RS literature based kinetics and end-products were evaluated experimentally between pHs 7.7 and 8.3, representing (i) the pH range for future experiments with AOB and (ii) mid-range pHs typically found in chloraminated drinking water. In addition, a (15)N stable isotope experiment was conducted to verify nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas production and their nitrogen source. Finally, the RS was slightly refined using the experimental data and an AQUASIM implemented kinetic model. A chloraminated drinking water relevant RS is proposed and provides the abiotic reaction foundation for future AOB biotic experiments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Culturally Tailored Depression/Suicide Prevention in Latino Youth: Community Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Paz, Rebecca E; Reinhard, Christine; Kuebbeler, Andrea; Contreras, Richard; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-10-01

    Latino adolescents are at elevated risk for depression and suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Project goals were to gain insight from community leaders about depression risk factors particular to Latino adolescents and generate innovative suggestions to improve cultural relevance of prevention interventions. This project utilized a CBPR approach to enhance cultural relevance, acceptability, and utility of the findings and subsequent program development. Two focus groups of youth and youth-involved Latino community leaders (n = 18) yielded three overarching themes crucial to a culturally tailored depression prevention intervention: (1) utilize a multipronged and sustainable intervention approach, (2) raise awareness about depression in culturally meaningful ways, and (3) promote Latino youth's social connection and cultural enrichment activities. Findings suggest that both adaptation of existing prevention programs and development of hybrid approaches may be necessary to reduce depression/suicide disparities for Latino youth. One such hybrid program informed by community stakeholders is described.

  12. Understanding Bacterial Isolates in Blood Culture and Approaches Used to Define Bacteria as Contaminants: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Belal; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Rahman, Atiqur; Marzan, Mahfuza; Rafiqullah, Iftekhar; Connor, Nicholas E; Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Maksuda; Hamer, Davidson H; Hibberd, Patricia L; Saha, Samir K

    2016-05-01

    Interpretation of blood culture isolates is challenging due to a lack of standard methodologies for identifying contaminants. This problem becomes more complex when the specimens are from sick young infants, as a wide range of bacteria can cause illness among this group. We used 43 key words to find articles published between 1970 and 2011 on blood culture isolates and possible contaminants in the PubMed database. Experts were also consulted to obtain other relevant articles. Selection of articles followed systematic methods considering opinions from more than 1 reviewer. After reviewing the titles of 3869 articles extracted from the database, we found 307 relevant to our objective. Based on the abstracts, 42 articles were selected for the literature review. In addition, we included 7 more articles based on cross-references and expert advice. The most common methods for differentiating blood culture isolates were multiple blood cultures from the same subject, antibiograms and molecular testing. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis and group A and B streptococcus were always considered as pathogens, whereas Bacillus sp., Diphtheroids, Propionibacterium and Micrococcus were commonly regarded as contaminants. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequent isolates and usually reported as contaminants unless the patient had a specific condition, such as long-term hospitalization or use of invasive devices (catheters). Inaccurate interpretation of blood culture may falsely guide treatment and also has long-term policy implications. The combination of clinical and microbiological knowledge, patient's clinical history and laboratory findings are essential for appropriate interpretation of blood culture.

  13. Effect of sucrose, benzylaminopurine and culture condition on in vitro propagation of curcuma xanthorrhiza roxb and zingiber aromaticum val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumastuti, M.Y.; Keng, C.L.; Bhatt, A

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber aromaticum, are important medicinal species of the Zingiberaceae family. They are used in traditional medicine known as Jamu. This study reports on the presence of sucrose and BA (benzylaminopurine) supplements in the culture medium and also the effect of varying culture condition on In vitro propagation of these two species. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 BA and 30 g L-1 sucrose, incubated under total darkness, induced the highest number of multiple shoots in C. xanthorrhiza while the Z. aromaticum produced the highest number of multiple shoot in the same medium incubated under continuous light. The increase in sucrose concentration reduced shoot height in both species. Rooting of micro-shoots was not affected by the different culture treatments. The acclimatized plantlets of C. xanthorrhiza and Z. aromaticum were normal with 83.3-100% percentage when transferred to the outside environment.(author)

  14. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    laboratories in Denmark, Germany and the UK for the OECD pre-validation work to date. Laboratory cultures of L. stagnalis are traditionally fed fresh (preferably organic) lettuce; however, interrupted supplies of fresh lettuce in some countries in 2011 highlighted a potential problem for the draft OECD test...... of a mollusc reproduction test guideline. An ad hoc mollusc expert group has been formed in Europe to validate methods that can meet this need. Currently, a key species for use in this context is the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis. An important aspect of this work is to first develop a specific...... pathogen free defined strain of L. stagnalis and second to establish a historical database of growth and reproductive rates under defined culturing conditions. A mass culture of the RENILYS® strain of L. stagnalis have been established at INRA (France) since 2002 and has been distributed to research...

  15. Optimization of culture conditions and electricity generation using Geobacter sulfurreducens in a dual-chambered microbial fuel-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Lee, Yu-jin [Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The promise of generating electricity from the oxidation of organic substances using metal-reducing bacteria is drawing attention as an alternate form of bio-technology with positive environmental implications. In this study, we examined various experimental factors to obtain the maximum power output in a dual-chamber mediator-less microbial fuel-cell (MFC) using Geobacter sulfurreducens and acetate as an electron donor in a semi-continuous mode. The G. sulfurreducens culture conditions were optimized in a nutrient buffer containing 20 mM of acetate and 50 mM of fumarate at pH 6.8 and 30 C. For use in the MFC system, electrodes were made with carbon paper (area: 11.5 cm{sup 2}) and spaced 1.5 cm apart. Once the MFC was inoculated with the pre-cultured G. sulfurreducens in the anode chamber and while air was continuously sparged to the cathode chamber, the cells produced electricity stably over 60 days with the regular addition of 20 mM acetate, generating the maximum power density of 7 mW/m{sup 2} with a 5000 and ohm; load. The current output was significantly increased, by 1.6 times after 20 days of incubation under the same experimental conditions, when the carbon-paper anode was coated with carbon nanotubes. (author)

  16. Biogeochemical Attributes That Affect the Fate and Transport of Military Relevant Contaminants Under Freeze-thaw Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonte, J.; Price, C. L.; Seiter, J.; Crocker, F. H.; Douglas, T.; Chappell, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The roles and missions that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) undertakes in the Arctic are being reshaped by significant changes in the operational environment as a result of rising global temperatures and increased development of the vast training ranges available in Alaska. The Arctic is warming faster than any other region on Earth resulting in changing seasonality and precipitation patterns that, in turn, are leading to alterations in above ground vegetation, permafrost stability and summer sea ice extent. Collectively, these poorly defined ecosystem changes play critical roles in affecting the transport and eventual fate of persistent military relevant contaminants through unique Arctic and Subarctic terrestrial environments. As a result, management of military contaminants in a changing Arctic represents a unique and potentially significant liability to the Army and the DoD. The United States footprint in the Arctic region falls within the state of Alaska and U.S. Army Alaska manages 10% of all active Army training lands worldwide, which cover nearly 2,500 square miles in total land area. Primary recalcitrant contaminants of concern at active training ranges and at legacy sites include energetics (i.e. RDX and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) and heavy metals (i.e. antimony and lead). Through a series of field sampling and laboratory experiments, the objectives of this work are to: 1) quantify soil biogeochemical attributes that effect the physical fate and transport of military relevant contaminants in Arctic and subarctic soils under freeze-thaw conditions with a focus on near surface processes, and 2) quantify microbial diversity in Arctic and subarctic soils and the environmental constraints on community activity while exploring the effects of amendments on community function as they relate to contaminant transformation.

  17. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  18. Efficacy of REACH Forgiveness across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin; Worthington, Everett L; Griffin, Brandon J; Greer, Chelsea L; Opare-Henaku, Annabella; Lavelock, Caroline R; Hook, Joshua N; Ho, Man Yee; Muller, Holly

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of the 6-hour REACH Forgiveness intervention among culturally diverse undergraduates. Female undergraduates (N = 102) and foreign extraction (46.2%) and domestic (43.8%) students in the United States were randomly assigned to immediate treatment or waitlist conditions. Treatment efficacy and the effect of culture on treatment response were assessed using measures of emotional and decisional forgiveness across 3 time periods. Students in the treatment condition reported greater improvement in emotional forgiveness, but not decisional forgiveness, relative to those in the waitlist condition. Gains were maintained at a 1-week follow-up. Although culture did not moderate the effect of treatment, a main effect of culture on emotional forgiveness and marginally significant interaction effect of culture on decisional forgiveness were found. The REACH Forgiveness intervention was efficacious for college students from different cultural backgrounds when conducted in the United States. However, some evidence may warrant development of culturally adapted forgiveness interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cultural realities of being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Realities of Being offers a dialogue between academic activity and everyday lives by providing an interface between several perspectives on human conduct. Very often, academic pursuits are arcane and obscure for ordinary people, this book will attempt to disentangle these dialogues, lift...... fresh light on the everyday events presented in the text. Cultural Realities of Being will be essential reading for those studying Cross Cultural Psychology as well as those interested in social representation and identity......., lifting everyday discourse and providing a forum for advancing discussion and dialogue. Nandita Chaudhary, S. Anandalakshmy and Jaan Valsiner bring together contributors from the field of cultural psychology to consider how people living within social groups, regardless of how liberal, are guided...... of cultural psychology. The book builds upon rich cultural traditions present in India, and precisely because of this focus, the book has much larger implications and relevance to the field and aims to orient the academic reader from around the world to viewing India and Indian society as a valuable area...

  20. Ultrametric distribution of culture vectors in an extended Axelrod model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, Alex; Robins, Garry; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The Axelrod model of cultural diffusion is an apparently simple model that is capable of complex behaviour. A recent work used a real-world dataset of opinions as initial conditions, demonstrating the effects of the ultrametric distribution of empirical opinion vectors in promoting cultural diversity in the model. Here we quantify the degree of ultrametricity of the initial culture vectors and investigate the effect of varying degrees of ultrametricity on the absorbing state of both a simple and extended model. Unlike the simple model, ultrametricity alone is not sufficient to sustain long-term diversity in the extended Axelrod model; rather, the initial conditions must also have sufficiently large variance in intervector distances. Further, we find that a scheme for evolving synthetic opinion vectors from cultural ``prototypes'' shows the same behaviour as real opinion data in maintaining cultural diversity in the extended model; whereas neutral evolution of cultural vectors does not.

  1. Cultural factors and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2005-06-01

    The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the select population of space program personnel. The evidence for the existence of mission-relevant cultural differences is reviewed and includes cultural values, emotional expressivity, personal space norms, and personality characteristics. The review is focused primarily on Russia and the United States, but also includes other ISS partner countries. Cultural differences among space program personnel may have a wide range of effects. Moreover, culture-related strains may increase the probability of distress and impairment. Such factors could affect the individual and interpersonal functioning of both crewmembers and mission control personnel, whose performance is also critical for mission safety and success. Examples from the anecdotal and empirical literature are given to illustrate these points. The use of existing assessment strategies runs the risk of overlooking important early warning signs of behavioral health difficulties. By paying more attention to cultural differences and how they might be manifested, we are more likely to detect problems early while they are still mild and resolvable.

  2. Anti-angiogenic mechanism of cordycepin on rhesus macaque choroid-retinal endothelial cell line cultured in high glucose condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Zhu*

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the angiogenesis effect and protective mechanism of cordycepin on rhesus macaque choroid-retinal endothelial(RF/6Acell line cultured in high glucose condition. METHODS: Cultured RF/6A cells were divided into normal control group, high glucose group and high glucose(HG+ different concentration cordycepin groups(HG+10μg/mL group, HG+50μg/mL group, HG+100μg/mL group. The cell proliferation was assessed using cholecystokinin octapeptide dye after treated for 48h. The cell migration was investigated by a Transwell assay. The tube formation was measured on Matrigel. Furthermore, the impact of cordycepin on high glucose-induced activation of VEGF and VEGF receptor 2(VEGFR-2was tested by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Compared with normal control group, cell viability markedly increased in high glucose group(PPPPPPvs normal control group, oppositely gradually decreased with the increase of cordycepin concentrations, and had a statistically significant difference vs high glucose group(PCONCLUSION: Cordycepin can suppress the proliferation, migration and tubu formation of RF/6A in high glucose condition, might via inhibiting expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2.

  3. Enhancement of excision-repair efficiency by conditioned medium from density-inhibited cultures in V79 Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, S.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned medium from density-inhibited V79 Chinese hamster cell cultures, given as a post-treatment to UV-irradiated homologous cells, was demonstrated to reduce the lethal action of ultraviolet light by temporarily blocking DNA replication. Since the increased survival was not affected by various nontoxic concentrations of caffeine, such protective effect would be attributable to the prolonged intervention of excision repair before DNA replication during the post-treatment period. The influence of conditioned medium on the UV-induced mutation at the ouabain-resistance locus was also examined and a significant decrease in mutation frequecy was noted. The observed reduction in killing and mutation as a result of post-incubation in conditioned medium, which delays DNA replication, would be interpreted as evidence that conditioned medium provides a longer period of time for an error-free excision-repair process, leaving lesion in DNA available for error-prone post-replication repair. (Auth.)

  4. Cultural Memory Banking in Preservice Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Vicente C.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the exemplification of cultural memory banking as an ethnographic tool to understand cultural practices relevant to science teaching and learning in a rural coastal village in a central island of the Philippine archipelago. Using the collaborative action ethnography as a research methodology, 10 prospective science teachers…

  5. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? : A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebauer, J.E.; Sedikides, C.; Wagner, J.; Bleidorn, W.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal

  6. Dynamics and cultural specifics of information needs under conditions of long-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Elena; Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim

    Life in conditions of space flight or chamber study with prolonged isolation is associated with lack of familiar stimuli (sensory deprivation), monotony, significant limitation of communication, and deficit of information and media content (Myasnikov V.I., Stepanova S.I. et al., 2000). Fulfillment of a simulation experiment or flight schedule implies necessity of performance of sophisticated tasks and decision making with limited means of external support. On the other hand, the “stream” of information from the Mission Control (MC) and PI’s (reminders about different procedures to be performed, requests of reports, etc.) is often inadequate to communication needs of crewmembers. According to the theory of “information stress” (Khananashvili M.M., 1984), a distress condition could be formed if: a) it’s necessary to process large amounts of information and make decisions under time pressure; b) there is a prolonged deficit of necessary (e.g. for decision making) information. Thus, we suppose that one of the important goals of psychological support of space or space simulation crews should be forming of favorable conditions of information environment. For that purpose, means of crew-MC information exchange (quantitative characteristics and, if possible, content of radiograms, text and video messages, etc.) should be studied, as well as peculiarities of the crewmembers’ needs in different information and media content, and their reactions to incoming information. In the space simulation experiment with 520-day isolation, communication of international crew with external parties had been studied. Dynamics of quantitative and content characteristics of the crew’s messages was related to the experiment’s stage, presence of “key” events in the schedule (periods of high autonomy, simulated “planetary landing”, etc.), as well as to events not related to the experiment (holidays, news, etc.). It was shown that characteristics of information exchange

  7. Culture of human cells in experimental units for spaceflight impacts on their behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Moscheni, Claudia; Maier, Jeanette Am; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation. Therefore, to perform experiments in orbit, it is relevant to know how closely culture in the EUs reflects cellular behavior under normal growth conditions. We compared the performances in these units of three different human cell types, which were recently space flown, i.e. bone mesenchymal stem cells, micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are only slightly and transiently affected by culture in the EUs, whereas these devices accelerate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward osteogenic differentiation, in part by increasing the amounts of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that cell culture conditions in the EUs do not exactly mimic what happens in a culture dish and that more efforts are necessary to optimize these devices for biomedical experiments in space. Impact statement Cell cultures represent valuable preclinical models to decipher pathogenic circuitries. This is true also for biomedical research in space. A lot has been learnt about cell adaptation and reaction from the experiments performed on many different cell types flown to space. Obviously, cell culture in space has to meet specific requirements for the safety of the crew and to comply with the unique environmental challenges. For these reasons, specific devices for cell culture in space have been developed. It is important to clarify whether these

  8. A comparison of biological and cultural evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... fitness; information; language; learning; teaching. ... Further, conditions for cultural evolution are proposed, including a suggestion for language being the cultural replicator corresponding to the concept of the gene in ... The importance of language as a necessary condition for cultural evolution is stressed.

  9. Photoreactivation of thymine dimers in uv-irradiated human cells: unique dependence on culture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortelmans, K; Friedberg, E C [Stanford Univ., Calif. (USA). Dept. of Pathology. Lab. of Experimental Oncology; Cleaver, J E; Thomas, G H [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology; Paterson, M C; Smith, B P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario. Biology and Health Physics Div. Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1977-09-01

    UV-irradiated human fibroblasts in tissue culture were exposed to photoreactivating light in an attempt to demonstrate a light-dependent loss of thymine dimers from the acid-insoluble fraction of the DNA. The only experimental conditions in which this phenomenon was observed was if the cells were grown for at least 10 days in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium. Such cells lost a maximum of between 10 to 30% of the thymine dimers from their DNA during illumination for 1 h. When cells were grown in a variety of other media, this phenomenon was not observed. The present experiments do not discriminate between true enzymatic photoreactivation and a medium-dependent photosensitization phenomenon that is not enzymatic in nature.

  10. Mass culture and manipulation with consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Simukanova Guldariga Serikovna

    2015-01-01

    The article gives the definition of such concepts as mass society, mass culture and mass consciousness. Specific examples indicate positive and negative effects of globalization on national culture. Particular attention is paid to the interest of independent states for the conservation, protection and development of national values in the context of globalization. The conclusion about the relevance of stability provision and protection of the state raised by globalization has been drawn.

  11. The effect of cultural interaction on cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2014-07-07

    Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, T.C.; Muhar, A.; Arnberger, A.; Aznar, O.; Boyd, J.W.; Chan, K.M.A.; Costanza, R.; Elmqvist, T.; Flint, C.G.; Gobster, P.H.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Lave, R.; Muhar, S.; Penker, M.; Ribe, R.G.; Schauppenlehner, T.; Sikor, T.; Soloviy, I.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Taczanowska, K.; Tam, J.; Dunk, A. von der

    2012-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services (ES) are consistently recognized but not yet adequately defined or integrated within the ES framework. A substantial body of models, methods, and data relevant to cultural services has been developed within the social and behavioral sciences before and outside of the ES

  13. Is It Culture or Democracy? The Impact of Democracy and Culture on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David; Fischer, Justina A. V.; Kirchgassner, Gebhard; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the relation between democracy and perceived subjective well-being while controlling for other relevant determinants such as culture measured by languages. We conduct a cross-national analysis covering 28 countries using data from the 1998 International Social Survey Programme. Contrasting existing empirical evidence, we observe a…

  14. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  15. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  16. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  17. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  18. Bone culture research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  19. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, Noortje; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Novianti, Peppy; Hadiyono, Johana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-constr...

  20. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and Their Clinical Relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, N.; Pfaltz, M. C.; Novianti, P.; Hadiyono, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-cons...

  1. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Noortje eVriends; Noortje eVriends; Monique C Pfaltz; Peppy eNovianti; Johana eHadiyono

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-const...

  2. STUDY OF FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ CULTURAL TRAINING WITHIN THE INFORMATION CULTURE OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vinnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific studies and experimental approbation of pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training taking into account the information culture of society. The nature and structure of the notion «future primary school teachers’ cultural training» are clarified. The indicated phenomenon is considered as the structure of four levels, the core of which is personality’s humanistic orientation, the totality of psychological-pedagogical and cultural knowledge and skills, the complex of professionally significant personal qualities. The author pointed out the criteria and related indicators of cultural proficiency, they are: value-motivational (vocational and humanistic orientation; the presence of values and professional motives; motivation for success; substantial and procedural (knowledge and skills in psycho-pedagogical disciplines; the body of knowledge regarding the content and components of cultural training, cultural skills; assessment and behavioral (the existence of communicative qualities, ability to empathy, tolerance. Levels of future primary school teachers’ cultural readiness: high, average and low are characterized. The experience of ICT using in students’ cultural training is presented. Pedagogical conditions of future primary school teachers’ cultural training in University are identified, their effectiveness is proved by experimental testing

  3. Optimization of culture conditions to support long-term self-renewal of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Kamble, Nitin Manchindra; Singh, Karn Pratap; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Manik, Radhey Sham; Palta, Prabhat

    2011-12-01

    A culture system capable of sustaining self-renewal of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells in an undifferentiated state over a long period of time was developed. Inner cell masses were seeded on KO-DMEM+15% KO-serum replacer on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer. Supplementation of culture medium with 5 ng/mL FGF-2 and 1000 IU/mL mLIF gave the highest (p<0.05) rate of primary colony formation. The ES cell-like cells' colony survival rate and increase in colony size were highest (p<0.05) following supplementation with FGF-2 and LIF compared to other groups examined. FGF-2 supplementation affected the quantitative expression of NANOG, SOX-2, ACTIVIN A, BMP 4, and TGFβ1, but not OCT4 and GREMLIN. Supplementation with SU5402, an FGFR inhibitor (≥20 μM) increased (p<0.05) the percentage of colonies that differentiated. FGFR1-3 and ERK1, K-RAS, E-RAS, and SHP-2, key signaling intermediates of FGF signaling, were detected in ES cell-like cells. Under culture conditions described, three ES cell lines were derived that, to date, have been maintained for 135, 95, and 85 passages for over 27, 19, and 17 months, respectively, whereas under other conditions examined, ES cell-like cells did not survive beyond passage 10. The ES cell-like cells were regularly monitored for expression of pluripotency markers and their potency to form embryoid bodies.

  4. Child welfare employee recruitment and retention: an organizational culture perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna LaFa

    2009-01-01

    Drawing data from an organizational culture study, this cross-sectional study investigates the effect of organizational culture on child welfare employee recruitment and retention (N=92). Findings from quantitative analyses of the organizational culture inventory suggest that constructive culture style in child welfare organizations, especially humanistic-encouraging and self-actualizing culture norms, highly predict recruitment through employees' perception of "fit" and satisfaction as a member of the organization. Limitations, future research, and relevant implications are discussed.

  5. Intertextuality as A Cultural Interaction Mechanism and Socio-Cultural Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E P Shiniev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on intertextuality as a concept associated with the tradition of postmodernism textology and a phenomenon of text interaction with the semiotic cultural environment. The concept of intertextuality emerges as an essential condition for the construction of meaning which includes the dialogical characteristics of the polylogue culture field. The author examines the evolution of intertextuality since M.M. Bakhtin up to contemporary theoreticians of postmodernism. The concept of intertextuality is the prominent characteristics of the contemporary «post» culture and the major channel of inter-cultural diffusion.

  6. Broadening the examination of socio-cultural constructs relevant to African American colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, V. L.; Harris, J.; Clark, E.M.; Purnell, J.; Deshpande, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of socio-cultural constructs as influences on cancer attitudes and screening has been established in the literature. This paper reports on efforts to explore alternatives to constructs previously associated with African American cancer screening, but with low acceptance among community members or incomplete measurement (empowerment and collectivism) and develop a measure for a recently identified construct of interest (privacy). We report preliminary psychometric data on these socio-cultural scales and their associations with cancer attitudes. African Americans (N=1021), 50 to 75 years of age participated in this study. Participants were identified via a listed sample and completed a telephone survey administered via call center. Socio-cultural attitudes were assessed using items identified through computerized database searches, reviewed by advisory panels, edited and tested using cognitive response strategies. Cancer screening pros and cons, cancer worry, perceived cancer risk, colorectal cancer screening subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy for colorectal cancer screening were also assessed. Confirmatory factor analyses and multivariate analyses were conducted to provide support for the validity of the constructs and to understand the associations among the selected socio-cultural constructs (empowerment, collectivism and empowerment) and cancer beliefs and attitudes (CRC perceived benefits and barriers, perceived risks, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control/self-efficacy). Consistent with the literature, the factor analytic model (RMSEA for the model was 0.062; 90% CI: 0.060-0.065) provided support for the empowerment, collectivism and privacy constructs. The modified collectivism and privacy scales had acceptable reliability. The privacy scale demonstrated the strongest associations with measures of cancer beliefs and attitudes. The implication of the findings and need for further scale development activities is discussed

  7. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Bubna Popovitz

    Full Text Available Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP, alternating two conditions (ABAB. On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapists were advised to ignore problem behaviors emitted in session. During condition B, therapists followed the same procedures, but they were oriented to block (interrupt problematic responses emitted in session. Results suggest increase in the percentage of problem behaviors during condition B. Results are discussed, highlighting the viability of planning the contingent response the therapist emits to clinically relevant behaviors.

  8. Current Activities on Nuclear Safety Culture in Korea. How to meet the challenges for Safety and Safety Culture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chaewoon [International Policy Department Policy and Standard Division, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Gusung-Dong Yuseong-Ku, 305-338 DAEJEON (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    'Statement of Nuclear Safety Policy' declared by the Korean Government elucidates adherence to the principle of 'priority to safety'. The 3. Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) more specifically addressed the necessity to develop and apply 'safety culture evaluation criteria' and to strengthen safety management of concerned organizations in an autonomous way. Putting these policies as a backdrop, Korean Government has taken diverse safety culture initiatives and has encouraged the relevant organizations to develop safety culture practices of their own accord. Accordingly, KHNP, the operating organization in Korea, developed a 'safety culture performance indicator', which has been used to evaluate safety mind of employees and the evaluation results have been continuously reflected in operational management and training programs. Furthermore, KHNP inserted 'nuclear safety culture subject' into every course of more than two week length, and provided employees with special lectures on safety culture. KINS, the regulatory organization, developed indicators for the safety culture evaluation based on the IAEA Guidelines. Also, KINS has hosted an annual Nuclear Safety Technology Information Meeting to share information between regulatory organizations and industries. Furthermore, KINS provided a nuclear safety culture class to the new employees and they are given a chance to participate in performance of a role-reversal socio-drama. Additionally, KINS developed a safety culture training program, published training materials and conducted a 'Nuclear Safety Culture Basic Course' in October 2007, 4 times of which are planed this year. In conclusion, from Government to relevant organizations, 'nuclear safety culture' concept is embraced as important and has been put into practice on a variety of forms. Specifically, 'education and training' is a starting line and sharing

  9. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage in South Africa: The Development of Relevant Management Strategies in the Historical Maritime Context of the Southern Tip of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfman, Jonathan; Boshoff, Jaco; Parthesius, Robert

    2012-10-01

    South Africans have a long association with water. It has provided a source of food, a medium for trade and a catalyst for migration and development. The country's geographical position as a crossroads of maritime trade between Europe and the East means that its history is inextricably linked to the history of the rest of the world. The result is a multi-faceted representation of sites, objects and mythologies related to water and maritime heritage that reflect not only local historical and social development, but global cultural change as well. Given the importance of South Africa's underwater cultural heritage (UCH), managers have grappled with management principles, ethics and theoretical models in an effort to produce and enforce heritage legislation that is relevant and effective. This paper outlines South Africa's maritime context from 1.5 million years ago until the present, summarises legislative and mitigation developments over the past half century and provides details of current trends in maritime archaeology and UCH management at the southern tip of Africa. Training programmes and public awareness are keys to this strategy to bring UCH and maritime archaeology into the mainstream and counter treasure hunting and looting of this rich, friable resource.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation, content validation, and reliability of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Assessment of lifestyle risk factors must be culturally- and contextually relevant and available in local languages. This paper reports on a study which aimed to cross culturally adapt a composite lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors questionnaire into an African language (Yoruba) and testing some ...

  11. Culturally Relevant Palliative and End-of-Life Care for U.S. Indigenous Populations: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Mary J; Lynch, Anna R

    2018-03-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) have higher rates of chronic illness and lack access to palliative/end-of-life (EOL) care. This integrative review ascertained the state of the science on culturally acceptable palliative/EOL care options for Indigenous persons in the United States. Databases searched: CINAHL, PubMed/MEDLINE, SocINDEX, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ERIC, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and EBSCO Discovery Service 1880s-Present. Key terms used: palliative care, EOL care, and AI/AN. peer-reviewed articles published in English. Findings/Results: Twenty-nine articles were identified, 17 remained that described culturally specific palliative/EOL care for AIs/ANs. Synthesis revealed four themes: Communication, Cultural Awareness/Sensitivity, Community Guidance for Palliative/EOL Care Programs, Barriers and two subthemes: Trust/Respect and Mistrust. Limitations are lack of research funding, geographic isolation, and stringent government requirements. Palliative/EOL care must draw on a different set of skills that honor care beyond cure provided in a culturally sensitive manner.

  12. Traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovski Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and within various historical and socio-economic conditions, Slovaks have formed many enclaves and diasporas. In order to investigate common cultural and ethnic characteristics and/or differences between Slovaks in Slovakia and the various diasporas that they formed in relationship with majorities of their host countries, we suggest the usage of the cartographic method. Namely, during the 1997-1999 the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science used the cartographic method to analyze various complex questions relating to the traditional culture and ethnic history of many Slovakian minorities in the countries of Central Europe: in Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary. The project was named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central Europe - the application of ethno-cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestation. The project yield positive results and in 2000-2002 proceeded with yet another scientific project: Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Southeastern Europe - the application of the cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestations once more, the data were obtained on the traditional folk culture of the Slovakian enclaves in Vojvodina and Croatia. The cartographic method used in both projects enabled researchers to document relevant data in a relatively short period of time. A solid foundation was created for a scientific synthesis of selected topics that deal with the traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe, and its comparisons with the parent country culture. The cartographic method is widely used in Slovakia, in some 250 sites. Further, the scientific project of the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central and Southern Europe as an integral part of their cultural inheritance (In between cultural stability and

  13. A comparison of biological and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Petter

    2015-03-01

    This review begins with a definition of biological evolution and a description of its general principles. This is followed by a presentation of the biological basis of culture, specifically the concept of social selection. Further, conditions for cultural evolution are proposed, including a suggestion for language being the cultural replicator corresponding to the concept of the gene in biological evolution. Principles of cultural evolution are put forward and compared to the principles of biological evolution. Special emphasis is laid on the principle of selection in cultural evolution, including presentation of the concept of cultural fitness. The importance of language as a necessary condition for cultural evolution is stressed. Subsequently, prime differences between biological and cultural evolution are presented, followed by a discussion on interaction of our genome and our culture. The review aims at contributing to the present discussion concerning the modern development of the general theory of evolution, for example by giving a tentative formulation of the necessary and sufficient conditions for cultural evolution, and proposing that human creativity and mind reading or theory of mind are motors specific for it. The paper ends with the notion of the still ongoing coevolution of genes and culture.

  14. Manufacturing porcine islets: culture at 22 °C has no advantage above culture at 37 °C: a gene expression evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kate R; Martins, Kyra V; Murtaugh, Michael P; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing process of islets includes a culture step which was originally introduced to ease the logistics of procedures in preparing the graft and transplant recipient. It has been suggested that culture at room temperature has an advantage over culture at 37 °C, in part by reducing immunogenicity via preferential elimination of contaminating cells (such as passenger leukocytes) within islets. We investigated this using islets isolated from pancreata of adult pigs. Porcine islets were isolated from three donors and cultured at 37 °C for 1 day, and then under three different conditions: 37 °C for 6 days (condition A); 22 °C for 6 days (condition B); or 22 °C for 5 days followed by 37 °C for 1 day (condition C). Recovery was assessed by DNA measurement, viability by oxygen consumption rate normalized for DNA (OCR/DNA), and gene expression by RT-PCR for a series of 9 lymphocyte markers, 11 lymphokines and chemokines, and 14 apoptotic and stress markers. Post-culture islet recoveries were similar for the three culture conditions. Average OCR/DNA values were 129-159 nmol/min·mgDNA before culture, and 259-291, 204-212, and 207-228 nmol/min·mgDNA, respectively, for culture under conditions A, B, and C, respectively. Irrespective of culture condition, examined gene expression in all three series of lymphocyte markers, lymphokines and chemokines, and apoptotic and stress markers manifested a statistically significant decrease upon culture for 7 days. This decrease was most dramatic for condition A: in particular, most of lymphocyte markers showed a >10-fold reduction and also six markers in the lymphokine and chemokine series; these reductions are consistent with the elimination of immune cells present within islets during culture. The reduction was less for apoptotic and stress markers. For culture under condition B, the reduction in gene expression was less, and culture under condition C resulted in gene expression levels similar to those

  15. Culture in the Media: the Representation of Culture in "Jutarnji List"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pavlovski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In today's picture of the widely circulated print media a famous assertion is that culture as a subject is decreasing in relevancy, as seen by the amount of pages dedicated to the cultural section and informations on cultural events, especially those of international importance, in the entire content of the most widely read newspapers. The aim of this paper is to show the presence of cultural themes in one of the most popular daily newspaper published in the Republic of Croatia, Jutarnji list. The research will cover the content of this daily for a period of one year (January 1st 2013 to 1st January 2014, to show the presence of cultural themes in it. I suppose, because of a prior knowledge of the materials, that notifications on events in culture at home and abroad will reside outside pages dedicated to the cultural section, so it will be necessary to examine the contents of whole numbers. Furthermore, I will compare the representation of various artistic genres, the presence of film art compared to the amount of articles devoted to literature, and I will devote particular attention to the content dedicated to the non-commercial aspects of a particular genre, for example the amount of information about events in the poetry scene, promotions or group exhibitions of young filmmakers at home and abroad.

  16. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) under laboratory culture condition

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ariful Haque; Md. Shaheed Reza; Md. Rajib Sharker; Md. Mokhlasur Rahman; Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group) and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered...

  17. Composition of single-step media used for human embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Baumann, Nikola A; Oglesbee, Devin

    2017-04-01

    To determine compositions of commercial single-step culture media and test with a murine model whether differences in composition are biologically relevant. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Inbred female mice were superovulated and mated with outbred male mice. Amino acid, organic acid, and ions content were determined for single-step culture media: CSC, Global, G-TL, and 1-Step. To determine whether differences in composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were cultured for 96 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in a time-lapse incubator. Compositions of four culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 30 amino acids, organic acids, and ions. Blastocysts at 96 hours of culture and cell cycle timings were calculated, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the more than 30 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium varied in concentrations. Mouse embryos were differentially affected by oxygen in G-TL and 1-Step. Four single-step culture media have compositions that vary notably in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids. Blastocyst development was affected by culture media and its interaction with oxygen concentration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of cell culture and laboratory conditions on type 2 dengue virus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J S; Collins, J K

    1979-01-01

    The stability of type 2 dengue virus to exposure to a variety of laboratory conditions was determined. Suckling mouse brain passage virus was adapted for growth in BHK-21 cells, and plaque assays were performed using a tragacanth gum overlay. A three- to fourfold increase in plaque size could be obtained if monolayers were subconfluent at time of inoculation. Incubation of virus for 24 h at 37 degrees C, pH 6.5, or in buffer containing 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate considerably reduced virus infectivity as compared with virus incubated for the same period at 4 degrees C, pH 8.0, or in buffer with or without 1 mM CaCl2 and 1 mM MgCl2. Multiple freezing and thawing of virus tissue culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum did not reduce virus infectivity. Images PMID:41848

  19. Enhancing proliferation and optimizing the culture condition for human bone marrow stromal cells using hypoxia and fibroblast growth factor-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Seok Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the cellular characteristics and behaviors of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs expanded in media in a hypoxic or normoxic condition and with or without fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 treatment. hBMSCs isolated from the vertebral body and expanded in these four groups were evaluated for cellular proliferation/migration, colony-forming units, cell-surface characterization, in vitro differentiation, in vivo transplantation, and gene expression. Culturing hBMSCs using a particular environmental factor (hypoxia and with the addition of FGF-2 increased the cellular proliferation rate while enhancing the regenerative potential, modulated the multipotency-related processes (enhanced chondrogenesis-related processes/osteogenesis, but reduced adipogenesis, and increased cellular migration and collagen formation. The gene expression levels in the experimental samples showed activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway and glycolysis in the hypoxic condition, with this not being affected by the addition of FGF-2. The concurrent application of hypoxia and FGF-2 could provide a favorable condition for culturing hBMSCs to be used in clinical applications associated with bone tissue engineering, due to the enhancement of cellular proliferation and regenerative potential. Keywords: Bone marrow stromal cells, Hypoxia, Fibroblast growth factor, Tissue regeneration, Microenvironment interactions

  20. Ex vivo cultures of glioblastoma in three-dimensional hydrogel maintain the original tumor growth behavior and are suitable for preclinical drug and radiation sensitivity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiguet Jiglaire, Carine, E-mail: carine.jiguet-jiglaire@univ-amu.fr [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); Baeza-Kallee, Nathalie; Denicolaï, Emilie; Barets, Doriane [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); Metellus, Philippe [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); APHM, Timone Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, 13005 Marseille (France); Timone Hospital, 264 Rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2014-02-15

    Identification of new drugs and predicting drug response are major challenges in oncology, especially for brain tumors, because total surgical resection is difficult and radiation therapy or chemotherapy is often ineffective. With the aim of developing a culture system close to in vivo conditions for testing new drugs, we characterized an ex vivo three-dimensional culture system based on a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel and compared it with classical two-dimensional culture conditions. U87-MG glioblastoma cells and seven primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas were subjected to radiation therapy and chemotherapy drugs. It appears that 3D hydrogel preserves the original cancer growth behavior and enables assessment of the sensitivity of malignant gliomas to radiation and drugs with regard to inter-tumoral heterogeneity of therapeutic response. It could be used for preclinical assessment of new therapies. - Highlights: • We have compared primary glioblastoma cell culture in a 2D versus 3D-matrix system. • In 3D morphology, organization and markers better recapitulate the original tumor. • 3D-matrix culture might represent a relevant system for more accurate drug screening.

  1. Ex vivo cultures of glioblastoma in three-dimensional hydrogel maintain the original tumor growth behavior and are suitable for preclinical drug and radiation sensitivity screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiguet Jiglaire, Carine; Baeza-Kallee, Nathalie; Denicolaï, Emilie; Barets, Doriane; Metellus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new drugs and predicting drug response are major challenges in oncology, especially for brain tumors, because total surgical resection is difficult and radiation therapy or chemotherapy is often ineffective. With the aim of developing a culture system close to in vivo conditions for testing new drugs, we characterized an ex vivo three-dimensional culture system based on a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel and compared it with classical two-dimensional culture conditions. U87-MG glioblastoma cells and seven primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas were subjected to radiation therapy and chemotherapy drugs. It appears that 3D hydrogel preserves the original cancer growth behavior and enables assessment of the sensitivity of malignant gliomas to radiation and drugs with regard to inter-tumoral heterogeneity of therapeutic response. It could be used for preclinical assessment of new therapies. - Highlights: • We have compared primary glioblastoma cell culture in a 2D versus 3D-matrix system. • In 3D morphology, organization and markers better recapitulate the original tumor. • 3D-matrix culture might represent a relevant system for more accurate drug screening

  2. Culture of hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors in alginate-based scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formo, Kjetil; Cho, Candy H-H; Vallier, Ludovic; Strand, Berit L

    2015-12-01

    The effect of alginate-based scaffolds with added basement membrane proteins on the in vitro development of hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors was investigated. Cell clusters were encapsulated in scaffolds containing the basement membrane proteins collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin, or extracellular matrix-derived peptides, and maintained in culture for up to 46 days. The cells remained viable throughout the experiment with no signs of central necrosis. Whereas nonencapsulated cells aggregated into larger clusters, some of which showed signs of morphological changes and tissue organization, the alginate matrix stabilized the cluster size and displayed more homogeneous cell morphologies, allowing culture for long periods of time. For all conditions tested, a stable or declining expression of insulin and PDX1 and an increase in glucagon and somatostatin over time indicated a progressive reduction in beta cell-related gene expression. Alginate scaffolds can provide a chemically defined, xeno-free and easily scalable alternative for culture of pancreatic progenitors. Although no increase in insulin and PDX1 gene expression after alginate-immobilized cell culture was seen in this study, further optimization of the matrix physicochemical and biological properties and of the medium composition may still be a relevant strategy to promote the stabilization or maturation of stem cell-derived beta cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A systematic review of asthma and health literacy: a cultural-ethnic perspective in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj M; Rootman, Irving; Balka, Ellen; Devarakonda, Rajashree; Hatch, James; Fitzgerald, J Mark

    2007-08-21

    Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory lung diseases and its prevalence and incidence have increased in many developed and developing countries. Asthma places a heavy burden on healthcare expenditures and productivity, which in turn diminishes the quality of life of the individuals involved as well as their families. The goal of improving a patient's knowledge about asthma management should include the enhancement of the individual's skills with the hopeful outcome of improving how the individual manages the condition. However, when health professionals prepare a training program, they are faced with the challenging cosmopolitan reality of individuals with different ethnic backgrounds. In order to find links between asthma and health literacy in a cultural/ethnicity perspective, we performed a systematic review of all publications on the topic of asthma, health, and literacy among cultural groups from 1980 to 2006 using the Internet and journals: Medline (Ovid), ERIC, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Google, Google Scholar, Sociological Abstracts, and Anthropology Plus. Key words included the following: "asthma," "culture," "ethnicity," "literacy," "health," "health literacy," "health beliefs," "adults," "disease management," "chronic condition," "ethnocultural groups," "minority groups," and "newcomers/immigrants." More than 650 articles were initially identified in our review; 65 met our inclusion criteria. From these, we examined the factors related to asthma and literacy/health literacy with a cultural lens. All of these are categorized and summarized below. We chose what we considered to be the most relevant and important articles/documents in the research literature to date. Because many of the studies were qualitative, a formal meta-analytic review was not undertaken. We found that current asthma management techniques - including patient education - are not culturally sensitive, linguistically sensitive, or relevant, which creates further difficulties for

  4. Attention bias towards personally relevant stimuli: the individual emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Bullig, Renate; Mensebach, Christoph; Hartje, Wolfgang; Driessen, Martin; Beblo, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    The emotional Stroop task is a widely used method for investigating attentional bias towards stimuli due to mood or affect. In general, standardized stimuli are used, which might not be appropriate when investigating individual contextual frameworks. It was investigated whether words chosen to be related to individuals' personal life events would produce more pronounced Stroop interference (as an indicator of attentional bias) than stimuli without any personal relevance. Twenty-six nonclinical subjects, 20 female and 6 male, participated in the study. Mean age was 36.1 yr. (SD = 18.1). All were recruited by means of local advertising. Stimulus material consisted of four word types: personal words related to negative life events with and without current personal relevance, and negative and neutral words without any personal relevance. Words were presented in three blocks. Analysis of variance showed main effects for word type and blocks, with slower reactions in the personally relevant conditions than in the negative, or neutral conditions, and in response to the first blocks as opposed to the last. These findings indicate that regardless of the word valence, personally relevant stimuli evoke more pronounced Stroop interference than do stimuli without personal relevance.

  5. Macrolide Antibiotics Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect under Amino Acid-Depleted Culture Condition by Blocking Autophagy Flux in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kazuhiro; Moriya, Shota; Miyahara, Kana; Kazama, Hiromi; Hirota, Ayako; Takemura, Jun; Abe, Akihisa; Inazu, Masato; Hiramoto, Masaki; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy, a self-digestive system for cytoplasmic components, is required to maintain the amino acid pool for cellular homeostasis. We previously reported that the macrolide antibiotics azithromycin (AZM) and clarithromycin (CAM) have an inhibitory effect on autophagy flux, and they potently enhance the cytocidal effect of various anticancer reagents in vitro. This suggests that macrolide antibiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer chemotherapy. Since cancer cells require a larger metabolic demand than normal cells because of their exuberant growth, upregulated autophagy in tumor cells has now become the target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we examined whether macrolides exhibit cytotoxic effect under an amino acid-starving condition in head and neck squamous cancer cell lines such as CAL 27 and Detroit 562 as models of solid tumors with an upregulated autophagy in the central region owing to hypovascularity. AZM and CAM induced cell death under the amino acid-depleted (AAD) culture condition in these cell lines along with CHOP upregulation, although they showed no cytotoxicity under the complete culture medium. CHOP knockdown by siRNA in the CAL 27 cells significantly suppressed macrolide-induced cell death under the AAD culture condition. CHOP-/- murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines also attenuated AZM-induced cell death compared with CHOP+/+ MEF cell lines. Using a tet-off atg5 MEF cell line, knockout of atg5, an essential gene for autophagy, also induced cell death and CHOP in the AAD culture medium but not in the complete culture medium. This suggest that macrolide-induced cell death via CHOP induction is dependent on autophagy inhibition. The cytotoxicity of macrolide with CHOP induction was completely cancelled by the addition of amino acids in the culture medium, indicating that the cytotoxicity is due to the insufficient amino acid pool. These data suggest the possibility of using macrolides for “tumor-starving therapy”. PMID

  6. CERN has a new cultural policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A new cultural policy is to be unveiled at the beginning of 2011. Although CERN has been inspiring the works of artists for decades, the new policy represents the first official framework for CERN's engagement with the arts.   Screenshot of the upcoming ARTS@CERN Website. The new cultural policy features four main activities: the creation of an honorary advisory board, the launch of an Artist in Residence programme, support for the various cultural events developed at CERN, and a new website which will showcase CERN’s significant cultural activities and provide relevant information for both artists and people working at CERN. “The new cultural policy shows how much CERN values its significant role in culture,” explains Ariane Koek, the Communication Group’s cultural specialist working on this project. “CERN’s policy is extremely progressive, as it brings together art and science at the same level – Great Arts for Great Sci...

  7. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation is a professional journal of the Association of Psychology in Sport and Human Behaviour. It publishes a wide variety of original articles and reports relevant to cultural and sport behaviour, theoretical propositions, research outcomes ...

  8. Cultural Dialects of Real and Synthetic Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the aspects of designing facial expressions for Virtual Humans with a specific culture. First we explore the notion of cultures and its relevance for applications with a Virtual Human. Then we give a general scheme of designing emotional facial expressions, and identify the

  9. Cognitive Contours: Recent Work on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Its Relevance for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W. Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines new work in cross-cultural psychology largely drawn from Nisbett, Choi, and Smith ("Cognition," 65, 15-32, 1997); Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, "Psychological Review," 108(2), 291-310, 2001; Nisbett, "The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and Why." New…

  10. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  11. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Grčić Мirko; Grčić Ljiljana; Sibinović Мikica

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation). Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as metho...

  12. Effect of postmortem sampling technique on the clinical significance of autopsy blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, M; Pencil, S D

    1998-02-01

    Our objective was to investigate the value of postmortem autopsy blood cultures performed with an iodine-subclavian technique relative to the classical method of atrial heat searing and antemortem blood cultures. The study consisted of a prospective autopsy series with each case serving as its own control relative to subsequent testing, and a retrospective survey of patients coming to autopsy who had both autopsy blood cultures and premortem blood cultures. A busy academic autopsy service (600 cases per year) at University of Texas Medical Branch Hospitals, Galveston, Texas, served as the setting for this work. The incidence of non-clinically relevant (false-positive) culture results were compared using different methods for collecting blood samples in a prospective series of 38 adult autopsy specimens. One hundred eleven adult autopsy specimens in which both postmortem and antemortem blood cultures were obtained were studied retrospectively. For both studies, positive culture results were scored as either clinically relevant or false positives based on analysis of the autopsy findings and the clinical summary. The rate of false-positive culture results obtained by an iodine-subclavian technique from blood drawn soon after death were statistically significantly lower (13%) than using the classical method of obtaining blood through the atrium after heat searing at the time of the autopsy (34%) in the same set of autopsy subjects. When autopsy results were compared with subjects' antemortem blood culture results, there was no significant difference in the rate of non-clinically relevant culture results in a paired retrospective series of antemortem blood cultures and postmortem blood cultures using the iodine-subclavian postmortem method (11.7% v 13.5%). The results indicate that autopsy blood cultures obtained using the iodine-subclavian technique have reliability equivalent to that of antemortem blood cultures.

  13. Co-production of lipids, eicosapentaenoic acid, fucoxanthin, and chrysolaminarin by Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured in a flat-plate photobioreactor under varying nitrogen conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baoyan; Chen, Ailing; Zhang, Wenyuan; Li, Aifen; Zhang, Chengwu

    2017-10-01

    The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a polymorphological, ecologically significant, and well-studied model of unicellular microalga. This diatom can accumulate diverse important metabolites. Herein, we cultured P. tricornutum in an internally installed tie-piece flat-plate photobioreactor under 14.5 m mol L-1 (high nitrogen, HN) and 2.9 m mol L-1 (low nitrogen, LN) of KNO3 and assessed its time-resolved changes in biochemical compositions. The results showed that HN was inductive to accumulate high biomass (4.1 g L-1). However, the LN condition could accelerate lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum. The maximum total lipid (TL) content under LN was up to 42.5% of biomass on day 12. Finally, neutral lipids (NLs) were 63.8% and 75.7% of TLs under HN and LN, respectively. The content of EPA ranged from 2.3% to 1.5% of dry weight during the growth period under the two culture conditions. Peak volumetric lipid productivity of 128.4 mg L-1d-1 was achieved in the HN group (on day 9). The highest volumetric productivity values of EPA, chrysolaminarin, and fucoxanthin were obtained in the exponential phase (on day 6) under HN, which were 9.6, 93.6, and 4.7 mg L-1d-1, respectively. In conclusion, extractable amounts of lipids, EPA, fucoxanthin, and chrysolaminarin could be obtained from P. tricornutum by regulating the culture conditions.

  14. Healthcare professionals’ views of feedback on patient safety culture assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Hendriks, M.; Hoogervorst-Schilp, J.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: By assessing patient safety culture, healthcare providers can identify areas for improvement in patient safety culture. To achieve this, these assessment outcomes have to be relevant and presented clearly. The aim of our study was to explore healthcare professionals’ views on the

  15. Healthcare professionals’ views of feedback on patient safety culture assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Hendriks, M.; Hoogervorst-Schilp, J.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: By assessing patient safety culture, healthcare providers can identify areas for improvement in patient safety culture. To achieve this, these assessment outcomes have to be relevant and presented clearly. The aim of our study was to explore healthcare professionals’ views on the feedback of a patient safety culture assessment. Methods: Twenty four hospitals participated in a patient safety culture assessment in 2012. Hospital departments received feedback in a report and on a web...

  16. Transformation of trinitrotoluene to triaminotoluene by mixed cultures incubated under methanogenic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, P.; Chow, T.; Adrian, N.R.

    2000-04-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive widely used by the military. Although it is no longer manufactured in the US, large amounts of wastewater are generated annually from load, assembly, packing, and demilitarization operations. Granular-activated carbon adsorption is the standard technology for treating wastewater containing TNT and maintaining discharges within the limits established under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Studies evaluating biological treatment of pink water with an anaerobic fluidized-bed, granular-activated carbon bioreactor have been promising, but the fate of TNT is unknown. The authors investigated the anaerobic transformation of TNT by biofilm microorganisms obtained from a wastewater treatment plant receiving explosive manufacturing wastewater. The TNT was transformed to a mixture