WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally sensitive services

  1. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    . Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... and incorporate this into caregiving. Method. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Findings. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming...

  2. Culturally sensitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C P; Kumru, A

    1999-04-01

    Issues of cultural interaction and culturally sensitive assessment and treatment of young children have become prominent in recent years for mental health professionals, for reasons having to do with changing demographics, public values, and professional vision. "Culture" refers to the sociocultural adaptation of design for living shared by people as members of a community. Mental health professionals who work with culturally diverse populations need to become culturally self-aware and find abstract and experiential ways to build a useful body of professional knowledge concerning childrearing and discipline practices, health and illness beliefs, communication styles, and expectations about family or professional relations or other group interactions. They also need to learn how to work effectively in intercultural teams, use families as partners and resources, train and work with interpreters, and select and use formal and nonformal assessment procedures in appropriate, culturally sensitive ways.

  3. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  4. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture-sensitive

  5. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    is required to address the issue, since by definition cultural services (encompassing physical, intellectual, spiritual interactions with biota) need to be analysed from multiple perspectives (i.e. ecological, social, behavioural). A second reason is the lack of data for large-scale assessments, as detailed......Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...

  6. Culturally Sensitive Refugee Mental Health Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.

    This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mental health services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…

  7. Pre-service English teachers’ intercultural sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal Cubukcu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has helped the number of people to be cognizant of the importance of foreign language teaching and learning. As  it is almost impossible to separate culture from language and the familiarization of  diverse cultures from language do not help students for the real life because people from diverse cultural backgrounds use language differently, Kramsch (1993:258 holds that the aim of language learning is “cultivating international understanding, responsibility, and effective participation in a global age”. The purpose of  this  article is to explore the intercultural sensitivity among teacher trainees. For this purpose two scales were administered to  the pre- service teachers to see to what extent they have intercultural sensitivity and how they see culture teaching in the curriculum. The results yield that Turkish teacher  trainees  integrate language teaching objectives  with culture teaching and they prioritize the attitudinal knowledge, showing tolerance and sympathy for the others.  

  8. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  9. Continuing professional development in sensitive cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K

    2008-01-01

    Many cultures of the world face threats to their existence due to the homogenizing effects of the global commercial pop culture. These same influences present challenges to vulnerable cultures that seek the benefits of modern medicine, while attempting to preserve their unique identities. This paper briefly reviews some of these challenges and presents one novel approach to providing continuing medical education that minimizes the potential for adverse influences on the sensitive culture.

  10. A Sixth Sense--Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Francesina R.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents suggestions for culturally sensitive modifications to help students from all backgrounds learn better. The modifications include building trust, building a repertoire of instructional strategies, using effective questioning techniques, providing effective feedback, analyzing instructional materials, and establishing positive…

  11. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of Regional Marine Ecosystem Services Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; ZHENG Wei; WANG Zongling; DING Dewen

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystem services are the benefits which people obtain from the marine ecosystem, including provisioning ser-vices, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. The human species, while buffered against environmental changes by culture and technology, is fundamentally dependent on the flow of ecosystem services. Marine ecosystem services be-come increasingly valuable as the terrestrial resources become scarce. The value of marine ecosystem services is the monetary flow of ecosystem services on specific temporal and spatial scales, which often changes due to the variation of the goods prices, yields and the status of marine exploitation. Sensitivity analysis is to study the relationship between the value of marine ecosystem services and the main factors which affect it. Uncertainty analysis based on varying prices, yields and status of marine exploitation was carried out. Through uncertainty analysis, a more credible value range instead of a fixed value of marine ecosystem services was obtained in this study. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the marine ecosystem services value revealed the relative importance of different factors.

  12. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  13. The effect of culture on pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthy, M; Ohrbach, R; Michelotti, A; List, T

    2016-02-01

    Cross-cultural differences in pain sensitivity have been identified in pain-free subjects as well as in chronic pain patients. The aim was to assess the impact of culture on psychophysical measures using mechanical and electrical stimuli in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and pain-free matched controls in three cultures. This case-control study compared 122 female cases of chronic TMD pain (39 Saudis, 41 Swedes and 42 Italians) with equal numbers of age- and gender-matched TMD-free controls. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and tolerance (PPTo) were measured over one hand and two masticatory muscles. Electrical perception threshold and electrical pain threshold (EPT) and tolerance (EPTo) were recorded between the thumb and index fingers. Italian females reported significantly lower PPT in the masseter muscle than other cultures (P cultures (P = 0.017). Italians reported significantly lower PPTo in all muscles than Swedes (P ≤ 0.006) and in the masseter muscle than Saudis (P cultures (P = 0.01). Temporomandibular disorder cases, compared to TMD-free controls, reported lower PPT and PPTo in all the three muscles (P cultural differences between groups in the PPT, PPTo and EPTo. Overall, Italian females reported the highest sensitivity to both mechanical and electrical stimulation, while Swedes reported the lowest sensitivity. Mechanical pain thresholds differed more across cultures than did electrical pain thresholds. Cultural factors may influence response to type of pain test.

  14. Cultural Goods Production, Cultural Capital Formation and the Provision of Cultural Services

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sao-Wen

    2005-01-01

    Cultural capital is assumed to benefit all members of society. It is accumulated through the consumption of cultural services and is diminished through depreciation. Using the stock of cultural goods, cultural services are provided by the cultural services industry; the stock of cultural goods is enlarged by the flow of new cultural goods created by individuals who are both consumers and creators of culture and whose utility is positively affected by the cultural goods they created. In the no...

  15. Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry C. Daniel; Andreas Muhar; Arne Arnberger; Olivier Aznar; James W. Boyd; Kai M.A. Chan; Robert Costanza; Thomas Elmqvist; Courtney G. Flint; Paul H. Gobster; A. Gret-Regamey; R. Lave; S. Muhar; M. Penker; R.G. Ribe; T. Schauppenlehner; T. Sikor; I. Soloviy; M. Spierenburg; K. Taczanowska; J. Tam; A. von der Dunk

    2012-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services (ES) are consistently recognized but not yet adequately defined or integrated within the ES framework. A substantial body of models, methods, and data relevant to cultural services has been developed within the social and behavioral sciences before and outside of the ES approach. A selective review of work in landscape aesthetics, cultural...

  16. Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, T.C.; Muhar, A.; Arnberger, A.; Aznar, O.; Boyd, J.W.; Chan, K.M.A.; Costanza, R.; Elmqvist, T.; Flint, C.G.; Gobster, P.H.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Lave, R.; Muhar, S.; Penker, M.; Ribe, R.G.; Schauppenlehner, T.; Sikor, T.; Soloviy, I.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Taczanowska, K.; Tam, J.; Dunk, A. von der

    2012-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services (ES) are consistently recognized but not yet adequately defined or integrated within the ES framework. A substantial body of models, methods, and data relevant to cultural services has been developed within the social and behavioral sciences before and outside of the ES a

  17. Linking ecosystem services with cultural landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Biding, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    neglected within the ecosystem services framework. This could result in trade-off assessments which are biased and mislead ecosystem management and landscape planning. However, cultural landscape research approaches have proven valuable in the assessment of different nonmaterial landscape values...... the same object. A closer link between the two research communities would enrich and possibly sharpen both approaches. In particular, landscape research on cultural services such as aesthetics or cultural heritage could provide valuable results and methods for a comprehensive assessment of ecosystem......The concept of ecosystem services facilitates the valuation of the multiple services from ecosystems and landscapes, the identification of trade-offs between different land use scenarios, and also informs decision making in land use planning. Unfortunately, cultural services have been mostly...

  18. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  19. Linking ecosystem services with cultural landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Biding, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    neglected within the ecosystem services framework. This could result in trade-off assessments which are biased and mislead ecosystem management and landscape planning. However, cultural landscape research approaches have proven valuable in the assessment of different nonmaterial landscape values...

  20. Can Discipline Education be Culturally Sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley E; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Scholer, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Inappropriate discipline such as harsh physical punishment is a social determinant of health. The objective was to determine if a brief parent training intervention that teaches discipline strategies is culturally sensitive. Methods English or Spanish-speaking parents of 1-5 year old children viewed a multimedia program that teaches appropriate discipline strategies. The intervention, Play Nicely, was viewed in the exam room before the physician's visit. Parents viewed 4 of 20 discipline strategies of their choosing; the average viewing time was 7 min. Results Of 204 parents eligible to participate, 197 (96 %) completed the study; 41 % were Black, 31 % were White, and 21 % were Hispanic. At least 80 % of parents from each racial/ethnic group reported that the program built their confidence to care for their child, addressed their family needs, explained things in a way they could understand, respected their family values, and was sensitive to their personal beliefs. Overall, 80 % of parents reported that the program answered individual questions. One parent (0.5 %) reported that the program did not respect her family values. Conclusions for Practice Discipline education can be integrated into the pediatric primary care clinic in a way that is family-centered and culturally sensitive for the majority of parents. The results have implications for the development and implementation of population-based parenting programs and the primary prevention of child abuse and violence.

  1. Fostering a culture of service excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Patients' level of satisfaction with healthcare providers can have profound implications for operational and clinical outcomes. Are your organizational leaders fostering a practice culture of "service excellence"? Has your organization defined what "service excellence" means? Do your employees have a clear understanding of your expectations for service delivery? Medical practice leaders can improve patients' level of satisfaction by adopting and fostering a culture of service excellence in their practice. Strengthening the practice-patient relationship through patient-service initiatives can lead to improved patient perception of care quality and overall satisfaction with their healthcare providers. When patients feel wanted and well cared for by their healthcare providers, they are less likely to be noncompliant and more likely to achieve positive clinical outcomes. Operationally, service-excellence initiatives will have a profound impact on patient retention and new referrals, and possibly a reduction of litigious risks.

  2. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2) that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3) that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus......Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the socialecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes......, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage...

  3. Revising and Updating the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer A.; Cushner, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The following article outlines research conducted to examine cross-cultural sensitivity in a sample of 949 incoming university students in the USA. The study was conducted during the process of updating an existing measure of cross-cultural sensitivity known as the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity (ICCS), and to examine the various levels…

  4. Is Ethical Sensitivity in Teaching Culturally Bound? Comparing Finnish and Iranian Teachers' Ethical Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Khalil; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of teachers' ethical sensitivity in two countries. Our case study involves teachers from Finland (n = 864) representing Western culture, and from Iran (n = 556) representing Eastern culture. Culturally bound elements of ethical sensitivity were studied with the…

  5. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  6. Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

    1985-01-01

    Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility.

  7. "Shattering culture": perspectives on cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio; Hannah, Seth Donal

    2015-04-01

    The concept of culture as an analytic concept has increasingly been questioned by social scientists, just as health care institutions and clinicians have increasingly routinized concepts and uses of culture as means for improving the quality of care for racial and ethnic minorities. This paper examines this tension, asking whether it is possible to use cultural categories to develop evidenced-based practice guidelines in mental health services when these categories are challenged by the increasing hyperdiversity of patient populations and newer theories of culture that question direct connection between group-based social identities and cultural characteristics. Anthropologists have grown concerned about essentializing societies, yet unequal treatment on the basis of cultural, racial, or ethnic group membership is present in medicine and mental health care today. We argue that discussions of culture-patients' culture and the "culture of medicine"-should be sensitive to the risk of improper stereotypes, but should also be sensitive to the continuing significance of group-based discrimination and the myriad ways culture shapes clinical presentation, doctor-patient interactions, the illness experience, and the communication of symptoms. We recommend that mental health professionals consider the local contexts, with greater appreciation for the diversity of lived experience found among individual patients. This suggests a nuanced reliance on broad cultural categories of racial, ethnic, and national identities in evidence-based practice guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Cultural services remediated in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Danish Public Libraries conducted an experiment in establishing a library in the virtual world Second Life. The Info Island DK provided the framework for a number of online library services and cultural events. This study, based on interviews with most of the active participants...... in the project, discusses the experiences in remediating conventional library services into the new medium and in understanding and redefining the role of the librarian in an online virtual world....

  9. What Is a Moose? Becoming Culturally Sensitive Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Lori; Wilhite, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    At a summer camp that introduces Japanese high school students to American culture, the authors learned the following basic principles underlying culturally responsive camp activities: sensitivity to cultural nuances in communication, deliberate and sequential processes, appreciation of one's own cultural biases, understanding perceived risks, and…

  10. International Service-Learning: Ethics in Cross-Cultural Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jones

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available All study abroad courses require the development of productive cross-cultural relationships. Working with local service providers from diverse cultural backgrounds, such as tour guides, hotel managers, and bus drivers, can be demanding work. However, these commercial relationships are reasonably well defined in terms of consumers and vendors of services. On the other hand, the collaboration and shared goals necessary for engaging in direct service abroad require the development of meaningful partnerships that extend beyond commercial interactions. Ethical partnerships are complicated by unequal power dynamics, different cultural expectations of reciprocity, and culturally specific understandings of relationship duration. The goal of this study is to identify divergent expectations amongst students providing the service, local service coordinators, and recipients of the service. An open-ended interview guide was developed for students and collaborators in three short-term international service-learning courses. Students wrote responses regarding their perceptions of the need for the project and the impact on all participants. Similar questions were asked of local service coordinators and members of the community in face-to-face interviews. This provided insight into the variety of perceptions of needs and outcomes. We argue that the process of aligning of mutual and individual goals and perceptions is integral to ascertaining informed consent for the participation of students, partner organizations, and community members in ISL programs. Furthermore, in striving for informed consent, the development of ethical, sensitive, and reciprocal ISL partnerships can be promoted. While it was not possible to obtain data from all groups in all three courses, this exploratory, qualitative investigation offered meaningful opportunities to maintain and further develop equitable relationships and to clarify expectations for future collaborations and coursework

  11. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the socialecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes......, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage...... Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape...

  12. Culturally Sensitive Health Care and Counseling Psychology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Tucker, Carolyn M.; Ferdinand, Lisa A.; Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Hasan, Nadia T.; Beato, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the Major Contribution, which focuses on counseling psychologists' roles in addressing health disparities through culturally sensitive health care research and interventions. First, the authors provide a rationale for conducting research focused on culturally sensitive health care and then offer definitions of…

  13. Making Career Theories More Culturally Sensitive: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Valach, Ladislav

    2007-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is whether and how career theories can be more culturally sensitive without losing value as conceptual explanations or their usefulness for counselors. Contextual action theory is identified as a means to develop culturally sensitive explanations. Six steps are proposed and illustrated, including…

  14. Development of a multidisciplinary course in cultural competence for nursing and human service professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cora C; DoBroka, Cheryl Conrad; Mohammad, Saleem

    2009-09-01

    A multidisciplinary teaching model was used to develop a pilot course for students in the human service professions of nursing, education, and social work to gain additional knowledge and skills in providing diverse clients with culturally appropriate services during field and clinical experiences. This article focuses on the process of developing a multidisciplinary course in cultural competence that is consistent with a university mission to prepare students for leadership and service in an increasingly diverse society. Using the theoretical framework of Campinha-Bacote's process of cultural competence and the six developmental stages of intercultural competence in Bennett's developmental model of intercultural sensitivity, the course content covered the five components of cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skills, cultural encounters, and cultural desire. Students' written reflections indicated growth in acquisition of cultural knowledge, skills, and desire. Faculty collaboration across disciplines included the benefits of an enriched knowledge base and shared scholarship.

  15. Optimal Guaranteed Service Time and Service Level Decision with Time and Service Level Sensitive Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-stage supply chain with one supplier and one retailer. The retailer sells a product to customer and the supplier provides a product in a make-to-order mode. In this case, the supplier’s decisions on service time and service level and the retailer’s decision on retail price have effects on customer demand. We develop optimization models to determine the optimal retail price, the optimal guaranteed service time, the optimal service level, and the optimal capacity to maximize the expected profit of the whole supply chain. The results of numerical experiments show that it is more profitable to determine the optimal price, the optimal guaranteed service time, and the optimal service level simultaneously and the proposed model is more profitable in service level sensitive market.

  16. Culture and religion in nursing: providing culturally sensitive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aysha

    Last month, Aysha Mendes discussed the impact on care of personal beliefs held by both nurses and patients. This month, she delves into the aspects of culture and religion, which form important pieces of this puzzle, as well as the importance of culturally appropriate care provision in nursing practice.

  17. Culturally sensitive curriculum development in international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assure high quality education in developing countries, curriculum development endeavours are often initiated as part of international cooperation projects. Since culture affects the educational context of the countries involved and the way in which curriculum developers from different countries

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian DOBRESCU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The accession of our country to the European Union presupposes the adoption, understanding and enforcement by Romanian citizens of a new set of values among which tolerance, human rights and minority rights are accounted. These have as purpose to put to good use economically the cultural heritage from libraries, museums, and collections, but also rendering efficient the connection between the contemporary knowledge and artistic values creator and the beneficiary and consumer of such products in shops, exhibitions and theatre rooms. Therefore, it was stated that for Europe the cultural patrimony is a strategic resource with the purpose of increasing labour productivity in realising products and services based on improving access (velocity and area to these; to this end information tools were created for assisting their change and functioning in a manner similar to the one of industrial organisations or services’ ones.

  19. A reading in cross-cultural service encounter: Exploring the relationship between cultural intelligence, employee performance and service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Alshaibani, Elham; Bakir, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary reading in cross-cultural service interactions in hospitality and service management literature was undertaken focusing on employee’s attitudes and behaviour that are seen to influence service quality. The interplay of the competing constructs of employee personality, emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence in the service encounter was looked at in relation to employee performance and customer perception of service quality. The reading suggests that cultural inte...

  20. Context-sensitive service discovery experimental prototype and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balken, Robin; Haukrogh, Jesper; L. Jensen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    the network in domains that handle the complex distributed service discovery, which is based on dynamically changing context information. In the prototype, a method for performing context-sensitive service discovery has been realised. The service discovery part utilizes UPnP, which has been expanded in order...... to increase network scalability. The experimental analysis of service discovery times for different scenarios is used to optimize parameter settings of the service discovery system in order to achieve short response times....

  1. A Culture-Sensitive Agent in Kirman's Ant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Heng; Liou, Wen-Ching; Chen, Ting-Yu

    The global financial crisis brought a serious collapse involving a "systemic" meltdown. Internet technology and globalization have increased the chances for interaction between countries and people. The global economy has become more complex than ever before. Mark Buchanan [12] indicated that agent-based computer models will prevent another financial crisis and has been particularly influential in contributing insights. There are two reasons why culture-sensitive agent on the financial market has become so important. Therefore, the aim of this article is to establish a culture-sensitive agent and forecast the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. We based our study on the Kirman's Ant Model[4,5] and Hofstede's Natational Culture[11] to establish our culture-sensitive agent based model. Kirman's Ant Model is quite famous and describes financial market herding behavior from the expectations of the future of financial investors. Hofstede's cultural consequence used the staff of IBM in 72 different countries to understand the cultural difference. As a result, this paper focuses on one of the five dimensions of culture from Hofstede: individualism versus collectivism and creates a culture-sensitive agent and predicts the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. To conclude, this study will be of importance in explaining the herding behavior with cultural factors, as well as in providing researchers with a clearer understanding of how herding beliefs of people about different cultures relate to their finance market strategies.

  2. Culturally sensitive curriculum development in international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervedink Nijhuis, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assure high quality education in developing countries, curriculum development endeavours are often initiated as part of international cooperation projects. Since culture affects the educational context of the countries involved and the way in which curriculum developers from different countries a

  3. Empathy and Cross-Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Jo, Hanik; Roberts, Amber

    Multicultural empathy has been recognized as an important factor in successfully treating ethnic minority clients. A study detailing the relationship between White counselor trainees' general ability to empathize and their ability to interact comfortably outside their culture of origin is described in this paper. Thirty-three counselor trainees…

  4. Integrative Report on a culture-sensitive quality & curriculum framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylva, Kathy; Ereky-Stevens, Katharina; Pastori, Giulia; Slot, P.L.; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report draws together research findings that support a comprehensive culture-sensitive European curriculum and quality assessment framework that can inform practice, teacher education and policy. The aim of this integrative report is to inform the development of a comprehensive, culture-sensiti

  5. Cuento Therapy: A Culturally Sensitive Modality for Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a modeling therapy designed to be sensitive to Hispanic culture using cuentos (folktales) from Puerto Rican culture to present models of adaptive behavior and folktales tailored to bridge Puerto Ricans' bicultural conflict. Cuento therapy significantly reduced children's trait anxiety relative to traditional…

  6. Cultural values and health service quality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsa, Pia; Fuxiang, Wei; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Shuyuan, Pei

    2013-01-01

    Several service quality studies show how cultural features may influence the way service quality is perceived. However, few studies specifically describe culture's influence on health service quality. Also, there are few studies that take into account patients' health service quality perceptions. This article seeks to present a first step to fill these gaps by examining patients' cultural values and their health service quality assessments. The study draws on published work and applies its ideas to Chinese healthcare settings. Data consist of hospital service perceptions in the People's Republic of China (PRC), a society that is socially, economically and culturally undergoing major changes. In total, 96 patients were surveyed. Data relationships were tested using partial least square (PLS) analysis. Findings show that Chinese patients' cultural values and their health service assessments are related and that the cultural values themselves seem to be changing. Additionally, further analyses provided interesting results pointing to which cultural values influenced service quality perceptions. The strongest service quality predictor was power distance. The sample is relatively small and collected from only one major hospital in China. Therefore, future research should extend the sample size and scope. Follow-up research could also include cross-cultural investigations of perceived health service quality to substantiate cultural influences on health service quality perceptions. In line with similar research in other contexts, the study confirms that power distance has a significant relationship with service quality perceptions. The study contributes to existing health service literature by offering patients' views on health service quality and by describing relationships between health service perceptions and cultural values--the study's main contribution.

  7. Assessing, mapping and quantifying cultural ecosystem services at community level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plieninger, T.; Dijks, S.; Oteros Rozas, E.; Bieling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies underline the importance of immaterial benefits provided by ecosystems and especially by cultural landscapes, which are shaped by intimate human–nature interactions. However, due to methodological challenges, cultural ecosystem services are rarely fully considered in ecosystem servi

  8. Improving the sensitivity of blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Samir; Darmstadt, Gary; Naheed, Aliya; Arifeen, Shams; Islam, Maksuda; Fatima, Kaniz; Breiman, Robert; Sack, David; Hamer, Davidson

    2011-06-01

    Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae is jeopardized by low sensitivity of blood culture, autolysis and contamination with fast-growing organism(s). We performed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test for S. pneumoniae on chocolatized blood culture bottles and also sub-cultured contaminated bottles on a selective medium, thus identifying an additional eight and three cases, respectively, and improving the detection of pneumococcus by 23% (48% vs. 59%). Prescreening of culture bottles in a blinded fashion could rationalize the use of ICT with ~99% accuracy. These two approaches can aid microbiology laboratories in resource-poor countries to substantially improve rates of detection of S. pneumoniae.

  9. Who's in Charge? Leadership and Culture in Extended Service Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Paul; Wainwright, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of understanding different organisational and professional cultures for leaders in extended service settings. It begins with a critical review of key concepts and debates in the organisational culture literature and then shows how different professional groups (education, health and social services) have adopted…

  10. [Culture-Sensitive Aspects in Diagnostics of Mental Distress in Refugees - Two Commented Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterko, Yuriy; Kaiser, Marie; Glaesmer, Heide

    2017-04-01

    High levels of mental disorders, especially PTSD, are commonly known among groups of people forced to leave their homeland as a consequence of war-related experiences (e. g. armed conflict, torture or persecution). Depending on the cultural background the perceptions of illnesses vary, different symptom presentation and thereupon different coping strategies respectively expectations towards health care services exist. To minimize the danger of misdiagnosis by different experts working with refugees in the host countries, a culture-sensitive diagnostic approach is needed from the beginning. This article describes important aspects of culture-sensitive diagnostics by means of 2 commented case reports. Special focus is set on the aspect of linguistic and in a broader sense cultural comprehension between therapist, client and if necessary language mediator. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Indicators to Evaluate Pre-Service Teachers' Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Zhang, Gang

    2009-01-01

    This study identifies and examines multiple indicators to evaluate cultural competence of pre-service teachers in teacher education institutions. National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education's concepts of culturally responsive teaching and theory discussions on cultural competence serve as the impetus for the study. The analysis applied…

  12. Intergroup anxiety, cultural sensitivity and socio-cultural diverse leaders’ effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Peruginni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This intended to analyze differences in the level of perception –of general population participants- in regards to leaders with diverse socio-cultural characteristics (gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, nationality and also verify by means of structural equations, the influence of intergroup anxiety and the cultural sensitivity in terms of the level of effectiveness perception. Participants: 481 adults from Argentina (52.8% female, 47.2% male; age average = 35.45 years old. Instruments: Intergroup Anxiety scale, Cultural Sensitivity scale, and an ad hoc protocol designed to assess level of effectiveness perception in socio-culturally diverse leaders. Results: Differences in the level of perception of effectiveness according to sociocultural characteristics could not be confirmed. However, a direct effect of cultural sensitivity and an indirect effect of intergroup anxiety on the levels of effectiveness perception were confirmed. This work contributes to previous studies on prejudice and leadership.

  13. Educational Policy vs. Culturally Sensitive Programs in Turkish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of elementary school teachers about the sensitiveness of principals, teachers, and curriculum on multicultural education. Education provides the transmission and the advancement of its culture while it is developing and enhancing the common values, the integrity and the progress of…

  14. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  15. Culturally Sensitive Dementia Caregiving Models and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Mitcham-Smith, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Family caregiving for individuals with dementia is an increasingly complex issue that affects the caregivers' and care recipients' physical, mental, and emotional health. This article presents 3 key culturally sensitive caregiver models along with clinical interventions relevant for mental health counseling professionals.

  16. Development of culturally sensitive dialog tools in diabetes education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Folmann Hempler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-centeredness is a goal in diabetes education, and cultural influences are important to consider in this regard. This report describes the use of a design-based research approach to develop culturally sensitive dialog tools to support person-centered dietary education targeting Pakistani immigrants in Denmark with type 2 diabetes. The approach appears to be a promising method to develop dialog tools for patient education that are culturally sensitive, thereby increasing their acceptability among ethnic minority groups. The process also emphasizes the importance of adequate training and competencies in the application of dialog tools and of alignment between researchers and health care professionals with regards to the educational philosophy underlying their use.

  17. Evaluating Young Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds for Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rashida; Guiberson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing diversity in the United States, there has been a call for early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) services to be responsive and sensitive to the diversity of children and families represented in communities. Culturally responsive practice is particularly important for EI/ECSE professionals because of the…

  18. Automatic Damage Detection for Sensitive Cultural Heritage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerra, D.; Tian, J.; Lysandrou, V.; Plank, S.

    2016-06-01

    The intentional damages to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State (IS) have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data is an important tool to assess these damages in such non-accessible areas: If a fast response is desired, automated image processing techniques would be needed to speed up the analysis. This paper shows the first results of applying fast and robust change detection techniques to sensitive areas. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings is derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to the Cultural Heritage sites in the observed images.

  19. After Progressivism: Modern Composition, Institutional Service, and Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of composition theory as autonomous field and its relation to surrounding academic and social situations, especially progressivism. Discusses composition as a "service" course. Critiques recent alliances between composition and cultural studies theory. (HB)

  20. Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Thuret, G; Carricajo, A.; Chiquet, C.; Vautrin, A C; Celle, N; Boureille, M; Acquart, S; Aubert, G.; Maugery, J; Gain, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium.

  1. Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Cnty Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PHS Act section 2719 requires non-grandfathered group health plans and health insurance issuers offering non-grandfathered health insurance coverage to provide...

  2. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  3. Services for culturally diverse customers in parks and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Li; J.D. Absher; A.R. Graefe; Y. Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Changes in racial and ethnic composition due to the increasing diversity in the United States are confronting managers of parks and recreation areas. Since cultural values influence perceptions and behaviors, studying cultural values among different groups is important for understanding perceptions of service quality and parks and recreation behavior. The purpose of...

  4. Living waters: Linking cultural knowledge, ecosystem services, and wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2013-01-01

    American Indian tribes value pristine water sources that often originate in wilderness areas to support provisioning and cultural benefits. Based on interviews with four traditional leaders, this article focuses on the concept of living waters in ways that connect ecosystem service benefits to wilderness. Cultural knowledge connects indigenous water stewardship and...

  5. The effect of national culture on service provision

    OpenAIRE

    Alajmi, Salman

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. PURPOSE: This research is to investigate the effect of national culture on service provision. Hence, the researcher aims Firstly to investigate the differences in national culture between any two different countries share some attributes like language, religion or geographic location. Secondly, it aims to find whether the differences in national culture of two countries associated with differ...

  6. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  7. Pre-Service Teacher Cultural Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Maurella Louise

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to conduct exploratory qualitative research to investigate how PSTs and practicing teachers experience cultural and racial identity development or changes in identity. Rather than examine the "what" or contributors to identity development, I will explore the "how" or processes of identity…

  8. Pre-Service Teacher Cultural Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Maurella Louise

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to conduct exploratory qualitative research to investigate how PSTs and practicing teachers experience cultural and racial identity development or changes in identity. Rather than examine the "what" or contributors to identity development, I will explore the "how" or processes of identity…

  9. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  10. Enhanced external and culturally sensitive attributions after extended intercultural contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, Johanna Ray

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of close and extended intercultural contact on attributions for behaviour of out-group members. Specifically, it was hypothesized that extended intercultural contact would enhance the ability to make external and culturally sensitive attributions for ambiguous behaviour of out-group members, while decreasing the common tendency to overestimate internal factors. A content analysis of open-ended attributions supported these hypotheses, revealing that majority group members in Germany who had hosted an exchange student from another continent used significantly less internal and more external as well as culturally sensitive attributions to explain the behaviour described in critical intercultural incidents, compared to future hosts. The effect remained significant when controlling for perspective taking and prior intercultural experience. Moreover, the hypothesis was supported for scenarios describing different cultural groups (regardless of the exchange students' country of origin), suggesting a generalized effect. Problems of selection bias are discussed, and the importance of studying a range of positive outcomes of intercultural contact is emphasized.

  11. Photodamage of the cells in culture sensitized with bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenkova, O. A.; Plavskaya, L. G.; Mikulich, A. V.; Leusenko, I. A.; Tretyakova, A. I.; Plavskii, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that exposure to radiation of LED sources of light with an emission band maximum at about 465 and 520 nm having substantially identical damaging effects on animal cells in culture, that are in a logarithmic growth phase and preincubated with pigment. Photobiological effect is caused by photodynamic processes involving singlet oxygen generated by triplet excited sensitizer. Mono-exponential type dependence of cell survival on the energy dose indicates that it is bilirubin that acts as a sensitizer but not its photoproducts. The inclusion of bilirubin in the cells, where it is primarily localized in the mitochondria cells, it is accompanied by multiple amplification photochemical stability compared to pigment molecules bound with albumin

  12. Culture-bound syndrome and a culturally sensitive approach: from a viewpoint of medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, A; Miyakawa, T

    2000-08-01

    Some aspects of the culture-bound syndrome are presented for discussion. From the psychiatric and medical anthropological viewpoints, kamidaari is described as an initiatory illness for seeing a shaman, and focus on clinical realities developing between different therapeutic subcultures in the same culture and the complementary practices of two epistemological ones, namely, the shamanistic and modern psychiatric system in the shamanistic climate. It is suggested that the culture-bound syndrome that reflects cultural influences on disease patterns and renders them difficult to place in a universal classificatory system should be seen as a vernacular bricolage or as tactics used by people within the web of their own local culture of origin. Therapists who treat patients in a cross-epistemological milieu should be aware of the subcultural-epistemological issues that may affect the clinical process. It should be recognized that, depending on the nature of a particular psychiatric crisis, the clinical encounter is straddling the boundaries of multiple clinical realities. At every stage in the clinical field, there is an intersection, consonance, or interruption of rejoinders in the open dialog by all those engaged in the clinical time. Aspects of climatic, culturally sensitive psychotherapy will be described, and the concept of the culture-bound syndrome will be reconsidered. Our approach could be seen as 'situation- and fudo-bound'.

  13. Reflections on Service-Learning, Critical Thinking, and Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R.; Coufal, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    In today's increasingly multicultural society, students need to be prepared for the work world they will encounter. Well-developed critical thinking skills appear essential to needed cultural competence. With its focus on community involvement, deep reflection and civic engagement, the possibility that Service-Learning (SL) could improve students'…

  14. Cultural Competence and Children's Mental Health Service Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancoske, Ronald J.; Lewis, Marva L.; Bowers-Stephens, Cheryll; Ford, Almarie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between clients' perception of cultural competency of mental health providers and service outcomes. A study was conducted of a public children's mental health program that used a community-based, systems of care approach. Data from a subsample (N = 111) of families with youths (average age 12.3) and primarily…

  15. Improving utilisation of dental services by understanding cultural difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J A

    1993-10-01

    There is considerable health and medical research and anecdotal evidence showing that members of different cultural groups and people from lower socio-economic status and/or disadvantaged ethnic minority groups are prone to increased morbidity and early mortality. It is also clear that similar patterns are found in terms of dental health status and dental health morbidity. New Zealand data from the Second International Collaborative Study (ICSII) clearly illustrate that poorer health status overall and poorer dental health status are experienced by certain sections and groups within the population. Data from these studies suggest that members of lower socio-economic status groups, different ethnic groups and those with different cultural affiliations experience different health status and use the health services at differential rates. Some of the factors that appear to influence this are clearly related to cultural beliefs and attitudes. Future efforts by the New Zealand health services and in particular by the New Zealand dental health services to redress the situation need to be based on a clear understanding of the many factors that limit the availability and uptake of preventive and dental health care services by high risk groups. Understanding cultural difference is a key requirement.

  16. Quality of Service in Networks Supporting Cultural Multimedia Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of representative multimedia applications in the cultural heritage sector, as well as research results on quality of service (QoS) mechanisms in internet protocol (IP) networks that support such applications. Design/methodology/approach: The paper's approach is a literature review. Findings: Cultural…

  17. Pre-Service Teachers' Cultural and Teaching Experiences Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateskan, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish pre-service teachers' experiences related to a two-month international teaching and cultural experience in the United States of America. In total, 289 graduate students from Turkey participated in a collaborative project from 2001 to 2010. The experience included an orientation week, six weeks of student teaching in…

  18. Information and Communication Technologies – and Culturally Sensitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Michail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.

  19. In vitro versus in vivo culture sensitivities: an unchecked assumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation A patient presents to urgent care with the symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI. The urinalysis is consistent with infection, and the urine culture is sent to lab. In the interim, a physician prescribes empiric treatment, and sends the patient home. Two days later, the culture is positive for E. coli, resistant to the drug prescribed (Ciprofloxacin, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC 64 μg/ml, but attempts to contact the patient (by telephone are not successful. The patient returns the call two weeks later to say that the infection resolved without sequelae.Discussion Many clinicians have the experience of treatment success in the setting of known antibiotic resistance, and, conversely, treatment failure in the setting of known sensitivity. Such anomalies and empiric research described here forces us to revisit assumptions about the relationship between in vivo and in vitro drug responses. When it comes to the utility of microbiology…

  20. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie

    2003-04-15

    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials.

  1. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed.

  2. 77 FR 5838 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest Service...

  3. 77 FR 11569 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated ] with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest Service...

  4. The role of cultural ecosystem services in landscape management and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora

    2015-01-01

    empirical evidence and assess what consideration of cultural ecosystem services adds to landscape management and planning. In general, cultural ecosystem services incentivize the multifunctionality of landscapes. However, depending on context, cultural ecosystem services can either encourage the maintenance...... of valuable landscapes or act as barriers to necessary innovation and transformation. Hence, cultural ecosystems services are not uncontested, as seen through the three analytical lenses of landowner behavior, cultural practices of communities, and landscape planning....

  5. Variation in emergency medical services workplace safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Huang, David T; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Simeone, Scott; Weaver, Matthew; Wang, Henry E

    2010-01-01

    Workplace attitude, beliefs, and culture may impact the safety of patient care. This study characterized perceptions of safety culture in a nationwide sample of emergency medical services (EMS) agencies. We conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 61 advanced life support EMS agencies in North America. We administered a modified version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), a survey instrument measuring dimensions of workplace safety culture (Safety Climate, Teamwork Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition). We included full-time and part-time paramedics and emergency medical technicians. We determined the variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies. Using hierarchical linear models, we determined associations between safety culture scores and individual and EMS agency characteristics. We received 1,715 completed surveys from 61 EMS agencies (mean agency response rate 47%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10%, 83%). There was wide variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies [mean (minimum, maximum)]: Safety Climate 74.5 (min 49.9, max 89.7), Teamwork Climate 71.2 (min 45.1, max 90.1), Perceptions of Management 67.2 (min 31.1, max 92.2), Job Satisfaction 75.4 (min 47.5, max 93.8), Working Conditions 66.9 (min 36.6, max 91.4), and Stress Recognition 55.1 (min 31.3, max 70.6). Air medical EMS agencies tended to score higher across all safety culture domains. Lower safety culture scores were associated with increased annual patient contacts. Safety Climate domain scores were not associated with other individual or EMS agency characteristics. In this sample, workplace safety culture varies between EMS agencies.

  6. [Home care in a culturally sensitive environment: perspectives of caregivers of Haitian elderly patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine; Paquet, Mario; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Carpentier, Normand; Lévesque, Louise; Trudeau, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the care provided by families occurs in an increasingly multiethnic context. Against this backdrop, the present qualitative study aims to explore the needs/expectations and solutions not only of (female) natural caregivers of an elderly relative hailing from Haiti (presented in terms of tracking cases) but also of remunerated home care providers - all with a view to developing a culturally sensitive service offering. As such, this study works from a conceptual framework centring on the negotiation of a common area of agreement between the stakeholders involved (i.e., natural caregivers and home care providers). To this end, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted among 15 caregivers and 37 home care providers. The three recurrent themes emerging from the data analysis concern, in context, the needs/expectations and solutions surrounding the experience of service use, barriers to use, and the relationships between natural caregivers and home care providers. The statements of both groups evidenced a consistency of views and have thus provided a basis for developing some recommendations acceptable to all stakeholders from the perspective of making culturally-based adjustments to the service offering.

  7. The role of cultural ecosystem services in landscape management and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora;

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the ecosystem services approach puts emphasis on optimizing a small number of services, which may jeopardize environmental sustainability. One potential solution is to bring cultural ecosystem services more strongly into the foreground. We synthesize recent empiri...... of valuable landscapes or act as barriers to necessary innovation and transformation. Hence, cultural ecosystems services are not uncontested, as seen through the three analytical lenses of landowner behavior, cultural practices of communities, and landscape planning.......There is increasing concern that the ecosystem services approach puts emphasis on optimizing a small number of services, which may jeopardize environmental sustainability. One potential solution is to bring cultural ecosystem services more strongly into the foreground. We synthesize recent...... empirical evidence and assess what consideration of cultural ecosystem services adds to landscape management and planning. In general, cultural ecosystem services incentivize the multifunctionality of landscapes. However, depending on context, cultural ecosystem services can either encourage the maintenance...

  8. The Quality of Outsourced Logistics Service: A Collectivist Culture Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, Abdul Khabir; Faisol, Nasruddin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore on the elements of outsourced logistics service quality and how the users’ satisfaction was formed within the Malaysian culture context. This qualitative study was based on five semi-structured interviews which were carried out with the executive officers and department managers of four logistics providers firms and one manufacturer. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis method. Rather than the organization’s performance-related ...

  9. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  10. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  11. Current challenges in distribution channels of cultural goods and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Fayaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one product that has a well qualified design will not have expected utility if it cannot be available at the appropriate time and place to its buyers. Thus, marketing managers and official sales always try to find the more efficient and modern methods of distribution through investigating the transfer methods of goods. Appropriate decision will lead to the enhancement of transfer speed, convenience of customers, and reduction of costs. One of the main tools of marketing is the efficient distribution system. Since cultural products have a determining role in conveyance of thoughts, values, and social norms and transmit cultural values and messages with themselves, their distribution has a great importance. This study aimed to investigate the current challenges in distribution channels of cultural goods and services. Some of these challenges were being traditional, the length of the channel, and the number of intermediaries.

  12. Clinical exchange: one model to achieve culturally sensitive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, J; Moore, D

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports on a clinical exchange programme that formed part of a pre-registration European nursing degree run by three collaborating institutions in England, Holland and Spain. The course included: common and shared learning including two summer schools; and the development of a second language before the students went on a three-month clinical placement in one of the other base institutions' clinical environments. The aim of the course was to enable students to become culturally sensitive carers. This was achieved by developing a programme based on transcultural nursing principles in theory and practice. Data were gathered by interview, focus groups, and questionnaires from 79 exchange students, fostering the strategies of illuminative evaluation. The paper examines: how the aims of the course were met; the factors that inhibited the attainment of certain goals; and how the acquisition of a second language influenced the students' learning about nursing. A model is presented to illustrate the process of transformative learning from the exchange experience.

  13. Diversifying the Midwifery Workforce: Inclusivity, Culturally Sensitive Bridging, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Holliday; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery educators and regulators in Canada have begun to address diversity, equity, and inclusion in admission processes and program curricula. Populations served by midwives value internationally educated midwives from their countries of origin. The International Midwifery Pre-Registration Program at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, provides assessment, midwifery workplace orientation, and accelerated education for internationally educated midwives on behalf of the regulatory College of Midwives of Ontario. Between 2003 and 2015, midwives from 41 countries participated in the bridging program, and 214 (80%) successfully completed the program and qualified for licensure. Of these 214 graduates, 100% passed the Canadian Midwifery Registration Examination and 193 (90%) were employed full time as midwives within 4 months of graduation. The program curriculum enables the integration of these midwives into health care workplaces utilizing innovative approaches to assessment and competency enhancement. Critical to the bridging process are simulation-based practices to develop effective psychomotor learning, virtual and real primary care community placements, and coaching in empathetic, client-centered communication. Cultural sensitivity is embedded into the multiple assessment and learning modalities, and addresses relevant barriers faced by immigrant midwives in the workplace. Findings from the 13 years of the program may be applicable to increase diversity in other North American midwifery settings. This article describes the process, content, outcomes, and findings of the program. Midwifery educators and regulators may consider the utility of these approaches for their settings. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. The Culture of Experiential Community Based Learning: Developing Cultural Awareness in Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppert, Alida J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the culture of experiential community based learning at Central College, a rural liberal arts college in Midwestern, USA. Pre-service teachers use experiential community based learning to reflect on their personal growth in understanding the needs of diverse learners. Reflections demonstrate how the program contributes to the…

  15. A Multicultural Service Sensitivity Exercise for Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Moraru, Ioana; Labrecque, Lauren I.

    2013-01-01

    Services marketing and retailing courses place service quality at the heart of the curriculum, painting service providers as defenders of their customers' welfare and thwarters of service failures by ushering in recovery solutions. Yet academic literature and the popular press provide evidence that in some cases, service providers act as…

  16. A Multicultural Service Sensitivity Exercise for Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Mark S.; Moraru, Ioana; Labrecque, Lauren I.

    2013-01-01

    Services marketing and retailing courses place service quality at the heart of the curriculum, painting service providers as defenders of their customers' welfare and thwarters of service failures by ushering in recovery solutions. Yet academic literature and the popular press provide evidence that in some cases, service providers act as…

  17. Cultural competence: a literature review and conceptual model for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mario; Nesman, Teresa; Mowery, Debra; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Callejas, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of organizational cultural competence for use in mental health services that resulted from a comprehensive review of the research literature. The model identifies four factors associated with cultural competence in mental health services (community context, cultural characteristics of local populations, organizational infrastructure, and direct service support) and redefines cultural competence as the degree of compatibility among these factors. A strength of this model of organizational cultural competence is that it facilitates future research and practice in psychiatric services settings and links culturally competent practices to service parity.

  18. When I grow up: Culturally sensitive graphic design explorations

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, Grace

    2013-01-01

    With a global village that is growing and a world that is getting smaller it becomes evermore important for graphic designers to successfully cross cultural borders, yet this is easier said than done. My theoretical work aims at making these cross-cultural design experiences easier for graphic designers, as well as creating higher awareness of the differences that exist within cultural constructions. An amalgamation of design practices, cultural and anthropological research, the theory e...

  19. Student nurses' experiences of living and studying in a different culture to their own and the development of cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi

    With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...... characteristics of openness and flexibility and support networks facilitated the students transition and adjustment to the host culture. Reflection on their experiences with students from a similar background to themselves and clinical mentors from the host culture assisted the students in their understanding...

  20. A Robotic Mobile Platform for Service Tasks in Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carbone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the preservation and survey of cultural heritage goods is attracting increasing interest from the media. Several famous historical sites seem to require an increased effort to maintain their preservation. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to find sufficient funds and human resources to fulfil these needs. Accordingly, this paper outlines a specific application of service robotics to cultural heritage, with the aim to reduce the required time and costs for surveying and maintaining cultural heritage goods. These applications require careful attention paid to the proper design of a robotic mobile platform with the features necessary to fulfil tasks of architectonic survey and preservation. To this end, specific operation scenarios have been carefully described in order to identify the specific design requirements and constraints that are raised by, for example, the necessity of operation over delicate surfaces, or the presence of unevenness or obstacles. The authors then propose a design solution for a service robot fit for the analysis, survey and conservation of historical sites, as based on the characteristics of the outlined scenarios. A preliminary prototype is also described herewith, in order to show its engineering feasibility in relation to the simulated operation scenarios.

  1. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students' experiences of a study abroad programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Heidi C; Turner, de Sales

    2007-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students. background: Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity and incorporate this into caregiving. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students' experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock, and making a decision to take on the ways of the host culture. These actions led to an understanding that being sensitive to another culture required being open to its dynamics, acknowledging social and political structures, and incorporating other people's beliefs about health and illness. The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory-practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes on the deliver of culturally sensitive care.

  2. Context-sensitive service discovery experimental prototype and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balken, Robin; Haukrogh, Jesper; L. Jensen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The amount of different networks and services available to users today are increasing. This introduces the need for a way to locate and sort out irrelevant services in the process of discovering available services to a user. This paper describes and evaluates a prototype of an automated discovery...... to increase network scalability. The experimental analysis of service discovery times for different scenarios is used to optimize parameter settings of the service discovery system in order to achieve short response times....

  3. "Fools Rush In": Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity Using Film-Based Group Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Charles H., Jr.

    Although role playing games and self-awareness surveys are typical methods of developing cross-cultural sensitivity, this presentation advocates the use small group projects focusing on feature films such as "Fools Rush In" as an effective class or training exercise to develop sensitivity to other cultures. Despite some disadvantages…

  4. The relationship between the nursing environment and delivering culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixer, Sandra J; Lindley, Lisa; Wallace, Heather; Fornehed, Mary Lou; Wool, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    Wide variations exist among perinatal hospices, and barriers to perinatal palliative care exist at the healthcare level. Research in the area of culturally sensitive perinatal palliative care has been scarce, a gap which this study addresses. To evaluate the relationship between the nurse work environment and the delivery of culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care. This retrospective, correlational study used data from the National Home and Hospice Care Survey, which includes a nationally representative sample of hospice care providers. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between the delivery of culturally sensitive care and the nurse work environment. Accreditation, teaching status, and baccalaureate-prepared registered nurse staff had an impact on the provision of culturally sensitive perinatal care Conclusions: The hospice and nursing unit environments, specifically in regards to education and technology, may be important contributors to the delivery of culturally sensitive care.

  5. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  6. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  7. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  8. Cultural Sensitivity in ATOD Agencies: Administrator and Staff Perceptions in the Hispanic Heartland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Administrator and staff perceptions (N = 72 of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD agency cultural sensitivity were explored in a predominantly Hispanic rural area with elevated levels of acculturation and high ATOD usage. While providers generally agreed that a relatively moderate need existed for training related to cultural issues, a more nuanced picture emerged in the purview of culturally- related barriers. Administrators viewed the lack of appropriate interpreters and language as a greater barrier than did the staff. Administrators also held higher perceptions of agencies’ cultural competency. The overall high assessment of cultural sensitivity may result from the substantial number of Latino providers.

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Threatened and Endangered Species REST Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data characterize the marine and coastal environments and wildlife based on sensitivity to spilled oil. Coastal species that...

  10. The relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress among nurses working with foreign patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Özge; Sevinç, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    To determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress of nurses working at Kilis State Hospital. As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate healthcare. Descriptive and cross-sectional design. This study was implemented at the State Hospital in Kilis on the southeast border of Turkey, between June-July 2014. The study sample consisted of 120 nurses. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about the socio-demographic and professional characteristics of participants, the Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. The average score for nurse cultural sensitivity was 84·32 (SD, 11·40) and the average score for perceived stress was 27·97 (SD, 7·32), corresponding to a medium level. We identified negative correlation between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress. Nurses working at Kilis State Hospital have a medium level of cultural sensitivity and perceived stress, and cultural sensitivity tended to be affected by perceived stress. This study suggests that training programmes for cultural sensitivity and stress management should be available for nurses. Furthermore, patient care plans should be adapted to consider different cultural backgrounds of patients. These findings should be considered when designing nurses' education and continuing education programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Making Room for Gender Sensitivity in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Esen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is an effective tool for effecting change both on an individual and social level and it is a key institution that can minimize the differences among social groups and genders. While teachers are key actors responsible for implementing this basic function of education, they themselves are raised in societies that are stratified by gender. Teachers act as carriers of the values and cultural codes of their societies and have a tendency to support students' opinions and behaviours and educational and professional choices shaped by sexist stereotypes, thereby contributing to inequality. Therefore, one strategy to adopt in combating inequality between genders is to raise awareness and sensitivity of teachers concerning gender inequality. With this strategy in mind, this study seeks to identify the key features of Gender Equality course for pre-service teachers in Turkey.

  12. Acute-care surgical service: a change in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyn, Andrew D; Truskett, Philip G; Bennett, Michael; Lum, Sharon; Barry, Jennie; Haghighi, Koroush; Crowe, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    The provision of acute surgical care in the public sector is becoming increasingly difficult because of limitation of resources and the unpredictability of access to theatres during the working day. An acute-care surgical service was developed at the Prince of Wales Hospital to provide acute surgery in a more timely and efficient manner. A roster of eight general surgeons provided on-site service from 08.00 to 18.00 hours Monday to Friday and on-call service in after-hours for a 79-week period. An acute-care ward of four beds and an operating theatre were placed under the control of the rostered acute-care surgeon (ACS). At the end of each ACS roster period all patients whose treatment was undefined or incomplete were handed over to the next rostered ACS. Patient data and theatre utilization data were prospectively collected and compared to the preceding 52-week period. Emergency theatre utilization during the day increased from 57 to 69%. There was a 11% reduction in acute-care operating after hours and 26% fewer emergency cases were handled between midnight and 08.00 hours. There was more efficient use of the entire theatre block, suggesting a significant cultural change. Staff satisfaction was high. On-site consultant-driven surgical leadership has provided significant positive change to the provision of acute surgical care in our institution. The paradigm shift in acute surgical care has improved patient and theatre management and stimulated a cultural change of efficiency.

  13. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R., E-mail: mundy.william@epa.gov

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  14. Examination of Cultural Shock, Inter-Cultural Sensitivity and Willingness to Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clare; Singaraju, Stephen; Halimi, Tariq; Sillivan Mort, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify themes on international experiences that impact culture and how these findings will intervene in understanding cross-cultural training programs. Thereby an attempt is made to: evaluate cross-cultural insensitivity influences on cross-cultural shock and willingness to adapt, identify cultural…

  15. Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.

  16. Defining the true sensitivity of culture for the diagnosis of melioidosis using Bayesian latent class models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Culture remains the diagnostic gold standard for many bacterial infections, and the method against which other tests are often evaluated. Specificity of culture is 100% if the pathogenic organism is not found in healthy subjects, but the sensitivity of culture is more difficult to determine and may be low. Here, we apply Bayesian latent class models (LCMs to data from patients with a single Gram-negative bacterial infection and define the true sensitivity of culture together with the impact of misclassification by culture on the reported accuracy of alternative diagnostic tests. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from published studies describing the application of five diagnostic tests (culture and four serological tests to a patient cohort with suspected melioidosis were re-analysed using several Bayesian LCMs. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs were calculated. Of 320 patients with suspected melioidosis, 119 (37% had culture confirmed melioidosis. Using the final model (Bayesian LCM with conditional dependence between serological tests, the sensitivity of culture was estimated to be 60.2%. Prediction accuracy of the final model was assessed using a classification tool to grade patients according to the likelihood of melioidosis, which indicated that an estimated disease prevalence of 61.6% was credible. Estimates of sensitivities, specificities, PPVs and NPVs of four serological tests were significantly different from previously published values in which culture was used as the gold standard. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Culture has low sensitivity and low NPV for the diagnosis of melioidosis and is an imperfect gold standard against which to evaluate alternative tests. Models should be used to support the evaluation of diagnostic tests with an imperfect gold standard. It is likely that the poor sensitivity/specificity of culture is not specific for melioidosis, but rather a generic

  17. Historical Evolution and Innovation of Supply of Rural Public Cultural Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ning; ZHANG Tao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of main body,decision making and financing mode concerning the supply of public cultural services in rural areas,we divide historical evolution of rural public cultural services in China into three periods:(i) The period from the founding of New China to the period before " Cultural Revolution" ;(ii) The period from " Cultural Revolution" to the period before the reform and opening-up;(iii) The period after the reform and opening-up.We analyze the defects in the supply of rural public cultural services in China:(i) Difference in the supply of public cultural services between urban and rural areas,caused by urban-rural " dual" structure;(ii) Insufficient supply of rural public cultural services,arising from unclear property rights and executive power of government at all levels;(iii) Structural imbalance in the supply of rural public cultural services,caused by top-down supply decision making mechanism;(iv) Single financing channels of rural public cultural services.From input,decision making,demand expression,financing and endogenous mechanism of supply of rural public cultural services,we put forward the recommendations for improving the supply of public cultural services in China.

  18. Outsiders in nursing education: cultural sensitivity in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Chun, Edna

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competence is a stated value of nursing and nursing education. However, some institutional and traditional practices in nursing education can unintentionally impede nurses from achieving cultural competence. Both the literature and interviews with nurse educators show that despite educators' intentions to treat all students the same, nontraditional students may feel singled out and may in fact be singled out for closer scrutiny because of their difference from the demographic norms of nursing students. To ensure that the nursing profession reflects the composition of the patient population it serves, nurse educators must first acknowledge the Eurocentric culture of nursing education and, then, work to change the environment in which students are recruited, learn, and take on the role of beginning practicing nurses.

  19. Blazing the trail to a service-driven culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollison, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Newton Memorial Hospital, Newton, New Jersey, decided it was time to aim for excellence when Press-Ganey ranked it in the 13th percentile for customer satisfaction. Newton management recommitted to the hospital's vision to be the premier, community-based health-care provider, not just in its area but in the nation. Its Press-Ganey score then skyrocketed to the 82nd percentile. In this article, the author explains how Newton changed its culture for the better by taking eight actions: committing to service, committing to leadership training, committing to employees, measuring only important things, aligning behaviors to the organization, building individual accountability, communicating, and rewarding and recognizing employees. To start the change, Newton chose a new strategic direction that put the hospital's mission into practical terms for management and staff. The hospital also would strive to decrease patient length of stay, to decrease cost per Case Mix Index adjusted, and to increase volume.

  20. Ethnicity and Diet of Children: Development of Culturally Sensitive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Applegate, Brooks; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; Morris, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing global concern. Examining dietary habits of individuals can facilitate the development of important prevention approaches, which are needed to decrease the incidence of obesity and other related diseases and improve quality of life indices. Because food preferences and dietary habits vary across cultures, it is essential that…

  1. Cultural Sensitivity: The Key to Teaching Global Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Judee A.

    2003-01-01

    More ethical practices in business begin with ethical training in business schools. International business education classes can compare corporate codes and actual behavior; explore the role of cultural differences in values, principles, and standards; and analyze ethical dilemmas in a global environment. (SK)

  2. Culturally Sensitive Best Practices for Sex Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Santiago, Verenice; Hund, Alycia M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about sexuality is a lifelong process that begins in childhood and continues through the lifespan. Through family and peer interactions and media sources, youth learn about sexuality and relationships, and develop their own values. The learning process and trajectory, however, may differ among youth from diverse cultures. In fact,…

  3. Culturally Sensitive Mentoring for Asian International Students in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…

  4. The Effects of Organizational Culture on Mental Health Service Engagement of Transition Age Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R

    2015-10-01

    Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.

  5. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Tatar, Moshé

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  6. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    OpenAIRE

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices...

  7. Cultural Sensitiveness of School Goals and Students’ Failure in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is the means by which society provides for the transmission or advancement of its culture and it is formally done at schools that are the arena of human interaction aimed at producing learning. But some people in that interaction aimed at producing learning cannot achieve as much as the others due to some social or individual factors especially when the society is not homogeneous in terms of culture, language, etc.All cultures do not require the same kinds of knowledge and all may have distinct goals and expectations in education. This study aims at presenting the consensus and conflict in perspectives of students of different ethnic origins on general goals of education and expectations from schools in East and Southeast Turkey. The results will be used to generate a rationale to assume that the failure of students in East and Southeast Turkey where majority of population is ethnically diverse, may be because of the lack of divergent goals and expectations set for school curriculum or that the failure of students is dependent on some other factors except the unique school curriculum unresponsive to cultural or ethnic diversity. For this purpose, the goals of general education (1973, Law number 1739, Item number 2, and school expectations developed by House (1973 were prepared as questionnaire items, piloted, validated and administered to 9373 secondary school students in east and southeast Turkey. The findings of this study were that the students of different ethnic origins value the goals and expectations set for school curriculum in Turkey in significantly different ways.

  8. The culture of care within psychiatric services: tackling inequalities and improving clinical and organisational capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Micol; Palinski, Andrea; Owiti, John Arianda; De Jongh, Bertine; Bhui, Kamaldeep S

    2012-09-28

    Cultural Consultation is a clinical process that emerged from anthropological critiques of mental healthcare. It includes attention to therapeutic communication, research observations and research methods that capture cultural practices and narratives in mental healthcare. This essay describes the work of a Cultural Consultation Service (ToCCS) that improves service user outcomes by offering cultural consultation to mental health practitioners. The setting is a psychiatric service with complex and challenging work located in an ethnically diverse inner city urban area. Following a period of 18 months of cultural consultation, we gather the dominant narratives that emerged during our evaluation of our service. These narratives highlight how culture is conceptualized and acted upon in the day-to-day practices of individual health and social care professionals, specialist psychiatric teams and in care systems. The findings reveal common narratives and themes about culture, ethnicity, race and their perceived place and meaningfulness in clinical care. These narratives express underlying assumptions and covert rules for managing, and sometimes negating, dilemmas and difficulties when considering "culture" in the presentation and expression of mental distress. The narratives reveal an overall "culture of understanding cultural issues" and specific "cultures of care". These emerged as necessary foci of intervention to improve service user outcomes. Understanding the cultures of care showed that clinical and managerial over-structuring of care prioritises organisational proficiency, but it leads to inflexibility. Consequently, the care provided is less personalised and less accommodating of cultural issues, therefore, professionals are unable to see or consider cultural influences in recovery.

  9. Dopamine-System Genes and Cultural Acquisition: The Norm Sensitivity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Hsu, Ming; Liberzon, Israel; Yoon, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in cultural psychology shows that cultures vary in the social orientation of independence and interdependence. To date, however, little is known about how people may acquire such global patterns of cultural behavior or cultural norms. Nor is it clear what genetic mechanisms may underlie the acquisition of cultural norms. Here, we draw on recent evidence for certain genetic variability in the susceptibility to environmental influences and propose a norm sensitivity hypothesis, which holds that people acquire culture, and rules of cultural behaviors, through reinforcement-mediated social learning processes. One corollary of the hypothesis is that the degree of cultural acquisition should be influenced by polymorphic variants of genes involved in dopaminergic neural pathways, which have been widely implicated in reinforcement learning. We reviewed initial evidence for this prediction and discussed challenges and directions for future research. PMID:28491931

  10. Learning Tolerance: The Impact of Comparative Politics Courses on Levels of Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In addition to exposing students to basic concepts, theories, and ideas, teachers of comparative politics often claim to foster and promote values of tolerance and cultural sensitivity through exposure to the histories, cultures, and societies of cases from around the world. This claim, however, has been largely speculative and unsupported by any…

  11. Faith in the 'cultural fix': limits to a planned cultural change program in a rural health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper, by way of a narrative on the author's participation, explains the limits to a planned cultural change program in a large rural health service. Cultural change was identified by the CEO as crucial to the success of a major restructuring of the service, and the attitudes and beliefs of the 'old guard' were considered to be constraining progress. Advocates of cultural integration contend that shared core values across an organisation can overcome such obstacles. This is a matter of faith. An application of Habermasian theory suggests that organisational leaders are drawing on traditional/religious beliefs and practices to bolster their visions and missions at a time of motivational crisis. Though a need for cultural change in some sectors of the health services is acknowledged, the particular challenges in attempting to manipulate the traditionally embedded culture and sub-cultures of the health services is highlighted. An analysis of some of the ideas and beliefs surrounding authority, deference and discipline is undertaken. It is argued that the ritualistic reinforcement of these beliefs and the reproduction of sub-cultures along material and ideal interests militate against the implementation of objectives delineated by the CEO. While cultural analysis has revealed the irrational face of organisations and can bring to conscious awareness the taken-for-granted beliefs which inform behaviour, the cultural integrationists have a further agenda. They aim to manipulate organisational culture to subtly control employees' beliefs and hence behaviour. Cultural control is a covert form of top down authority that can be just as directive and centralizing as bureaucratic control. The author also maintains that cultural change programs alone cannot fix a problem that arose in the macro-economic sphere: a chronic lack of resources ever since the state responded to the economic crisis by cutting funds to health and welfare services.

  12. Sensitivity of Students to the Natural Environment, Animals, Social Problems and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtdede Fidan, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to determine the sensitivity levels of fourth-grade students to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. Besides, it has been investigated whether some personal characteristics of the students have differentiating effect on the views related to the sensitivity to the natural environment, animals,…

  13. THE GROWTH OF ASIBI STRAIN YELLOW FEVER VIRUS IN TISSUE CULTURES. I. SENSITIVITY AND CAPACITY OF TISSUE CULTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    directed to HeLa cells . The following results were obtained: Of those cultures that were susceptible, three different patterns of dose response were...obtained that were interpreted as different possible manifestations of interference. HeLa cells , which were among the least sensitive to low infection

  14. The roles of effective communication and client engagement in delivering culturally sensitive care to immigrant parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally; Piérart, Geneviève; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. Implications for Rehabilitation Effective communication permeates the delivery of culturally sensitive care and provides mutual understanding, which is fundamental to client engagement. The findings illuminate the nature of "partnership" by indicating the role of collaborative therapist strategies in facilitating engagement. Four main strategies facilitate effective communication and

  15. Cultural Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review and Prospects for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Ioana. Milcu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural ecosystem services constitute a growing field of research that is characterized by an increasing number of publications from various academic disciplines. We conducted a semiquantitative review of publications explicitly dealing with cultural ecosystem services. Our aims were: (1 to provide an overview of the current state of research, (2 to classify the diversity of research approaches by identifying clusters of publications that address cultural ecosystem services in similar ways, and (3 to highlight some important challenges for the future of cultural ecosystem services research. We reviewed 107 publications and extracted 20 attributes describing their type and content, including methods, scales, drivers of change, and trade-offs between services. Using a cluster analysis on a subset of attributes we identified five groups of publications: Group 1, conceptual focus, deals with theoretical issues; Group 2, descriptive reviews, consists mostly of desktop studies; Group 3, localized outcomes, deals with case studies coming from different disciplines; Group 4, social and participatory, deals mainly with assessing preferences and perceptions; and Group 5, economic assessments, provides economic valuations. Emerging themes in cultural ecosystem services research relate to improving methods for cultural ecosystem services valuation, studying cultural ecosystem services in the context of ecosystem service bundles, and more clearly articulating policy implications. Based on our findings, we conclude that: (1 cultural ecosystem services are well placed as a tool to bridge gaps between different academic disciplines and research communities, (2 capitalizing on the societal relevance of cultural ecosystem services could help address real-world problems, and (3 cultural ecosystem services have the potential to foster new conceptual links between alternative logics relating to a variety of social and ecological issues.

  16. Assessing the cultural in culturally sensitive printed patient-education materials for Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Tran, Henrietta; Chesla, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects Chinese Americans at an alarming rate. To address this health disparity, research in the area of cultural sensitivity and health literacy provides useful guidelines for creating culturally appropriate health education. In this article, we use discourse analysis to examine a group of locally available, Chinese- and English-language diabetes print documents from a surface level and deep structure level of culture. First, we compared these documents to research findings about printed health information to determine whether and how these documents apply current best practices for health literacy and culturally appropriate health communication. Second, we examined how diabetes as a disease and diabetes management is being constructed. The printed materials addressed surface level culture through the use of Chinese language, pictures, foods, and exercises. From a deeper cultural level, the materials constructed diabetes management as a matter of measurement and control that contrasted with previous research suggesting an alternative construction of balance. A nuanced assessment of both surface and deeper levels of culture is essential for creating health education materials that are more culturally appropriate and can lead to increased health literacy and improved health outcomes.

  17. Culturally sensitive health counseling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Miki; Miyazaki, Misako

    2010-09-01

    This study explored the methods that are used by public health nurses to provide culturally sensitive health counseling to elderly Japanese farmers in order to motivate them to adopt healthy behaviors. Fourteen elderly farmers (eight men and six women) from three rural communities underwent health counseling and then changed their habits to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Qualitative and inductive analyses were conducted to determine the effects of the culturally sensitive counseling. Five methods for providing culturally sensitive counseling were identified: (i) showing an interest in, and respect for, the local culture; (ii) stimulating the participants' awareness of the health risks inherited in their local cultural practices through the use of familiar examples; (iii) accepting and understanding the participants' ambivalence about their local culture; (iv) connecting the reasons for the participants to change their lifestyle with their local culture; and (v) adjusting the health-promoting behaviors of the participants to fit their local culture. Public health nurses should consider the pride that elderly farmers have in their background and their resistance to change and use these factors to point out the discrepancies in their lifestyle and promote more quality-of-life-oriented and practical self-care behaviors.

  18. Cultured stem cells are sensitive to gravity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Konstantinova, N. A.; Buravkov, S. V.; Gershovich, Yu. G.; Grivennikov, I. A.

    2008-09-01

    Stem and precursor cells play an important role in development and regeneration. The state of these cells is regulated by biochemical substances, mechanical stimuli and cellular interactions. To estimate gravity effects we used two types of cultured stem cells: human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow and mice embryonic stem (mESC) line R1. Gravity changes were simulated by long-term (4-7 days) slow clinorotation and leaded to decreased hMSC proliferation, changes of cell morphology and modified F-actin cytoskeleton. We did not find the shifts in cell phenotype except for decreased expression of HLA 1 and CD105 but excretion of IL-6 into medium increased significantly. Remodeling of cytoskeleton started after first 4 h and was similar to preapoptotic changes. This data suggested the modification in cell adhesion and possible commitment of hMSC. It was observed that expression of alkaline phosphatase by MSC in osteogenic medium was more intensive in control. On the contrary, clinorotation did not change formation of mESC colonies and increased proliferation activity in LIF+-medium. However, the number of embryonic bodies after clinorotation was less than in static control. It is suggested that ESCs kept the viability and proliferative potential but decreased the differentiation ability after changes in gravity stimulation.

  19. Bridging the Gaps: Measuring Cultural Competence among Future School Library and Youth Services Library Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee Franklin; Kumasi, Kafi

    2011-01-01

    School library and youth services professionals must develop and display a strong sense of cultural competence to effectively serve their patrons. Cultural competence is defined here as one's ability to understand the needs of populations different from their own. This paper reports on the perceptions of school library and youth services students…

  20. Using Culturally Competent Responsive Services to Improve Student Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…

  1. Using Culturally Competent Responsive Services to Improve Student Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…

  2. International service-learning: an opportunity to engage in cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbry, Pamela; Daugherty, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    One-day international service-learning projects are an opportunity for nursing students to engage in learning cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. At XXX University, faculty developed these international service-learning projects in Mexico where students participated in health promotion teaching for children and families and providing health care for older adults. The purpose of this article is to describe 3 types of student experiences gained during 1-day international service-learning projects. We named these experiences cultural communication, cultural confidence, and cultural surprise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-12-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  4. Culture, Nature, and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services in Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnegg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining culture as shared knowledge, values, and practices, we introduce an anthropological concept of culture to the ecosystem-service debate. In doing so, we shift the focus from an analysis of culture as a residual category including recreational and aesthetic experiences to an analysis of processes that underlie the valuation of nature in general. The empirical analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork conducted along the Okavango River in northern Namibia to demonstrate which landscape units local populations value for which service(s. Results show that subjects perceive many places as providing multiple services and that most of their valuations of ecosystem services are culturally shared. We attribute this finding to common experiences and modes of activities within the cultural groups, and to the public nature of the valuation process.

  5. The impact of culture and strategic orientation on service innovation capability: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effects of culture and strategic orientation on service innovation capabilities on selected banks in province of Alborz, Iran. The survey uses a questionnaire consists of 40 questions where 5 questions are associated with service innovation, 11 questions are related to strategic orientation and 24 questions measures organizational culture. Cronbach alpha for service innovation capabilities, strategic orientation and organizational culture were 0.73, 0.84 and 0.91, respectively. Using structural equation modeling as well as regression technique, the study has determined that organizational culture influences positively on structural orientation (β = 0.6, t-value = 13.56, organizational culture influences positively on service innovation capability (β = 0.43, t-value = 8.73 and finally structural orientation influences positively on service innovation capability (β = 0.35, t-value = 7.22.

  6. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices are analysed as means for the reinforcement of present conditions or as ways for changing them. The concepts of empowerment of and advocacy for our clients are put forward as main components in the challenging new roles of the counseling profession. Implications for counselors are suggested.

  7. The Impact of International Service-Learning on Nursing Students' Cultural Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbry, Pamela Wolfe

    2016-05-01

    This article reports research findings on the effect of an international immersion service-learning project on the level and components of cultural competence of baccalaureate (BSN) nursing students. A triangulated methodology was used to determine changes in components and level of cultural competence pre- and postexperience. The theoretical model The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services was used. It identifies five central constructs in the process of becoming culturally competent: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skill, cultural encounter, and cultural desire. The sample of 121 BSN nursing students was gathered from three southern California universities. Data were collected from 2009 to 2013. Using the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals-Student Version© and Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale, constructs of cultural competency were measured in pre- and posttest participants who participated in international service-learning immersion experiences. A demographic survey and open-ended qualitative questions were completed at the posttrip meeting. Mean, frequencies, and correlations with demographic data and survey data were calculated. Pre- and posttrip means were analyzed. Qualitative analysis from six open-ended questions completed at the posttest were coded and themes emerged. The research findings demonstrated the impact of the international service-learning project on building cultural competency in nursing students. Quantitative findings revealed statistically significant differences between pre- and posttest surveys for two of the five constructs of cultural competence. Qualitative analysis supported the quantitative findings in cultural competency constructs found in the model. The research findings support nursing education program use of international service-learning immersion experiences to foster cultural competence in nursing students. Findings from

  8. Academic Librarians Should Be Sensitive to Language and Cultural Barriers When Providing Reference Service to International Students. A review of: Curry, Ann and Deborah Copeman. “Reference Service to International Students: A Field Stimulation Research Study.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 31.5 (Sep. 2005: 409‐20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To evaluate the quality of reference service provided to non‐native, English‐speaking international students in academic libraries.Design – Field stimulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Eleven college and university libraries in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 2003.Subjects – Library staff offering reference service at one of the participating libraries.Methods – The study utilized field stimulation, whereby an individual, or “proxy,” posed as a library user and initiated a reference encounter with library staff at each institution. In each case the proxy asked the same question to the library staff member. After the interaction was completed the proxy recorded all observed behaviours. Data were collected using a checklist of actions; a narrative record written by the proxy; and several evaluative questions. Each library was visited by the same proxy on two separate occasions for a total of 22 visits, of which 20 instances resulted in usable data. The narrative recordings of the reference encounters were analyzed using an open coding process.Main results – In 75% of the cases, the proxy was “‘satisfied” or “very satisfied” with help received from the library staff member and was “likely to” or “definitely would return to the staff member” in the future. The reference encounters lasted between a few minutes to half an hour in length, with most lasting between 5 and 15 minutes. Encounters that were brief (less than 5 minutes resulted in an evaluation of “dissatisfied” or “very dissatisfied” and “not likely to” or “definitely would not return.” Encounters where the library staff member extended an invitation to the proxy to return in the future were all rated with “high satisfaction” and “willingness to return.” The following reference service actions were observed in at least half of the encounters:• Asked questions for clarification (20

  9. The Relationship Between Cultural Sensitivity and Assertiveness in Nursing Students from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Serap Parlar; Sevinç, Sibel

    2017-07-01

    As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate health care. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and assertiveness in university nursing students. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at two universities in the cities of Kilis and Elazığ, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 444 nursing students. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about participant sociodemographic characteristics, Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. The mean age of participants was 21.09 years. Most students (71.6%) were female and 34.7% of the students stayed at the hostel. Of the students, 44.4%, 27.5%, and 28.2% attended were the second-, third-, and fourth-year students, respectively. Participants were asked about problems related to caring for patients who speak different languages. The mean score for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale was 89.42 ± 13.55 and the total score for all students for the Assertiveness Scale was 112.64 ± 15.61. We identified a positive relationship between total scores for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale and the Assertiveness Scale ( p < .001). There was relationship between cultural sensitivity and gender and want to work overseas; assertiveness and year of nursing education and want to work overseas. Nursing students at both schools had a moderate level of cultural sensitivity and assertiveness. It has been determined that as assertiveness level of the students increased, intercultural sensitivity of them also increased. Consequently, it is concluded that training as assertive and self-confident individuals during the nursing education of students has a contribution to making patient-specific and culture-sensitive care.

  10. Isolated hippocampal neurons in cryopreserved long-term cultures: development of neuroarchitecture and sensitivity to NMDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Kater, S B

    1988-01-01

    Isolated neurons in long-term culture provide a unique opportunity to address important problems in neuronal development. In the present study we established conditions for cryopreservation and long-term primary culture of isolated embryonic hippocampal neurons. This culture system was then used for initial characterizations of the development of neuroarchitecture and neurotransmitter response systems. Cryoprotection with 8% dimethylsulfoxide, slow freezing, and rapid thawing provided high-yield cultures which appeared normal in terms of cell types, mitotic ability, axonal and dendritic outgrowth, and sensitivity to glutamate neurotoxicity. A reduced medium volume and moderate elevation in extracellular K+ to 20 mM promoted survival of isolated neurons through 3 weeks of culture. The outgrowth of axons and dendrites in pyramidal-like neurons was found to differ over a 3-week culture period such that axons continued to grow at a relatively constant rate while dendritic outgrowth slowed during the second week and ceased by the end of week 3. Developmental changes were also observed in the sensitivity of pyramidal neurons to glutamate neurotoxicity; functional kainate/quisqualate receptors were present during the first week of culture, while responses to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) did not appear until the second week. The technologies for cryopreservation and long-term culture of isolated hippocampal neurons reported here provide a useful system in which to address a variety of problems in development neuroscience.

  11. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... applicability for urban management and planning...

  12. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegetschweiler, K.T.; Vries, de Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne; Bell, Simon; Brennan, Michael; Siter, Nathan; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Voigt, Annette; Hunziker, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical charact

  13. Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paracchini, M.L.; Zulian, G.; Kopperoinen, L.; Maes, J.; Schagner, J.P.; Termansen, M.; Zandersen, M.; Perez-Soba, M.; Scholefield, P.A.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity is re

  14. Pre-Service Teacher Disposition Development: Cultural Reciprocity and Responsivity in Early Childhood Special Education Practica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenberg, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative Case Study explored the integrative process of pre-service teachers' disposition development for cultural reciprocity and responsiveness. Over the course of ten months, pre-service teachers completed two Early Childhood Special Education practica in diverse urban communities. The pre-service teachers were placed in public…

  15. Assessing culturally sensitive factors in the learning environment of science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.

    1997-03-01

    As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.

  16. Developing Leadership and Cultural Competency through Service Exposure Attachment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwok Hung

    2009-01-01

    Background: Seventeen pre-service teachers from The Hong Kong Institute of Education involved in a service education project during the summer vacation in 2008. They spent seven weeks in an orphanage and a commune in Vietnam to provide various services for disabled children and to help constructing a house for the poor villagers respectively. They…

  17. Regional Patterns of Ecosystem Services in Cultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Früh-Müller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available European agricultural landscapes have been shaped by humans to produce marketable private goods such as food, feed, fiber and timber. Land-use intensification to increase provisioning services in such productive landscapes alters the capacity of ecosystems to supply other services (often public goods and services that are also vital for human wellbeing. However, the interactions, synergies and trade-offs among ecosystem services are poorly understood. We assessed the spatial distribution of the services carbon storage, sediment regulation, water yield, crop production, timber supply, and outdoor recreation in the counties Wetterau and Vogelsberg (Hesse, Germany. These counties represent a gradient from intensive arable land use to more extensive mixed land use systems with domination of grassland and forests. Spatially explicit models were used to map the location and quantity of service supply. We addressed the following questions: (1 Where are areas of high and low supply of individual and multiple ecosystem services? (2 Where do the strongest trade-offs and synergies between different services occur? Our results show a pronounced spatial aggregation of different ecosystem services, with locations where at least four services are being supplied at high levels occupying only 5% of the landscape. Indicators for water provision, timber supply, carbon storage, erosion control, and outdoor recreation are positively related to each other, but this relationship is influenced by the trade-offs associated with the ecosystem service food production. Optimization of ecosystem services at the landscape scale has to take these patterns into account.

  18. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2017-09-28

    Aim This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). Method A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Conclusion Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  20. A Culturally Sensitive Analysis of Culture in the Context of Context: When Is Enough Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.

    Cultural context is not the sole source of human knowledge. Postmodern theory, in both its deconstructionist and affirmative approaches, offers an incomplete basis by which to study race, class, and gender, and undermines ethical interaction. Deconstructionism calls for the abandonment of generalizable research findings, asserting that the concept…

  1. Practical strategies for providing culturally sensitive, ethical care in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J; Holcomb, Lygia

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care in developing nations results in cultural and ethical challenges for health care professionals. The authors' intent is to raise readers' awareness of how to maintain an ethical and culturally sensitive approach to practice in developing nations. Four practical approaches to ethical decision-making, developed from the literature and praxis, in conjunction with traditional moral theory and guidelines from professional and international organizations are discussed. Ethical multiculturalism, a view that combines universalism and multiculturalism undergirds culturally appropriate and ethically responsive decisions.

  2. Building Cultural Sensitivity and Interprofessional Collaboration Through a Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Irene; Attridge, Russell T; Attridge, Rebecca L; Maize, David F; McNeill, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad (SA) experiences for health professions students may be used to heighten cultural sensitivity to future patients and incorporate interprofessional education (IPE). Two groups of nursing and pharmacy students participated in an SA elective over a 2-year period, traveling to China and India. Both groups improved significantly in knowledge, awareness, and skills following the travel experiences. Student reflections indicate that the SA experience was transformative, changing their views of travel, other cultures, personal environment, collaboration with other health professionals, and themselves. Use of SA programs is a novel method to encourage IPE, with a focus on enhancing the acquisition of cultural competency skills. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON PRE-PAY MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Madalina MEGHISAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to identify the preferences of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services young users from Romania. Approach/ methodology: The analysis of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services was made using statistical functions: descriptive statistics, t test, correlation and factor analysis. Results: According to the analysis made, we could underline the habits of usage from the part of pre-pay mobile telecommunications services consumers. Originality: The paper drew an objective analysis on the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services from the perspective of young consumers.

  4. The ESL Family Science Night: a model for culturally sensitive science education pedagogy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valadez, Gilbert; Moineau, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    ... general findings and suggestions for further research and pre-service teacher education as it relates to teaching science pedagogy in a way that better serves minority children and their parents and/or guardians. Here, we are defining minority children as those that come from non-mainstream Anglo-American culture and are second language learners. L...

  5. The culture of care within psychiatric services: tackling inequalities and improving clinical and organisational capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascoli Micol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cultural Consultation is a clinical process that emerged from anthropological critiques of mental healthcare. It includes attention to therapeutic communication, research observations and research methods that capture cultural practices and narratives in mental healthcare. This essay describes the work of a Cultural Consultation Service (ToCCS that improves service user outcomes by offering cultural consultation to mental health practitioners. The setting is a psychiatric service with complex and challenging work located in an ethnically diverse inner city urban area. Following a period of 18 months of cultural consultation, we gather the dominant narratives that emerged during our evaluation of our service. Results These narratives highlight how culture is conceptualized and acted upon in the day-to-day practices of individual health and social care professionals, specialist psychiatric teams and in care systems. The findings reveal common narratives and themes about culture, ethnicity, race and their perceived place and meaningfulness in clinical care. These narratives express underlying assumptions and covert rules for managing, and sometimes negating, dilemmas and difficulties when considering “culture” in the presentation and expression of mental distress. The narratives reveal an overall “culture of understanding cultural issues” and specific “cultures of care”. These emerged as necessary foci of intervention to improve service user outcomes. Conclusion Understanding the cultures of care showed that clinical and managerial over-structuring of care prioritises organisational proficiency, but it leads to inflexibility. Consequently, the care provided is less personalised and less accommodating of cultural issues, therefore, professionals are unable to see or consider cultural influences in recovery.

  6. Practitioners' Perspectives on Cultural Sensitivity in Latina/o Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…

  7. Predicting Changes in Cultural Sensitivity among Students of Spanish during Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs of less than a semester are becoming increasingly popular among undergraduate students in the United States. However, little research has examined the changes in students' cultural sensitivity through their participation in such programs or what factors may predict growth and improvement in such areas. This study…

  8. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian Populations : A Culturally-Sensitive Psychiatric Screening Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii)

  9. How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

  10. The Effects of the Japan Bridge Project on Third Graders' Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lindsay; Sherman, Lilian; MaKinster, James

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the Japan BRIDGE Project, a global education program, on its third grade participants. Characterization of lessons and analysis of student interviews were used to investigate the nature of the curriculum and whether or not student participants were more culturally sensitive due to participation. Results indicate…

  11. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers;

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis...

  12. Developing Culturally Sensitive HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse Prevention Curricula for Native American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Critical steps in developing these curricula included: selecting integrative theory to address multidimensional antecedents of HIV/AIDS and substance abuse among Native Americans; using ethnography to obtain input from target groups and community members to ensure developmental and cultural sensitivity; and using process and outcome evaluations of…

  13. Cultural adaptations to augment health and mental health services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Priscilla; Stager, Megan L; Woodmass, Kyler; Dettlaff, Alan J; Vergara, Andrew; Janke, Robert; Wells, Susan J

    2017-01-05

    Membership in diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural groups is often associated with inequitable health and mental health outcomes for diverse populations. Yet, little is known about how cultural adaptations of standard services affect health and mental health outcomes for service recipients. This systematic review identified extant themes in the research regarding cultural adaptations across a broad range of health and mental health services and synthesized the most rigorous experimental research available to isolate and evaluate potential efficacy gains of cultural adaptations to service delivery. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, and grey literature sources were searched for English-language studies published between January 1955 and January 2015. Cultural adaptations to any aspect of a service delivery were considered. Outcomes of interest included changes in service provider behavior or changes in the behavioral, medical, or self-reported experience of recipients. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently tested adaptation occurred in preventive services and consisted of modifying the content of materials or services delivered. None of the included studies focused on making changes in the provider's behavior. Many different populations were studied but most research was concerned with the experiences and outcomes of African Americans. Seventeen of the 31 retained studies observed at least one significant effect in favor of a culturally adapted service. However there were also findings that favored the control group or showed no difference. Researchers did not find consistent evidence supporting implementation of any specific type of adaptation nor increased efficacy with any particular cultural group. Conceptual frameworks to classify cultural adaptations and their resultant health/mental health outcomes were developed and applied in a variety of ways. This review synthesizes the most rigorous research in the field and identifies

  14. Listening to the third voices of Pangasinan students: designing and enacting culturally sensitive curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    This response builds upon Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" by exploring how an expanded understanding of the ubiquitous nature of adolescent literacy practices and identities challenge traditional notions of "in school" and "out of school" cultural spaces. Listening to the "third voices" of adolescents can promote a deeper understanding of the complex literate lives of Pangasinan students and inform both the official and the enacted culturally sensitive curriculum. To hear the literate lives of adolescents is to push back against politically dehumanizing and "de-literacizing" neo-liberal educational policies and practices which privilege a singular, whitewashed view of literacy in order to standardize curriculum and instruction, preserve power in the hands of the powerful, and exacerbate socio-economic, racial, ethnic, and linguistic divisions.

  15. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Spanish: culture-sensitive manualized treatment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-08-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.

  16. PRIMARY TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF CULTURAL DİVERSITY AND INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Rengi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The teachers’ perception of cultural diversity is important to provide justice and equality in education, prevent the cultural conflicts and communication productivity of interactions in schools that there are cultural differences. This study aims to determine primary teachers’ perception of cultural diversity and observe teachers’ levels of “intercultural sensitivity” in relation to their students. The working group in this research is 286 primary teachers who work public schools province of Kocaeli (Çayırova in 2013-2014 acedemic year. The mixed model is used. The research data was collected by using the “İntercultural Sensitivity Scale” (Chen and Starosta, 2000. It is used t-tests, test of ANOVA and arithmetic average for composing quantitative data. The qualitative data was collected by using the teachers’ answers that “ What do you think the cultural differences of students?”. It is provided content analysis for qualitative data. It is seen that the teachers’ intercultural sensitivity is high. Morever ‘‘differences of languages’’ are the most striking the perception of primary teachers’ cultural differences.

  17. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  18. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  19. RELATIONSHIP AMONG E-SERVICE QUALITY, CULTURE, ATTITUDE, TRUST, RISK OF ONLINE SHOPPING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Al-Nasser; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Rabiul Islam; Abdullah Al-Nasser

    2014-01-01

    ... and cultural countries-Malaysia and Saudi Arabia-regarding online shopping. Specifically, this research extended previous effort done in an online shopping context by providing evidence that high service quality increase consumersâ...

  20. Service and Servants in Early Modern English Culture to 1660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rivlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review essay surveys the last ten years of literary scholarship on service and servants in early modern England, with a particular focus on Shakespeare, to offer an overview of approaches and a sense of new directions in the field. The essay examines how studies have often pivoted between considering the act (‘service’ and the person (‘servant’ who performs it. Definitional ambiguities seem permanently to hover around these key terms. But rather than portending incoherence, the continuing presence of multiple definitions signals that scholarship about service and servants has reached a certain maturity. In the period under review, the field has matured to the point that critics no longer need to prove that service deserves consideration as an object of study, with the result that they can pursue vigorously the ways in which service and servants are imbricated with larger ontological and phenomenological questions. Investigating recent criticism on service takes this essay into critical territory that encompasses not only social class, economics, occupational identity, and subjectivity, but also aesthetics, ethics, affect, gender and sexuality, politics, race and colonialism. One important conclusion is that a growing body of work, some of it tracing the development of inter-Atlantic slavery from paradigms of service, offers a material, historical perspective on the ways in which servants enable freedom for others without being enabled to experience it for themselves. Looking to the future, the author encourages Anglo-American critics to think more expansively and comparatively about service, so that new connections might be drawn between the supposedly vanished world of servants and service and the global service economy in which we all participate today.

  1. Adaptive software architecture based on confident HCI for the deployment of sensitive services in Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-03-25

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature.

  2. Adaptive Software Architecture Based on Confident HCI for the Deployment of Sensitive Services in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vega-Barbas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature.

  3. Adaptive Software Architecture Based on Confident HCI for the Deployment of Sensitive Services in Smart Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Barbas, Mario; Pau, Iván; Martín-Ruiz, María Luisa; Seoane, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Smart spaces foster the development of natural and appropriate forms of human-computer interaction by taking advantage of home customization. The interaction potential of the Smart Home, which is a special type of smart space, is of particular interest in fields in which the acceptance of new technologies is limited and restrictive. The integration of smart home design patterns with sensitive solutions can increase user acceptance. In this paper, we present the main challenges that have been identified in the literature for the successful deployment of sensitive services (e.g., telemedicine and assistive services) in smart spaces and a software architecture that models the functionalities of a Smart Home platform that are required to maintain and support such sensitive services. This architecture emphasizes user interaction as a key concept to facilitate the acceptance of sensitive services by end-users and utilizes activity theory to support its innovative design. The application of activity theory to the architecture eases the handling of novel concepts, such as understanding of the system by patients at home or the affordability of assistive services. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the architecture and compare the results with other architectures from the literature. PMID:25815449

  4. Five-star service culture: enhancing satisfaction and reducing liability exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, James W; Finkelstein, Maggie M

    2008-01-01

    Five-star service may be one of the most underestimated risk-reduction concepts. Its origin began with the hospitality industry, but it has also been seen as beneficial for the healthcare industry. The concept is not new, but it is gaining and will continue to gain importance in healthcare. Surprisingly, five-star service has not been used to its full potential in healthcare. While incorporation of a five-star service culture makes sense, it is difficult to build and maintain without a committed plan. This article will provide an overview of a five-star service culture and provide the "how to "for a practice to implement and maintain an effective five-star service culture.

  5. Corporate culture and employment of people with disabilities: role of social workers and service provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Deepti; Soffer, Michal; Hernandez, Brigida; Adya, Meera; Akinpelu, Omolara; Levy, Joel M; Repoli, Elizabeth; Kramer, Michael; Blanck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Corporate culture reflects an organization's value system and impacts the recruitment, retention, and promotion of employees. Individuals with disabilities are positively impacted by a corporate culture that espouses and establishes a diverse workforce as a priority. This article provides an overview of corporate culture and the employment of individuals with disabilities, and presents a case example of the corporate culture of a large not-for-profit disability service organization. With an in-depth understanding of corporate culture and disability issues, social workers can be particularly helpful to applicants and employees with disabilities as well as employers.

  6. Strengthen School Culture Using a Customer Service Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Nicholas I.

    2002-01-01

    Describes customer-service audit of school district's internal and external communities that included site visits and inspection, focus groups with parents and students, a staff survey, and mystery phone calls to assess phone skills. (PKP)

  7. Sensitivity of primary fibroblasts in culture to atmospheric oxygen does not correlate with species lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Alison; Seluanov, Michael; Hwang, Chaewon; Tam, Jonathan; Khan, Tanya; Morgenstern, Ari; Wiener, Lauren; Vazquez, Juan M.; Zafar, Hiba; Wen, Robert; Muratkalyeva, Malika; Doerig, Katherine; Zagorulya, Maria; Cole, Lauren; Catalano, Sophia; Lobo Ladd, Aliny AB; Coppi, A. Augusto; Coşkun, Yüksel; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Nevo, Eviatar; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Vijg, Jan; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the way human and mouse fibroblasts experience senescence in culture had long puzzled researchers. While senescence of human cells is mediated by telomere shortening, Parrinello et al. demonstrated that senescence of mouse cells is caused by extreme oxygen sensitivity. It was hypothesized that the striking difference in oxygen sensitivity between mouse and human cells explains their different rates of aging. To test if this hypothesis is broadly applicable, we cultured cells from 16 rodent species with diverse lifespans in 3% and 21% oxygen and compared their growth rates. Unexpectedly, fibroblasts derived from laboratory mouse strains were the only cells demonstrating extreme sensitivity to oxygen. Cells from hamster, muskrat, woodchuck, capybara, blind mole rat, paca, squirrel, beaver, naked mole rat and wild-caught mice were mildly sensitive to oxygen, while cells from rat, gerbil, deer mouse, chipmunk, guinea pig and chinchilla showed no difference in the growth rate between 3% and 21% oxygen. We conclude that, although the growth of primary fibroblasts is generally improved by maintaining cells in 3% oxygen, the extreme oxygen sensitivity is a peculiarity of laboratory mouse strains, possibly related to their very long telomeres, and fibroblast oxygen sensitivity does not directly correlate with species' lifespan. PMID:27163160

  8. Russian Pre-Service and Young In-Service Teachers’ Views on Cultural Dimensions of Russian Education: Power Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pogosian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Power Distance as one of the cultural dimensions of Russian education based on the perceptions and views of Russian pre-service and young in-service teachers. These views were elicited in the context of a 2 ECTS master’s degree course, “Cultural Dimensions of Education,” offered at Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia. The course includes Hofstede’s framework of cultural dimensions and the manifestation of these dimensions in educational settings, Hall’s cultural-factors theory (particularly high- and low- context cultures and monochronic versus polychronic cultures, but the research focuses on only one of the cultural dimensions, Hofstede’s Power Distance. The students’ reflections on their own experiences presented in writing as case studies and discussed with their peer students have been analyzed. Evidence has been gained that large Power Distance is a typical feature of Russian educational settings’ attitudes and relationships among all the actors—school administration, teachers, pupils, and their parents. The article discusses some of the cases presented and analyzed by the students and their arguments supporting their points of view. 

  9. The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

  10. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL SERVICE LEARNING ON NURSING STUDENTS' SELF EFFICACY TOWARDS CULTURAL COMPETENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    One method of gaining knowledge, skills and experience with different cultures for nurses and nursing students is through an international immersion experience with training in language, culture and community nursing. This study is a qualitative and quantitative measurement of the influence of a two-week service learning medical experience on a student-nursing group who traveled abroad to Belize, Central America.

  11. The Impact of Service-Learning on Health Education Students' Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Meaney, Karen S.; Wilcox, Michelle; Cavazos, Arnoldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Development of cultural competence in future health educators is often mentioned as a goal of health education preparation programs; however research demonstrating evidence-based methods for development of cultural competence is limited. Purpose: To determine the impact of a service-learning project on development of cultural…

  12. Comparing Cross-Cultural Multicultural Self-Awareness among K-12 In-Service School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Chieko; Plash, Shawn; Davis, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored multicultural self-awareness among 134 K-12 in-service school teachers using the Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory (CDAI). The results were compared to Yeung's (2006), allowing for a comparison between Eastern and Western cultures. A composite score was generated for each of the five areas measured by the CDAI. A…

  13. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Sergueev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  14. Organizational culture profile of service and manufacturing businesses in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa de-la-Garza-Carranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizational cultures of service and manufacturing firms in the central area of Mexico were assessed using the Cameron & Quinn (1999 Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI for sample of 307 workers. To identify differences, a comparison was made between the four organizational cultures: clan, adhocracy, market and hierarchical. Results show significant differences related to the business, its size, and the gender and the hierarchical position of the worker

  15. The Role of Organizational Culture in the Leadership of United States Air Force Services Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to examine the role organizational culture plays in the leadership of United States Air Force (USAF) Services...squadrons. While some might argue that the study of organizational culture is a somewhat vague notion, there is significant theory and findings to show...determine the link between organizational culture and financial performance as indicated by Standard and Poor’s financial ratios. In summarizing his

  16. Interlinks of Cultural and Creative Economies Through Creative Products and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa Levickaitė

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on contemporary creative cultural economy concepts and presents formation background and confrontational points of view discussed by variety of authors. The scope of the creative economy is determined by creative industries exponent. If culture is perceptible in the anthropological or functional sense, one might use the concept of the cultural product. An alternative definition of creative products and services originates from a created value type: one might say these produc...

  17. Increased sensitivity to ET-1 in rat cerebral arteries following organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is recognized as being involved in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Using organ culture as a model for possible pathological changes we studied changes in ET(A) and ETB receptor function using a sensitive in vitro method. We observed an up-regulation of the ET......(B) receptor and an amazingly increased sensitivity to ET-1 by 3 log units in pEC50; pEC50(fresh) was 8.7 +/- 0.1, and pEC50(cultured) was 11.7 +/- 0.3. pA2 for FR139317 in the fresh vessel was 7.0 +/- 0.2 whereas it could not be obtained for the cultured vessel, indicating a possible cross-talk between the ET......(A) and ET(B) receptors. The increased sensitivity to ET-1 could also take place during cerebrovascular disease such as stroke or haemorrhage rendering the vessels considerably more sensitive to ET-1....

  18. Investigating Pre-Service Teacher Motivation across Cultures Using the Teachers' Ten Statements Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Al-Dhafri, Said; Hannok, Wanwisa; Betts, Shea M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivations for choosing teaching as a career were investigated in 200 pre-service teachers from Canada and Oman. We used a novel structured qualitative approach and two theoretical models to analyze how pre-service teacher career-choice motivation varied according to cultural context. The results of the study showed that Canadian participants…

  19. Effects of Community Service-Learning on Heritage Language Learners' Attitudes toward Their Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…

  20. Cultural Competence Development, Critical Service Learning, and Latino/a Youth Empowerment: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lucila C.; Erba, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    As universities create service-learning programs, educators are experimenting with pedagogical approaches that enhance learning outcomes while benefiting communities. We present a qualitative case study of a radio-based, service-learning program, grounded in a Freirean foundation and aimed at developing the cultural competence and sense of…

  1. Threats and opportunities for new audiovisual cultural heritage archive services: the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Guido; Huizer, E.; Wijngaert, van de Lidwien

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the business-to-consumer market for digital audiovisual archiving services. In doing so we identify drivers, threats, and opportunities for new services based on audiovisual archives in the cultural heritage domain. By analyzing the market we provide i

  2. How to Share Korean Language and Culture with Pre-Service Teachers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Joon; Yang, Youjin

    2013-01-01

    Many teacher educators believe that pre-service teachers should be aware of their future classroom environment including students who have linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. This paper is a description of how two teacher educators helped pre-service teachers develop their multicultural awareness in preparation for careers in Early…

  3. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Lincoln Larson; Jessica Yun

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants...

  4. Using visual stimuli to explore the social perceptions of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Santiago, César A.; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Martín-López, Berta

    2014-01-01

    perceptions of 16 ecosystem services supplied by these two landscapes. These 16 services were divided into 3 types: provisioning, such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control of climate and disease; and cultural, such as spiritual and recreational benefits. We also identified...... ecosystem services tended to be related to forests. All three types of ecosystem services were more perceived by respondents when a drove road was present in each landscape. However, differences in the visual perception of ecosystem services supply and preference for transhumance landscapes emerged......The ecosystem services approach has been proposed as a powerful tool for the analysis of coupled social-ecological systems. This approach is particularly useful for the evaluation of cultural landscapes, which represent the joint evolution of humans and nature across an extended time span...

  5. Socio-cultural valuation of ecosystem services in a transhumance social-ecological network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oteros-Rozas, E.; Martín-López, B.; González, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    . A socio-cultural valuation of ecosystem services associated with the Conquense Drove Road, one of the major transhumant networks still in use in Mediterranean Spain, was conducted via the distribution of questionnaires to 416 local residents and visitors to capture their perceptions regarding......The ecosystem services framework is receiving increasing attention in the fields of policy and research. The assessment of human attitudes and perceptions regarding ecosystem services has been proposed as a promising tool for addressing complex problems associated with environmental change...... the importance of 34 ecosystem services (10 provisioning, 12 regulating, and 12 cultural) for both social and personal well-being. Overall, the ecosystem services considered to be the most important for social well-being were fire prevention, air purification and livestock. Most of the ecosystem services...

  6. An investigation of Helicobacter pylori using culture, histopathological and serological examination methods and its antimicrobial sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Asuman; Gulsun, Serda; Guveli, Hakan; Tascioglu, Jale; Goktas, Pasa

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the determination of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by culture, histopathological and serological methods in cases of endoscopically diagnosed as duodenitis and duodenal ulcer (DU), a comparison of their relative advantages, and its antibiotic sensitivities were investigated. Helicobacter pylori was investigated using 3 methods (culture, histopathological and serological examination) in 50 patients (25 diagnosed with duodenitis and 25 with DU) at the Department of Gastroenterohepatology, Istanbul Haydarpasa Numune Hospital, Turkey between December 2000 and February 2001. An investigation into its antibiotic sensitivities to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and azithromycin by disc diffusion methods and to amoxicillin and clarithromycin by E-test were investigated. Helicobacter pylori bacteria were observed in Gram stained preparates prepared from biopsy material in 34 out of 50 patients (68%), and were able to be produced in active culture in all these cases. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of H. pylori in 80% cases of DU and 60% cases of duodenitis; anti-CagA(IgG) was positively determined in 88% DU cases and in 60% duodenitis cases. There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of diagnosis by histopathological and serological methods. The difference between the 2 groups produced in active culture in 84% cases of DU cases and 52% of duodenitis was statistically significant (p=0.0322). Using the E-test and disc diffusion methods, 8.8% of the strains that reproduced in culture were resistant to and 91.2% were sensitive to clarithromycin. All strains were determined to be sensitive to amoxicillin: 17.6% of the strains were determined to be resistant to metronidazole, 11.7% to azithromycin. It was observed that Gram staining is a rapid and reliable method of pre-diagnosis for H. pylori; that histopathological examination methods are of considerable importance in diagnosis; and that the investigation of

  7. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  8. The role of Public Service Motivation and Organizational Culture for Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen Agata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the our paper is to discuss the relationships between organizational culture, Public Service Motivation (PSM and organizational commitment (OC. On the basis of literature review we formulated hypotheses presenting potential relationships between mentioned constructs. We propose that there is a mutual influence between PSM and organizational culture and that organizational culture moderates the influence of Public Service Motivation on organizational commitment. Due to the presence of variables on different levels of analysis, we also discuss some issues of multilevel approach.

  9. The relative impact of culture, strategic orientation and capability on new service development performance

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Chris; Hughes, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose\\ud \\ud – This research attempts to understand the operant resources required for new service development (NSD). It aims to construct a more intricate understanding of how operant resources interact to drive NSD. Specifically, it aims to look at the impact of culture, strategic orientation and NSD capability for number of new services, the success rate of new services and the resulting financial contribution by NSD to overall firm performance.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/appr...

  10. Moving Into Communities: Developing Cultural Competence with Pre-service Educators through Community Service-Learning Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Coffey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research in teacher education suggests that field experiences in community settings can offer pre-service teachers a context for understanding the link between theory and practice. This paper documents the experiences of pre-service educators who participated in service-learning partnerships for thirty hours in multiple community settings in the southeast United States. Pre-service teachers not only volunteered in the community, but they also engaged in critically reflective journal writing and participated in evaluative class discussions. Students praised the benefits of a service experience in both school and community placements and discussed how interactions with the community agencies gave them the insight into how community organizations often play a significant role in the lives of the underserved students they will eventually teach. The author argues that the inclusion of a service-learning component in early pre-service teacher education field experiences has the potential to facilitate the examination of the relationships between community organizations and schools and encourage development of cultural competence among pre-service teachers. KEYWORDSservice-learning, pre-service teacher preparation, community partnerships

  11. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing--complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Høyum, Per; Pettersen, Fred-Johan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wolff, Anders; Dufva, Martin; Martinsen, Ørjan Grøttem; Emnéus, Jenny

    2015-01-15

    A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation of a bare 3D gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and 3T) measurement configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the 3D space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) characterisation were used to determine the configurations' sensitivity field localisation. The 2T setup gives insight into the interfacial phenomena at both electrode surfaces and covers the central part of the 3D cell culture volume, while the four 3T modes provide focus on the dynamics at the corners of the 3D culture chamber. By combining a number of electrode configurations, complementary spatially distributed information on a large 3D cell culture can be obtained with maximised sensitivity in the entire 3D space. The experimental results show that cell proliferation can be monitored within the tested biomimetic environment, paving the way to further developments in bioimpedance tracking of 3D cell cultures and tissue engineering.

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURE POSITIVE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY PROFILE IN TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Sreekumar Pius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection is very common all over the world and in India more than 10 million cases are reported per year. It is one of the common infections diagnosed in the outpatients as well as the hospitalised patients. Empirical treatment of community acquired urinary tract infections are determined by the antibiotic sensitivity in a population. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity amongst the uropathogens to help establish local guidelines on treatment of urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, we collected 1306 samples from patients in whom we suspected to have urinary tract infection based on clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. with fever (greater than 38°C without another explanation or from a patient who had at least one urinary symptom (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic pain or tenderness in our hospital during January 2016-June 2016. RESULTS Urine cultures were positive for 18% of the patients. Among these cultures, Klebsiella pneumonia (41%, Escherichia coli (35% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7% were the common organisms found. Highest antimicrobial sensitivity amongst these pathogens was found with cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin. CONCLUSION Cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin were the highly sensitive systemic antibiotics while ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were the sensitive oral antibiotics in our locality.

  13. Assessing capacity for providing culturally competent services to LGBT older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Jennifer Dickman; Retrum, Jessica H; Wright, Leslie A; Boggs, Jennifer M; Wilkins, Shari; Grimm, Cathy; Gilchrist, Kay; Gozansky, Wendolyn S

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, interview-based study assessed the cultural competence of health and social service providers to meet the needs of LGBT older adults in an urban neighborhood in Denver, Colorado, known to have a large LGBT community. Only 4 of the agencies were categorized as "high competency"; 12 were felt to be "seeking improvement" and 8 were considered "not aware." These results indicate significant gaps in cultural competency for the majority of service providers. Social workers are well-suited to lead efforts directed at improving service provision and care competencies for the older LGBT community.

  14. Assessing Capacity for Providing Culturally Competent Services to LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Jennifer Dickman; Retrum, Jessica H.; Wright, Leslie A.; Boggs, Jennifer M.; Wilkins, Shari; Grimm, Cathy; Gilchrist, Kay; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, interview-based study assessed the cultural competence of health and social service providers to meet the needs of LGBT older adults in an urban neighborhood in Denver, Colorado, known to have a large LGBT community. Only 4 of the agencies were categorized as “high competency” while 12 were felt to be “seeking improvement” and 8 were considered “not aware.” These results indicate significant gaps in cultural competency for the majority of service providers. Social workers are well-suited to lead efforts directed at improving service provision and care competencies for the older LGBT community. PMID:24798180

  15. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IDENTIFICATION AND ITS EFFECT ON E-SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences are one of many forces influencing consumer decision making and the effect of cultural differences on the development and use of information and communication technologies. As different companies are not taking their business outside geographic boundaries, the global activities are opened to a large degree via current communication and information technologies. The aim of the study is to determine the cultural differences identification and its effect on E-service quality perception. A quantitative research design was adopted to collect data. Multiple regression analysis method was used to conduct this study. The findings of the study will contribute to both theory and practice. The results of this study have important contributions and implications for practitioners and policy-makers. This study contributed to the field of service quality expectations relationship with online shopping in the context of developing countries. It also examined the impact of culture on the service quality consumer expectations.

  16. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1 explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2 examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3 recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  17. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-05

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  18. Implementation and evaluation of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swavely, Deborah; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Maldonado, Edgardo; Eid, Sherrine; Etchason, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is more prevalent in persons with limited education, members of ethnic minorities, and those who speak English as a second language, and is associated with multiple adverse diabetes-related health outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program for economically and socially disadvantaged adult patients with type 2 diabetes. A pre-post prospective study design was used to examine outcomes over 12 months. Outcome measures included diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care, measured using reliable and valid survey tools, and A1C. Over this period of time 277 patients were enrolled in the program, with 106 participants completing survey data. At the completion of the program patients had significant improvements in diabetes knowledge (p diabetes education program designed to be culturally sensitive and meet the needs of individuals with low health literacy improves short-term outcomes. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  19. Historical and contemporary cultural ecosystem service values in the rapidly urbanizing city state of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajah, Jharyathri; Wong, Shermaine K M; Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are a function of people and place, so may change as a location transitions from rural to urban. Singapore has undergone rapid urbanization after its independence in 1965, with a concomitant decline in natural habitat extent and accessibility. Using coastal mangrove forests as a case study habitat, changing cultural values were explored with a novel array of techniques, including qualitative archival analysis (photographs, oral histories), current sources (publically uploaded social media photographs), and surveys of (a) the general public and (b) visitors to publically accessible mangroves. Cultural value changed through time, with a significant transition from intrinsic, intrapersonal values (spiritual, cultural heritage) to instrumental, interpersonal values (recreation, education). Additionally, cultural value varied between different mangroves depending on their public accessibility, and the evolving degree of human interaction with the ecosystem as urban development occured. Cultural values change as development transitions, though mangroves still play an important cultural role in a heavily urbanized environment.

  20. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  1. Sensitivity of PCR IS6110 in relation to culture and staining in Pott′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid diagnosis is essential to decrease the morbidity and mortality of Pott′s disease. The bacteriological methods are time-consuming or insensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR provides a rapid diagnostic tool and hope for early diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to compare and assess of a rapid and effective method among diagnostic battery (Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture and PCR of Pott′s disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five specimens from clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease were included in this study. They were processed for ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture, and PCR IS6110. The tests tool′s efficiency, positive agreement Kc (Kappa coefficient, and significance level (P value were calculated for correlation between PCR and performed tests. Results: The PCR sensitivity reached to 96% and 46.3% among positive and negative specimens on ZN microscopy. Further, 94% and 36.4% sensitivity were found among positive and negative specimens by BACTEC culture. The total 38 (58.5% specimens were detected either ZN microscopy or by BACTEC culture. Thus, the overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 95% and 74.1%. The kappa coefficient and P value, calculated for PCR against BACTEC culture and combined results of performed bacteriological tests were (Kc=0.60, (P<0.001 and (Kc=0.70, (P<0.001, respectively. Above statistical relations showed a fair agreement with significant differences. Conclusion: The PCR IS6110 may be useful in rapid detection of clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease and those that are negative with bacteriological methods.

  2. [The sensitivity to antibiotics of biofilm cultures of toxigenic strains Corynebacterium diphtheriae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Ya N; Kharseyeva, G G; Mironov, A Yu

    2014-06-01

    The article presents analysis of sensitivity to antibacterial preparations of typical and biofilm culture of museum strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae gravis tox+ SV-665. The strain was obtained from the L.A. Tarasevitch state research institute of standardization and control of medical biological preparations. The second strain C. diphtheriaecirculates gravis tox+ circulates in population of the Rostov oblast and it was recovered from patient with diagnosis of "localized form of diphtheria" by bacteriologic laboratory "1002 CGSEN SKVO" of Rostov-on-Don. The week and month biofilm cultures of both strains of C. diphtheriae gravis tox+ were used. The sensitivity to antibacterial preparations of typical and biofilm cultures of museum and circulating in population strains of agent of diphtheria were detected using minimal suppressing concentration by technique of serial dilutions in fluid growth medium. It is demonstrated that the most effective in respect of C. diphtheriae are such preparations as cefotaxinum, gentamycinum, lincomycin, canamycin and cefasolin. The sensitivity of pathogen in composition of biofilm to these preparations has no changes.

  3. Civil Service Reform in Indonesia: Culture and Institution Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Prijono Tjiptoherijanto

    2012-01-01

    In adapting to the globalization era, the Indonesian government has to improve the structure of its bureaucracy, both in terms of enhancing the quality of government employee, and developing a modern and efficient government system. As with any reform, strong and determined leadership is crucial. While good governance is central for anticipatring the challenges of global competition, Indonesia must also undertake civil service reforms to achieve a cleaner and more efficient bureaucracy.

  4. Mapping Cultural Ecosystem Services in Vilnius using Hot-Spot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Egarter-Vigl, Lukas; Oliva, Marc; Misiune, Ieva; Keesstra, Saskia; Estebaranz, Ferran; Cerda, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Cultural services in urban areas are very important to promote tourism activities and develop the economy. These activities are fundamental for the sustainability of the urban areas since can represent an important monetary source. However, one of the major threats to the sustainability of cultural services is the high amount of visitants that can lead to a degradation of the services provided (Depellegrin et al., 2016). Mapping the potential of cultural ecosystems services is fundamental to assess the capacity that the territory have to provide it. Previous works used land use classification to identify the ecosystem services potential, and revealed to be a good methodology to attribute to each type of land use a specific capacity (Burkhard et al., 2008). The objective of this work is to map the cultural services in Vilnius area using a hot-spot analysis. Ecosystem services potential was assessed using the matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009), which ranks ES capacity from 0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity to a different land use type. The results showed that with the exception of Cultural Heritage ecosystem services that had a random pattern (Z-score=0.62, pTourism (Z-score=4.02, pTourism ecosystem services had the maximum spatial correlation at the distance of 5125.12 m, Landscape Aesthetics at 3495.70 m, Knowledge Systems at 5218.66 m, Religious and Spiritual at 3495.70 m, Cultural Heritage at 6746.17 m and Natural Heritage at 6205.82 m. This showed that the cultural services studied have a different spatial correlation. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services- a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landscape Online. 15, 1-22. Depellegrin, D.A., Pereira, P., Misiune, I., Egarter-Vigl, L. Mapping Ecosystem Services potential in Lithuania. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 23, 441-455.

  5. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A Look at Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions in Two Service Sectors from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andreea Vrânceanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature on culture has mainly focused on the influence of national culture and its role in determining the organizational culture. Hofstede has demonstrated in his research the importance of culture in determining human relations in the workplace. People can comply with both organizational rules and cultural norms, but truly give priority to the latter. Differences between organizational rules may appear depending on the organizations’ activity or depending on the employees’ professions. These differences between industries and professions remain little explored in literature. As a result, the article presents Hofstede’s model of the first five dimensions of national culture in th e Romanian service industry (individualism/collectivism, power distance, long/short term orientation, masculinity/femininity and uncertainty avoidance, by comparing the results obtained in two different domains: the hotel industry and the consultancy serv ices industry. The findings are interesting, as they reflect employees’ work values in two sectors of the service industry. Furthermore, the article discusses whether the national culture has a direct impact on the culture developed in a specific activity sector. Also, the article debates if the organizational culture is more powerful than the national culture by comparing the values obtained at national level and the values obtained at organizational level through Hofstede’s model. Another objective of the research is to point out the differences in cultural dimensions between the workers from the hotel industry and workers from the consultancy services industry. The implications of the conclusions are discussed, considering the limitations of the empirical study presented and the future research directions.

  7. 77 FR 13622 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... this notice. History and Description of the Cultural Items These items came into the possession and... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office... Indian tribe, has determined that the cultural items listed below meet the definition of sacred...

  8. Evaluation and mapping of cultural services in terraced landscapes. The case study of the Amalfi Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Gravagnuolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscapes are a key resource for sustainable development. Among them, terraced landscapes are classified as “evolutive living” landscapes (UNESCO, 2012, an expression of the historical interrelationship between man and his territory. Currently many terraced landscapes are considered at risk because of the changed socio-economic conditions. The need for conservation and effective management of change of this exceptional heritage poses the question of identification of functions and complex values of the landscape, taking into account the needs, views and preferences of local communities. This study aims to identify the terraced landscape values and services based on the ecosystem services theory. It is addressed the issue of evaluation and mapping of cultural services in terraced landscape, with reference to the site of the Amalfi Coast in Campania. The categories of services have been evaluated with the involvement of the local community through a semi-structured questionnaire administered online. The integration of multi-criteria evaluation and spatial analysis in GIS (Geographic Information System has led to the construction of maps of cultural services, which allow displaying the complex relations that link communities to the landscape. The tools for collaborative mapping (Volunteered Geographic Information – VGI have been used for the construction of some of the maps of cultural services, integrating the results of the questionnaire with data related to the direct experience of the users.

  9. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  10. A Cultural Competence Organizational Review for Community Health Services: Insights From a Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Mandy; Gibbs, Lisa; Pradel, Veronika; Morris, Michal; Gwatirisa, Pauline; Tadic, Maryanne; de Silva, Andrea; Hall, Martin; Young, Dana; Riggs, Elisha; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Gondal, Iqbal; Waters, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    Cultural competence is an important aspect of health service access and delivery in health promotion and community health. Although a number of frameworks and tools are available to assist health service organizations improve their services to diverse communities, there are few published studies describing organizational cultural competence assessments and the extent to which these tools facilitate cultural competence. This article addresses this gap by describing the development of a cultural competence assessment, intervention, and evaluation tool called the Cultural Competence Organizational Review (CORe) and its implementation in three community sector organizations. Baseline and follow-up staff surveys and document audits were conducted at each participating organization. Process data and organizational documentation were used to evaluate and monitor the experience of CORe within the organizations. Results at follow-up indicated an overall positive trend in organizational cultural competence at each organization in terms of both policy and practice. Organizations that are able to embed actions to improve organizational cultural competence within broader organizational plans increase the likelihood of sustainable changes to policies, procedures, and practice within the organization. The benefits and lessons learned from the implementation of CORe are discussed.

  11. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    translations. Clinicians are encouraged to use culture-sensitive material in their consultations, particularly with low-acculturated patients. German Register for Clinical Trials: DRKS00004241, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1135-8043, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT AND DIVERSIFICATION OF SERVICES IN THE CULTURAL-RELIGIOUS DOMAIN BY TYPES OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparchez Nicoleta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, a sustainable development has been more and more discussed and, implicitly, the service sustainability in the context of globalization. This is why, with this approach, the role of the human and, naturally, of the society was observed in carrying out educational, religious and cultural activities. By analogy with a new product’s development steps, the phases necessary for the development of a new service concept were advanced. By means of qualitative and quantitative researches, the ideas necessary for the development of a new service were generated. From the great number of propositions, the most important ones were selected through qualitative researches. These were used in creating the new service. The cultural-religious educational service is the result of these activities, being a concept of the lateral marketing, but also a concern for a sustainable development. This service merged three distinct concepts (education, culture and religion, taking into account that information and knowledge are central for the progress and sustainability of a society's development. This service is a new concept by means of which one shall target how we may achieve the prevention of certain tendencies of school drop-out, new didactical methods and forms being tested this way, having as main purpose a better teacher-child, child-teacher, child-child, teacher-teacher communication.

  13. Development of an Inventory for Health-Care Office Staff to Self-Assess Their Patient-Centered Cultural Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. Tucker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC is a best practice approach for improving health-care delivery to culturally diverse populations and reducing health disparities. Despite patients’ report that cultural sensitivity by health-care office staff is an important aspect of PC-CSHC, the majority of available research on PC-CSHC focuses exclusively on health-care providers. This may be due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff. The objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Self-Assessment Form (T-CSHCOSI-SAF. This instrument is designed to enable health-care office staff to self-assess their level of agreement that they display behaviors and attitudes that culturally diverse patients have identified as office staff cultural sensitivity indicators. Methods: A sample of 510 health-care office staff were recruited at 67 health-care sites across the United States. These health-care office staff anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-SAF and a demographic data questionnaire. Results and Level of Evidence: Confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCOSI-SAF revealed that this inventory has 2 factors with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s αs= .916 and .912. Conclusion and Implications: The T-CSHCOSI-SAF is a useful inventory for health-care office staff to assess their own level of patient-centered cultural sensitivity. Such self-assessment data can be used in the development and implementation of trainings to promote patient-centered cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff and to help draw the attention of these staff to displaying patient-centered cultural sensitivity.

  14. Development of an Inventory for Health-Care Office Staff to Self-Assess Their Patient-Centered Cultural Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. Tucker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC is a best practice approach for improving health-care delivery to culturally diverse populations and reducing health disparities. Despite patients’ report that cultural sensitivity by health-care office staff is an important aspect of PC-CSHC, the majority of available research on PC-CSHC focuses exclusively on health-care providers. This may be due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff. The objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Self-Assessment Form (T-CSHCOSI-SAF. This instrument is designed to enable health-care office staff to self-assess their level of agreement that they display behaviors and attitudes that culturally diverse patients have identified as office staff cultural sensitivity indicators. Methods: A sample of 510 health-care office staff were recruited at 67 health-care sites across the United States. These health-care office staff anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-SAF and a demographic data questionnaire. Results and Level of Evidence: Confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCOSI-SAF revealed that this inventory has 2 factors with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s αs= .916 and .912. Conclusion and Implications: The T-CSHCOSI-SAF is a useful inventory for health-care office staff to assess their own level of patient-centered cultural sensitivity. Such self-assessment data can be used in the development and implementation of trainings to promote patient-centered cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff and to help draw the attention of these staff to displaying patient-centered cultural sensitivity.

  15. Challenges to culturally sensitive care for elderly chinese patients: a first-generation Chinese-American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Karen C

    2013-01-01

    Physicians and medical institutions in the United States are placing increasing emphasis on providing culturally sensitive care for patients, such as implementing a Confucian family-based model of medical decision making when caring for elderly Chinese patients. In this article, I articulate various reasons why deferring to the family is not a guarantee of culturally sensitive care, particularly when family members are first-generation Chinese-Americans. Nonetheless, I offer several suggestions to help physicians, medical institutions, and family members to provide more culturally sensitive care for elderly Chinese patients.

  16. Influence of international service-learning on nursing student self-efficacy toward cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tracey

    2014-08-01

    One method of gaining knowledge, skills, and experience with different cultures for nurses and nursing students is through an international immersion program of training in language, culture, and community nursing. This article presents a qualitative and quantitative research study of the influence of a 2-week service-learning medical experience of a nursing student group who traveled abroad to Belize, Central America. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes in municipal primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; Paavilainen, Eija; McCormack, Brendan; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-10-01

    To explore the influence of workplace culture on sickness absences, overtime work and occupational injuries in municipal primary health care. The need to improve nursing sensitive outcomes has been highlighted. Therefore, an adequate understanding of the influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes is essential for nurse managers to meet the requirements of improving nursing outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to incorporating the data from 21 inpatient acute care units of nine organisations at the Finnish municipal primary health care system from 2011 to 2012. Findings emphasise in particular the importance of the practice environment as being an interpretative factor for nurses' absences owing to sickness, overtime work and occupational injuries. To ensure favourable nursing sensitive outcomes it is essential that there is a shared interest in the unit to invest in the creation of a supportive practice environment. Outcome improvements require a special focus on issues related to nursing management, adequate staffing and resources and intention to leave. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessing the efficacy of LGBT cultural competency training for aging services providers in California's central valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Valerie L; Breshears, Elizabeth M; Ringstad, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the outcomes of a cultural competency training for aging services providers regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Results indicate that participants significantly increased their knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes about working with LGBT older adults, with men and non-LGBT individuals reporting the most gain. Recommendations for future research include determining which factors influence the enduring effects of this type of training and developing a standardized instrument for measuring such success. Legislative and policy changes targeted at requiring this type of cultural competency training for all direct service providers are considered.

  19. A multi-indicator framework for mapping cultural ecosystem services: The case of freshwater recreational fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamagna, Amy M.; Mogollon, Beatriz; Angermeier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent interest, ecosystem services are not yet fully incorporated into private and public decisions about natural resource management. Cultural ecosystem services (CES) are among the most challenging of services to include because they comprise complex ecological and social properties and processes that make them difficult to measure, map or monetize. Like others, CES are vulnerable to landscape changes and unsustainable use. To date, the sustainability of services has not been adequately addressed and few studies have considered measures of service capacity and demand simultaneously. To facilitate sustainability assessments and management of CES, our study objectives were to (1) develop a spatially explicit framework for mapping the capacity of ecosystems to provide freshwater recreational fishing, an important cultural service, (2) map societal demand for freshwater recreational fishing based on license data and identify areas of potential overuse, and (3) demonstrate how maps of relative capacity and relative demand could be interfaced to estimate sustainability of a CES. We mapped freshwater recreational fishing capacity at the 12-digit hydrologic unit-scale in North Carolina and Virginia using a multi-indicator service framework incorporating biophysical and social landscape metrics and mapped demand based on fishing license data. Mapping of capacity revealed a gradual decrease in capacity eastward from the mountains to the coastal plain and that fishing demand was greatest in urban areas. When comparing standardized relative measures of capacity and demand for freshwater recreational fishing, we found that ranks of capacity exceeded ranks of demand in most hydrologic units, except in 17% of North Carolina and 5% of Virginia. Our GIS-based approach to view freshwater recreational fishing through an ecosystem service lens will enable scientists and managers to examine (1) biophysical and social factors that foster or diminish cultural ecosystem

  20. Exploring the utility of Bayesian Networks for modelling cultural ecosystem services: A canoeing case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Edward; Kumar, Vikas; Lange, Eckart; Lerner, David N

    2016-01-01

    Modelling cultural ecosystem services is challenging as they often involve subjective and intangible concepts. As a consequence they have been neglected in ecosystem service studies, something that needs remedying if environmental decision making is to be truly holistic. We suggest Bayesian Networks (BNs) have a number of qualities that may make them well-suited for dealing with cultural services. For example, they define relationships between variables probabilistically, enabling conceptual and physical variables to be linked, and therefore the numerical representation of stakeholder opinions. We assess whether BNs are a good method for modelling cultural services by building one collaboratively with canoeists to predict how the subjective concepts of fun and danger are impacted on by weir modification. The BN successfully captured the relationships between the variables, with model output being broadly consistent with verbal descriptions by the canoeists. There were however a number of discrepancies indicating imperfect knowledge capture. This is likely due to the structure of the network and the abstract and laborious nature of the probability elicitation stage. New techniques should be developed to increase the intuitiveness and efficiency of probability elicitation. The limitations we identified with BNs are avoided if their structure can be kept simple, and it is in such circumstances that BNs can offer a good method for modelling cultural ecosystem services.

  1. Socio-cultural and economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernués

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modelling to, first, identify the perceptions of farmers and other citizens on the most important ecosystem services and, second, to value these in economic terms according to the willingness to pay of the local (residents of the study area and general (region where the study area is located populations. Cultural services (particularly the aesthetic and recreational values of the landscape, supporting services (biodiversity maintenance and some regulating services (particularly fire risk prevention were clearly recognized by both farmers and citizens, with different degrees of importance according to their particular interests and objectives. The prevention of forest fires (≈50% of total willingness to pay was valued by the general population as a key ecosystem service delivered by these agroecosystems, followed by the production of specific quality products linked to the territory (≈20%, biodiversity (≈20% and cultural landscapes (≈10%. The value given by local residents to the last two ecosystem services differed considerably (≈10 and 25% for biodiversity and cultural landscape, respectively. The Total Economic Value of mountain agroecosystems was ≈120 € person(-1 year(-1, three times the current level of support of agro-environmental policies. By targeting and quantifying the environmental objectives of the European agri-environmental policy and compensating farmers for the public goods they deliver, the so-called "green" subsidies may become true Payments for Ecosystems Services.

  2. Socio-cultural and economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernués, Alberto; Rodríguez-Ortega, Tamara; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Alfnes, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modelling) to, first, identify the perceptions of farmers and other citizens on the most important ecosystem services and, second, to value these in economic terms according to the willingness to pay of the local (residents of the study area) and general (region where the study area is located) populations. Cultural services (particularly the aesthetic and recreational values of the landscape), supporting services (biodiversity maintenance) and some regulating services (particularly fire risk prevention) were clearly recognized by both farmers and citizens, with different degrees of importance according to their particular interests and objectives. The prevention of forest fires (≈50% of total willingness to pay) was valued by the general population as a key ecosystem service delivered by these agroecosystems, followed by the production of specific quality products linked to the territory (≈20%), biodiversity (≈20%) and cultural landscapes (≈10%). The value given by local residents to the last two ecosystem services differed considerably (≈10 and 25% for biodiversity and cultural landscape, respectively). The Total Economic Value of mountain agroecosystems was ≈120 € person(-1) year(-1), three times the current level of support of agro-environmental policies. By targeting and quantifying the environmental objectives of the European agri-environmental policy and compensating farmers for the public goods they deliver, the so-called "green" subsidies may become true Payments for Ecosystems Services.

  3. [Organizational structure of nursing services: reflections on the influence of the organizational power and culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli Carvalho; Peres, Aida Maris; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2008-09-01

    This study addresses the culture and power influencing the organizational structure of the nursing services at a teaching hospital. The Nursing Service organizational structure (organization chart) was outlined due to the need of the general management of the hospital to standardize the nursing procedures. Due to this situation, the nursing managers' interest has arisen to widen the power setting, strengthening nursing in an intra-institutional environment.

  4. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian populations: a culturally-sensitive psychiatric screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii) people in non-psychiatric treatment; iii) people in psychiatric treatment. They were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), modified to include 10 culturally specific items, and the Brief Psychiatric Research Scale (BPRS) as a criterion of psychopathology. Physicians also completed an encounter form about the presence of mental health symptoms in participants. To make the questions more culturespecific, the translation of 12 items on the SRQ was changed. The content, construct, and criterion validity of each question were also examined, leading to the deletion of five items. The validity of the revised instrument (SRQ-F) was superior to that of the original instrument (SRQ). This study demonstrates the need for psychiatric screening instruments to be adapted to different cultures by incorporating meaningful translations and adding culturally specific items.

  5. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abednego Feehi Okoe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A total of 372 responses were used in the final analysis. The scale items were adapted from the existing literature. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the model. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that Job Satisfaction, Employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture significantly exerts positive influence on Service Recovery Performance of frontline employees. The findings from the study imply that there are several antecedents to Service Recovery Performance. Team Culture, Workplace Commitment, and Employee Commitment can influence Job Satisfaction which in turn will affect Service Recovery Performance resulting in customer satisfaction and retention.

  6. A qualitative study into the use of formal services for dementia by carers from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shanley, Christopher; Boughtwood, Desiree; Adams, Jon; Santalucia, Yvonne; Kyriazopoulos, Helena; Pond, Dimity; Rowland, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    .... While knowing about and navigating one's way through service systems is difficult for most people, it is particularly difficult for people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities...

  7. Cultural safety, diversity and the servicer user and carer movement in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Leonie G; Simpson, Alan

    2015-12-01

    This study will be of interest to anyone concerned with a critical appraisal of mental health service users' and carers' participation in research collaboration and with the potential of the postcolonial paradigm of cultural safety to contribute to the service user research (SUR) movement. The history and nature of the mental health field and its relationship to colonial processes provokes a consideration of whether cultural safety could focus attention on diversity, power imbalance, cultural dominance and structural inequality, identified as barriers and tensions in SUR. We consider these issues in the context of state-driven approaches towards SUR in planning and evaluation and the concurrent rise of the SUR movement in the UK and Australia, societies with an intimate involvement in processes of colonisation. We consider the principles and motivations underlying cultural safety and SUR in the context of the policy agenda informing SUR. We conclude that while both cultural safety and SUR are underpinned by social constructionism constituting similarities in principles and intent, cultural safety has additional dimensions. Hence, we call on researchers to use the explicitly political and self-reflective process of cultural safety to think about and address issues of diversity, power and social justice in research collaboration.

  8. 77 FR 13624 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law Enforcement, that meet the definition of sacred objects... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law Enforcement, Lakewood, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice....

  9. 77 FR 13623 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law Enforcement, that meet the definition of sacred... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law Enforcement, Lakewood, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. ]...

  10. [Culture and health services: studying the participation of cultural traits of Brazilian society in the work process of primary healthcare services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alessandra Maria Silva; Najar, Alberto Lopes

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of institutions is a widely researched area of health. The culture of organizations is understood as a symbolic possibility contained in a larger dimension, called "national culture". This premise justifies the incorporation of the social anthropological approach to the study of organizational culture. This study sought to establish the perceptions of employees of two primary healthcare services in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, regarding commonly used social navigation strategies from the theory developed by Roberto DaMatta. The results showed the relational character associated with the stereotype of the Brazilian people manifested by conflicts arising from the existence of values based on the `individual' and the `person'. Among them are the distortions observed between discourse and practice, and the mobilization strategies of social navigation like "making do" - to establish a mediation between the person and the impersonal law. The organization of the services of the Niterói Family Medical Program apparently sets its employees the concrete challenge of balancing the egalitarian principle that underpins the Unified Health System (SSU) with the set of values upon which personal relations are based in Brazilian society.

  11. Mapping Proxy Sensitivity: A New Technique for Compositional Analysis of Cultured Biominerals and Inorganically Precipitated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; DePaolo, D. J.; DeYoreo, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral composition is controlled by a host of environmental factors during precipitation. To build accurate paleo-reconstructions we need to separate the impact of each parameter on proxy behavior and use these data to build a chemical-scale understanding of mineral growth. Biomineral culture and inorganic precipitation experiments, where growth parameters can be manipulated independently, are uniquely suited to calibrate proxies and probe mechanism. Culture and precipitation experiments often involve overgrowth of an initial material. For example, seed crystals are used to control mineralogy and avoid nucleation during inorganic precipitation, while culture experiments in marine organisms typically start with wild specimens. New growth corresponding to the experimental conditions must be resolved from the initial material. Separation is typically achieved using microanalysis, skeletal dissection, or estimates of the initial mass and composition. Each approach imposes limits on the accuracy, precision or types of materials that can be analyzed. Slow growth rates and complicated geometries can make these techniques especially challenging when applied to biominerals. We present a method of compositional analysis for use in biological culture and inorganic growth experiments that overcomes many of these challenges. This method relies on growth in a mixed element stable isotope spike, requires neither the initial mass nor the initial composition to be known, harnesses the precision and sensitivity of bulk analysis, and applies even when it is impossible to physically identify newly grown material. Error analysis suggests this method can significantly improve the precision of metal/calcium measurements in experimentally grown material compared to current methods. Furthermore, the method can isolate different events through time, separating, for example, the impact of day and night cycles on biomineral composition. We will present metal/calcium ratios measured using the

  12. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodrıguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modell

  13. Strengthening Pedagogy and Praxis in Cultural Anthropology and Service-Learning: Insights from Postcolonialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Maryann

    2004-01-01

    This article argues cultural anthropology would make a good partner to service-learning pedagogy because it offers students a theoretical approach for understanding community life and its power structures. Anthropologists have been dealing with power vis-a-vis the people they study using concepts relevant to the reflection process in…

  14. Promoting Cultural Understandings through Song across the Tasman: Pre-Service Primary Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dawn; Trinick, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As tertiary music educators across the Tasman we argue that music, particularly song, is an effective medium for teaching and learning about non-western music when preparing generalist primary Pre-Service Teachers (PSTs). Using "voice" as a portable and accessible vehicle to transmit cultural understandings, we draw on the Zimbabwean…

  15. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  16. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the

  17. Ideology and Audit Culture: Standardized Service Quality Surveys in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the standardized service quality survey LibQUAL+ and the rise of audit culture. Recent scholarship examining assessment and accountability systems and the ideological principles driving their implementation in higher education raises concerns about the impact these systems have on teaching, learning,…

  18. Reading Popular Culture Narratives of Disease with Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Jeanine M.

    2013-01-01

    Jeanine M. Staples is an associate professor in the Language, Culture, and Society Program of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania. She teaches a mandatory course entitled LLED 480: Media Literacy in the Classroom. The course is designed for pre-service teachers in the…

  19. Service Learning with "Third-Culture Kids": Preparing an Iftar in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many international schools embrace social studies education, and service learning embedded within the social studies curriculum is often the norm rather than the exception. Helping students help others in any setting is powerful. In a richly diverse venue there are added benefits. The "third-culture kids" attending international schools…

  20. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  1. Ideology and Audit Culture: Standardized Service Quality Surveys in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the standardized service quality survey LibQUAL+ and the rise of audit culture. Recent scholarship examining assessment and accountability systems and the ideological principles driving their implementation in higher education raises concerns about the impact these systems have on teaching, learning,…

  2. Practicum Assessment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Ortlipp, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The practicum is an integral component of teacher education courses, but culturally and linguistically diverse pre-service teachers can face particular struggles in meeting assessment requirements on the practicum in early childhood settings. This paper reports from a small, exploratory study of early childhood practicum handbooks from four…

  3. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodriguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modell

  4. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodriguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice

  5. Vietnamese Americans' Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services: Relation to Cultural Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Charles X.; Anderson, Louis P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between culturally based variables and attitudes toward seeking mental health services among a community sample of Vietnamese Americans (N = 148) with at least 8 years' residence in the United States (U.S.). Variables included Stigma, Traditional Beliefs about Mental Illness, Help-Seeking Preferences, Problem…

  6. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the inv

  7. ICT Usage of Pre-service Teachers: Cultural Comparison for Turkey and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirli, Cihad

    2013-01-01

    The importance of ICTs has become the undisputed in the present century. Studies have been conducted to investigate the use of ICTs with the goal of increase in quality of teacher education for a long time. This study is a cross-cultural comparison in terms of pre-service teachers' level of ICT usage, ICT knowledge and attitudes. The study was…

  8. Pigments for natural dye-sensitized solar cells from in vitro grown shoot cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Chiara; Forni, Cinzia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Teoli, Federico; Nota, Paolo; Matteocci, Fabio; Frattarelli, Andrea; Caboni, Emilia; Lucioli, Simona

    2017-04-01

    In vitro grown shoots cultures (Prunus salicina × Prunus persica), elicited by methyl jasmonate (MJ), are reported here for the first time to prepare a natural dye for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Redox properties of the dye, its photostability, and light absorption properties suggested it as a candidate as natural photosensitizers for TiO2 photoelectrodes. Redox properties of the dye influence the DSSC production of photocurrent, thus three antioxidant assays were performed in order to characterize the antioxidant potential of this dye. The dye exhibited a high antioxidant activity in all the assays performed. Photostability assay revealed that the dye was quite stable to light. The power conversion efficiency that we obtained (0.53%) was comparable to the data by other authors with anthocyanins-based dyes from in vivo grown plants. Finally, we compared the dye with the partially purified one as photosensitizer in DSSC. The results indicated that the raw pigment from in vitro shoot cultures of P. salicina × P. persica elicited with MJ can be proposed without the needing of any other chemicals, thermal or purification process, or pH adjustments, as a dye for natural sensitized solar cells.

  9. Cultural differences in sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts: evidence from P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Umla-Runge, Katja; Hofmann, Juliane; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-06-18

    Cross-cultural differences in Easterners and Westerners have been observed in different cognitive domains. Differential sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts might be an underlying cognitive mechanism for these differences. Twenty-one Chinese and 22 Germans participated in a three-stimulus event-related potential oddball task. They were instructed to monitor geometrical forms filled in black (targets) that were presented among a series of blank geometrical forms (standards). Novel stimuli were colored images of common objects. Robust novelty P3 and target P3 over the entire scalp were observed in both groups. As compared with the German group, Chinese participants showed larger amplitudes of novelty P3 and target P3 over frontal regions and earlier peak latency for target P3. This indicates a higher sensitivity to the relationship between contexts and objects in the Chinese as compared with the German group, which might be an underlying mechanism for cross-cultural differences reported in many cognitive domains.

  10. How commercial and ``violent'' video games can promote culturally sensitive science learning: some questions and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-12-01

    In their paper, Muñoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Muñoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3® precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and violent representations of gender, race, class, nationality, science and technology. However, there are many questions that arise in bringing these commercial video games into science classrooms, including the questions of how students' capacities for critical reflection can be facilitated, whether traditional science teachers can take on the role of using such games in their classrooms, and which video games would be most appropriate to use. In this response, I raise these questions and consider some of the challenges in order to further the possibility of implementing Muñoz and El-Hani's creative proposal for generating culturally sensitive science classrooms.

  11. Impact of error management culture on knowledge performance in professional service firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Scheel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is the most crucial resource of the 21st century. For professional service firms (PSFs, knowledge represents the input as well as the output, and thus the fundamental base for performance. As every organization, PSFs have to deal with errors – and how they do that indicates their error culture. Considering the positive potential of errors (e.g., innovation, error management culture is positively related to organizational performance. This longitudinal quantitative study investigates the impact of error management culture on knowledge performance in four waves. The study was conducted in 131 PSFs, i.e. tax accounting offices. As a standard quality management system (QMS was assumed to moderate the relationship between error management culture and knowledge performance, offices' ISO 9000 certification was assessed. Error management culture correlated positively with knowledge performance at a significant level and predicted knowledge performance one year later. While the ISO 9000 certification correlated positively with knowledge performance, its assumed moderation of the relationship between error management culture and knowledge performance was not consistent. The process-oriented QMS seems to function as facilitator for the more behavior-oriented error management culture. However, the benefit of ISO 9000 certification for tax accounting remains to be proven. Given the impact of error management culture on knowledge performance, PSFs should focus on actively promoting positive attitudes towards errors.

  12. Barriers to accessing the culturally sensitive healthcare that could decrease the disabling effects of arthritis in a rural Mayan community: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Wilkins, Seanne; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris

    2016-05-01

    The impact of living with arthritis in a rural Mexican Mayan community along with the barriers encountered by people living with this chronic condition were investigated in this study. The community needs around this health issue were investigated by conducting an ethnographic study using data obtained during two time periods (August 2012-April 2013 and December 2013-December 2014). During the first period, fieldwork observations and interviews with 65 individuals, which included people with arthritis, health professionals, traditional health providers, and community leaders were undertaken. During the second period, 46 community meetings were conducted to identify the needs associated with arthritis in the municipality. Data were analyzed following a modified version of the Framework approach. The results show that arthritis reduces the health-related quality of life of the people in Chankom through a process of disablement, conditioning a need to access culturally sensitive healthcare. Availability, attainability, and acceptability barriers prevent access to this type of healthcare and result from power imbalance between indigenous and non-indigenous people. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive rehabilitation services for people living with arthritis in Chankom. Mayan people should be involved in the design and implementation of these services. Moreover, it is important to improve our understanding of the processes behind the healthcare access inequities identified in this study by attending to the historical generation of current social, economical, cultural, and political structures.

  13. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  14. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: an exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrey, K L; Amason, P

    2001-01-01

    Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication.

  15. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Baldwin M; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature-nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism-collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism-collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences.

  16. 77 FR 11571 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest...; and Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service... Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in...

  17. Discrimination of skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers by interleukin-1α and interleukin-6 production on cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chun, Young-Jin; Heo, Yong; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2016-09-01

    In vitro testing methods for classifying sensitizers could be valuable alternatives to in vivo sensitization testing using animal models, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GMT), but there remains a need for in vitro methods that are more accurate and simpler to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Thus, the aim of our study was to establish an in vitro assay as a screening tool for detecting skin sensitizers using the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. HaCaT cells were exposed to 16 relevant skin sensitizers and 6 skin non-sensitizers. The highest dose used was the dose causing 75% cell viability (CV75) that we determined by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The levels of extracellular production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6 were measured. The sensitivity of IL-1α was 63%, specificity was 83% and accuracy was 68%. In the case of IL-6, sensitivity: 69%, specificity: 83% and accuracy: 73%. Thus, this study suggests that measuring extracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 by human HaCaT cells may potentially classify skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Creating an improvement culture for enhanced patient safety: service improvement learning in pre-registration education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Angela; Robson, Linda; Griffith-Evans, Christine

    2010-10-01

    The present study reports a descriptive survey of nursing students' experience of service improvement learning in the university and practice setting. Opportunities to develop service improvement capabilities were embedded into pre-registration programmes at a university in the Northwest of England to ensure future nurses have key skills for the workplace. A cross-sectional survey designed to capture key aspects of students' experience was completed by nursing students (n = 148) who had undertaken a service improvement project in the practice setting. Work organizations in which a service improvement project was undertaken were receptive to students' efforts. Students reported increased confidence to undertake service improvement and service improvement capabilities were perceived to be important to future career development and employment prospects. Service improvement learning in pre-registration education appears to be acceptable, effective and valued by students. Further research to identify the impact upon future professional practice and patient outcomes would enhance understanding of this developing area. Nurse Managers can play an active role in creating a service culture in which innovation and improvement can flourish to enhance patient outcomes, experience and safety. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Using social media photos to explore the relation between cultural ecosystem services and landscape features across five European sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Martín-López, Berta; Fagerholm, Nora

    2017-01-01

    (in Estonia, Greece, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland). We have performed a content analysis of 1.404 photos uploaded in Flickr and Panoramio platforms that can represent cultural ecosystem services. Four bundles of landscapes features and cultural ecosystem services showed the relation of recreation......Cultural ecosystem services, such as aesthetic and recreational enjoyment, as well as sense of place and local identity, play an outstanding role in the contribution of landscapes to human well-being. Online data shared on social networks, particularly geo-tagged photos, are becoming...... an increasingly attractive source of information about cultural ecosystem services. Landscape photographs tell about the significance of human relationships with landscapes, human practices in landscapes and the landscape features that might possess value in terms of cultural ecosystem services. Despite all...

  20. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  1. HEALTH WORKERS' PERCEPTIONON THE QUALITY OF SERVICE AND CORPORATE CULTURE OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Etukumana Etiobong; Bassey, Orie Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Quality of service delivery remains the most important issue in hospitals since patients expect higher standard care and services. This quality service is rooted in the culture of the health care organization. Therefore,this study seeks to determine health workers' perception on the quality of service and corporate culture at University of Uyo Teaching hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. Using structured questionnaire and convenient sampling technique, data were collected from 250 hospital workers.The responses on questions to elicit the hospital's quality of service and corporate culture were rated on a five-point Likert Scale as follows; Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral(N), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). Data entry and analysis were performed using Epi Info 3.2.2 (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA). The minimum and maximum ages of the respondents were 21 years and 60 years respectively. The mean, median and mode ages in the respondents were 34.6 (± 7.88) years, 33 years, and 30 years respectively. Majority of the study respondents were in the age group of 31-40 years (30%), female (56.8%) and Doctors (36%). The respondents' positive perception on quality of service offered by the hospital was 69.2% (OR 5.05, 95% CI 3.39-7.52, P quality services as obtained in other hospitals. Majority of the workers in all the professions except Medical Doctors accepted that the hospital values the individual workers. Majority of the Pharmacists and Non-clinical staff accepted that the hospital management was flexible and understands the importance of balancing their work and personal life. Majority of the Doctors, Pharmacists and laboratory/image scientists did not accept that top management communicates changes in decisions that affect employees. The perception of health workers on the quality of service rendered by the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital was satisfactory. However, the hospital needs to improve on its

  2. It is more than sex and clothes: Culturally safe services for older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Pauline; Barrett, Catherine; Latham, J R; Whyte, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    This paper outlines the development of culturally safe services for older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people. It draws on a framework for cultural safety, developed in New Zealand which incorporates an understanding of how history, culture and power imbalances influence the relationship between service providers and Maori people. This has been adapted to the needs of older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex Australians.

  3. Evaluation on Sensitivity of the Human Sperm Motility Assay for Detecting Endotoxin in Culture Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-jie ZHU; Jing LI; Wen-hong ZHANG; Kang-shou YAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sensitivity of the human sperm motility assay for detecting endotoxin in culture medium Materials & Methods Motile sperm were separated and exposed to different concentrations of endotoxin (0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, 1 000 ng/mL, 10 000 ng/mL, and 50 000 ng/mL), and sperm motility was determined after incubation. Effects of endotoxin on sperm motility in media without albumin were also examined. In addition, at the same concentrations of endotoxin (0.5 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL, and 10 ng/mL), the sensitivity of the human sperm motility assay was compared to those of 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryo bioassays.Results At levels of 0.5 ng/mL~1 000 ng/mL endotoxin in media with 2 mg/mL albumin, sperm did not show significant change in motility during 24 h of incubation when compared with the control (P>0.05). However, the sperm motility was significantly inhibited at endotoxin dosages of 10 000 and 50 000 ng/mL. In the absence of albumin supplementation, at endotoxin levels of 50 000 ng/mL, and 1 000 ng/mL, there was a marked decrease in sperm motility compared with the control after 2 h or 8 h of incubation, respectively (P<0.01). In media containing 0.5 ng/mL and 1 ng/mL endotoxin, 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryos had significantly reduced developmental rates in all developmental stages, and at the level of 10 ng/mL, the development of the embryos was arrested.Conclusion The human sperm motility assay could detect high levels of endotoxin in culture medium but its sensitivity to endotoxin would be inferior to that of the 1-cell or 2-cell mouse embryo bioassay. In the absence of albumin supplementation, the sensitivity of the sperm motility assay could be improved.

  4. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    .... 3005, of the intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the Natural History Museum of Los... this notice. ] History and Description of the Cultural Items In 1926, three unassociated funerary... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  5. URGENCY CULTURAL AWARENESS SKILLS OF COUNSELORS IN IMPLEMENTING THE SERVICE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING FOR DEALING ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (AEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galang Surya Gumilang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Humans live in this world depends on culture. Culture greatly affect every aspect of human life that occurred as a whole according to the demands and needs. Human activity ranging from waking to sleep again did not escape the influence of culture. Culture is indeed long life for each event experienced by humans is closely related to culture. For example, as socialize with other people very concerned with culture because every human being has their cultural awareness. Just as a counselor when faced counselee when giving guidance and counseling services. The counselor must have the cultural awareness in the face of the counselee for bringing the essence of each culture. In providing guidance and counseling services, counselors need to pay attention to cultural awareness of being able to bring counselees to understand the psychological characteristics such as intelligence (intelligence, emotional, and spiritual, aptitude, attitude, motivation, and others. Counselors in Indonesia are still not paying attention because of cultural awareness in the provision of guidance and counseling services helped form a new behavior and to determine the success of the counseling process. Keywords: cultural counselor, guidance and counseling services, the ASEAN economic community

  6. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Lawrence F.; Young, Clifford E.; Lee, Moonkyu

    2002-01-01

    This study compares US and Korean customers in terms of their perceptions of airline service quality based on SERVPERF and industry-based measures, as well as their perceptions of risks involved in the airline choice. SERVPERF is a set of multi-dimensional measures of customer evaluations of service quality. The results indicate that: (1) US passengers are generally more satisfied with their airline service than Korean customers on most of the SERVPERF dimensions; (2) Koreans are generally more satisfied with the bumping procedures whereas US participants feel more satisfied with the airline's baggage handling, operations/safety, and connections; and (3) US participants perceive higher levels of performance and financial risks whereas Koreans feel greater social risk in choosing an airline. This study also examines the SERVPERF, industry-based measure, and perceived risk in predicting customer satisfaction with, and intention to repatronize the airline. The results suggest that US customers consider service reliability, in-flight comfort, and connections as the key factors determining satisfaction with airline service whereas Korean passengers generally regard reliability, assurance, and risk factors as predictors of satisfaction. The determining factors of customer intention to repatronize the airline are reliability and empathy for US, and reliability and overall risk for Korean customers. The study demonstrates the applicability of SERVPERF as a cross-cultural tool and indicates the importance of perceived risk in cross-cultural studies.

  7. A Sensitive Competitive ELISA for Determination of Biotin in Transformed Yeast Culture Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHong

    2003-01-01

    Aim To develop a sensitive competitive ELISA for the determination of biotin in transformed yeast culture media.Methods The ELISA plate was firstly coated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and then successively incubated with rabbit ami-Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae serum and goat anti-rabbit IgG-biotin to form the solid biotin, which competed with the biotin in the solution (standard or sample) for the limited streptavidin-horse radish peroxidase conjugate. The standard calibration curve for biotin analysis was constructed in the range of 50-2000ng·L-1. Results The detection limit for biotin was found to be 83 ng·L-1 , which waa about 1000 times lower than the lowest determination concenlration in the reported ELISA for biotin analysis. The relative standard deviations for the spiked samples at biotin concerarations of 200 ng·L-1, 500 ng·L-1 , and 1000 ng·L-1 were 24.87%, 6.15%, and 7.86%, respectively, with the average recovery of 101.13%. The wild yeast and its sixty-three transformed yeast culture media were applied to the developed ELISA for the determination of biotin. It was found that the biotin concentrations in more than 85 % of the tested samples were enhanced with different increase factors after transformation. Conclusion Utilization of Mycoplasma hyopnetunoniae as the coating protein improves the precision and accmacy oftbe ELISA assay, which might be used for the biotin assay in other media.

  8. Development and Validation of Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined qualitative approaches with quantitative research design to come up with a survey instrument called Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES.This survey instrument is intended to extract the learners’ beliefs and expectations on the integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts. Significant contribution of the instrument can be traced to establishing and defining the constructs and categories on how curriculum localization and context-based science learning can be developed aligned with students’ expectations and beliefs. The development process employed non-conventional processes adopted from literature which included pilot study to identify pre-deterministic constructs and specific categories for the items to be included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and factor analysis to establish the categories or constructs of the survey instruments. Reliability measures of the instrument and its respective constructs were established for standardization. These categories were intended to aid researchers for an in-depth analysis when the instrument is administered for its purpose. The raw statistical categories were qualitatively paralleled with the pre-deterministic constructs to establish congruence of the survey tool to Instructional Congruence Framework (ICF.

  9. NRSF causes cAMP-sensitive suppression of sodium current in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, H.; Lester, H. A.

    2002-01-01

    The neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF/REST) has been shown to bind to the promoters of many neuron-specific genes and is able to suppress transcription of Na(+) channels in PC12 cells, although its functional effect in terminally differentiated neurons is unknown. We constructed lentiviral vectors to express NRSF as a bicistronic message with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and followed infected hippocampal neurons in culture over a period of 1-2 wk. NRSF-expressing neurons showed a time-dependent suppression of Na(+) channel function as measured by whole cell electrophysiology. Suppression was reversed or prevented by the addition of membrane-permeable cAMP analogues and enhanced by cAMP antagonists but not affected by increasing protein expression with a viral enhancer. Secondary effects, including altered sensitivity to glutamate and GABA and reduced outward K(+) currents, were duplicated by culturing GFP-infected control neurons in TTX. The striking similarity of the phenotypes makes NRSF potentially useful as a genetic "silencer" and also suggests avenues of further exploration that may elucidate the transcription factor's in vivo role in neuronal plasticity.

  10. Interdisciplinary Service-Learning: Building Student Competencies through the Cross-Cultural Parent Groups Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Belliveau

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Changing demographics and an emphasis on competency-based social work education call for innovative approaches to the delivery of curricular content. In an effort to introduce BSW students to the socio-political issues facing the local Latino immigrant community, a service-learning project was developed in collaboration with the Spanish Language Department and a local middle school. An analysis of outcomes from social work student evaluations showed that students engaged with the community and issues in new and unexpected ways. Through their engagement in a cross-cultural group project, students developed greater cultural competency, honed their group practice skills in an unfamiliar context, provided a needed service to the community, and raised their awareness about the working conditions of new immigrants as part of a developing framework for social action. Details and implications of the project as a means to build student competencies are described.

  11. Isolates and antibiotic sensitivity of eighty culture-proven endophthalmitis cases from Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Ilker; Kapran, Ziya; Altan, Tugrul; Ozel Karatas, Meltem; Aydin, Derya; Okaygun, Eda; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the spectrum of organisms causing endophthalmitis and their sensitivity to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Medical records of 80 consecutive patients treated at Beyoglu Eye Hospital for endophthalmitis from January 2001 to April 2006 were reviewed. Specimens were obtained from either the vitreous (93%, 81/87) or anterior chamber (7%, 6/87) during pars plana vitrectomy or vitreous tap, and were inoculated into blood culture bottles. A Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test was performed to determine antibiotic susceptibility. The outcome measures included isolates identified and antibiotic sensitivity of the specimens. Fifty-six of 87 (64.4%) isolates were Gram-positive organisms, 29 (33.3%) were Gram-negative organisms, and 2 (2.3%) were fungi. The most common organism group identified was coagulase-negative staphylococci in 26.4% (23/87). While vancomycin was active against all Gram-positive isolates tested (100%), ceftazidime had the highest susceptibility rate (100%) for Gram-negative organisms isolated. Although coagulase-negative micrococci predominated in this series, a high isolation rate for Gram-negative organisms was obtained. High susceptibility rates for ofloxacin make it an alternative to ceftazidime and vancomycin in both Gram-negative- and Gram-positive-derived endophthalmitis, respectively. Studies with larger series and additional antibiotics are needed to confirm these findings. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Overseas-trained doctors in Indigenous rural health services: negotiating professional relationships across cultural domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Hill, Peter; Arkles, Rachelle; Gilles, Marisa; Peterson, Katia; Wearne, Susan; Canuto, Condy; Pulver, Lisa Jackson

    2008-12-01

    To examine how OTDs and staff in rural and remote Indigenous health contexts communicate and negotiate identity and relationships, and consider how this may influence OTDs' transition, integration and retention. Ten case studies were conducted in rural and remote settings across Australia, each of an OTD providing primary care in a substantially Indigenous practice population, his/her partner, co-workers and Indigenous board members associated with the health service. Cases were purposefully sampled to ensure diversity in gender, location and country of origin. Identity as 'fluid' emerged as a key theme in effective communication and building good relationships between OTDs and Indigenous staff. OTDs enter a social space where their own cultural and professional beliefs and practices intersect with the expectations of culturally safe practice shaped by the Australian Indigenous context. These are negotiated through differences in language, role expectation, practice, status and identification with locus with uncertain outcomes. Limited professional and cultural support often impeded this process. The reconstruction of OTDs' identities and mediating beyond predictable barriers to cultural engagement contributes significantly not only to OTDs' integration and, to a lesser extent, their retention, but also to maximising effective communication across cultural domains. Retention of OTDs working in Indigenous health contexts rests on a combination of OTDs' capacity to adapt culturally and professionally to this complex environment, and of effective strategies to support them.

  13. Potential interactions of calcium-sensitive reagents with zinc ion in different cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Koichi; Fukumori, Ryo; Nakamura, Saki; Kutsukake, Takaya; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been widely used to evaluate the involvement of free Ca(2+) in mechanisms underlying a variety of biological responses for decades. Here, we report high reactivity to zinc of well-known Ca(2+)-sensitive reagents in diverse cultured cells. In rat astrocytic C6 glioma cells loaded with the fluorescent Ca(2+) dye Fluo-3, the addition of ZnCl2 gradually increased the fluorescence intensity in a manner sensitive to the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA irrespective of added CaCl2. The addition of the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 drastically increased Fluo-3 fluorescence in the absence of ZnCl2, while the addition of the Zn(2+) ionophore pyrithione rapidly and additionally increased the fluorescence in the presence of ZnCl2, but not in its absence. In cells loaded with the zinc dye FluoZin-3 along with Fluo-3, a similarly gradual increase was seen in the fluorescence of Fluo-3, but not of FluoZin-3, in the presence of both CaCl2 and ZnCl2. Further addition of pyrithione drastically increased the fluorescence intensity of both dyes, while the addition of the Zn(2+) chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) rapidly and drastically decreased FluoZin-3 fluorescence. In cells loaded with FluoZin-3 alone, the addition of ZnCl2 induced a gradual increase in the fluorescence in a fashion independent of added CaCl2 but sensitive to EGTA. Significant inhibition was found in the vitality to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide in a manner sensitive to TPEN, EDTA and BAPTA in C6 glioma cells exposed to ZnCl2, with pyrithione accelerating the inhibition. Similar inhibition occurred in an EGTA-sensitive fashion after brief exposure to ZnCl2 in pluripotent P19 cells, neuronal Neuro2A cells and microglial BV2 cells, which all expressed mRNA for particular zinc transporters. Taken together, comprehensive analysis is absolutely required for the demonstration of a variety of physiological and pathological responses

  14. The importance of ecosystem services for rural inhabitants in a changing cultural landscape in Romania

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    Tibor Hartel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional cultural landscapes evolved as coupled social-ecological systems. It is important to understand how such systems navigate novel challenges posed by globalization. To address this issue, we bring together two components of a pilot study carried out in a cultural landscape from Central Romania. The region was affected by major social and economic perturbations in the past century, affecting ethnic composition, community cohesion, land property regimes, and the management of common resources. The first component of our study investigated how rural inhabitants appreciated ecosystem services through questionnaires with 98 people in 30 villages. The second component aimed to assess the perception of people about ongoing changes in their communities through semistructured interviews with 50 people in 5 villages. Rural inhabitants particularly valued provisioning ecosystem services such as firewood, water, and crops, but also healthy soils. Rural communities were characterized by a number of social and economic issues, especially individualism, lack of trust, corruption, and poverty. People from communities with many initiatives, e.g., NGOs, associations, and active individuals, were more optimistic regarding the future of their communities than people from villages with few or no initiatives. A major challenge for cultural landscapes such as those in Central Romania is to find new, meaningful ways to keep the social and ecological systems connected. Otherwise there is a risk that (short-term socioeconomic interests may impair the provisioning of important ecosystem services.

  15. [Patient safety culture in directors and managers of a health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Júlvez, Teresa; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Aibar-Remón, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cía, Isabel; Febrel-Bordejé, Mercedes

    To assess patient safety culture in directors/managers. Cross-sectional descriptive study carried out from February to June 2011 among the executive/managing staff of the Aragón Health Service through semi-structured interviews. A total of 12 interviews were carried out. All the respondents admitted that there were many patient safety problems and agreed that patient safety was a priority from a theoretical rather than practical perspective. The excessive changes in executive positions was considered to be an important barrier which made it difficult to establish long-term strategies and achieve medium-term continuity. This study recorded perceptions on patient safety culture in directors, an essential factor to improve patient safety culture in this group and in the organisations they run. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

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    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  17. Avoiding "culture rejection" in healthcare mergers and acquisitions: how New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services minimized the culture risk when forming Unison Health and Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Among the requirements for a successful merger or acquisition are strategic rationale, rigorous due diligence, the right price and revenue and cost synergies. However, bridging the culture gap between organizations is frequently overlooked. The leaders of New Heights Community Health Centres and York Community Services explicitly considered culture in their merger to form Unison Health and Community Services, and they used employee engagement surveys to assess culture in their merger planning and post-merger integration. How Unison Health leaders avoided the risk of culture rejection to achieve a successful merger, and the lessons learned from their experience, is the focus of this article.

  18. RELATIONSHIP AMONG E-SERVICE QUALITY, CULTURE, ATTITUDE, TRUST, RISK OF ONLINE SHOPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purchasing is considered a risky business specifically in the online purchasing environment. The research was designed to fill the gap in the existing body of knowledge regarding attitudes and differences in electronic service quality perception between two different geographical and cultural countries-Malaysia and Saudi Arabia-regarding online shopping. Specifically, this research extended previous effort done in an online shopping context by providing evidence that high service quality increase consumers’ trust perception, which in turn results in favorable attitude toward online shopping, with risk perception on consumer’s trust. Findings indicated differences between Saudis and Malaysians in e-service quality perception. Also attitude toward online shopping was affected by e-service quality perception, but it had mediated effects through trust. Finally, researcher found that perceived risk moderated the relationship between e-service quality and trust. The findings provide practical suggestions for managers on how to develop consumer trust online and enhance purchase attitude even when customers have high risk perception. E-service quality should strongly influence trust for individuals with a higher perceived risk associated with online purchase in comparison to those with a lower perceived risk.

  19. The Organization Culture In The Public Service At The Regional Secretariat Of Samarinda City

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    Anwar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research to analyzing the process of the management of internal integration in an effort to improve public services in the secretariat of the city .In the research results seen that there are culture of bubuhan familial in the management of internal integration in the secretariat of the city of samarinda through a the creation of a language together and conceptual categories in b the distribution of power and status c establishment norms closeness of a working relationship peers and d the application of the award and punishment. In addition to want to answer a desire as well as the need for public service excellence service unit to improve integrated permit handling UPT integrated permit handling services agency one gate BPPTSP capital city of samarinda . In the management of internal integration process in cultural organization that takes the conceptculture of bubuhan must be planned carefully and without prejudice to the rules of law applicable because if not handled wisely can be counter-productive with the vision and mission of Samarinda Government because it can cause a client patron relations which can actually inhibit the organization in achieving its vision and mission.

  20. Acceptance and Quality Perceptions of Social Network Services in Cultural Context: Vkontakte as a Case Study

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    Katsiaryna S. Baran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of network economics, as well as other information services, a social network service (SNS has two chances–either it gains acceptance ("success breeds success" and will become standard or it slowly dies. Nowadays, Facebook is the standard in the social network world, however, not in Russia's and the neighboring countries' social network communities. Here, Vkontakte, the domestic SNS, dominates. What are the reasons for this success of the regional SNS and the failure of the global giant? We answer this research question while we empirically studied both SNSs, Facebook as well as Vkontakte, among Russian users. In the evaluation, based on the Information Service Evaluation (ISE Model, we found out that Vkontakte is perceived as more useful than Facebook, is much more trustworthy, and more enjoyable to use. The cultural environment of the Russian community plays an important role as well.

  1. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism.

  2. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

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    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  3. Assessing services with communicatively impaired bilingual adults in culturally and linguistically diverse neurorehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José G

    2015-01-01

    The combined effect of the steady increase in cultural and linguistic diversity and epidemiological factors in minority populations is estimated to continue having an impact on adult neurorehabilitation programs in the country, particularly in the number of bilingual individuals receiving clinical services. No comprehensive assessment of the present professional and clinical realities in service delivery to communicatively impaired adults in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) neurorehabilitation contexts has been conducted. The current survey research was undertaken to examine current professional training, clinical practices, and challenges in the services rendered to the steadily increasing numbers of communicatively disordered adults in CLD neurorehabilitation programs with a special focus on bilingual persons. A 36-question, 6-section survey was administered to health care-based SLPs working with adults to examine multiple factors regarding work setting and caseload, professional training, clinical tools and procedures, service delivery issues, and suggestions to improve clinical work with bilingual adults in CLD neurorehabilitation environments. Results support that SLPs presently make sensible decisions to serve communicatively disordered bilingual adults with neuropathologies despite training gaps and scant clinical resources. Responses additionally highlight critical areas to improve professional preparation and available resources. Results are discussed in terms of strengths and weaknesses as well as their implications to professional education and target research areas in order to minimize present gaps in service delivery with bilingual speakers in CLD adult neurorehabilitation programs. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) Discuss the demographic and epidemiological factors that suggest a continued increase in the number of communicatively impaired bilingual adults in CLD neurorehabilitation programs. (2) Describe

  4. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

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    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture

  5. The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Innovative Work Behavior for Sports Services in Tourism Enterprises

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    Eskiler Ersin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The innovative behavior of individuals in the workplace is the foundation of any high-performance organization, and thus a study on the factors that motivate or enable individuals’ innovative behavior is critical (Scott, & Bruce, 1994. Therefore, the aim of this research was to find the relationship between organizational culture and innovative work behavior (IWB in tourism enterprises that market sports services. Considering the fact that IWB is crucial for tourism enterprises, exploring the factors that influence IWB could be beneficial. Correlation analysis revealed that IWB was found to be significantly correlating with cooperativeness (r=0.442, p<0.05, innovativeness (r=0.510, p<0.05, consistency (r=0.522, p<0.05, and effectiveness (r=0.554, p<0.05. Additionally, stepwise regression analysis, which was conducted to discover whether organizational culture predicts IWB, showed a significant model: F(2-131=33.775, p<0.05. The model explained 33% of the variance in IWB (Adjusted R2=0.33. In general, our findings suggest that there is a relationship between organizational culture and IWB and that organizational culture significantly predicts IWB. As IWB is crucial for the enhanced performance and success of any organization, organizational culture should be organized in order to encourage employees in terms of IWB.

  6. Testing socio-cultural valuation methods of ecosystem services to explain land use preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katja; Walz, Ariane; Martín-López, Berta; Sachse, René

    2017-08-01

    Socio-cultural valuation still emerges as a methodological field in ecosystem service (ES) research and until now lacks consistent formalisation and balanced application in ES assessments. In this study, we examine the explanatory value of ES values for land use preferences. We use 563 responses to a survey about the Pentland Hills regional park in Scotland. Specifically, we aim to (1) identify clusters of land use preferences by using a novel visualisation tool, (2) test if socio-cultural values of ESs or (3) user characteristics are linked with land use preferences, and (4) determine whether both socio-cultural values of ESs and user characteristics can predict land use preferences. Our results suggest that there are five groups of people with different land use preferences, ranging from forest and nature enthusiasts to traditionalists, multi-functionalists and recreation seekers. Rating and weighting of ESs and user characteristics were associated with different clusters. Neither socio-cultural values nor user characteristics were suitable predictors for land use preferences. While several studies have explored land use preferences by identifying socio-cultural values in the past, our findings imply that in this case study ES values inform about general perceptions but do not replace the assessment of land use preferences.

  7. Investigating the Reliability and Validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) against Chinese Cultural Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涵; Salasiah Che Lah

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC), as one of the research ifelds of intercultural communication, has been given much importance from scholars all around the world. Intercultural sensitivity is one of the three dimensions in Dr Chen’s ICC model. This research investigates the reliability and validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) (2000) against Chinese cultural background by using Chinese university students majoring in English as respondents.

  8. Maternity care services and culture: a systematic global mapping of interventions.

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    Ernestina Coast

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of global research shows that cultural factors affect the use of skilled maternity care services in diverse contexts. While interventions have sought to address this issue, the literature on these efforts has not been synthesised. This paper presents a systematic mapping of interventions that have been implemented to address cultural factors that affect women's use of skilled maternity care. It identifies and develops a map of the literature; describes the range of interventions, types of literature and study designs; and identifies knowledge gaps. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Searches conducted systematically in ten electronic databases and two websites for literature published between 01/01/1990 and 28/02/2013 were combined with expert-recommended references. Potentially eligible literature included journal articles and grey literature published in English, French or Spanish. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 96 items in the final map. Data extracted from the full text documents are presented in tables and a narrative synthesis. The results show that a diverse range of interventions has been implemented in 35 countries to address cultural factors that affect the use of skilled maternity care. Items are classified as follows: (1 service delivery models; (2 service provider interventions; (3 health education interventions; (4 participatory approaches; and (5 mental health interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The map provides a rich source of information on interventions attempted in diverse settings that might have relevance elsewhere. A range of literature was identified, from narrative descriptions of interventions to studies using randomised controlled trials to evaluate impact. Only 23 items describe studies that aim to measure intervention impact through the use of experimental or observational-analytic designs. Based on the findings, we identify avenues for further research in order to better

  9. Multi-service highly sensitive rectifier for enhanced RF energy scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Negin; Rowe, Wayne S T; Scott, James R; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2015-05-07

    Due to the growing implications of energy costs and carbon footprints, the need to adopt inexpensive, green energy harvesting strategies are of paramount importance for the long-term conservation of the environment and the global economy. To address this, the feasibility of harvesting low power density ambient RF energy simultaneously from multiple sources is examined. A high efficiency multi-resonant rectifier is proposed, which operates at two frequency bands (478-496 and 852-869 MHz) and exhibits favorable impedance matching over a broad input power range (-40 to -10 dBm). Simulation and experimental results of input reflection coefficient and rectified output power are in excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of this innovative low-power rectification technique. Measurement results indicate an effective efficiency of 54.3%, and an output DC voltage of 772.8 mV is achieved for a multi-tone input power of -10 dBm. Furthermore, the measured output DC power from harvesting RF energy from multiple services concurrently exhibits a 3.14 and 7.24 fold increase over single frequency rectification at 490 and 860 MHz respectively. Therefore, the proposed multi-service highly sensitive rectifier is a promising technique for providing a sustainable energy source for low power applications in urban environments.

  10. Sr/Ca Sensitivity to Aragonite Saturation in Cultured Coral Measured by NanoSIMS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; Adkins, J. F.; Erez, J.

    2010-12-01

    NanoSIMS was used to identify and com¬positionally characterize the micron scale region of skeletal growth resulting from a short coral culture experiment. Using this technique we quantify the sensitivity of Sr/Ca, a proxy for temperature, to aragonite saturation (Ω), a parameter that varied in the past ocean and is predicted to change with continued ocean acidification. Five adult branches of the surface coral Stylophora sp. were all grown at 25 °C but at different and near constant carbonate ion concentrations, from 180 to 400 µM (pH of 7.9 to 8.5), yielding a two-fold range in calcification rate. Despite the range of Ωs and calcification rates, the average Sr/Ca of nanoSIMS spot measurements corresponding to each condition are within 1.2% (2σ std. dev. of the 5 means). Furthermore, the average Sr/Ca measured in this study agrees with two previous coral culture experiments conducted at the same temperature but where Ω was not controlled. These results suggest carbonate ion concentration is not a complicating factor to Sr/Ca paleothermometry over this range of Ω. Within the framework of a closed system (Rayleigh) model for biomineralization, similar Sr/Ca ratios suggest similar amounts of Rayleigh fractionation. Combined with existing data for low Ω conditions, the extent of Rayleigh fractionation is used to test alternative biomineralization models governing the acid-base chemistry of the calcifying fluid. Assuming that coral use alkalinity pumping to increase local calcifying fluid carbonate ion concentration, we try to understand what controls this pumping. Under most conditions, Sr/Ca ratios are consistent with a scenario where calcifying fluid alkalinity increases until reaching a target pH. However, under conditions of very low seawater Ω, coral cannot pump enough alkalinity to reach the target pH. Below this threshold value, between approximately 1<Ω<2.4, coral pump a maximal and finite amount of alkalinity. The interaction between these rules

  11. A Retrospective Evaluation of Critical Care Blood Culture Yield - Do Support Services Contribute to the "Weekend Effect"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Ben; Nagaraja, Shankara; Collins, Andrea; Pennington, Shaun H; Blakey, John D

    2015-01-01

    The "weekend effect" describes an increase in adverse outcomes for patients admitted at the weekend. Critical care units have moved to higher intensity working patterns to address this with some improved outcomes. However, support services have persisted with traditional working patterns. Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool for patients with sepsis but yield is dependent on sampling technique and processing. We therefore used blood culture yield as a surrogate for the quality of support service provision. We hypothesized that blood culture yields would be lower over the weekend as a consequence of reduced support services. We performed a retrospective observational study examining 1575 blood culture samples in a university hospital critical care unit over a one-year period. Patients with positive cultures had, on average, higher APACHE II scores (p = 0.015), longer durations of stay (p = 0.03), required more renal replacement therapy (pculture yield decreased with repeated sampling with an increased proportion of contaminants. Blood cultures were 26.7% less likely to be positive if taken at the weekend (p = 0.0402). This effect size is the equivalent to the impact of sampling before and after antibiotic administration. Our study demonstrates that blood culture yield is lower at the weekend. This is likely caused by delays or errors in incubation and processing, reflecting the reduced provision of support services at the weekend. Reorganization of services to address the "weekend effect" should acknowledge the interdependent nature of healthcare service delivery.

  12. Development of Cross-cultural Sensitivity in Business Courses: The Culturelog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr-Glass, David

    1995-01-01

    Foreign students in a business administration and marketing program in Israel are required to keep a journal noting observations of cultural differences and examine them in relation to their own cultures and the Israeli culture. Non-Americans also note cross-cultural concepts raised by their American textbooks. The log helps students perceive,…

  13. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF CULTURAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES ENERATION AND INTAKE USING ONE HUNDRED WAKA POEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takanori; Ikeno, Yuko

    It is needed to evaluate ecosystem services in order to make appropriate decision for ecosystem management. In this background the purpose of this study is to analyze structural processes of human enjoying culture-related ecosystem services. As a database including processes of enjoying cultural ecosystem services, "one hundred waka poems" was selected and coded from the context of symbiotic systems conce pts. To the dataset SOM (self organizational map) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering method, which were kinds of data mining method, were conducted. As the result, seven structures as design knowledge of cultural ecosystem services generation and in take, and for detail, (1) cultural ecosystem services are based on the visual contact to environmental objects, (2) there is a possibility of interaction between ecosystems, climate conditions, weather phenomena and activity modes of human system under the process of generating and taking cultural ecosystem services, and (3) it is possible that not only the presence of ecosystem but also products made of natural resources generate cultural ecosystem services.

  14. Different sensitivities of cultured mammalian cells towards aphidicolin-enhanced DNA effects in the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter; Schütz, Petra; Bausinger, Julia

    2016-06-01

    The comet assay in combination with the polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin (APC) has been used to measure DNA excision repair activity, DNA repair kinetics and individual DNA repair capacity. Since APC can enhance genotoxic effects of mutagens measured by the comet assay, this approach has been proposed for increasing the sensitivity of the comet assay in human biomonitoring. The APC-modified comet assay has mainly been performed with human blood and it was shown that it not only enhances the detection of DNA damage repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) but also damage typically repaired by base excision repair (BER). Recently, we reported that in contrast to blood leukocytes, A549 cells (a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) seem to be insensitive towards the repair-inhibiting action of APC. To further elucidate the general usefulness of the APC-modified comet assay for studying repair in cultured mammalian cells, we comparatively investigated further cell lines (HeLa, TK6, V79). DNA damage was induced by BPDE (benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide) and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) in the absence and presence of APC (3 or 15μM). APC was either added for 2h together with the mutagen or cells were pre-incubated for 30min with APC before the mutagen was added. The results indicate that the cell lines tested differ fundamentally with regard to their sensitivity and specificity towards the repair-inhibiting effect of APC. The actual cause for these differences is still unclear but potential molecular explanations are discussed. Irrespective of the underlying mechanism(s), our study revealed practical limitations of the use of the APC-modified comet assay.

  15. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  16. Investigating patient safety culture across a health system: multilevel modelling of differences associated with service types and staff demographics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego, Blanca; Westbrook, Mary T; Dunn, Adam G; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    To use multilevel modelling to compare the patient safety cultures of types of services across a health system and to determine whether differences found can be accounted for by staffs' professions...

  17. Exploring EFL Pre-Service Teachers' Experience with Cultural Content and Intercultural Communicative Competence at Three Colombian Universities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alba Olaya; Luis Fernando Gómez

    2013-01-01

      This article reports the findings of a qualitative research project that explored pre-service English teachers' perceptions of and attitudes toward the aspects of culture and intercultural competence...

  18. The appearance culture between friends and adolescent appearance-based rejection sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-06-01

    Appearance-based rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS) is the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to signs of rejection based on one's appearance, and is associated with a number of psychological and social problems (Park, 2007). This study of 380 adolescents (Mage = 13.84) examined a model linking the appearance culture between friends with appearance-RS in adolescent boys and girls, via internalisation of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. Gender differences were also tested. Consistent with expectations, appearance-focused characteristics of the friendship context were associated with heightened appearance-RS via internalization of appearance ideals, social comparison, and body dissatisfaction. The appearance-focused friend characteristics that were associated with appearance-RS included exposure to friends' appearance conversations, appearance teasing that caused distress, and perceived pressure to be attractive. Notably, associations rarely differed for boys and girls, with one exception: the association between BMI and body dissatisfaction was stronger in girls than in boys.

  19. Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of a Plant Disease Model with Continuous Cultural Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a plant disease model with continuous cultural control strategy and time delay is formulated. Then, how the time delay affects the overall disease progression and, mathematically, how the delay affects the dynamics of the model are investigated. By analyzing the transendental characteristic equation, stability conditions related to the time delay are derived for the disease-free equilibrium. Specially, when R0=1, the Jacobi matrix of the model at the disease-free equilibrium always has a simple zero eigenvalue for all τ≥0. The center manifold reduction and the normal form theory are used to discuss the stability and the steady-state bifurcations of the model near the nonhyperbolic disease-free equilibrium. Then, the sensitivity analysis of the threshold parameter R0 and the positive equilibrium E* is carried out in order to determine the relative importance of different factors responsible for disease transmission. Finally, numerical simulations are employed to support the qualitative results.

  20. Simple and sensitive method for monitoring drug-induced cell injury in cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirhatti, V.; Krishna, G.

    1985-06-01

    A simple, sensitive method has been developed for evaluating cell injury noninvasively in monolayer cells in culture. The cell ATP pool was radiolabeled by incubating the cells with (/sup 14/C)adenine. The uptake and incorporation of (/sup 14/C)adenine was shown to proportional to the number of cells. As determined by HPLC, about 65-70% of the incorporated /sup 14/C label was in the ATP pool, 15-20% was in the ADP pool, and the rest was in the 5'-AMP pool. When prelabeled cells were exposed to toxic drugs (acetaminophen, calcium ionophore A-23187, or daunomycin) there was a marked decrease in cell ATP with a concomitant increase in leakage of labeled nucleotides, mainly 5'-AMP and 5'IMP. The authors have shown that leakage of /sup 14/C label into the medium from the prelabeled cells may be employed for quantitation of cell injury. This new measure of toxicity was shown to correlate very well with LDH leakage from the cells, which is a well accepted measure of cell injury. The leakage of 5'-(/sup 14/C)AMP also correlated very well with the reduction of cell ATP in cardiac myocytes. This method has been used for monitoring drug-induced toxicity in liver cells, cardiac myocytes, and LB cells.

  1. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Tuah, R.; Riskione, P.; Prabandari, Y.S.; Effendy, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of

  2. Tapping into the Culture of Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ruth E.

    1996-01-01

    Findings of a qualitative study of three health and human services agencies determined that strategies of survival inherent in the culture of homelessness are rarely considered by those agencies in providing services to homeless people. Programs should develop cultural sensitivity and use a cultural perspective in planning. (JOW)

  3. [Validity and reliability of the Culture of Quality Health Services questionnaire in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Kiengelher, L; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Austria-Corrales, F; Vázquez-Zarate, V M

    2013-01-01

    Patient Safety is a major public health problem worldwide and is responsibility of all those involved in health care. Establishing a Safety Culture has proved to be a factor that favors the integration of work teams, communication and construction of clear procedures in various organizations. Promote a culture of safety depends on several factors, such as organization, work unit and staff. Objective assessment of these factors will help to identify areas for improvement and establish strategic lines of action. [corrected] To adapt, validate and calibrate the questionnaire Culture of Quality in Health Services (CQHS) in Mexican population. A cross with a stratified representative sample of 522 health workers. The questionnaire was translated and adapted from Singer's. Content was validated by experts, internal consistency, confirmatory factorial validity and item calibration with Samejima's Graded Response Model. Convergent and divergent construct validity was confirmed from the CQHS, item calibration showed that the questionnaire is able to discriminate between patients and represent different levels of the hypothesized dimensions with greater accuracy and lower standard error. The CQHS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess patient safety culture in hospitals in Mexico. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The "Strengthening Nursing Culture Project" - an exploratory evaluation study of nursing students' placements within Aboriginal Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Bethne; Cavanagh, Miriam; Douglas, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Cultural awareness and cultural competence have been the focus of the transcultural nursing literature that has explored the roles and responsibilities of nurses in their care of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Cultural immersion programs, upholding cultural safety and cultural humility, offer valuable guidance to the education of nursing students regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and cultures. This study seeks to explore nursing students' experiences of a cultural immersion program within Aboriginal Medical Services (AMSs) in New South Wales, Australia. Eight nursing students participated in a mixed methods design exploratory study of their clinical placement within AMSs. A survey gathered data regarding levels of preparation and confidence, learning barriers, placement stressors and personal reflections. Nursing students reported positive and transformative experiences of intercultural learning. Cultural immersion programs provide a valuable framework for the design and evaluation of clinical placement programs for nursing students within intercultural learning spaces.

  5. Cross-Cultural "Distance", "Friction" and "Flow": Exploring the Experiences of Pre-Service Teachers on International Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusimaki, Liisa; Swirski, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to illustrate Australian regional pre-service teachers' perceptions of an international practicum: their cross-cultural understanding, notions of privilege and teacher/professional identity development. Findings indicate that there were three overlapping dimensions of cross-cultural understanding for pre-service…

  6. Contribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services to Natural Capital in the coastal area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Madonia, Alice; Tofani, Anna; Molino, Chiara; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital evaluation is emerging as a fundamental tool to support the management of natural resources. Indeed, the achievement of the compatibility among their multiple uses, often in conflict in coastal areas, is a priority to avoid the increasing undesirable effects which threat both ecosystems and human health and well-being. It represents the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. Furthermore the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (called by Kofi Annan in 2000), assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and in particular, the analysis method has been centered on the linkages between "ecosystem services" and human well-being. This "Ecosystem Approach" allows to evaluate the consequences of ecosystems changes on human well-being through the assessment of the Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems". These include provisioning services (food, water, timber, etc.), regulating services (climate, floods, disease, etc.); cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits) and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, etc.) Also the reference guidelines for European Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56 / EC - MSFD; Maritime Spatial Planning Directive 2014/89 / EC - MSP) are based on the principle of the Ecosystem Approach to define the monitoring criteria of marine and maritime space management ecosystems. The assessment of ES provided by Natural Capital cannot overlook the integration of ecological data with economic and socio-cultural ones, since they are considered as the direct and indirect contributions to human well-being provided by ecosystems. Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES), often omitted in the cost-benefit impact studies, has been receiving increasing interest from the scientific community in order

  7. Why do Chinese Canadians not consult mental health services: health status, language or culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice W; Kazanjian, Arminée; Wong, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 showed that Chinese immigrants to Canada and Chinese individuals born in Canada were less likely than other Canadians to have contacted a health professional for mental health reasons in the previous year in the province of British Columbia. The difference persisted among individuals at moderate to high risk for depressive episode. Both immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese showed similar characteristics of mental health service use. The demographic and health factors that significantly affected their likelihood to consult mental health services included Chinese language ability, restriction in daily activities, frequency of medical consultations, and depression score. Notwithstanding lower levels of mental illness in ethnic Chinese communities, culture emerged as a major factor explaining differences in mental health consultation between Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians.

  8. Teaching methods and an outcome tool for measuring cultural sensitivity in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathleen H; Hood, Lucy J

    2007-01-01

    A major challenge facing the nursing profession is to educate and assist nurses to develop the skills to provide culturally relevant care. This article describes one school's multicultural curriculum for baccalaureate nursing students and a tool to measure changes in behaviors and attitudes. The article presents the psychometric properties of the Cross-Cultural Evaluation Tool that yields a cross-cultural interaction score. Successful teaching strategies are presented that are substantiated by increased student cross-cultural interaction score scores.

  9. Ethnic Identity and Parenting Stress in South Asian Families: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Aneesa

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…

  10. Learning about Literacy outside the Classroom: Pre-Service Teachers Reflect on Learning a Second Language through Cultural Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, A. Renee; Hunter, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the perceived impact of immersion language study for pre-service teachers. The focus of the case was a month-long exploratory language and cultural immersion project in Costa Rica. The guiding questions were: what knowledge of teaching literacy do pre-service teachers reflect upon during a linguistic and…

  11. Can Service Learning Reinforce Social and Cultural Bias? Exploring a Popular Model of Family Involvement for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Kenney, Maylan

    2010-01-01

    Service learning is often used in teacher education as a way to challenge social bias and provide teacher candidates with skills needed to work in partnership with diverse families. Although some literature suggests that service learning could reinforce cultural bias, there is little documentation. In a study of 21 early childhood teacher…

  12. 47 CFR 69.713 - Common line, traffic-sensitive, and tandem-switched transport services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unaffiliated competitors, in aggregate, offer service to at least 15 percent of the price cap LEC's customer... may not rely on service the competitors provide solely by reselling the price cap LEC's services, or... LEC may rely on service the competitors provide through the use of the price cap LEC's unbundled...

  13. Rhamnolipids elicit the same cytotoxic sensitivity between cancer cell and normal cell by reducing surface tension of culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lifang; Shen, Chong; Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Meng, Qin

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant rhamnolipids have been claimed to show biological activities of inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxicity of rhamnolipids was examined on four cancer cells (HepG2, Caco-2, Hela, MCF-7 cells) and two normal cells (HK-2 cell, primary hepatocyte). Interestingly, both cancer cells and normal cells exhibited similar sensitivities to the addition of rhamnolipids in culture medium, and the cytotoxicity was largely attenuated by the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium. In correlation of the mono-/di-rhamnolipid cytotoxicity with the surface tension of culture medium, it was found that rhamnolipids triggered cytotoxicity whenever the surface tension of culture medium decreased below 41 mN/m irrespective of the FBS content in culture medium, cell line, or rhamnolipid congener. Similarly, each chemical surfactant (Tween-80, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) could cause cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells whenever its addition made the surface tension under 41 mN/m in culture medium with or without the presence of FBS. It seems that rhamnolipids, like chemical surfactants, exhibited cytotoxicity by reducing the surface tension of culture medium rather than by changing its specific molecular structure, which had no selection on tumor cells. This study could offer helps to correct the misleading biological activity of rhamnolipids and to avoid the possible large wastes of time and expenses on developing the applications in antitumor drugs.

  14. Therapist turnover and new program sustainability in mental health clinics as a function of organizational culture, climate, and service structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Mayberg, Stephen; Green, Philip

    2008-03-01

    The present study incorporates organizational theory and organizational characteristics in examining issues related to the successful implementation of mental health services. Following the theoretical foundations of socio-technical and cultural models of organizational effectiveness, organizational climate, culture, legal and service structures, and workforce characteristics are examined as correlates of therapist turnover and new program sustainability in a nationwide sample of mental health clinics. Results of General Linear Modeling (GLM) with the organization as the unit of analysis revealed that organizations with the best climates as measured by the Organizational Social Context (OSC) profiling system, had annual turnover rates (10%) that were less than half the rates found in organizations with the worst climates (22%). In addition, organizations with the best culture profiles sustained new treatment or service programs over twice as long (50 vs. 24 months) as organizations with the worst cultures. Finally, clinics with separate children's services units had higher turnover rates than clinics that served adults and children within the same unit. The findings suggest that strategies to support the implementation of new mental health treatments and services should attend to organizational culture and climate, and to the compatibility of organizational service structures with the demand characteristics of treatments.

  15. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Pil-Mun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Seok [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Gwacheon 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D{sub 10} value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  16. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  17. A Retrospective Evaluation of Critical Care Blood Culture Yield – Do Support Services Contribute to the “Weekend Effect”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Ben; Nagaraja, Shankara; Collins, Andrea; Pennington, Shaun H.; Blakey, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The “weekend effect” describes an increase in adverse outcomes for patients admitted at the weekend. Critical care units have moved to higher intensity working patterns to address this with some improved outcomes. However, support services have persisted with traditional working patterns. Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool for patients with sepsis but yield is dependent on sampling technique and processing. We therefore used blood culture yield as a surrogate for the quality of support service provision. We hypothesized that blood culture yields would be lower over the weekend as a consequence of reduced support services. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study examining 1575 blood culture samples in a university hospital critical care unit over a one-year period. Results Patients with positive cultures had, on average, higher APACHE II scores (p = 0.015), longer durations of stay (p = 0.03), required more renal replacement therapy (p<0.001) and had higher mortality (p = 0.024). Blood culture yield decreased with repeated sampling with an increased proportion of contaminants. Blood cultures were 26.7% less likely to be positive if taken at the weekend (p = 0.0402). This effect size is the equivalent to the impact of sampling before and after antibiotic administration. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that blood culture yield is lower at the weekend. This is likely caused by delays or errors in incubation and processing, reflecting the reduced provision of support services at the weekend. Reorganization of services to address the “weekend effect” should acknowledge the interdependent nature of healthcare service delivery. PMID:26492559

  18. A Retrospective Evaluation of Critical Care Blood Culture Yield - Do Support Services Contribute to the "Weekend Effect"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Morton

    Full Text Available The "weekend effect" describes an increase in adverse outcomes for patients admitted at the weekend. Critical care units have moved to higher intensity working patterns to address this with some improved outcomes. However, support services have persisted with traditional working patterns. Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool for patients with sepsis but yield is dependent on sampling technique and processing. We therefore used blood culture yield as a surrogate for the quality of support service provision. We hypothesized that blood culture yields would be lower over the weekend as a consequence of reduced support services.We performed a retrospective observational study examining 1575 blood culture samples in a university hospital critical care unit over a one-year period.Patients with positive cultures had, on average, higher APACHE II scores (p = 0.015, longer durations of stay (p = 0.03, required more renal replacement therapy (p<0.001 and had higher mortality (p = 0.024. Blood culture yield decreased with repeated sampling with an increased proportion of contaminants. Blood cultures were 26.7% less likely to be positive if taken at the weekend (p = 0.0402. This effect size is the equivalent to the impact of sampling before and after antibiotic administration.Our study demonstrates that blood culture yield is lower at the weekend. This is likely caused by delays or errors in incubation and processing, reflecting the reduced provision of support services at the weekend. Reorganization of services to address the "weekend effect" should acknowledge the interdependent nature of healthcare service delivery.

  19. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  20. The Implementation and Evaluation of Health Promotion Services and Programs to Improve Cultural Competency: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Crystal Sky; McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne Gwendalyn

    2017-01-01

    Cultural competency is a multifaceted intervention approach, which needs to be implemented at various levels of health-care systems to improve quality of care for culturally and ethnically diverse populations. One level of health care where cultural competency is required is in the provision of health promotion services and programs targeted to diverse patient groups who experience health-care and health inequalities. To inform the implementation and evaluation of health promotion programs and services to improve cultural competency, research must assess both intervention strategies and intervention outcomes. This scoping review was completed as part of a larger systematic literature search conducted on evaluations of cultural competence interventions in health care in Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. Seventeen peer-reviewed databases, 13 websites and clearinghouses, and 11 literature reviews were searched. Overall, 64 studies on cultural competency interventions were found, with 22 being health promotion programs and services. A process of thematic analysis was utilized to identify key intervention strategies and outcomes reported in the literature. The review identified three overarching strategies utilized in health promotion services and programs to improve cultural competency: community-focused strategies, culturally focused strategies, and language-focused strategies. Studies took different approaches to delivering culturally competent health interventions, with the majority incorporating multiple strategies from each overarching category. There were various intermediate health-care and health outcomes reported across the included studies. Most commonly reported were positive reports of patient satisfaction, patient/participant service access, and program/study retention rates. The health outcome results indicate positive potential of health promotion services and programs to improve cultural competency to impact cardiovascular disease

  1. [The preparation phosprenyl suppresses diarrhea and cattle infectious rhinotracheitis virus multiplication in sensitive cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozherelkov, S V; Belousova, R V; Danilov, L L; Deeva, A V; Mal'tsev, S D; Narovlianskiĭ, A N; Sanin, A V; Pronin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fosprenil suppressed the multiplication of cattle diarrhea virus in calf coronary vessel cell culture. Added to the culture of infected cells in a dose of 200 mg, the drug decreased the virus titer 30-fold in comparison with infected control cultures. Antiviral activity of fosprenil towards infective rhinotracheitis virus multiplication was still higher: in a dose of 100 mg it decreased the virus titer in fetal calf lung culture 100-fold in comparison with the control. Moreover, the cytopathogenic effects of the viruses in infected cultures were 24-48 h delayed under the effect of fosprenil in comparison with infected control cultures. These results recommend fosprenil for the treatment of cattle viral diseases.

  2. Organizational climate partially mediates the effect of culture on work attitudes and staff turnover in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sawitzky, Angelina C

    2006-05-01

    Staff turnover in mental health service organizations is an ongoing problem with implications for staff morale, productivity, organizational effectiveness, and implementation of innovation. Recent studies in public sector services have examined the impact of organizational culture and climate on work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and, ultimately, staff turnover. However, mediational models of the impact of culture and climate on work attitudes have not been examined. The present study examined full and partial mediation models of the effects of culture and climate on work attitudes and the subsequent impact of work attitudes on staff turnover. Multilevel structural equation models supported a partial mediation model in which organizational culture had both direct influence on work attitudes and indirect influence through organizational climate. Work attitudes significantly predicted one-year staff turnover rates. These findings support the contention that both culture and climate impact work attitudes and subsequent staff turnover.

  3. Organizational Climate Partially Mediates the Effect of Culture on Work Attitudes and Staff Turnover in Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Sawitzky, Angelina C.

    2006-01-01

    Staff turnover in mental health service organizations is an ongoing problem with implications for staff morale, productivity, organizational effectiveness, and implementation of innovation. Recent studies in public sector services have examined the impact of organizational culture and climate on work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and, ultimately, staff turnover. However, mediational models of the impact of culture and climate on work attitudes have not been examined. The present study examined full and partial mediation models of the effects of culture and climate on work attitudes and the subsequent impact of work attitudes on staff turnover. Multilevel structural equation models supported a partial mediation model in which organizational culture had both direct influence on work attitudes and indirect influence through organizational climate. Work attitudes significantly predicted one-year staff turnover rates. These findings support the contention that both culture and climate impact work attitudes and subsequent staff turnover. PMID:16544205

  4. The existing therapeutic interventions for orgasmic disorders: recommendations for culturally competent services, narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salmani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. Objective: In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. Materials and Methods: For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, “pearl-growing” techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, “orgasm AND intervention”. Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. Results: The majority of interventions (90% related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Conclusion: Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well

  5. Patients-people-place: developing a framework for researching organizational culture during health service redesign and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nicola K; Shapiro, Jonathan; McLeod, Hugh S T; Redwood, Sabi; Hewison, Alistair

    2014-08-20

    Organizational culture is considered by policy-makers, clinicians, health service managers and researchers to be a crucial mediator in the success of implementing health service redesign. It is a challenge to find a method to capture cultural issues that is both theoretically robust and meaningful to those working in the organizations concerned. As part of a comparative study of service redesign in three acute hospital organizations in England, UK, a framework for collecting data reflective of culture was developed that was informed by previous work in the field and social and cultural theory. As part of a larger mixed method comparative case study of hospital service redesign, informed by realist evaluation, the authors developed a framework for researching organisational culture during health service redesign and change. This article documents the development of the model, which involved an iterative process of data analysis, critical interdisciplinary discussion in the research team, and feedback from staff in the partner organisations. Data from semi-structured interviews with 77 key informants are used to illustrate the model. In workshops with NHS partners to share and debate the early findings of the study, organizational culture was identified as a key concept to explore because it was perceived to underpin the whole redesign process. The Patients-People-Place framework for studying culture focuses on three thematic areas ('domains') and three levels of culture in which the data could be organised. The framework can be used to help explain the relationship between observable behaviours and cultural artefacts, the values and habits of social actors and the basic assumptions underpinning an organization's culture in each domain. This paper makes a methodological contribution to the study of culture in health care organizations. It offers guidance and a practical approach to investigating the inherently complex phenomenon of culture in hospital organizations

  6. Promoting culturally sensitive ADHD services for women: an individual example and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; Ivey, Nicole

    2009-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous chronic behavioral disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, motor activity, and impulsiveness. Currently, most literature and research focuses on Caucasian males. Data on women with ADHD, specifically African American women, has to a great extent been absent from the literature and research. Research indicates that undiagnosed and untreated ADHD among women often causes psychological and academic impairments, low self-esteem, impaired social relationships, and general demoralization. In addition, women with ADHD have limited ability to be consistent parents, are less able to manage their jobs and households, and are at a higher risk for divorce and single parenting. Given these implications, undiagnosed and untreated ADHD poses not only a personal tragedy but also a serious public health concern. The purpose of this article is to provide a research overview of adult ADHD and to share a reflective life journey of an African American woman who was diagnosed with ADHD as an adult.

  7. Randomised Response Technique-An Innovative Method To Measure Culturally Sensitive Variables : Results From A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudarssanane M. B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What is the advantage of Randomized Response Technique (RRT over the conventional Direct Interview (DI and Anonymous Questionnaire (AQ in the assessment of culturally sensitive variables? Objectives: To compare the efficacy of the three methods, namely RRT, DI and AQ in the measurement of prevalence of Pre/Extra marital sex. Study design: Cross sectional study, using the three methods. Setting: A pilot study in a given community in Pondicherry. Statistical analysis: Probability equations. Results: The prevalence of pre/extra marital sex in the study population by the DI, AQ and RRT methods were 0%, 6% and 10% respectively in this pilot study. Conclusion: RRT improves validity of measurement of culturally sensitive variables both by ensuring a high participation in the study and by enabling a true response by assuring full confidentiality of information.

  8. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  9. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  10. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational Curricula. Food Service. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Larry; Shin, Masako

    This document, one of eight in a multi-cultural competency-based vocational/technical curricula series, is on food service. This program is designed to run 24 weeks and cover 15 instructional areas: orientation, sanitation, management/planning, preparing food for cooking, preparing beverages, cooking eggs, cooking meat, cooking vegetables,…

  11. Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity into Interactive Entertainment-Education for Diabetes Self-Management Designed for Hispanic Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly N; Montealegre, Jane R; Rustveld, Luis O; Glover, Talar L; Chauca, Glori; Reed, Brian C; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes self-management education can improve outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, Hispanics, a group that carries a large burden of disease, may not participate in diabetes education programs. Audience engagement with entertainment-education has been associated with improved health education outcomes and may engage and empower Hispanic users to active self-care. Successful use of entertainment-education relies on the use of characters and situations with whom the viewers can feel some sense of involvement and for Hispanic audiences is encouraged when storylines and characters are culturally sensitive. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach that included descriptive statistics of closed-ended and content analysis of open-ended questions to measure the cultural sensitivity of the telenovela portion of a novel technology-based application called Sugar, Heart, and Life (SHL). Specifically, we analyzed the responses of 123 male and female patients diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM to determine viewer involvement with characters and situations in the telenovela, viewer perceived self-efficacy in following recommendations, as well as viewer satisfaction with the program. Our findings indicate that the SHL application achieved its goal of creating a user-friendly program that depicted realistic, culturally sensitive characters and storylines that resonated with Hispanic audiences and ultimately fostered perceived self-efficacy related to following recommendations given about healthy lifestyle changes for diabetes self-management. These findings suggest that the SHL application is a culturally sensitive health education intervention for use by Hispanic male and female individuals that may empower them in self-management of T2DM.

  12. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context. Keywords: Adaptability, English Teaching, Intercultural Sensitivity

  13. Hemin Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, hemin diminishes the accumulation of triglyceride and increases in free fatty acid content in primary hepatocytes induced by palmitate. Oral administration of hemin decreases body weight, energy intake, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and improves insulin and glucose tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling and hepatic steatosis in male mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, hemin treatment decreases the mRNA and protein levels of some hepatic genes involved in lipogenic regulation, fatty acid synthesis and storage, and increases the mRNA level and enzyme activity of CPT1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These data demonstrate that hemin can improve lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both cultured hepatocytes and mice fed a high-fat diet, and show the potential beneficial effects of hemin from food on lipid and glucose metabolism.

  14. The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles : An investigation across continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; DeKimpe, M.; Steenkamp, J.E.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic investigation into the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures in 37 countries, covering four key media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. They show that advertising is considerably more sensitive to business-cycle fluctuations than the economy a

  15. Shear sensitivity of animal cells from a culture-medium perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der L.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, several groups have published data on the shear sensitivity of suspended animal cells and the protective effect of certain polymers. These findings did not, at the time, seem to have great practical application because shear sensitivity did not cause great problems for large-scale applicat

  16. The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles : An investigation across continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; DeKimpe, M.; Steenkamp, J.E.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic investigation into the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures in 37 countries, covering four key media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. They show that advertising is considerably more sensitive to business-cycle fluctuations than the economy a

  17. The forest has a story: cultural ecosystem services in Kona, Hawai'i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle K. Gould

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding cultural dimensions of human/environment relationships is now widely seen as key to effective management, yet characterizing these dimensions remains a challenge. We report on an approach for considering the nonmaterial values associated with ecosystems, i.e., cultural ecosystem services. We applied the approach in Kona, Hawai'i, using 30 semistructured interviews and 205 in-person surveys, striving to balance pragmatism and depth. We found spirituality, heritage, and identity-related values to be particularly salient, with expression of some of these values varying among respondents by ethnicity and duration of residence in Hawai'i. Although people of various backgrounds reported strong spirituality and heritage-related values, Native Hawaiians rated heritage connections as deeper, and lifetime residents portrayed ecosystem-identity connections as more integral to their well-being than did people from other backgrounds. The approach also proved useful in identifying concerns not addressed in survey and interview prompts, including postcolonial issues, access to ecosystems, and relationships between people of different ethnic backgrounds. Although understanding these nonmaterial dimensions of human-ecosystem relationships can be complex, emerging techniques eliciting qualitative and quantitative data provide feasible ways of deepening that understanding.

  18. Factors Influencing A Customer-Service Culture In A Higher Education Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Liebenberg

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The higher education environment is experiencing significant changes, and the focus is moving to competitiveness and customer care. The role of organisational culture and job satisfaction in the delivery of quality customer service was investigated in this study. The indications are that a relationship should exist between organisational culture and learner satisfaction, but it transpired that the relationship between staff members’ job satisfaction and learner satisfaction was not significant. An evaluation of a proposed learner-satisfaction model revealed interesting dynamics influencing relationships between the core dimensions studied. OpsommingDie hoëronderwysomgewing is besig om betekenisvol te verander, en die fokus is besig om na mededingendheid en kliëntesorg te verskuif. Die rol van organisasiekultuur en werksbevrediging in die lewering van hoëgehaltekliëntediens is in hierdie studie ondersoek. Daar is aanduidings dat daar ’n verband tussen organisasiekultuur en leerdertevredenheid is, maar dit het geblyk dat daar nie ’n betekenisvolle verband tussen werksbevrediging en leerdertevredenheid is nie. ’n Evaluering van ’n voorgestelde leerdertevredenheidsmodel het interessante dinamika wat die verhouding tussen die kerndimensies van die studie beïnvloed, aan die lig gebring.

  19. Services in support of promoting territorial tourism and culture: the living lab project EPULIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Suma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The project “Enjoy Puglia using Ubiquitous technology in Landscape Interactive Adventures” (EPULIA is aimed at the development of a platform populated by innovative and technological applications in which users can enjoy entertainment and educational contents in an interactive way, by means of multimedia and mobile technology. The platform, through the support of the skills of SMEs (LifeResult, Info.Sist and Cedimpresa and the Research Laboratory (Consortium CETMA in terms of research and experimentation, aims to provide services for supporting the promotion of the cultural tourism of Apulia, and provides information and contents of interest for tourists, including routes and itineraries, with the definition of real interactive and geo-referenced maps and information on available accommodation. The platform will provide tourists with added value in information retrieval: using modern devices, equipped with GPS, the multi-channel services will offer and unify contents that might otherwise be disseminated using Internet sites and portals.

  20. Quality of healthcare services and its relationship with patient safety culture and nurse-physician professional communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanian, Akram; Rezaei, Tayyebeh; Abdullahzadeh, Farahnaz; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Dianat, Iman

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study investigated quality of healthcare services from patients' perspectives and its relationship with patient safety culture and nurse-physician professional communication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 surgery patients and 101 nurses caring them in a public hospital in Tabriz-Iran. Data were collected using the service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL), hospital survey on patient safety culture (HSOPSC) and nurse physician professional communication questionnaire. Results: The highest and lowest mean (±SD) scores of the patients' perception on the healthcare services quality belonged to the assurance 13.92 (±3.55) and empathy 6.78 (±1.88) domains,respectively. With regard to the patient safety culture, the mean percentage of positive answers ranged from 45.87% for "non-punitive response to errors" to 68.21% for "organizational continuous learning" domains. The highest and lowest mean (±SD) scores for the nurse physician professional communication were obtained for "cooperation" 3.44 (±0.35) and "non-participative decision-making" 2.84 (±0.34) domains, respectively. The "frequency of reported errors by healthcare professionals" (B=-4.20, 95% CI = -7.14 to -1.27, Pquality of healthcare services. Conclusion: Organizational culture in dealing with medical error should be changed to non-punitive response. Change in safety culture towards reporting of errors, effective communication and teamwork between healthcare professionals are recommended.

  1. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Tuah, Rodianson; Riskione, Patricia; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Effendy, Christantie

    2016-01-01

    A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of socio-culturally hierarchical gap between health providers and clients in Indonesian context, (2) to provide attention to the unspoken concerns especially in the context of indirect communication which mostly using non-verbal signs and politeness etiquettes, and (3) to initiate dialog in the society which hold a more community-oriented decision making. Our aim is to compare the communication skills of nursing students who had and had not received a training using a culture-sensitive Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. This was a quasi experimental randomized control study to the fifth semester students of a nursing school at Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The intervention group was trained by the Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. Both intervention and the control group had learned general nurse-client communication guidelines. The training was 4h with role-plays, supportive information and feedback sessions. An objective-structured clinical examination (OSCE) was conducted 1week after the training, in seven stations, with seven simulated clients. Observers judged the communication skills of the students using a checklist of 5-point Likert scale, whereas simulated clients judged their satisfaction using 4-point Likert scale represented in colorful ribbons. There were significant mean differences in each domain of communication guideline observed between the trained and the control groups as judged by the teachers (p≤0.05) and simulated clients. Training using a culture-sensitive communication skills guideline could improve the communication skills of the nursing students and may increase satisfaction of the clients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Sensitivity of Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa to atrazine: effects of acclimation and mixed cultures, and their removal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifour, Annie; LeBlanc, André; Sleno, Lekha; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide frequently detected in watercourses that can affect the phytoplankton community, thus impacting the whole food chain. This study aims, firstly, to measure the sensitivity of monocultures of the green alga Scenedemus obliquus and toxic and non-toxic strains of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa before, during and after a 30-day acclimation period to 0.1 µM of atrazine. Secondly, the sensitivity of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa to atrazine in mixed cultures was evaluated. Finally, the ability of these strains to remove atrazine from the media was measured. We demonstrated that both strains of M. aeruginosa had higher growth rate-based EC50 values than S. obliquus when exposed to atrazine, even though their photosynthesis-based EC50 values were lower. After being exposed to 0.1 µM of atrazine for 1 month, only the photosynthesis-based EC50 of S. obliquus increased significantly. In mixed cultures, the growth rate of the non-toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was higher than S. obliquus at high concentrations of atrazine, resulting in a ratio of M. aeruginosa to total cell count of 0.6. This lower sensitivity might be related to the higher growth rate of cyanobacteria at low light intensity. Finally, a negligible fraction of atrazine was removed from the culture media by S. obliquus or M. aeruginosa over 6 days. These results bring new insights on the acclimation of some phytoplankton species to atrazine and its effect on the competition between S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in mixed cultures.

  3. The Cultural Dependence of the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire: The Case of Iranian Kurdish Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A good theory-based tool for measuring ethical sensitivity, which is usable in different contexts, is scarce. In this study, we examined the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ in line with its seven-dimension structure. The scale was presented to a sample of 556 Iranian Kurdish teachers in primary, middle, and high schools. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to scrutinize the original factor structure of the ESSQ. The results confirmed that the ESSQ supports a reasonable model fit to study the seven dimensions of ethical sensitivity as it was developed in the original study. However, some modifications were conducted to free high error covariance between four pairs of items in the scale. This modification increased the fit indices and thus resulted in a good model fit. In addition to examining the satiability of the ESSQ, a further analysis showed that the level of ethical sensitivity in the targeted sample was high.

  4. CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL GROWTH FROM EXOTIC COWS SUFFERING FROM ENDOMETRITIS UNDER PAKISTANI CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriology of endometritis and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates in Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows maintained at Research Institute for Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey, District Kasur were carried out. Out of 100 samples, 89 contained different strains of bacteria and 11 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Bacillus subtilis (08.99%, Corynebacterium pyogenes (19.10%, Escherichia coli (29.21%, Neisseria meningitides (03.37%, Staphylococcus aureus (23.60%, Streptococcus pneumonia (03.37% and Streptococcus pyogenes (12.36%. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (92% were sensitive to neomycin, followed by doxycyline (89%. Clindramycin showed the lowest results in terms of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity (51%.

  5. A service dedicated to Cultural Heritage Risk Assessment and Monitoring on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Nicole; Monteleone, Antonio; Benenati, Luca; Bernardi, Lorenzo; Giovagnoli, Annamaria; Cacace, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    VIDEOR project, financed by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development (MISE) and strongly supported by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage (MiBACT), is developed by NAIS (Nextant Applications and Innovative Solutions) in collaboration with ISCR (Institute for Conservation and Restoration, MiBACT) and SUPERELECTRIC s.r.l. The project has the aim to provide a service to public institutions responsible of CH preservation, maintenance and restoration, for the assessment of the potential level of aggressiveness of factors responsible for cultural heritage degradation. VIDEOR represents the first example of a continuative monitoring, consultable on the web and constantly updated. VIDEOR is based on the production of a set of products that will help institutions in the evaluation of threats linked to damages and/or loss of the cultural asset. This new approach of cultural heritage condition assessment will support "Carta del Rischio" Italian methodology, a GIS for a scientific and administrative support furnished to Public Entities and developed by ISCR. Test site selected for project demonstration is the archaeological area of Villa Adriana, UNESCO site since 1999. The property, located near Tivoli town (30 km east from Rome), has an extension of 80ha and the buffer zone has an extension of 500ha. This area, near Tivoli and not far from Rome -political and administrative location of the Roman Empire- was chosen by Adriano emperor for the construction of his magnificent residence. VIDEOR products and analyses are based on data coming from several sensors, such as satellites images (optical and SAR) and drones, these last used when satellites spatial resolution is considered not appropriate or when, after severe events, deeper evaluations are necessary. After the earthquake swarm that interested Italy from August 2016 to January 2017 and that destroyed a huge amount of unmovable cultural properties close to zone of the epicenter, analyses were performed over the test site

  6. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing-Complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir

    2015-01-01

    configurations. By switching between the different combinations of electrode couples, it was possible to generate a multiplexing-like approach, which allowed for collecting spatially distributed information within the 3D space. Computational finite element (FE) analysis and electrochemical impedance......A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation...... of a bare 3D gelatin scaffold, to human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation and proliferation, was monitored over time. The platform consists of a large rectangular culture chamber with four embedded vertical gold plate electrodes that were exploited in two- and three terminal (2T and 3T) measurement...

  7. Cultural Variations in the Effect of Interview Privacy and the Need for Social Conformity on Reporting Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mneimneh Zeina M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is an important feature of the interview interaction mainly due to its potential effect on reporting information, especially sensitive information. Here we examine the effect of third-party presence on reporting both sensitive and relatively neutral outcomes. We investigate whether the effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the respondent’s need for social conformity and the respondent’s country of residence. Three types of outcomes are investigated: behavioral, attitudinal, and relatively neutral health events. Using data from 22,070 interviews and nine countries in the cross-national World Mental Health Survey Initiative, we fit multilevel logistic regression to study reporting effects on questions about suicidal behavior and marital ratings, and contrast these with questions about having high blood pressure, asthma, or arthritis. We find that there is an effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information and no effect on reporting of neutral information. Further, the effect of the interview privacy setting on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the need for social conformity and the cultural setting.

  8. The Attention and Research of Domestic Academia on Public Cultural Service ---Based on the Analysis of National Social Fund Project during Recent 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The construction of public cultural service is a practical way that safeguard people’s basic cultural rights and interests,which is a upper design to construct a powerful cul-ture of socialist country. It is of great significance to build a whole well-off society. The arti-cle is based on some cases of National Social Science Fund on the aspects of Public Cultural Service Project during 1994 to 2015 and put forward some advice and ideas in order to offer reference and lessons for the theoretical research and exploration of our country’s Public Cul-tural Service.

  9. A spatial analysis of cultural ecosystem service valuation by regional stakeholders in Florida: a coastal application of the social values for ecosystem services (SolVES) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Alisa W.; Swett, Robert A.; Cole, Zachary D.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods and lifestyles of people throughout the world depend on essential goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems. However, as societal demand increases and available ocean and coastal space diminish, better methods are needed to spatially and temporally allocate ocean and coastal activities such as shipping, energy production, tourism, and fishing. While economic valuation is an important mechanism for doing so, cultural ecosystem services often do not lend themselves to this method. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey are working collaboratively with the Florida Sea Grant College Program to map nonmonetary values of cultural ecosystem services for a pilot area (Sarasota Bay) in the Gulf of Mexico. The research seeks to close knowledge gaps about the attitudes and perceptions, or nonmonetary values, held by coastal residents toward cultural ecosystem services, and to adapt related, terrestrial-based research methods to a coastal setting. A critical goal is to integrate research results with coastal and marine spatial planning applications, thus making them relevant to coastal planners and managers in their daily efforts to sustainably manage coastal resources. Using information about the attitudes and preferences of people toward places and uses in the landscape, collected from value and preference surveys, the USGS SolVES 2.0 tool will provide quantitative models to relate social values, or perceived nonmonetary values, assigned to locations by survey respondents with the underlying environmental characteristics of those same locations. Project results will increase scientific and geographic knowledge of how Sarasota Bay residents value their area’s cultural ecosystem services.

  10. Communication Skills, Cultural Sensitivity, and Collaboration in an Experiential Language Village Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allen; Minami, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses five college students' experiences in a simulated full-immersion, Arabic-speaking language village and the impact of that experience on learners' beliefs about the power of collaborative learning, the critical importance of cultural awareness, the efficacy of learning languages within a functioning community of practice, and…

  11. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  12. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  13. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  14. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive dat

  15. Self-starvation in context: towards a culturally sensitive understanding of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S

    1995-07-01

    Extreme forms of self-starvation can be traced across time and place, and may be construed using a variety of explanatory models. Curiously, the prevailing biomedical definition of anorexia nervosa has assigned primacy to the exclusive use of 'fat phobia' by the affected subjects to justify their diminished food intake. This paper assembles evidence to show that this culturally constructed version of fat phobic anorexia nervosa has neglected the full metaphorical significance of self-starvation and, when applied in a cross-cultural context, may constitute a category fallacy. By delegitimizing other rationales for non-eating and thereby barring subjective expressions, this regnant interpretive strategy may obscure clinicians' understanding of patients' lived experience, and even jeopardize their treatment. Nonetheless, it is a relatively simple task to attune the extant diagnostic criteria to a polythetic approach which will avert cultural parochialism in psychiatric theory and practice. As a corollary of the archival and ethnocultural study of extreme self-starvation, there is, contrary to epistemological assumptions embedded in the biomedical culture of contemporary psychiatry, no 'core psychopathology' of anorexia nervosa.

  16. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  17. Human bone marrow cell culture: a sensitive method for determination of the biocompatibility of implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Landgraff, M; Orth, J; Poenitz, H; Kienapfel, H; Boelte, K; Griss, P; Franke, R P

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a test method for determining the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of various biomaterials that are used in orthopaedic surgery. This method is based on the use of a human bone marrow cell culture and was developed as an alternative to animal experiments. Human bone marrow cell culture has certain advantages over other cell culture models, as its results show a greater conformity with animal experimental results and clinical studies. Primary cell adherence, cell number, cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix, cell viability and cell differentiation were used as indicative parameters of biocompatibility. After 2 weeks in culture, differences could be observed between the biomaterials with respect to these parameters. Cell numbers were greatest on the hydroxyapatite ceramic specimens, but were decreased on the titanium alloy specimens. Extracellular matrix hydroxyapatite production was high for ceramics, but reduced for titanium specimens. The polymers allowed only a few cells to adhere, and there were no signs of extracellular matrix production. The influence of biomaterials on differentiation of large numbers of cells was analysed by using flow cytophotometry. There were similar populations of T cells and monocytes on all specimens. However, extended B cell and granulocyte populations were observed with titanium and polyethylene.

  18. Using cognitive behaviour therapy with South Asian Muslims: Findings from the culturally sensitive CBT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Phiri, Peter; Munshi, Tariq; Rathod, Shanaya; Ayub, Muhhhamad; Gobbi, Mary; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) needs adaptation for it to be effective for patients from collectivistic cultures, as currently CBT is underpinned by individualistic values. In prior studies we have demonstrated that CBT could be adapted for Pakistani patients in Southampton, UK, and for local populations in Pakistan. Findings from these studies suggest that CBT can be adapted for patients from collectivistic cultures using a series of steps. In this paper we focus on these steps, and the process of adapting CBT for specific groups. The adaptation process should focus on three major areas of therapy, rather than simple translation of therapy manuals. These include (1) awareness of relevant cultural issues and preparation for therapy, (2) assessment and engagement, and (3) adjustments in therapy. We also discuss the best practice guidelines that evolved from this work to help therapists working with this population. We reiterate that CBT can be adapted effectively for patients from traditional cultures. This is, however, an emerging area in psychotherapy, and further work is required to refine the methodology and to test adapted CBT.

  19. Process and Product in Cross-Cultural Treatment Research: Development of a Culturally Sensitive Women-Centered Substance Use Intervention in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrée E. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women who inject drugs (WID are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture—and WID within that culture—so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT and the Women’s CoOp (WC were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID (N=55 and providers of health services (N=34 to such women and focus groups [2 with WID (N=15 and 2 with health service providers (N=12]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed.

  20. Magnet status as a competitive strategy of hospital organizations: marketing a culture of excellence in nursing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropello, Paula Grace Dunn

    2003-01-01

    With issues of patient safety, the nursing shortage, and managed care fiscal constraints, hospital organizations can strategically capture market share, while insuring best care practices, if they adopt the "Magnet Status" accreditation model. This quality indicator signifies to the consumer a culture of excellence in nursing services and fulfills the priority of customer satisfaction as a marketing strategy objective.

  1. Journeys in Cultural Competency: Pre-Service U.S. Teachers in Mexico Study-Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Lorri J.; Santamaria, Cristina C.; Fletcher, Todd V.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service and credentialed teachers at 2 universities in the Southwestern United States (N = 24), who participated in education-abroad programs in Mexico over 1 summer. This study examined the literature within a framework for developing cultural competence to describe and understand students' experiences. Following a…

  2. Developing Cultural Competency in Adult Pre-Service Teachers Helps Diverse Learners: Graduates' Perspectives in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnquist, Peg; RB-Banks, Yvonne; Huber, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the results of an electronic survey and two focus groups that included former Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT), students who took a required multicultural education course. As instructors in a pre-service teaching program for adult learners, we used a matrix of relevant materials to promote cultural competency within the…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers: Does Cultural Responsiveness Affect Anticipated Self-Determination to Teach in Specific Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation to teach is essential to educating all children in the public schools. This study examined the anticipated self-determination of pre-service teachers to teach in classroom settings that varied in the ethnic and racial composition of the students in the classes. Additionally the cultural responsiveness of participants was measured to…

  4. Developing Robust Forms of Pre-Service Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Culturally Responsive Mathematics Teaching Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Julia M.; Zavala, Maria del Rosario; Katanyoutanant, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    This study documents and describes efforts to develop robust forms of pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through a culturally responsive mathematics teaching approach. Embedded in a university K-8 mathematics methods course emphasising the connections among mathematics, children's mathematical thinking, and children's…

  5. Journeys in Cultural Competency: Pre-Service U.S. Teachers in Mexico Study-Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Lorri J.; Santamaria, Cristina C.; Fletcher, Todd V.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service and credentialed teachers at 2 universities in the Southwestern United States (N = 24), who participated in education-abroad programs in Mexico over 1 summer. This study examined the literature within a framework for developing cultural competence to describe and understand students' experiences. Following a…

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Data Viewer and REST Services for Atlases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize the marine and coastal environments and wildlife based on sensitivity to spilled oil. There are three main components: shoreline habitats,...

  7. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-04-01

    Stakeholders' nonmaterial desires, needs, and values often critically influence the success of conservation projects. These considerations are challenging to articulate and characterize, resulting in their limited uptake in management and policy. We devised an interview protocol designed to enhance understanding of cultural ecosystem services (CES). The protocol begins with discussion of ecosystem-related activities (e.g., recreation, hunting) and management and then addresses CES, prompting for values encompassing concepts identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and explored in other CES research. We piloted the protocol in Hawaii and British Columbia. In each location, we interviewed 30 individuals from diverse backgrounds. We analyzed results from the 2 locations to determine the effectiveness of the interview protocol in elucidating nonmaterial values. The qualitative and spatial components of the protocol helped characterize cultural, social, and ethical values associated with ecosystems in multiple ways. Maps and situational, or vignette-like, questions helped respondents articulate difficult-to-discuss values. Open-ended prompts allowed respondents to express a diversity of ecosystem-related values and proved sufficiently flexible for interviewees to communicate values for which the protocol did not explicitly probe. Finally, the results suggest that certain values, those mentioned frequently throughout the interview, are particularly salient for particular populations. The protocol can provide efficient, contextual, and place-based data on the importance of particular ecosystem attributes for human well-being. Qualitative data are complementary to quantitative and spatial assessments in the comprehensive representation of people's values pertaining to ecosystems, and this protocol may assist in incorporating values frequently overlooked in decision making processes. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals

  8. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  9. Culture microtitration: a sensitive method for quantifying Leishmania infantum in tissues of infected mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, P. A.; Sulahian, A.; Garin, Y J; Nassar, N.; Derouin, F

    1995-01-01

    We developed a microtitration method to determine the parasite burdens in homogenized organs of mice infected with Leishmania infantum. This method proved more sensitive than direct enumeration of amastigotes in stained organs, was appropriate for describing the kinetics of infection, and can be considered for physiopathological or pharmaceutical experimental studies.

  10. Using cultural-historical activity theory to analyze social service practices evolving from the Norwegian HUSK projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The HUSK projects catalyzed innovation in the practices of providing social services that could yield useful insights both within and outside of Norway if analyzed in these two ways: (a) retrospective analysis of the development of individual HUSK projects in light of their cultural-historical contexts, and (b) comparative analysis of the efforts to advance multi-sector collaboration in some of the HUSK projects. Such analyses require a practice-based research approach that takes into account culture and history. In this article the author explains how cultural-historical activity theory provides such an approach, illustrated via several HUSK cases. The author suggests five questions for future analyses of the HUSK projects and argues that insights gleaned from such analyses could contribute significantly to research on-and the provision of-social services.

  11. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  12. Investigation of Various Tissue Culture Monolayers Sensitivity in Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. It is usually a consequence of antibi­otic treatment, but sporadic cases can occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate five tissue culture monolayers sen­sitivity in detection of C. difficile-toxin. Methods: A total of 402 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea hospitalized in three hospitals of Tehran Uni­versity of Medical Sciences (TUMS were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 4 days. Isolates were characterized to species level by con­ventional biochemical tests. Bacterial cytotoxicity was assayed on five tissue culture monolayers. Results: Our findings show that of the total patients, 24 toxigenic C. difficile (6% were isolated. All 24 C. difficile toxins showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:10 dilution on Hela, Hep2, Vero, McCoy and Mdck cells after 16, 20, 24, 24 and 30 hours, re­spectively. C. difficile toxin showed cytotoxic effect at ³ 1:100 dilutions only on Hela cell monolayer after 48 hours. Conclusion: Hela cell monolayer may be a satisfactory substitute for the detection of C. difficile toxin in clinical specimens.   

  13. Analysis of Culture and Drug Sensitivity Tests of Mycoplasmas for 387 Patients with Nongonococcal Urethritis (Cervicitis) in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟志芳; 郝飞; 钟白玉; 黄秀英; 唐书谦; 刁庆春

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mycoplasma infections and the sensitivity to antibiotics among patients with nongonococcal urethritis or cervicitis (NGU) in Chongqing. Methods: 387 NGU cases with mycoplasma-positive results upon culture were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: The majority of patients with mycoplasma infections were in the 20-40 year old age group. No significant difference was found between males and females. Ureaplasma urealyticum is the main pathogen of these NGU cases and no clear relationship between its concentration and pathogenic ability was noted. Drug sensitivity was tested against nine antibiotics; the sensitivity rates to josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline were 94.06%, 88.89% and 86.82% respectively, while the resistance rates to lincomycin, ofloxacin, azithromycin and roxthromycin were 74.94%, 42.12%, 41.60% and 40.31% in turn. Conclusions: Josamycin, minocycline and doxycycline could be used as the first choice to treat NGU with mycoplasma infections in Chongqing. It is important to select antibiotics for NGU treatment with mycoplasma infections based on the results of drug sensitivity tests.

  14. [Evaluation of cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem: a case study in a water conservation area of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Guo, Zong-xiang; Yang, Huai-yu; Yang, Zheng-yong

    2009-12-01

    Pond aquaculture has existed in China for thousands of years, which has not only contributed great economic value, but also presented cultural value for human beings. With the development and upgrading of Chinese economy and culture, these values will be highlighted further. To evaluate the cultural service value of pond aquaculture ecosystem would provide a scientific base to the policy-making to avoid or reduce the wrong design-making or avoid the policy-malfunction, and also, to promote the development of aquaculture and related recreational fishing industry, increase the added value of aquaculture and the income of fish-farmers, and promote the economic development of rural area. Based on the survey data from the aquaculture ponds in the water conservation area of Dianshan Lake in Qingpu District of Shanghai and the related statistical data, the cultural service value including recreational value and existence value of the aquaculture pond ecosystem in the area was estimated by means of travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM). The total cultural service value of this ecosystem was about 213 million Yuan x a(-1) or 231296. 69 Yuan x hm(-2) x a(-1), being 5. 25 times of the market value of aquaculture products, among which, recreational value was about 189 million Yuan x a(-1), and existence value was about 24 million Yuan x a(-1). It was suggested that in the construction of new rural areas of Shanghai, sufficient attention should be paid on the full play of the cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem.

  15. A Look at Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions in Two Service Sectors from Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Andreea Vrânceanu; Maria-Cristina Iorgulescu

    2016-01-01

    The economic literature on culture has mainly focused on the influence of national culture and its role in determining the organizational culture. Hofstede has demonstrated in his research the importance of culture in determining human relations in the workplace. People can comply with both organizational rules and cultural norms, but truly give priority to the latter. Differences between organizational rules may appear depending on the organizations’ activity or depending on the employees’ p...

  16. Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 MAC layer in supporting delay sensitive services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Sengupta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing QoS requirements like good throughput and minimum access delay are challenging tasks with regard to 802.11 WLAN protocols and Medium Access Control (MAC functions. IEEE 802.11 MAC layer supports two main protocols: DCF (Distributed Coordination Function and EDCF (Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function. During the evaluation of EDCF, the performance of various access categories was thedetermining factor. Two scenarios, with same Physical and MAC parameters, one implementing the DCF and other EDCF, were created in the network simulation tool (OPNET MODELER [5] to obtain the results. The results showed that the performance of EDCF was better in providing QoS for real-time interactive services (like video conferencing as compared to DCF, because of its ability to differentiate and prioritize various services. Whereas the DCF’s overall performance was marginally better for all kinds of services taken together.

  17. Impact of a learning circle intervention across academic and service contexts on developing a learning culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel; Henderson, Amanda; Cooke, Marie; Creedy, Debra

    2011-05-01

    Partnerships between university schools of nursing and health services lead to successful learning experiences for students and staff. A purposive sample of academics and students from a university school of nursing and clinicians from three health institutions involved in clinical learning (n=73) actively participated in a learning circles intervention conducted over 5 months in south east Queensland. Learning circle discussions resulted in enhanced communication and shared understanding regarding: (1) staff attitudes towards students, expectations and student assessment; (2) strategies enhancing preparation of students, mechanisms for greater support of and recognition of clinicians; (3) challenges faced by staff in the complex processes of leadership in clinical nursing education; (4) construction of learning, ideas for improving communication, networking and sharing; and (5) questioning routine practices that may not enhance student learning. Pre-post surveys of hospital staff (n=310) revealed significant differences across three sub-scales of 'accomplishment' (t=-3.98, pLearning circles can positively enhance organisational learning culture. The intervention enabled participants to recognise mutual goals. Further investigation around staff perception of their influence on their workplace is required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  19. Improving the quality of communication and service provision for renal patients of South Asian origin: the contribution of a cultural and health improvement officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Tahira; Hipkiss, Vicki; Stoves, John

    2014-09-01

    A large number of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease in Bradford, UK are of South Asian origin. Effective delivery of care for these patients demands a consistently high standard of communication between patients, their families and renal unit staff. Communication may be problematic for a number of reasons, including language barriers and an incomplete appreciation of important cultural or religious beliefs. In 2010, we received charitable funding for an Ethnic Liaison Support Worker, renamed Cultural and Health Improvement Officer (CHIO). The CHIO is able to engage with and support patients, relatives and other members of the multidisciplinary renal team. Core responsibilities include ensuring that patients and their families feel at ease whenever they are in communication with the renal services team in Bradford; contributing to formal discussion and explanation of important clinical issues in the patient's first language (typically Urdu or Punjabi), thereby encouraging patients to feel more involved in decisions about their care; listening to ad hoc patient queries and concerns and addressing these directly or indirectly through timely involvement of other members of the renal team; cultivating a greater awareness of and empathy towards the holistic needs of patients and their families within the renal MDT; and strengthening the links between renal and social care services. The involvement of the CHIO is especially important when discussing sensitive and complex issues such as conservative and end-of-life care with patients and their families, as communication needs to be detailed, precise and unequivocal. This is crucial to providing a bespoke supportive service for our all patients, especially those who have opted for conservative management. The significant contribution of the CHIO to the quality of renal services in Bradford has been recognised and a permanent CHIO post has now been established.

  20. Evaluating the Linguistic Appropriateness and Cultural Sensitivity of a Self-Report System for Spanish-Speaking Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Tofthagen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish speakers in the United States encounter numerous communication barriers during cancer treatment. Communication-focused interventions may help Spanish speakers communicate better with healthcare providers and manage symptoms and quality of life issues (SQOL. For this study, we developed a Spanish version of the electronic self-report assessment for cancer (ESRA-C, a web-based program that helps people with cancer report, track, and manage cancer-related SQOL. Four methods were used to evaluate the Spanish version. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with 51 Spanish-speaking individuals to elicit feedback. Readability was assessed using the Fry readability formula. The cultural sensitivity assessment tool was applied by three bilingual, bicultural reviewers. Revisions were made to personalize the introduction using a patient story and photos and to simplify language. Focus group participants endorsed changes to the program in a second round of focus groups. Cultural sensitivity of the program was scored unacceptable (x¯=3.0 for audiovisual material and acceptable (x¯=3.0 for written material. Fry reading levels ranged from 4th to 10th grade. Findings from this study provide several next steps to refine ESRA-C for Spanish speakers with cancer.

  1. Forest owners' willingness to accept contracts for ecosystem service provision is sensitive to additionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    A key prerequisite to ensure that payment for ecosystem services is effective is that the management measures landowners are paid to undertake are in fact additional to the status quo and hence bring about a change in provision. We investigated Danish forest owners' preferences for conditional...

  2. The sensitivity of capital services measurement : Measure all assets and the cost of capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, R.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their impact on U.S. capital services at the industry and aggregate

  3. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraveto, Alice; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Giuliante, Felice; De Rose, Agostino Maria; Grazi, Gian Luca; Napoletano, Chiara; Semeraro, Rossella; Lustri, Anna Maria; Costantini, Daniele; Nevi, Lorenzo; Di Matteo, Sabina; Renzi, Anastasia; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA) subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients) and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay) and apoptosis (Caspase 3) after incubation (72 hours) with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib were more

  4. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fraveto

    Full Text Available We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay and apoptosis (Caspase 3 after incubation (72 hours with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib

  5. Teaching about, and Dealing with, Sensitive Issues in Schools: How Confident Are Pre-Service Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynagh, Marita; Gilligan, Connor; Handley, Tonelle

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are developing an increasingly active role in the education of students in areas of sensitivity, including issues such as sexuality, mental health, grief and loss and child protection. There is a growing expectation for teachers to become competent not only in educating students in these areas but also in recognising and dealing with such…

  6. Enhancing plant regeneration in tissue culture: a molecular approach through manipulation of cytokinin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristine; Schaller, G Eric

    2013-10-01

    Micropropagation is used for commercial purposes worldwide, but the capacity to undergo somatic organogenesis and plant regeneration varies greatly among species. The plant hormones auxin and cytokinin are critical for plant regeneration in tissue culture, with cytokinin playing an instrumental role in shoot organogenesis. Type-B response regulators govern the transcriptional output in response to cytokinin and are required for plant regeneration. In our paper published in Plant Physiology, we explored the functional redundancy among the 11 type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs). Interestingly, we discovered that the enhanced expression of one family member, ARR10, induced hypersensitivity to cytokinin in multiple assays, including callus greening and shoot induction of explants. Here we 1) discuss the hormone dependence for in vitro plant regeneration, 2) how manipulation of the cytokinin response has been used to enhance plant regeneration, and 3) the potential of the ARR10 transgene as a tool to increase the regeneration capacity of agriculturally important crop plants. The efficacy of ARR10 for enhancing plant regeneration likely arises from its ability to transcriptionally regulate key cytokinin responsive genes combined with an enhanced protein stability of ARR10 compared with other type-B ARRs. By increasing the capacity of key tissues and cell types to respond to cytokinin, ARR10, or other type-B response regulators with similar properties, could be used as a tool to combat the recalcitrance of some crop species to tissue culture techniques.

  7. Cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells are resistant to methylamine toxicity: no correlation to semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, S. D.; Trent, M. B.; Boor, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Methylamine (MA), a component of serum and a metabolite of nicotine and certain insecticides and herbicides, is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). MA is toxic to cultured human umbilical vein and calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Endothelial cells, which do not exhibit endogenous SSAO activity, are exposed to SSAO circulating in serum. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) do exhibit innate SSAO activity both in vivo and in vitro. This property, together with the critical localization of VSMC within the arterial wall, led us to investigate the potential toxicity of MA to VSMC. Cultured rat VSMC were treated with MA (10-5 to 1 M). In some cultures, SSAO was selectively inhibited with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 [(E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-fluoroallylamine]. Cytotoxicity was measured via MTT, vital dye exclusion, and clonogenic assays. MA proved to be toxic to VSMC only at relatively high concentrations (LC(50) of 0.1 M). The inhibition of SSAO with semicarbazide or MDL-72145 did not increase MA toxicity, suggesting that the production of formaldehyde via tissue-bound, SSAO-mediated MA metabolism does not play a role in the minimal toxicity observed in isolated rat VSMC. The omission of fetal calf serum (FCS), which contains high SSAO activity, from media similarly showed little effect on cytotoxicity. We conclude that VSMC--in contrast to previous results in endothelial cells--are relatively resistant to MA toxicity, and SSAO does not play a role in VSMC injury by MA.

  8. Reduction in porphyrin excretion as a sensitive indicator of lead toxicity in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Vega, B; Hernandez, A; Mendoza-Figueroa, T

    1996-12-01

    Alterations of specific metabolic pathways can be used as sensitive indicators of toxicity by chemicals and can give valuable information on the mechanism(s) involved. Short-term effects of lead on hepatic haem biosynthesis were studied in an in vitro system. Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were exposed for 24-48 hr to lead (0.024-3.6 mm), and excreted and intracellular porphyrins were measured in untreated and lead-treated cultures. Cytotoxicity, as estimated by enzyme leakage, and morphological alterations were also evaluated. Control hepatocytes produced porphyrins at a rate of 387 pmol/mg cellular protein/day. Most of the released and intracellular porphyrins were protoporphyrins, although uro- and coproporphyrins were also detected in lower amounts. After 24 hr of exposure to 0.1-3.6 mm Pb(2+) , excreted porphyrins decreased by 24-92% and intracellular porphyrins by 36-60%, while 48 hr of exposure to 0.024-3.6 mm Pb(2+) caused a progressive reduction of 77-97% in porphyrin excretion and of 49-67% in intracellular porphyrins. Lead exposure also produced a differential decrease of proto-, copro- and uro-porphyrin excretion. These lead effects can be explained mainly by inhibition of the enzyme 5-aminolaevulinate dehydratase, resulting in a decreased monopyrrole supply for porphyrin biosynthesis, and probably by inhibition of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Morphological alterations and enzyme leakage were detected only after 24 hr of exposure to 2.4 mm and 48 hr of exposure to 3.6 mm Pb(2+), respectively. The results show that changes in porphyrin production, and particularly in their excretion, in cultured rat hepatocytes are useful indicators of lead toxicity, since they are more sensitive than enzyme leakage and can give preliminary information on the enzyme(s) that could be affected. They also suggest the potential benefits of the use of this method for the evaluation of compounds that alter haem biosynthesis.

  9. Capillary size exclusion chromatography with picogram sensitivity for analysis of monoclonal antibodies purified from harvested cell culture fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jennifer C; Moreno, G Tony; Vampola, Lisa; Lou, Yun; van Haan, Bjorn; Tremintin, Guillaume; Simmons, Laura; Nava, Adrian; Wang, Yajun Jennifer; Farnan, Dell

    2012-01-06

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is widely used in the characterization and quality control of therapeutic proteins to detect aggregates. Aggregation is a carefully monitored quality attribute from the earliest stages of clinical development owing to the possibility of eliciting an immunogenic response in the patient. During early stage molecule assessment for cell culture production, small-scale screening experiments are performed to permit rapid turn-around of results so as to not delay timelines. We report the development of a capillary SEC methodology for preliminary molecule assessment to support the evaluation of therapeutic candidates at an early stage of development. By making several key modifications to a commercially available liquid chromatography system, we demonstrate a platform process to perform capillary SEC with excellent precision, picogram sensitivity and good ruggedness. The limit of quantitation was determined to be approximately 15 pg; picogram sensitivity for SEC analysis of monoclonal antibodies had not been achieved prior to this work. In addition, we have developed a method to capture low levels of antibody (1 μg/mL) from harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) for capillary SEC analysis. Up to 40% recovery efficiency was achieved using this micro-recovery method on 3 mL HCCF samples. Using early stage cell culture transient transfection samples, which typically have much lower titers than stable cell line samples, we demonstrate a consistent method for analyzing aggregates in low protein concentration HCCF samples for molecule assessment and early stage candidate screening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Islamic religious and cultural beliefs regarding intellectual impairment and service use: a South Asian parental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur-Bola, Kulwinder; Randhawa, Gurch

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that some South Asian families from Muslim backgrounds may use fewer additional support services for their severely impaired children compared to other non-Muslim families. Often this has been attributed to socioeconomic factors and stereotypical views such as "the family's faith prohibits the use of specific services". This paper focuses on clarifying what Islam purports to say about impairment and considers how cultural influences may inadvertently influence some South Asian parents' decisions to use services for their severely impaired children. This work aims to improve professional-parent/patient communication by enhancing better understanding of Islam on impairment, and supporting non-Muslim professionals to appreciate the differences between Islamic religion and general South Asian cultural beliefs regarding disability. Fourteen parents from ten Pakistani and Bangladeshi families took part in semi-structured open-ended interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. The emerging theory suggested most first generation Muslim families from rural villages were unable to distinguish between Islamic religious and cultural beliefs on impairment, and risked missing out on essential services due to poor professional-parent/patient communication.

  11. Quality of healthcare services and its relationship with patient safety culture and nurse-physician professional communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ghahramanian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated quality of healthcare services from patients’ perspectives and its relationship with patient safety culture and nurse-physician professional communication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 surgery patients and 101 nurses caring them in a public hospital in Tabriz–Iran. Data were collected using the service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL, hospital survey on patient safety culture (HSOPSC and nurse physician professional communication questionnaire. Results: The highest and lowest mean (±SD scores of the patients’ perception on the healthcare services quality belonged to the assurance 13.92 (±3.55 and empathy 6.78 (±1.88 domains,respectively. With regard to the patient safety culture, the mean percentage of positive answers ranged from 45.87% for "non-punitive response to errors" to 68.21% for "organizational continuous learning" domains. The highest and lowest mean (±SD scores for the nurse physician professional communication were obtained for "cooperation" 3.44 (±0.35 and "non participative decision-making" 2.84 (±0.34 domains, respectively. The "frequency of reported errors by healthcare professionals" (B=-4.20, 95% CI = -7.14 to -1.27, P<0.01 and "respect and sharing of information" (B=7.69, 95% CI=4.01 to 11.36, P<0.001 predicted the patients’perceptions of the quality of healthcare services. Conclusion: Organizational culture in dealing with medical error should be changed to non punitive response. Change in safety culture towards reporting of errors, effective communication and teamwork between healthcare professionals are recommended.

  12. A service-learning elective to promote enhanced understanding of civic, cultural, and social issues and health disparities in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bethanne; Heaton, Pamela C; Wall, Andrea

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness and impact of an elective service-learning course offered in cooperation with a charitable pharmacy providing services to the surrounding community. The 33 students enrolled in the service-learning elective were given a 23-question preservice survey instrument and a 32-question postservice survey instrument. The survey instruments were designed to measure change in the students' perceived knowledge and understanding regarding civic, cultural, and social issues and health disparities. Significant differences in responses on the presurvey and postsurvey instruments suggested changes in students' attitudes and perceptions about the patients and the community in which they serve. Results of the survey indicated that by exposing students to issues affecting individuals and the community during this elective, a positive change in the student's perception of their knowledge and understanding of broader issues facing the community was observed. Service-Learning courses provide additional opportunities for students to develop as competent, engaged, and caring health care professionals.

  13. Improving Human-Computer Interaction by Developing Culture-sensitive Applications based on Common Sense Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, Junia Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    The advent of Web 3.0, claiming for personalization in interactive systems (Lassila & Hendler, 2007), and the need for systems capable of interacting in a more natural way in the future society flooded with computer systems and devices (Harper et al., 2008) show that great advances in HCI should be done. This chapter presents some contributions of LIA for the future of HCI, defending that using common sense knowledge is a possibility for improving HCI, especially because people assign meaning to their messages based on their common sense and, therefore, the use of this knowledge in developing user interfaces can make them more intuitive to the end-user. Moreover, as common sense knowledge varies from group to group of people, it can be used for developing applications capable of giving different feedback for different target groups, as the applications presented along this chapter illustrate, allowing, in this way, interface personalization taking into account cultural issues. For the purpose of using com...

  14. The Sensitivity of Capital Services Measurement: Measure all assets and the cost of capital

    OpenAIRE

    Inklaar, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of capital inputs is still a contentious issue: many choices have to be made that have potentially large effects on the resulting capital input series, some entailing differing assumptions about firm behaviour. This paper compares a large number of methodological choices and their impact on US capital services growth at the industry and aggregate level. The results show that measuring all assets, in particular intangible assets, and the choice for the rate of return matter sub...

  15. Bringing Science to the Service of Culture: The Recovery of Endangered Birds of Prey and the Recovery of Our Relationship with Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl

    1996-01-01

    For 20 years, Robert Mestas, a Native American biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has devoted his career to the study, conservation, and management of endangered birds of prey. The study of his own Yaqui culture and of other traditional Indian cultures has deepened his conviction regarding the cultural significance of preserving…

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Views on the Presentation of Culture in EFL Coursebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiloglu, Kamile

    2013-01-01

    Along with the suitable methodology to teach English as a foreign language, social and cultural domains have become prominent as well and now they constitute a very significant part of English language education. Considering that culture is an inseparable part of a language, the concept of culture and its use in EFL classes have become an…

  17. Selective sensitiveness of mesenchymal stem cells to shock waves leads to anticancer effect in human cancer cell co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglietta, Federica; Duchi, Serena; Canaparo, Roberto; Varchi, Greta; Lucarelli, Enrico; Dozza, Barbara; Serpe, Loredana

    2017-03-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) possess the distinctive feature of homing in on and engrafting into the tumor stroma making their therapeutic applications in cancer treatment very promising. Research into new effectors and external stimuli, which can selectively trigger the release of cytotoxic species from MSC toward the cancer cells, significantly raises their potential. Shock waves (SW) have recently gained recognition for their ability to induce specific biological effects, such as the local generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a non-invasive and tunable manner. We thus investigate whether MSC are able to generate ROS and, in turn, affect cancer cell growth when in co-culture with human glioblastoma (U87) or osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells and exposed to SW. MSC were found to be the cell line that was most sensitive to SW treatment as shown by SW-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity. Notably, U87 and U2OS cancer cell growth was unaffected by SW exposure. However, significant decreases in cancer cell growth, 1.8 fold for U87 and 2.3 fold for U2OS, were observed 24h after the SW treatment of MSC co-cultures with cancer cells. The ROS production induced in MSC by SW exposure was then responsible for lipid peroxidation and cell death in U87 and U2OS cells co-cultured with MSC. This experiment highlights the unique ability of MSC to generate ROS upon SW treatment and induce the cell death of co-cultured cancer cells. SW might therefore be proposed as an innovative tool for MSC-mediated cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Culturally sensitive assessments as a strength-based approach to wellness in Native communities: A community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Steven P; Avila, Magdalena; Espinosa, Patricia Rodríguez; Cholka, Cecilia Brooke; Benson, Jennifer G; Baloo, Aihsa; Pozernick, Caitlin Devin

    2016-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have a unique, traumatic, and alienating history of education in the U.S., which may be directly related to overall health and well-being. Community engagement is critical in well-being research with Native communities, especially when investigating culturally sensitive topics, such as early education experiences. This study investigates the value of a community-based participatory research approach in gaining valuable culturally sensitive information from Native people in a respectful manner. Assessment participation and feedback are analyzed and presented as indicators of Native participant engagement success in a potentially sensitive research project exploring early education experiences.

  19. Professional discourse and service cultures: an organisational typology developed from health and welfare services for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, T; Cochrane, A; Greenwell, S

    2003-09-01

    This study focuses upon the effect of social policy upon a particular area of service provision. It is influenced by the Foucauldian concept of governmentality and the proposition by Lewis et al. that social policy needs to be understood in local contexts. Only through understanding the partial and fragmented impact of policy can we gain a clear insight into the outcomes for users. The study is undertaken through an exploration of the micro politics of organisations providing health and welfare services for people with learning disabilities. It involves an approach to discourse analysis that focuses upon text developed from interviews with service providers, which is brought into contact with published literature in an iterative process. The interpretation of the text produces four themes: power, trust, citizenship and managerialism. The development of these themes and a further holistic interpretation of the text suggest an emerging organisational typology. A typology based upon different articulations of the themes noted that work to produce particular outcomes for service users.

  20. Validation of a provider self-report inventory for measuring patient-centered cultural sensitivity in health care using a sample of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Tucker, Carolyn M; Herman, Keith C; Hernandez, Caridad A

    2010-04-01

    The paper describes the construction and initial evaluation of the new Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Inventory (T-CSHCI) Provider Form, which was developed to address the shortcomings of existing similar measures. Two hundred seventeen (217) 3rd and 4th year medical students completed the T-CSHCI-Provider Form. Factor analysis was used to identify non-overlapping items. The final solution produced five factors: patient-centeredness, interpersonal skills, disrespect/disempowerment, competence, and cultural knowledge/responsiveness. The five T-CSHCI-Provider Form factors/subscales proved to be reliable and were associated with related constructs as hypothesized. This study provides initial evidence that the T-CSHCI-Provider Form measures independent dimensions of patient-centered culturally sensitive health care as perceived by medical students. Recommendations for ways in which the T-CSHCI Provider Form can be used to guide culturally sensitive health care training are provided.

  1. Institutional, Individual, and Socio-Cultural Domains of Partnerships: A Typology of USDA Forest Service Recreation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Cerveny, Lee K.; McCreary, Allie

    2011-09-01

    Federal land management agencies, such as the USDA Forest Service, have expanded the role of recreation partners reflecting constrained growth in appropriations and broader societal trends towards civic environmental governance. Partnerships with individual volunteers, service groups, commercial outfitters, and other government agencies provide the USDA Forest Service with the resources necessary to complete projects and meet goals under fiscal constraints. Existing partnership typologies typically focus on collaborative or strategic alliances and highlight organizational dimensions (e.g., structure and process) defined by researchers. This paper presents a partner typology constructed from USDA Forest Service partnership practitioners' conceptualizations of 35 common partner types. Multidimensional scaling of data from unconstrained pile sorts identified 3 distinct cultural dimensions of recreation partners—specifically, partnership character, partner impact, and partner motivations—that represent institutional, individual, and socio-cultural cognitive domains. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis provides further insight into the various domains of agency personnel's conceptualizations. While three dimensions with high reliability (RSQ = 0.83) and corresponding hierarchical clusters illustrate commonality between agency personnel's partnership suppositions, this study also reveals variance in personnel's familiarity and affinity for specific partnership types. This real-world perspective on partner types highlights that agency practitioners not only make strategic choices when selecting and cultivating partnerships to accomplish critical task, but also elect to work with partners for the primary purpose of providing public service and fostering land stewardship.

  2. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised.Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers.Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts.Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list.Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork.Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  3. Working with Jewish ultra-orthodox patients: guidelines for a culturally sensitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilu, Y; Witztum, E

    1993-06-01

    The epistemological gap between the medical reality of mental health practitioners and the sacred reality of their Jewish ultra-orthodox patients poses a major challenge for therapy. Based on our work with psychiatric patients from the ultra-orthodox community of northern Jerusalem, we propose a set of guidelines to cope with this challenge. Basically, we seek to incorporate religiously congruent elements, composed of metaphoric images, narratives and actions, into the wide range of our "secular" treatment modalities in order to respond to the patient's suffering, often expressed through distinctively religious idioms of distress. This endeavor calls for "a temporary suspension of disbelief" on both sides. The guidelines presented include three sets of factors which appear pertinent to working with ultra-orthodox patients. The first set is contextual in nature, dealing with the image of the clinic and its physical setting; the second discusses the necessary role requisites of the therapists; and the third one, accorded a central importance, deals on various levels with the therapeutic interventions administered in terms of form and content. Several case vignettes are presented to illustrate three classes of religiously informed interventions: healing rituals, dream interpretation, and the use of culturally congruent metaphors and stories. In the concluding part we discuss ethical and instrumental issues that the proposed therapeutic guidelines may raise.

  4. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed. PMID:22899952

  5. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Quave

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed.

  6. Preparation and participation of undergraduate students to inform culturally sensitive research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jo Nell; Cagle, Carolyn Spence

    2009-07-01

    Most student work as research assistants occurs at the graduate level of nursing education, and little is known about the role of undergraduate students as research assistants (RAs) in major research projects. Based on our desire to study Mexican American (MA) cancer caregivers, we needed bilingual and bicultural RAs to serve as data collectors with women who spoke Spanish and possessed cultural beliefs that influenced their caregiving. Following successful recruitment, orientation, and mentoring based on Bandura's social learning theory [Bandura, A., 2001. Social learning theory: an agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 1-26] and accepted teaching-learning principles, RAs engaged in various behaviors that facilitated study outcomes. Faculty researchers, RAs, and study participants benefitted greatly from the undergraduate student involvement in this project. This article describes successful student inclusion approaches, ongoing faculty-RA interactions, and lessons learned from the research team experience. Guidelines discussed support the potential for making the undergraduate RA role a useful and unique learning experience.

  7. Exploring EFL Pre-Service Teachers’ Experience with Cultural Content and Intercultural Communicative Competence at Three Colombian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaya Alba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a qualitative research project that explored pre-service English teachers’ perceptions of and attitudes toward the aspects of culture and intercultural competence addressed in their English classes in the undergraduate programs at three Colombian universities. Findings reveal that pre-service teachers are mainly taught elements of surface culture and lack full understanding of intercultural competence. They also see culture as a separate aspect of their future teaching career. We provide alternatives so that pre-service teachers might overcome limitations of the teaching of culture as preparation for their future teaching career in the foreign language classroom.Este artículo reporta los hallazgos de una investigación cualitativa que indagó sobre las percepciones y las actitudes de los profesores en formación en el área de inglés respecto a los contenidos culturales y la competencia cultural que se abordan en las clases de inglés, en tres universidades colombianas. Los hallazgos revelan que los docentes en formación primordialmente tratan aspectos de la cultura superficial y no tienen total claridad de qué es la competencia comunicativa intercultural. También conciben la cultura como un aspecto desligado de su futura profesión docente. Se sugieren algunas alternativas para que los profesores en formación puedan superar las limitaciones de la enseñanza de la cultura y se preparen para su futura carrera docente en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera.

  8. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M.; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients. PMID:28890772

  9. Identification and control of dissolved oxygen in hybridoma cell culture in a shear sensitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Karim, M N

    2001-01-01

    The productivity of mammalian cells can be enhanced by facilitating adequate oxygen transfer into the cultivation medium. However, current methods of controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) fail to account for alterations in medium composition during the course of the fermentation. These changes, which directly affect gas solubility and overall mass transfer coefficient, may be significant and deteriorate controller's performance in the long run. In this paper, the applications of Generalized Predictive Controllers (GPC) to DO control were investigated in a shear sensitive environment and compared to PID and Model Predictive Controllers (MPC). Input and output data for system identification were initially generated by varying the composition of oxygen fed into the bioreactor from 0 to 0.21 mol % while keeping the total inlet gas flow rate at 8.75 vvm. The process was identified using an AutoRegressive model with eXogeneous inputs (ARX) model and tested on different data sets. The model parameters were then correlated with the overall mass transfer coefficients. In simulation tests, the output of the PID controller switched from minimum to maximum values while more continuous control signals were obtained with the MPC and GPC controllers. When tested in a cell-free medium, all three controllers were able to track setpoint changes with some chattering observed in the control signals. The GPC outperformed the MPC and PID controllers when applied to the cultivation of hybridoma cells.

  10. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  11. A sensitive sensor cell line for the detection of oxidative stress responses in cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ute; Priem, Melanie; Bartzsch, Christine; Winckler, Thomas; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2014-06-25

    In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B' promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B'. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B' gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B' promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS) that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  12. The PRIDE (Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education) Toolkit: Development and Evaluation of Novel Literacy and Culturally Sensitive Diabetes Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kathleen; Chambers, Laura; Bumol, Stefan; White, Richard O; Gregory, Becky Pratt; Davis, Dianne; Rothman, Russell L

    2016-02-01

    Patients with low literacy, low numeracy, and/or linguistic needs can experience challenges understanding diabetes information and applying concepts to their self-management. The authors designed a toolkit of education materials that are sensitive to patients' literacy and numeracy levels, language preferences, and cultural norms and that encourage shared goal setting to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. The Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education (PRIDE) toolkit was developed to facilitate diabetes self-management education and support. The PRIDE toolkit includes a comprehensive set of 30 interactive education modules in English and Spanish to support diabetes self-management activities. The toolkit builds upon the authors' previously validated Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit (DLNET) by adding a focus on shared goal setting, addressing the needs of Spanish-speaking patients, and including a broader range of diabetes management topics. Each PRIDE module was evaluated using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument to determine the material's cultural appropriateness and its sensitivity to the needs of patients with low literacy and low numeracy. Reading grade level was also assessed using the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, and SMOG formulas. The average reading grade level of the materials was 5.3 (SD 1.0), with a mean SAM of 91.2 (SD 5.4). All of the 30 modules received a "superior" score (SAM >70%) when evaluated by 2 independent raters. The PRIDE toolkit modules can be used by all members of a multidisciplinary team to assist patients with low literacy and low numeracy in managing their diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validity of the Korean version of the pain sensitivity questionnaire in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Yeo, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Hyeon-Guk; Yi, Je-Min; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate pain sensitivity questionnaires (PSQ) into the Korean language, perform a cross-cultural adaption of the PSQ, and validate the Korean version of PSQ in patients with degenerative spinal disease. The PSQ was translated forward and backward, cross-culturally adapted by 2 independent translators, and approved by an expert committee. The final Korean version of the PSQ was tested on 72 patients with degenerative spinal disease. Test-retest reliability was evaluated for 60 patients (83%) who completed the second assessment in an interval of 4 weeks. The mean PSQ-minor, PSQ-moderate, and PSQ-total (standard deviation [SD]) were 5.40 (2.02), 6.46 (1.98), and 5.93 (1.93), respectively. The PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version showed very good internal consistencies determined by the Cronbach's α of 0.926, 0.869, and 0.877, respectively. For convergent validity, the PSQ scores of the Korean version showed significant correlations with pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) (r = 0.377, P = 0.002; r = 0.365, P = 0.003; r = 0.362, P = 0.003 for PSQ-total, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate of the Korean version, respectively). For test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.782 for PSQ-total, 0.752 for PSQ-minor, and 0.793 for PSQ-moderate. In conclusion, the validated Korean version of PSQ is a transculturally equivalent, reliable, and valid tool to assess individual pain sensitivity. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  14. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay: Rapid, Sensitive and Culture-Independent Identification of Bacteria and Candida in Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infection (BSI and sepsis are rising in incidence throughout the developed world. The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms presents increasing challenges to treatment. Surviving BSI is dependent on rapid and accurate identification of causal organisms, and timely application of appropriate antibiotics. Current culture-based methods used to detect and identify agents of BSI are often too slow to impact early therapy and may fail to detect relevant organisms in many positive cases. Existing methods for direct molecular detection of microbial DNA in blood are limited in either sensitivity (likely the result of small sample volumes or in breadth of coverage, often because the PCR primers and probes used target only a few specific pathogens. There is a clear unmet need for a sensitive molecular assay capable of identifying the diverse bacteria and yeast associated with BSI directly from uncultured whole blood samples. We have developed a method of extracting DNA from larger volumes of whole blood (5 ml per sample, amplifying multiple widely conserved bacterial and fungal genes using a mismatch- and background-tolerant PCR chemistry, and identifying hundreds of diverse organisms from the amplified fragments on the basis of species-specific genetic signatures using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS. We describe the analytical characteristics of the IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay and compare its pre-clinical performance to current standard-of-care methods in a collection of prospectively collected blood specimens from patients with symptoms of sepsis. The assay generated matching results in 80% of culture-positive cases (86% when common contaminants were excluded from the analysis, and twice the total number of positive detections. The described method is capable of providing organism identifications directly from uncultured blood in less than 8 hours.The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay is not available in the United States.

  15. Reconciling evidence-based practice and cultural competence in mental health services: introduction to a special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    The calls for evidence-based practice (EBP) and cultural competence (CC) represent two increasingly influential mandates within the mental health professions. Advocates of EBP seek to standardize clinical practice by ensuring that only treatment techniques that have demonstrated therapeutic outcomes under scientifically controlled conditions would be adopted and promoted in mental health services. Advocates of CC seek to diversify clinical practice by ensuring that treatment approaches are designed and refined for a multicultural clientele that reflects a wide variety of psychological orientations and life experiences. As these two powerful mandates collide, the fundamental challenge becomes how to accommodate substantive cultural divergences in psychosocial experience using narrowly prescriptive clinical practices and approaches, without trivializing either professional knowledge or cultural difference. In this Introduction to a special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry, the virtue of an interdisciplinary conversation between and among anthropologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and social work researchers in addressing these tensions is extolled. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Economic constraints and quality assurance in mental health services: sensitive indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, N; Papineau, D

    1984-03-01

    Clinicians in the field of mental health are met with the dual challenge of increased accountability and shrinking resources. Funds are often allocated through the use of crude administrative monitors. This is of little solace to the clinician faced with unmet patients' wants and needs. A set of clinical monitors is outlined requiring the practitioner's cooperation. The presentation of an accurate composite picture is a must in the process of resource allocation. Such clinical monitors include the analysis of characteristics of patients such as the repeaters at emergency, "the revolving door" pool of patients and those falling in between networks. Reviews of waiting lists and lengths of stay, an evaluation of nursing care variables, the auditing of the choice of therapeutic modalities and the use of restraints are other suggested contributors to the assessment of service needs.

  17. Primary Care Sensitive Hospitalization: users detect flaws on the access to services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cristina Morais Santa Barbara Rehem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and understand the reasons for the occurrence of sensitive hospitalizations in accordance with users. Qualitative study conducted with users who were admitted to Pedreira General Hospital, in São Paulo. The data was collected through semi structured interviews and thereafter, transcribed and processed in the electronic program Alceste. When analyzing the content, the access was seized fundamentally as an empirical category, bringing up problems that later deserved, from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, a specific Program to improve the quality and access to primary care. The hierarchical and pyramidal organization shape from the health system in the city of São Paulo can be one of the important aspects for the access matter and established as an important restricting factor in the primary care role in reducing or even preventing the occurrence of these hospitalizations.

  18. Integrating HIV and maternal health services: will organizational culture clash sow the seeds of a new and improved implementation practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Lynn P

    2011-08-01

    Drawing on an analysis by Pritchett et al of the "techniques of persistent implementation failure" common across many development sectors, this commentary suggests that health systems attempting to integrate maternal health and HIV services may need to contend with a profound clash of organizational cultures. For decades, countries have been pressed to implement global "best practices" in maternal health without attention to the systemic capacity building needed to support complex interventions. The result is often form without function, a kind of "isomorphic mimicry" in which policy documents and program plans that meet global standards ultimately camouflage deep dysfunction in the actual delivery of lifesaving services. As a result, the organizational culture that surrounds maternal health services often stands in stark contrast to the can-do style that has characterized the rapid, well-resourced deployment of HIV services over the last few years. As integration proceeds, the resolution of this clash may hold the seeds of a much-needed transformation of implementation support practices in both fields.

  19. A protocol for eliciting nonmaterial values through a cultural ecosystem services frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachelle K; Klain, Sarah C; Ardoin, Nicole M; Satterfield, Terre; Woodside, Ulalia; Hannahs, Neil; Daily, Gretchen C; Chan, Kai M

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholders’ nonmaterial desires, needs, and values often critically influence the success of conservation projects. These considerations are challenging to articulate and characterize, resulting in their limited uptake in management and policy. We devised an interview protocol designed to enhance understanding of cultural ecosystem services (CES). The protocol begins with discussion of ecosystem-related activities (e.g., recreation, hunting) and management and then addresses CES, prompting for values encompassing concepts identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and explored in other CES research. We piloted the protocol in Hawaii and British Columbia. In each location, we interviewed 30 individuals from diverse backgrounds. We analyzed results from the 2 locations to determine the effectiveness of the interview protocol in elucidating nonmaterial values. The qualitative and spatial components of the protocol helped characterize cultural, social, and ethical values associated with ecosystems in multiple ways. Maps and situational, or vignette-like, questions helped respondents articulate difficult-to-discuss values. Open-ended prompts allowed respondents to express a diversity of ecosystem-related values and proved sufficiently flexible for interviewees to communicate values for which the protocol did not explicitly probe. Finally, the results suggest that certain values, those mentioned frequently throughout the interview, are particularly salient for particular populations. The protocol can provide efficient, contextual, and place-based data on the importance of particular ecosystem attributes for human well-being. Qualitative data are complementary to quantitative and spatial assessments in the comprehensive representation of people's values pertaining to ecosystems, and this protocol may assist in incorporating values frequently overlooked in decision making processes. Un Protocolo para Obtener Valores No Materiales por medio de un Marco de

  20. Transformational leadership, transnational culture and political competence in globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan's King Hussein Cancer Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappas Gregory

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC, it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership over a three-year period (2002–2005. Methods An exploratory case research method was used to explain the rapid change to international standards. Sources including personal interviews, document review and on-site observations were combined to conduct a robust examination of KHCC's rapid changes. Results The changes which occurred at the KHCC during its formation and leading up to its Joint Commission International (JCI accreditation can be understood within the conceptual frame of the transformational leadership model. Interviewees and other sources for the case study suggest the use of inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, four factors in the transformational leadership model, had significant impact upon the attitudes and motivation of staff within KHCC. Changes in the institution were achieved through increased motivation and positive attitudes toward the use of JCI continuous improvement processes as well as increased professional training. The case study suggests the role of culture and political sensitivity needs re-definition and expansion within the transformational leadership model to adequately explain leadership in the context of globalizing health care services, specifically when governments are involved in the change initiative. Conclusion The KHCC case underscores the utility of the transformational leadership model in an international health care context. To understand leadership in globalizing health care services, KHCC

  1. [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Nesterov, A E; Nosareva, O V; Shishkina, L N; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Positive dynamics of the virus accumulation was observed only in the monocyte-macrophages with maximum values of virus concentration (5.0-5.5 Ig PFU/ml) mainly within six days after the infection. The fact of VARV replication in the monocyte-macrophages was confirmed by the data of electron microscopy. At the same time, virus vaccines when tested in doses 3.3 and 4.2 Ig PFU/ml did not show the ability to reproduce in these human cells. The people sensitivity to VARV as assessed from the data obtained on human monocyte-macrophages corresponded to -1 PFU (taking into account the smooth interaction of the virus in the body to the cells of this type), which is consistent to previously found theoretical data on the virus sensitivity. The human susceptibility to VARV assessed experimentally can be used to predict the adequacy of developed smallpox models (in vivo) based on susceptible animals. This is necessary for reliable assessment of the efficiency of development of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis of the smallpox.

  2. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H.; Bluemling, B.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural

  3. Using visual stimuli to explore the social perceptions of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Santiago, César A.; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Martín-López, Berta

    2014-01-01

    in relation to certain socio-demographic and cultural respondent characteristics such as a previous relationship with transhumance and agriculture, rural/urban origin and identity, environmental awareness, and cultural attachment to a place. Four groups of respondents had consistent and diverging ecosystem...

  4. Providing Transition Services for Students with Disabilities from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoke, Selete Kofi; Simon-Burroughs, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Youth with disabilities from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds are at high risk for a number of negative postschool outcomes including high unemployment, low wages, and limited access to postsecondary education and training. Cultural and linguistic differences may negatively impact transition planning for these youth as they…

  5. Toward Defining Programs and Services for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Shernaz B.; Malkin, Diana H.

    1993-01-01

    Intended to help special educators with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, this article discusses the importance of addressing students' language characteristics, developing a language use plan, recognizing the important influence of cultural factors on childrearing practices and communication styles, selecting appropriate…

  6. How can service organizations improve the customer orientation of frontline employees? : a cross cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Even Meek; Sky, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Frontline employees, the employees with customer contact, are the face of service organizations and play a critical role in determining customer satisfaction. Service quality is greatly improved when these employees are customer oriented. Customer orientation refers to an individual’s commitment to delivering great customer service. While some research exists, the antecedents to customer orientation are insufficiently studied. Answering a call for new insights into this importa...

  7. Supply sensitive services in Swiss ambulatory care: An analysis of basic health insurance records for 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swiss ambulatory care is characterized by independent, and primarily practice-based, physicians, receiving fee for service reimbursement. This study analyses supply sensitive services using ambulatory care claims data from mandatory health insurance. A first research question was aimed at the hypothesis that physicians with large patient lists decrease their intensity of services and bill less per patient to health insurance, and vice versa: physicians with smaller patient lists compensate for the lack of patients with additional visits and services. A second research question relates to the fact that several cantons are allowing physicians to directly dispense drugs to patients ('self-dispensation' whereas other cantons restrict such direct sales to emergencies only. This second question was based on the assumption that patterns of rescheduling patients for consultations may differ across channels of dispensing prescription drugs and therefore the hypothesis of different consultation costs in this context was investigated. Methods Complete claims data paid for by mandatory health insurance of all Swiss physicians in own practices were analyzed for the years 2003-2007. Medical specialties were pooled into six main provider types in ambulatory care: primary care, pediatrics, gynecology & obstetrics, psychiatrists, invasive and non-invasive specialists. For each provider type, regression models at the physician level were used to analyze the relationship between the number of patients treated and the total sum of treatment cost reimbursed by mandatory health insurance. Results The results show non-proportional relationships between patient numbers and total sum of treatment cost for all provider types involved implying that treatment costs per patient increase with higher practice size. The related additional costs to the health system are substantial. Regions with self-dispensation had lowest treatment cost for primary care

  8. UMR: A utility-maximizing routing algorithm for delay-sensitive service in LEO satellite networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a routing algorithm for delay-sensitive packet transmission in a low earth orbit multi-hop satellite network consists of micro-satellites. The micro-satellite low earth orbit (MS-LEO network endures unstable link connection and frequent link congestion due to the uneven user distribution and the link capacity variations. The proposed routing algorithm, referred to as the utility maximizing routing (UMR algorithm, improve the network utility of the MS-LEO network for carrying flows with strict end-to-end delay bound requirement. In UMR, first, a link state parameter is defined to capture the link reliability on continuing to keep the end-to-end delay into constraint; then, on the basis of this parameter, a routing metric is formulated and a routing scheme is designed for balancing the reliability in delay bound guarantee among paths and building a path maximizing the network utility expectation. While the UMR algorithm has many advantages, it may result in a higher blocking rate of new calls. This phenomenon is discussed and a weight factor is introduced into UMR to provide a flexible performance option for network operator. A set of simulations are conducted to verify the good performance of UMR, in terms of balancing the traffic distribution on inter-satellite links, reducing the flow interruption rate, and improving the network utility.

  9. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  10. Cultured mast cells from asthmatic patients and controls respond with similar sensitivity to recombinant Der P2 induced, IgE-mediated activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Inge Jacoba Maria Kortekaas; Sverrild, Asger; Lund, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    The function of cultured mast cells may depend on genetic or environmental influence on the stem cell donor. This study investigates whether asthma or atopy in the donor influenced the growth and sensitivity of mast cells cultured from patients with asthma and healthy controls under identical...... conditions. Mast cells were cultured from peripheral blood from twelve patients with an objectively confirmed asthma diagnosis and eight healthy subjects. During the last 2 weeks of culture, mast cells were incubated with IL-4 and 80 kU/l recombinant human IgE containing two clones (7% + 7%) specific...... for mite allergen Der p2. The sensitivity of IgE-mediated activation of mast cells was investigated as FcεRI-mediated upregulation of CD63. Ten subjects were atopic, defined as a positive skin prick test (>3 mm) to at least one of ten common allergens. After activation with recombinant Der p2, the maximum...

  11. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  12. Exploring Futures of Ecosystem Services in Cultural Landscapes through Participatory Scenario Development in the Swabian Alb, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscapes are appreciated for the plethora of ecosystem services that they provide to society. They are, however, subject to rapid and fundamental transformations across Europe, mainly as a result of intensification or abandonment of land uses. Our objective is to assess the possible future drivers of cultural landscape changes and their likely impacts on ecosystem services provision as perceived by local actors. We present stakeholder-based scenarios for the Swabian Alb, a biosphere reserve in southern Germany, projected to the yr 2040. On their basis, we explore the possibilities and limitations of local civil engagement for landscape conservation and development in the face of increasing global influences. The steps of the process are (a identifying the key driving forces of landscape change, (b developing contrasting narratives about alternative landscape futures, (c refining the narratives, (d discussing scenario impacts, and (e exploring local management strategies. Four contrasting scenarios created by the stakeholders are presented. Global-level drivers are state support/regulations vs. free-market economy, and energy-intensive lifestyles vs. low-energy economy. Local-level forces are high vs. low consumer demand for localized food, and high vs. low appreciation of local cultural landscapes. Outcomes show that cultural landscape development may come to a crossroads over the next 30 yrs, with either combined land abandonment and landscape industrialization scenarios or multifunctional, locally distinct landscape futures being possible. The scenario narratives envision that the most powerful way to develop and protect distinct landscapes is to foster local people's links to cultural landscapes, to build social capital around them, and to direct consumption patterns toward localized food production. We find that participatory scenario processes have strengths in terms of the credibility, transferability, and confirmability of the

  13. Cross-Cultural Design of Mobile Mathematics Learning Service for South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tanja; Vainio, Teija; Varsaluoma, Jari

    2014-01-01

    In the era of mobile devices and services, researchers in the educational domain have been interested in how to support learning with mobile technology in both local and global contexts. Recent human-computer interaction (HCI) research in the educational domain has particularly focused on how to develop mobile learning services and how to evaluate…

  14. Socio-cultural valuation of ecosystem services in a transhumance social-ecological network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteros Rozas, E.; Martín-López, B.; González, J.A.; Plieninger, T.; López, C.A.; Montes, C.

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services framework is receiving increasing attention in the fields of policy and research. The assessment of human attitudes and perceptions regarding ecosystem services has been proposed as a promising tool for addressing complex problems associated with environmental change, particul

  15. Assessing the importance of cultural ecosystem services in urban areas of Beijing municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dou, Yuehan; Zhen, Lin; Groot, de Dolf; Du, Bingzhen; Yu, Xiubo

    2017-01-01

    The world is rapidly urbanising, with both positive and negative consequences. One major challenge is how to secure the long-term quality of life for urban residents. Many studies on quality of life are based on ‘material’ ecosystem services (i.e., provisioning and regulating services), with less

  16. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather A. Sander; Robert G. Haight

    2012-01-01

    A need exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of the values associated with ecosystem services and amenities. This article explores the use of hedonic pricing as a tool for eliciting these values. We take a case study approach, valuing several services provided by ecosystems, namely aesthetic quality (views), access to outdoor recreation, and the benefits...

  17. Estimating the economic value of cultural ecosystem services in an urbanizing area using hedonic pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services and amenities are undeniable valuable. However, their values are poorly recognized and, as a result, ecosystem services and amenities tend to be treated as though valueless. A need thus exists to increase both knowledge and recognition of these values. In this ...

  18. International Students in American Pathway Programs: Learning English and Culture through Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Julie; Berkey, Becca; Griffin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    As the number of international students studying in the United States continues to grow, the body of literature about service-learning in English Language Learning (ELL) curricula is growing in tandem. The primary goal of this paper is to explore how service-learning impacts the development and transition of pathway program students in the United…

  19. Deploying culture as a defence against incompetence: The unconscious dynamics of public service work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peliwe P. Mnguni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The intractability of public service delivery and a polarised societal landscape heighten anxiety and reinforce a propensity for public service organisations to be used for defensive purposes.Research purpose: This article employs social defense theory to explore manifestations of anxiety and defense within South African public service organisations.Motivation for the study: Dominant discourse on public service institutions over-relies on political, sociological and public administration theories and tends to ignore psychosocial explanations. Further, whilst the psychodynamics of social service work are generally understood, the unconscious dynamics of generic public service work remain under-theorised. Research design, approach and method: This conceptual article draws on my personal observations as a reflective citizen and experiences as a consultant to government departments.Main findings: Herein, an argument is advanced that the deployment of ill-qualified party loyalists to key positions in the public service is perverse: it serves as a collective defense against the impossible aspects of the task at hand. The appointees, in turn, deploy organisational processes to defend against feelings of incompetence and the inevitability of failure. This practice, coupled with acute resource constraints, sets up front line staff for scapegoating.Practical/managerial implications: An appreciation of the multiple meanings of public service work and the defensive role played by public institutions stands to inform purposeful change towards sustainable public service organisational practice.Contribution/value-add: The discussion seeks to contribute to attempts that employ systems psychodynamics to make sense of anxiety and defense within organisations in general and public service institutions in particular.

  20. Translating global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context: the development of culturally sensitive counselling tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methods Formative research using a combination of qualitative methods preceded the development of the intervention and mapped existing practices, perceptions and attitudes towards HIV and infant feeding (HIV/IF among mothers, counsellors and community members. Intervention Mapping (IM protocol guided the development of the overall intervention strategy. Theories of behaviour change, a review of the international HIV/IF guidelines and formative research findings contributed to the definition of performance and learning objectives. Key communication messages and colourful graphic illustrations related to infant feeding in the context of HIV were then developed and/or adapted from existing generic materials. Draft materials were field tested with intended audiences and subjected to stakeholder technical review. Results An integrated set of infant feeding counselling tools, referred to as 'job aids', was developed and included brochures on feeding methods that were found to be socially and culturally acceptable, a Question and Answer Guide for counsellors, a counselling card on the risk of transmission of HIV, and an infant feeding toolbox for demonstration. Each brochure describes the steps to ensure safer infant feeding using simple language and images based on local ideas and resources. The brochures are meant to serve as both a reference material during infant feeding counselling in the ongoing prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT of HIV programme and as take home material for the mother. Conclusion The study underscores the importance of formative research and a systematic theory

  1. Social and cultural capital in project marketing service firms: Danish architectural firms on the German market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2002-01-01

    This article analyses the marketing activities of three Danish architectural firms in Germany during the 1990s from a perspective that is new to project marketing, in that the Bourdivan concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the offerings and activities of firms. In architecture......, cultural capital accumulation entails such things as building visible buildings, winning design competitions, or obtaining important tenders, whereas social capital is accumulated through the recognition by other construction industry actors that one is a member of their circles. The cases presented...... provide support for our claim that the accumulation of social and cultural capital is crucial to acquiring architectural projects, while also indicating that cultural and social capital are internationally transferable to a limited extent only. This in turn suggests that national construction industries...

  2. Organizational structure, leadership and readiness for change and the implementation of organizational cultural competence in addiction health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Kim, Ahraemi

    2013-10-01

    Increasing representation of racial and ethnic minorities in the health care system and on-going concerns about existing health disparities have pressured addiction health services programs to enhance their cultural competence. This study examines the extent to which organizational factors, such as structure, leadership and readiness for change contribute to the implementation of community, policy and staffing domains representing organizational cultural competence. Analysis of a randomly selected sample of 122 organizations located in primarily Latino and African American communities showed that programs with public funding and Medicaid reimbursement were positively associated with implementing policies and procedures, while leadership was associated with staff having greater knowledge of minority communities and developing a diverse workforce. Moreover, program climate was positively associated with staff knowledge of communities and having supportive policies and procedures, while programs with graduate staff and parent organizations were negatively associated with knowledge of and involvement in these communities. By investing in funding, leadership skills and a strategic climate, addiction health services programs may develop greater understanding and responsiveness of the service needs of minority communities. Implications for future research and program planning in an era of health care reform in the United States are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE QUALITY OF CULTURAL SERVICES IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurica DVORACIC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It suffices to browse the websites of only a few of the most noteworthy Romanian cultural organizations – including the website of the Ministry of Culture – to conclude that quality policies are missing. In fact, these are not the only policies that are missing, but this topic should be discussed in another paper. The objective of this paper is to analyze the progresses and the opportunities, as well as the problems and the challenges that the Romanian society and economy are facing as far as culture is concerned at the beginning of the new millennium, in the particular context of the global economic crisis: specifically, we will focus on the role of cultural organization managers in implementing quality management as the main factor in assuring the competitiveness needed to overcome the crisis. Cultural organization managers generally admit that a change is needed in order to cope with competitive pressure, but few understand how this change should be implemented. To avoid the issues associated with “change programs”, the management of cultural organizations must focus on the structure of processes, recognizing the roles and responsibilities of their employees in the processes in which they are involved.

  4. Study on Improving Cultural Demand Expression to Promote Healthy Development of Public Cultural Service%完善文化需求表达推进公共文化服务健康发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬严

    2012-01-01

    政府要坚持以满足公民文化需求为出发点,有针对性地提供公共文化产品和服务,才能避免公共文化服务的缺位和错位,使人民群众真正的文化需求得到满足,达到公共文化服务的供求均衡。对公共文化服务需求表达的含义、要素、原则、意义的理解有助于针对公共文化服务表达中存在的问题给出对策建议。%To avoid the absence and dislocation of public cultural services, government shouldmake targeted provision of public cultural services to meet the cultural needs of citizens so as to pro tect the cultural rights of citizens. In this article, demand expression of public cultural service was in trodueed, including its meaning, significance, elements and principle. To promote healthy develop ment of public cultural service, some suggestions were given based on the problem of the demand ex pression of public cultural service.

  5. Introduction of culturally sensitive HIV prevention in the context of female initiation rites: an applied anthropological approach in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanyi, Sophie; Krings-Ney, Brigitte

    2009-12-01

    In Mozambique, initiation rites represent the most appropriate socio-cultural context for dealing with sexuality for a large part of the population. As the group most vulnerable to HIV exposure, HIV-prevention counselling could be ideally introduced to young women during initiation rites. This article demonstrates how interventions can take advantage of the positive aspects of this tradition. We discuss local notions of social 'contamination' versus biological 'contamination,' and we present a culturally sensitive communication strategy to bridge the divergent paradigms around AIDS-similar symptoms. Because of the emotional importance of the initiation rites, the suggested approach goes far beyond cognitive knowledge. After training, the godmothers in initiation rites became highly motivated to teach novice girls about HIV prevention and they trained other elderly women as well. Thus, the initiation rites turned into a process of empowerment for women in their own communities. A central agenda of the female initiation rites in Mozambique is to inculcate respect towards ancestors, elders, authorities and others; however, this respectful attitude between genders and between generations is disappearing due to factors like warfare and the cash economy. HIV-prevention counselling may be successfully introduced into initiation rites because of the unconscious, emotional impact of the process on the initiates' behaviour. Other studies have shown that cognitive knowledge is not enough to lead to behavioural changes. Without changing the traditional initiation rites for females, which in Mozambique includes no genital cutting, a complementary approach introduces HIV-prevention counselling during ritual counselling moments, thereby motivating godmothers and novice girls and young women to be more aware and take precautions to prevent HIV infection.

  6. Impact of After-Sales Performances of German Automobile Manufacturers in China in Service Satisfaction and Loyalty. With a Particular Focus on the Influences of Cultural Determinants.

    OpenAIRE

    Frass, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    [EN] After-sales services have become very important in the automobile industry. However, this area has not been sufficiently researched, particularly with regard to China, the most important car market globally. In this respect, German manufacturers play a leading role because they dominate the premium market segment. When it comes to services, the one thing that is especially important in China is culture. At the same time, this is exactly where a scientific gap exists because the cultural ...

  7. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Analysis of Service Records Management Systems for Rescue and Retention of Cultural Resource Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    three service branches as of January 2008, our data capture point . Both the records management systems and the in- dividual record types may have...facility; the U.S. Army Military Academy at West Point , NY, and the Na- tional Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) maintain their own archive...Criminal Investigative Service HQ, (Code 27D) 716 Sicard Street SE, Suite 2000 Washington Navy Yard Washington DC 20388-5380 202-433-9505

  9. Attributing variance in supportive care needs during cancer: culture-service, and individual differences, before clinical factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fielding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies using the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS report high levels of unmet supportive care needs (SCNs in psychological and less-so physical & daily living domains, interpreted as reflecting disease/treatment-coping deficits. However, service and culture differences may account for unmet SCNs variability. We explored if service and culture differences better account for observed SCNs patterns. METHODS: Hong Kong (n = 180, Taiwanese (n = 263 and Japanese (n = 109 CRC patients' top 10 ranked SCNS-34 items were contrasted. Mean SCNS-34 domain scores were compared by sample and treatment status, then adjusted for sample composition, disease stage and treatment status using multivariate hierarchical regression. RESULTS: All samples were assessed at comparable time-points. SCNs were most prevalent among Japanese and least among Taiwanese patients. Japanese patients emphasized Psychological (domain mean = 40.73 and Health systems and information (HSI (38.61 SCN domains, whereas Taiwanese and Hong Kong patients emphasized HSI (27.41; 32.92 and Patient care & support (PCS (19.70; 18.38 SCN domains. Mean Psychological domain scores differed: Hong Kong = 9.72, Taiwan = 17.84 and Japan = 40.73 (p<0.03-0.001, Bonferroni. Other SCN domains differed only between Chinese and Japanese samples (all p<0.001. Treatment status differentiated Taiwanese more starkly than Hong Kong patients. After adjustment, sample origin accounted for most variance in SCN domain scores (p<0.001, followed by age (p = 0.01-0.001 and employment status (p = 0.01-0.001. Treatment status and Disease stage, though retained, accounted for least variance. Overall accounted variance remained low. CONCLUSIONS: Health service and/or cultural influences, age and occupation differences, and less so clinical factors, differentially account for significant variation in published studies of SCNs.

  10. The Role of The Socio-Cultural Context In Designing Appropriate Support Services And Enhancing Interaction In Distance Education In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih USUN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the socio-cultural context is the key to developing appropriate support systems for distance learners. The socio-cultural context in Turkey is a critical ingredient in the development of Turkish distance education programmes, in which two elements of Turkish culture - patronage and an oral tradition - seem to play a significant role. The main aim of this study is to determine the role of the socio-cultural context in designing appropriate support services and enhancing interaction in the Turkish Distance Education System, namely, the Open Education Faculty (OEF. The study firstly introduces the technologies and socio-cultural context of the OEF then presents for consideration the influence of that context in designing appropriate support services and enhancing interaction; and finally provides a number of suggestions to enhance learner support and interaction according to the prevailing socio-cultural context.

  11. International academic service learning: lessons learned from students' travel experiences of diverse cultural and health care practices in morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Puri, Aditi; Dominick, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Academic service learning (ASL) is an active teaching-learning approach to engage students in meaningful hands-on activities to serve community-based needs. Nine health professions students from a private college and a private university in the northeastern United States volunteered to participate in an ASL trip to Morocco. The participants were interviewed to reflect on their experiences. This article discusses the lessons learned from students' ASL experiences regarding integrating ASL into educational programs. The authors recommend a paradigm shift in nursing and dental hygiene curricula to appreciate diversity and promote cultural competency, multidisciplinary teamwork, and ethics-based education.

  12. Use of sensitive, broad-spectrum molecular assays and human airway epithelium cultures for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pyrc

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate detection and identification of viruses causing respiratory tract infections is important for patient care and disease control. Despite the fact that several assays are available, identification of an etiological agent is not possible in ~30% of patients suffering from respiratory tract diseases. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic set for the detection of respiratory viruses with sensitivity as low as 1-10 copies per reaction. Evaluation of the assay using a training clinical sample set showed that viral nucleic acids were identified in ~76% of cases. To improve assay performance and facilitate the identification of novel species or emerging strains, cultures of fully differentiated human airway epithelium were used to pre-amplify infectious viruses. This additional step resulted in the detection of pathogens in all samples tested. Based on these results it can be hypothesized that the lack of an etiological agent in some clinical samples, both reported previously and observed in the present study, may result not only from the presence of unknown viral species, but also from imperfections in the detection methods used.

  13. Use of Sensitive, Broad-Spectrum Molecular Assays and Human Airway Epithelium Cultures for Detection of Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Krzysztof; Gawron, Katarzyna; Zeglen, Slawomir; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Ochman, Marek; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Bochenek, Grazyna; Sanak, Marek; Zembala, Marian; Szczeklik, Andrzej; Potempa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection and identification of viruses causing respiratory tract infections is important for patient care and disease control. Despite the fact that several assays are available, identification of an etiological agent is not possible in ∼30% of patients suffering from respiratory tract diseases. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic set for the detection of respiratory viruses with sensitivity as low as 1–10 copies per reaction. Evaluation of the assay using a training clinical sample set showed that viral nucleic acids were identified in ∼76% of cases. To improve assay performance and facilitate the identification of novel species or emerging strains, cultures of fully differentiated human airway epithelium were used to pre-amplify infectious viruses. This additional step resulted in the detection of pathogens in all samples tested. Based on these results it can be hypothesized that the lack of an etiological agent in some clinical samples, both reported previously and observed in the present study, may result not only from the presence of unknown viral species, but also from imperfections in the detection methods used. PMID:22403676

  14. Experience of using an interdisciplinary task force to develop a culturally sensitive multipronged tool to improve stroke outcomes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedunni S. Arulogun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of stroke is on the rise in Nigeria. A multi-faceted strategy is essential for reducing this growing burden and includes promoting medication adherence, optimizing traditional biomarker risk targets (blood pressure, cholesterol and encouraging beneficial lifestyle practices. Successful implementation of this strategy is challenged by inadequate patient health literacy, limited patient/medical system resources, and lack of a coordinated interdisciplinary treatment approach. Moreover, the few interventions developed to improve medical care in Nigeria have generally been aimed at physicians (primarily and nurses (secondarily with minimal input from other key health care providers, and limited contributions from patients, caregivers, and the community itself. The Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES study is assessing the efficacy of a culturally sensitive multidimensional intervention for controlling blood pressure in recent stroke survivors. A key component of the intervention development process was the constitution of a project task force comprising various healthcare providers and administrators. This paper describes the unique experience in Sub-Saharan Africa of utilizing of an interdisciplinary Task force to facilitate the development of the multipronged behavioral intervention aimed at enhancing stroke outcomes in a low-middle income country.

  15. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behera B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. Materials and Methods: A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. Results: No ′very major′ discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in β lactam - β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Conclusions: Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  16. Understanding the organisational context for adverse events in the health services: the role of cultural censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E; Hazelgrove, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper responds to the current emphasis on organisational learning in the NHS as a means of improving healthcare systems and making hospitals safer places for patients. Conspiracies of silence have been identified as obstacles to organisational learning, covering error and hampering communication. In this paper we question the usefulness of the term and suggest that "cultural censorship", a concept developed by the anthropologist Robin Sherriff, provides a much needed insight into cultures of silence within the NHS. Drawing on a number of illustrations, but in particular the Ritchie inquiry into the disgraced gynaecologist Rodney Ledward, we show how the defining characteristics of cultural censorship can help us to understand how adverse events get pushed underground, only to flourish in the underside of organisational life.

  17. Social and cultural capital in project marketing service firms: Danish architectural firms on the German market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2002-01-01

    This article analyses the marketing activities of three Danish architectural firms in Germany during the 1990s from a perspective that is new to project marketing, in that the Bourdivan concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the offerings and activities of firms. In architecture......, cultural capital accumulation entails such things as building visible buildings, winning design competitions, or obtaining important tenders, whereas social capital is accumulated through the recognition by other construction industry actors that one is a member of their circles. The cases presented...... are best viewed as distinct project marketing milieus....

  18. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  19. Abundance and diversity of culturable Pseudomonas constitute sensitive indicators for adverse long-term copper impacts in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Maja Kristine; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Nybroe, Ole

    2013-01-01

    heterotrophic bacteria. This indicates that the Pseudomonas population is not resilient towards copper stress and that culturable Pseudomonas spp. comprise sensitive bio-indicators of adverse copper impacts in contaminated soils. Further this study shows that copper exposure decreases bacterial diversity...

  20. Rapid antibiotic sensitivity testing and trimethoprim-mediated filamentation of clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae assayed on a novel porous culture support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingham, C.J.; Ende, van den M.; Wever, P.C.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A porous inorganic material (Anopore) was employed as a microbial culture and microcolony imaging support. Rapid Anopore-based antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST) methods were developed to assess the growth of clinical isolates, with the primary focus on testing the response of the Enterobacteriace

  1. Integrating Explicit Learning about the Culture of Science into the Pre-Service Teacher Curriculum through Readings and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Teachers provide foundational science experiences that spark interest in some students to pursue science and serve as an endpoint for others. For both groups, getting a glimpse into the culture of science is important to their futures as citizens, but this glimpse is not something all teachers are equipped to offer. Explicit instruction in the culture of science is generally not part of college-level science courses; to reach future teachers, it should be incorporated into the curriculum for pre-service teachers. I have incorporated readings from Visionlearning's peer-reviewed, freely available, web-based Process of Science series (http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Process-of-Science/49) into my class for pre-service middle-level and secondary science teachers. The readings describe the development of the culture and process of science using deeply embedded examples of scientists and their work. Students reflected on each reading by describing what they learned and something they will use in their future teaching. Responses were graded for thoughtfulness and completeness and later compiled. In general, students with more science courses had a better initial understanding of the culture of science and found the readings engaging stories that explained in more depth what they already knew. However, all students reported learning some fundamental aspects of the culture and nature of science. Most commonly, they learned scientific language, often words with both colloquial and scientific definitions: theory, hypothesis, law, uncertainty, error, confidence. Other learning gains were reported in defining the difference between scientific controversy and social controversy over science, interactions between historical events and the scientific enterprise, how much scientists work in groups and interact at meetings, and the role that funding plays in guiding research. On their own, students struggled to describe explicit ways to incorporate these concepts into their

  2. Are Early Intervention Services Placing Home Languages and Cultures "At Risk"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2010-01-01

    This position statement considers family languages, family cultures, and partnerships between family members and early intervention (EI) professionals as intimately interconnected and resources to be accessed when serving young children with special needs and their families. It presents theory and an overview of works that examine the impact of…

  3. The impact of culture and recipient perspective on direction giving in the service of wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hund, Alycia M.; Schmettow, Martin; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how culture and recipient perspective affect direction giving during wayfinding. Participants from the United States and the Netherlands provided directions from starting locations to destinations for fictional recipients driving through a town (route perspective) or looking at a map of

  4. Exploring the influence of design culture on ICT healthcare product and service design for rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Kandachar, P.V.; Freudenthal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Design culture is usually considered as one of the important aspects that influence designers’ decisions and actions, especially in Design for Base of the Pyramid projects including ICT Healthcare Product Design in Rural China (IHDRC). There are two research questions in this issue: what are the cul

  5. Organizational Resilience and Culture a Model for Information Technology Service Management (ITSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational change and organizational culture have been studied and written about by many authors, most notably by Edgar Schein (1990, 1992), and are named as critical components of organizational maturity through such industry standards as The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), Control Objectives for Information and Related…

  6. The Effects of Culture on Special Education Services: Evil Eyes, Prayer Meetings, and IEPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorey, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a case study of monocultural personnel preparation, discusses various cultural beliefs about disability, and examines the effect of the dualities and dichotomies of parent/professional beliefs about childhood disabilities. In addition, it discusses intervention concerns in developing countries such as Turkey, Ecuador, and…

  7. Introducing Heuristics of Cultural Dimensions into the Service-Level Technical Communication Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A significant problem for practitioners of technical communication is to gain the skills to compete in a global, multicultural work environment. Instructors of technical communication can provide future practitioners with the tools to compete and excel in this global environment by introducing heuristics of cultural dimensions into the…

  8. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  9. Organizational Resilience and Culture a Model for Information Technology Service Management (ITSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational change and organizational culture have been studied and written about by many authors, most notably by Edgar Schein (1990, 1992), and are named as critical components of organizational maturity through such industry standards as The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), Control Objectives for Information and Related…

  10. The impact of culture and recipient perspective on direction giving in the service of wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hund, Alycia M.; Schmettow, Martin; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert

    2012-01-01

    We examined how culture and recipient perspective affect direction giving during wayfinding. Participants from the United States and the Netherlands provided directions from starting locations to destinations for fictional recipients driving through a town (route perspective) or looking at a map of

  11. Design and Research of Service Platform for Protection and Dissemination of Cultural Heritage Resources of The Silk Road in the Territory of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zeng, S. J.; Na, W.; Yang, H.; Huang, J.; Tan, X. D.; Sun, Z. J.

    2015-08-01

    The Silk Road, a major traffic route across the Eurasia continent, has been a convergence for the exchange, communication and dissemination of various cultures such as nations, materials, religions and arts for more than two thousand years. And the cultural heritage along the long and complicate route has been also attractive. In recent years, the Silk Road - the Road Network along the Chang'an-Tianshan Mountain has been listed in the Directory of World Cultural Heritage. The rare and rich cultural resources along the Silk Road, especially those in the territory of China, have attracted attentions of the world. This article describes the research ideas, methods, processes and results of the planning design on the internet-based dissemination services platform system for cultural heritage resources. First of all, it has defined the targeting for dissemination services and the research methods applied for the Silk Road heritage resources, based on scientific and objective spatial measurement and research on history and geography, to carry on the excavation of values of cultural resource for the target users. Then, with the front-end art exhibit by means of innovative IT, time and space maps of cultural heritage resources, interactive graphics display, panoramic three-dimensional virtual tour, and the Silk Road topics as the main features, a comprehensive and multi-angle cultural resources dissemination services platform is built. The research core of the platform is a demand-oriented system design on the basis of cultural resources and features as the fundamental, the value of contemporary manifestation as the foundation, and cultural dissemination and service as a starting point. This platform has achieved, temporal context generalization, interest profiles extension, online and offline adaptation, and other prominent innovations. On the basis of routes heritage resource protection and dissemination services with complex relationship between time and space, and the

  12. Earth observation technologies in service to the cultural landscape of Cyprus: risk identification and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Branka; Tzouvaras, Marios; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    The Cultural landscapes are witnesses of "the creative genius, social development and the imaginative and spiritual vitality of humanity. They are part of our collective identity", as it is internationally defined and accepted (ICOMOSUNESCO). The need for their protection, management and inclusion in the territorial policies has already been widely accepted and pursued. There is a great number of risks to which the cultural landscapes are exposed, arising mainly from natural (both due to slow geo-physical phenomena as well as hazards) and anthropogenic causes (e.g. urbanisation pressure, agriculture, landscape fragmentation etc.). This paper explores to what extent Earth Observation (EO) technologies can contribute to identify and evaluate the risks to which Cultural Landscapes of Cyprus are exposed, taking into consideration specific phenomena, such as land movements and soil erosion. The research of the paper is illustrated as part of the activities carried out in the CLIMA project - "Cultural Landscape risk Identification, Management and Assessment". It aims to combine the fields of remote sensing technologies, including Sentinel data, and monitoring of cultural landscape for its improved protection and management. Part of this approach will be based on the use of InSAR techniques in order to monitor the temporal evolution of deformations through the detection and measurement of the effects of surface movements caused by various factors. The case study selected for Cyprus is the Nea Paphos archeological site and historical center of Paphos, which are listed as UNESCO World Heritage sites. The interdisciplinary approach adopted in this research was useful to identify major risks affecting the landscape of Cyprus and to classify the most suitable EO methods to assess and map such risks.

  13. Athletes’ careers across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia

    This symposium will introduce a project developed under the auspices of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) in an effort to inspire and support the development of culturally sensitive theoretical frameworks and research methodologies in career studies and career assistance services...... in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...... and, perhaps, unfamiliar intellectual traditions, perspectives and concerns, the symposium will demonstrate how local knowledge of problems enables researchers and practitioners to better understand the dynamics of cultural diversity within the topic of athlete career development and assistance....

  14. Defining scholarship at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences School of Medicine: A study in cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, E S

    2000-09-01

    Medical schools' long-awaited recognition of the varied contributions of their faculty has caused active dialogue and debate. The discourse centers on the best approach for incorporating a broader definition of scholarship, including professional service, into the traditional promotion and tenure processes. At the School of Medicine of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), the majority of the clinical faculty also serve as active-duty uniformed medical officers, and the subject of how to appropriately recognize their varied contributions has long been contended. Concerns have been raised from all constituent groups that broadening the definition of scholarship at the USUHS has the potential to lower the standards of the academy and thus devalue faculty positions. The USUHS has viewed this challenge as a study in the integration of cultures. Institutional cultures include those of the academy, the military, government, basic science, and clinical science, and all the resulting permutations. A nine-year review of scholarship, promotion, and tenure at the USUHS has resulted in a document that supports the diverse missions of the university and appropriately rewards the accomplishments of its faculty. The dialogue continues, as the new document is subject to continuing review and ongoing critical analysis.

  15. A discourse on creating and rendering educational and cultural enrichment services to rural migrant workers by public libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zizhou; Charles; C.Yan

    2009-01-01

    As far as China’s enormous success in her economic reforms and development is concerned,Chinese rural migrant workers indeed have had their biggest share of contributions.Yet ironically in return,they have only received a disproportionate meager share of benefit rewards.These people represent a huge economically deprived group at the bottom of the social totem pole in China’s metropolises.On the whole as a social group,their educational attainment is relatively low as compared to their average urban coworkers.As such being the case,their rights to access some of the cost-free cultural and educational enrichment programs in the society are limited and not always assured.Nevertheless and in general speaking,they manifest a strong and consistent desire to acquire all sorts of new and practical knowledge by means of accessing the resources and facilities of their local public libraries.It is suggested in this paper that public libraries are in a good position to give strong support to the central government’s strategic planning for the development of a public culture service systema).In implementing such a government initiative with an unswerving purpose of advancing social justice and equality,public libraries should strife to provide as many as possible their library services at no cost to the public,especially to those socially deprived rural migrant workers.

  16. Promoting Pre-Service Teachers' Reflections through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an action research-based study that investigated participants' reflections on EFL learning and teaching in a computer-mediated communication (CMC)-based project. Forty pre-service teachers from two universities, in Poland and in Romania, exchanged emails on class-related topics; the email exchange was followed by…

  17. Three Essays on Chinese IT Service Industry: Capability Development, Internationalization Strategy, and Cultural Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Leading Chinese technology firms, from automobile manufacturer to information service provider, are evolving into some of the world's most innovative and competitive players, and dramatically changing the global business landscape. What underlies the rise of these firms is China's national strategy of transforming itself from a low-cost…

  18. A Cross Cultural Validation of Perceptions and Use of Social Network Service: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengqi

    2009-01-01

    The rapid developments Social Network Service (SNS) have offered opportunities to re-visit many seminal theoretical assumptions of technology usage within socio-technical environment. Online social network is a rapidly growing field that imposes new questions to the existing IS research paradigm. It is argued that information systems research must…

  19. Supply-Chain Culture Clashes in Europe. Pitfalls in Japanese Service Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); M. Shinohara

    2006-01-01

    textabstractJapanese companies value service and quality highly and they put much effort in realising this. However, survey research carried out in 2001 among senior managers of Japanese logistics companies in the Netherlands, indicated that these efforts do not result in significant performance dif

  20. Three Essays on Chinese IT Service Industry: Capability Development, Internationalization Strategy, and Cultural Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Leading Chinese technology firms, from automobile manufacturer to information service provider, are evolving into some of the world's most innovative and competitive players, and dramatically changing the global business landscape. What underlies the rise of these firms is China's national strategy of transforming itself from a low-cost…