WorldWideScience

Sample records for culturally sensitive intervention

  1. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  2. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    . Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... and incorporate this into caregiving. Method. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Findings. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming...

  3. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  4. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture-sensitive

  5. Process and Product in Cross-Cultural Treatment Research: Development of a Culturally Sensitive Women-Centered Substance Use Intervention in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrée E. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women who inject drugs (WID are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture—and WID within that culture—so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT and the Women’s CoOp (WC were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID (N=55 and providers of health services (N=34 to such women and focus groups [2 with WID (N=15 and 2 with health service providers (N=12]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed.

  6. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context) Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Geraci, Diana; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Nijpels, Giel; Stronks, Karien

    2012-03-19

    Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1) and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3), N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the participants' immediate social environments. With this

  7. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissenberg Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. Methods/Design We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1 and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3, N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the

  8. Culturally Based Intervention for Breast Cancer in Rural African Americans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lannin, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... For the intervention phase, educational programs featuring a documentary video, public service announcements, and culturally sensitive brochures have been presented to over 1700 people in Pitt County...

  9. Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Andrés G; Wagner, Eric F; Tubman, Jonathan G

    2004-11-01

    This study presents preliminary analyses examining the effects of an alcohol and other drug use (AOD) intervention with minority juvenile offenders. Furthermore, the study investigates the impact of cultural factors on baseline AOD use among Hispanic and African American youth, as well as on treatment outcome. Participants were 213 juvenile offenders referred for treatment (mean age = 15.7 years), 97 of whom have completed treatment to date. The intervention was carried out in clinics placed within the neighborhoods in which the participants resided. Intervention Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) is a controlled clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of a brief motivational, cognitive behavioral intervention, guided self-change (GSC). Participants are assigned randomly to the individual format of guided self-change (I-GSC), the family involved format of guided self-Change (F-GSC), choice of one of these two, or a waiting list control condition. Only participants involved in active intervention are included in the present report. Data were collected via structured face-to-face interviews. Alcohol and marijuana use measures were collected using the Time-line Follow-back interview (TLFB). There were significant reductions in alcohol and marijuana use for all ethnic groups from baseline to post-intervention. Cultural factors (discrimination, acculturation, ethnic pride and cultural mistrust) were associated with pre-intervention levels of alcohol and marijuana use. Among Hispanics, pre-intervention level of substance use were higher among foreign-born than US-born youth. Analyses conducted with the US-born Hispanic group showed that ethnic orientation and ethnic pride were associated positively with greater reductions in alcohol use. The intervention provided through ATTAIN appears to be effective with a multi-ethnic population of juvenile delinquents. Cultural factors, such as ethnic orientation and ethnic mistrust, appear to constitute

  10. Treating the untreated: applying a community-based, culturally sensitive psychiatric intervention to confined and physically restrained mentally ill individuals in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Luh Ketut; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2011-11-01

    This study identified, mapped and treated the clinical features of mentally ill people, who had been isolated and restrained by family and community members as a result of a functional failure of the traditional medical, hospital-based mental health model currently practiced in Indonesia. A 10-month epidemiological population survey was carried out in Karangasem regency of Bali, Indonesia. A total of 404,591 individuals were clinically interviewed, of which 895 individuals with mental health problems were identified, with 23 satisfying criteria of physical restraint and confinement. Of the latter, twenty were males; age range was 19-69 years, all diagnosed by the researchers with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (ICD-10 diagnostic criteria). Duration of restraint ranged from 3 months to 30 years (mean = 8.1 years, SD = 8.3 years). Through the application of a holistic intervention model, all patients exhibited a remarkable recovery within 19 months of treatment. We conclude that the development of a community-based, culturally sensitive and respectful mental health model can serve as an optimum promoter of positive mental health outcomes.

  11. Protocol of a randomized controlled trial of culturally sensitive interventions to improve African Americans' and non-African Americans' early, shared, and informed consideration of live kidney transplantation: the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, L Ebony; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Kraus, Edward S; Melancon, J Keith; McGuire, Raquel; Bonhage, Bobbie; Senga, Mikiko; Ephraim, Patti; Evans, Kira E; Falcone, Brenda; Troll, Misty U; Depasquale, Nicole; Powe, Neil R

    2011-07-08

    Live kidney transplantation (LKT) is underutilized, particularly among ethnic/racial minorities. The effectiveness of culturally sensitive educational and behavioral interventions to encourage patients' early, shared (with family and health care providers) and informed consideration of LKT and ameliorate disparities in consideration of LKT is unknown. We report the protocol of the Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study, a two-phase study utilizing qualitative and quantitative research methods to design and test culturally sensitive interventions to improve patients' shared and informed consideration of LKT. Study Phase 1 involved the evidence-based development of culturally sensitive written and audiovisual educational materials as well as a social worker intervention to encourage patients' engagement in shared and informed consideration of LKT. In Study Phase 2, we are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial in which participants with progressing chronic kidney disease receive: 1) usual care by their nephrologists, 2) usual care plus the educational materials, or 3) usual care plus the educational materials and the social worker intervention. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will include patients' self-reported rates of consideration of LKT (including family discussions of LKT, patient-physician discussions of LKT, and identification of an LKT donor). We will also assess differences in rates of consideration of LKT among African Americans and non-African Americans. The TALK Study rigorously developed and is currently testing the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions to improve patients' and families' consideration of LKT. Results from TALK will provide needed evidence on ways to enhance consideration of this optimal treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00932334.

  12. Cultural sensitivity in public health: defined and demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, K; Baranowski, T; Ahluwalia, J S; Braithwaite, R L

    1999-01-01

    There is consensus that health promotion programs should be culturally sensitive (CS). Yet, despite the ubiquitous nature of CS within public health research and practice, there has been surprisingly little attention given to defining CS or delineating a framework for developing culturally sensitive programs and practitioners. This paper describes a model for understanding CS from a public health perspective; describes a process for applying this model in the development of health promotion and disease prevention interventions; and highlights research priorities. Cultural sensitivity is defined by two dimensions: surface and deep structures. Surface structure involves matching intervention materials and messages to observable, "superficial" characteristics of a target population. This may involve using people, places, language, music, food, locations, and clothing familiar to, and preferred by, the target audience. Surface structure refers to how well interventions fit within a specific culture. Deep structure involves incorporating the cultural, social, historical, environmental and psychological forces that influence the target health behavior in the proposed target population. Whereas surface structure generally increases the "receptivity" or "acceptance" of messages, deep structure conveys salience. Techniques, borrowed from social marketing and health communication theory, for developing culturally sensitive interventions are described. Research is needed to determine the effectiveness of culturally sensitive programs.

  13. Family Counseling: Cultural Sensitivity, Relativism, and the Cultural Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Kathleen M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity, cultural relativism, and the cultural defense are defined and described. Each concept is addressed in terms of its relationship to couple and family counseling. The role of counselor must be broadened and deepened to include the role of cultural broker. (Author/EMK)

  14. Cultural Sensitivity in English Language Teaching Materials

    OpenAIRE

    MEHMET, Sean Collin

    2008-01-01

    This expository paper will begin by uncovering and examining some lesser known, Western journal articles, ones that deal specifically with the issue of cultural sensitivity in language classrooms. This opening discussion will attempt to reveal that cultural sensitivity in teaching materials is by no means an issue limited solely to the Western world. After this, the discussion will focus on Edward Said's widely-known Culture and Imperialism. Said's monograph will be used as a springboard to e...

  15. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  16. Rethinking Intervention: Changing the Cultures of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss intervention in the culture of schools as part of a range of responses to the concerns expressed, the difficulties caused by and the dissatisfaction and unhappiness experienced by pupils with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. I will discuss such intervention at the levels of staff relations and…

  17. Revising and Updating the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer A.; Cushner, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The following article outlines research conducted to examine cross-cultural sensitivity in a sample of 949 incoming university students in the USA. The study was conducted during the process of updating an existing measure of cross-cultural sensitivity known as the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity (ICCS), and to examine the various levels…

  18. Is Ethical Sensitivity in Teaching Culturally Bound? Comparing Finnish and Iranian Teachers' Ethical Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Khalil; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of teachers' ethical sensitivity in two countries. Our case study involves teachers from Finland (n = 864) representing Western culture, and from Iran (n = 556) representing Eastern culture. Culturally bound elements of ethical sensitivity were studied with the…

  19. Identity text: an educational intervention to foster cultural interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Naqvi, Rahat; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Sociocultural theories state that learning results from people participating in contexts where social interaction is facilitated. There is a need to create such facilitated pedagogical spaces where participants can share their ways of knowing and doing. The aim of this exploratory study was to introduce pedagogical space for sociocultural interaction using 'Identity Text'. Identity Texts are sociocultural artifacts produced by participants, which can be written, spoken, visual, musical, or multimodal. In 2013, participants of an international medical education fellowship program were asked to create their own Identity Texts to promote discussion about participants' cultural backgrounds. Thematic analysis was used to make the analysis relevant to studying the pedagogical utility of the intervention. The Identity Text intervention created two spaces: a 'reflective space', which helped participants reflect on sensitive topics such as institutional environments, roles in interdisciplinary teams, and gender discrimination, and a 'narrative space', which allowed participants to tell powerful stories that provided cultural insights and challenged cultural hegemony; they described the conscious and subconscious transformation in identity that evolved secondary to struggles with local power dynamics and social demands involving the impact of family, peers, and country of origin. While the impact of providing pedagogical space using Identity Text on cognitive engagement and enhanced learning requires further research, the findings of this study suggest that it is a useful pedagogical strategy to support cross-cultural education.

  20. Identity text: an educational intervention to foster cultural interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Zaidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sociocultural theories state that learning results from people participating in contexts where social interaction is facilitated. There is a need to create such facilitated pedagogical spaces where participants can share their ways of knowing and doing. The aim of this exploratory study was to introduce pedagogical space for sociocultural interaction using ‘Identity Text’. Methods: Identity Texts are sociocultural artifacts produced by participants, which can be written, spoken, visual, musical, or multimodal. In 2013, participants of an international medical education fellowship program were asked to create their own Identity Texts to promote discussion about participants’ cultural backgrounds. Thematic analysis was used to make the analysis relevant to studying the pedagogical utility of the intervention. Result: The Identity Text intervention created two spaces: a ‘reflective space’, which helped participants reflect on sensitive topics such as institutional environments, roles in interdisciplinary teams, and gender discrimination, and a ‘narrative space’, which allowed participants to tell powerful stories that provided cultural insights and challenged cultural hegemony; they described the conscious and subconscious transformation in identity that evolved secondary to struggles with local power dynamics and social demands involving the impact of family, peers, and country of origin. Conclusion: While the impact of providing pedagogical space using Identity Text on cognitive engagement and enhanced learning requires further research, the findings of this study suggest that it is a useful pedagogical strategy to support cross-cultural education.

  1. Bridging Culture On-Line: Strategies for Teaching Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, M. Cecilia; Struthers, Roxanne

    2002-01-01

    An online cross-cultural health course for nurses sought to provide access to cultural experiences by culturally congruent use of a minority visiting scholar and required participation in cultural enrichment activities. Course and faculty evaluations were designed to be appropriate for the asynchronous environment. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  2. Socio-Cultural Perspectives on Causes and Intervention Strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Ngezi exclusively rely on socio-cultural intervention strategies to solve the problem of male infertility. ... infertility which integrates the socio-cultural perspectives in policy and programming, if ..... out that the concept of using traditional medicine.

  3. Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of some common challenges and opportunities related to cultural adaptation of behavioral interventions. Cultural adaptation is presented as a necessary action to ponder when considering the adoption of an evidence-based intervention with ethnic and other minority groups. It proposes a roadmap to choose existing…

  4. Insulin sensitivity deteriorates after short-term lifestyle intervention in the insulin sensitive phenotype of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Vallone, Luciana; Cottafava, Raffaella; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-month lifestyle intervention on insulin sensitivity and its related cardiometabolic factors in obese patients. Anthropometry, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, lipids, alanine aminotransferase, insulin sensitivity (insulinogenic index (ISI), homeostasis model assessment, β-cell performance (disposition index)) were evaluated in 263 obese women and 93 obese men before and after 3 months of hypocaloric low fat/high protein diet associated with physical activity 30 min/day. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the intervention-induced ISI changes: group 1 (decrease), group 2 (stability) and group 3 (increase). Insulin sensitivity and the disposition index were significantly higher before the intervention in group 1 than in group 3. BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass significantly decreased in groups 1 and 3 in both sexes. β-cell performance decreased in group 1 and increased in group 3. Metabolic variables improved in group 3, whereas glucose levels increased in women of group 1. The post-intervention insulin sensitivity was lower in group 1 than in group 3. Lifestyle intervention induces changes in insulin sensitivity and metabolic factors that depend on the pre-intervention degree of insulin sensitivity. Weight loss leads to metabolic benefits in insulin-resistant, obese patients, whereas it may paradoxically worsen the metabolic conditions in the insulin-sensitive phenotype of obesity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Sensible interventions: Cultural resistance post-9/11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, J.

    2013-01-01

    'Sensible interventions: Cultural resistance post-9/11' is anchored in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in America and their cultural legacies, most prominently in the forms of cultural resistance. By investigating a multimedia assemblage of creative objects - hip hop album, TV sit-com,

  6. A Culture-Sensitive Agent in Kirman's Ant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Heng; Liou, Wen-Ching; Chen, Ting-Yu

    The global financial crisis brought a serious collapse involving a "systemic" meltdown. Internet technology and globalization have increased the chances for interaction between countries and people. The global economy has become more complex than ever before. Mark Buchanan [12] indicated that agent-based computer models will prevent another financial crisis and has been particularly influential in contributing insights. There are two reasons why culture-sensitive agent on the financial market has become so important. Therefore, the aim of this article is to establish a culture-sensitive agent and forecast the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. We based our study on the Kirman's Ant Model[4,5] and Hofstede's Natational Culture[11] to establish our culture-sensitive agent based model. Kirman's Ant Model is quite famous and describes financial market herding behavior from the expectations of the future of financial investors. Hofstede's cultural consequence used the staff of IBM in 72 different countries to understand the cultural difference. As a result, this paper focuses on one of the five dimensions of culture from Hofstede: individualism versus collectivism and creates a culture-sensitive agent and predicts the process of change regarding herding behavior in the financial market. To conclude, this study will be of importance in explaining the herding behavior with cultural factors, as well as in providing researchers with a clearer understanding of how herding beliefs of people about different cultures relate to their finance market strategies.

  7. Culturally Sensitive and Environment-Friendly Outcome Measures in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    A systematic review of evidence on culturally sensitive and environment-friendly outcome measures in ..... which included manual grass cutting/hoeing, assuming the Islamic ... who opined that the starting point for any outcome measure is to ...

  8. Creating a successful culturally sensitive home care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanter, R; Page, P M

    1995-12-01

    Providing quality home care services to immigrants requires an integrated, holistic approach that genuinely addresses language and cultural differences. One home care agency in Massachusetts developed a team-oriented, culturally sensitive outreach program that ensures non-English-speaking patients the same level of service that the general population receives.

  9. Exploring Cultural Predictors of Military Intervention Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    garments become more prevalent and daily economic life is centered on the town market and the exchange of produce and cottage manufactures as opposed to...people, and people have culture that informs their decision-making processes . This cultural effect is found in the Joint Intelligence Preparation of...the Operational Environment: “Sociocultural analysis improves the JFC’s ability to understand, predict, respond to and/or influence the decision

  10. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  11. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  12. Guest Editorial: Cultural Analysis as Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2012-01-01

    to a whole new genre of business empiricism – and how to avoid reducing ethnographically-based cultural analysis to a simple matter of methods. What does it entail if we are to more strategically engage with compressed, to-the-point depictions of everyday life? The contributors to this special issue engage......Recently, cultural analyses – especially ethnographic descriptions of everyday-life practices – seem to have found new audiences situated within what Nigel Thrift has termed ‘soft capitalism’ (2006,1997). Ethnography is increasingly perceived by businesses, organizations, and industry as a key...... to producing surplus value due to its ability to gain access to the world of customers, users and citizens; for instance, by uncovering user demands (cf. Cefkin, 2009). This begs the question of what cultural analysis can and ought to do – beyond the scope of acting as a witness for truth and delivering facts...

  13. Video-feedback intervention increases sensitive parenting in ethnic minority mothers: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmur, Sengul; Mesman, Judi; Malda, Maike; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Ekmekci, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Using a randomized control trial design we tested the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive adaptation of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in a sample of 76 Turkish minority families in the Netherlands. The VIPP-SD was adapted based on a pilot with feedback of the target mothers, resulting in the VIPP-TM (VIPP-Turkish Minorities). The sample included families with 20-47-month-old children with high levels of externalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity, nonintrusiveness, and discipline strategies were observed during pretest and posttest home visits. The VIPP-TM was effective in increasing maternal sensitivity and nonintrusiveness, but not in enhancing discipline strategies. Applying newly learned sensitivity skills in discipline situations may take more time, especially in a cultural context that favors more authoritarian strategies. We conclude that the VIPP-SD program and its video-feedback approach can be successfully applied in immigrant families with a non-Western cultural background, with demonstrated effects on parenting sensitivity and nonintrusiveness.

  14. Effect of local cultural context on the success of community-based conservation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Kerry A; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Thirgood, Simon J; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2010-08-01

    Conservation interventions require evaluation to understand what factors predict success or failure. To date, there has been little systematic investigation of the effect of social and cultural context on conservation success, although a large body of literature argues it is important. We investigated whether local cultural context, particularly local institutions and the efforts of interventions to engage with this culture significantly influence conservation outcomes. We also tested the effects of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration. We systematically reviewed the literature on community-based conservation and identified 68 interventions suitable for inclusion. We used a protocol to extract and code information and evaluated a range of measures of outcome success (attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic). We also examined the association of each predictor with each outcome measure and the structure of predictor covariance. Local institutional context influenced intervention outcomes, and interventions that engaged with local institutions were more likely to succeed. Nevertheless, there was limited support for the role of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration on intervention success. We recommend that conservation interventions seek to understand the societies they work with and tailor their activities accordingly. Systematic reviews are a valuable approach for assessing conservation evidence, although sensitive to the continuing lack of high-quality reporting on conservation interventions.

  15. Culture-centered Career Intervention. [and] Diversity, Flexibility, and Career Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokane, Arnold R.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Swanson, Jane L.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Includes two commentaries on the special section. Spokane, Fouad, and Swanson emphasize the importance of two dimensions of clients' cultural context: dominant/subordinate and individual/collective. Walsh highlights research needs related to career intervention and personality, culture, process, and socioeconomic status. (Contains 15 and 11…

  16. Toward a multidimensional understanding of culture for health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Asad L; Kay, Tamara

    2015-11-01

    Although a substantial literature examines the relationship between culture and health in myriad individual contexts, a lack of comparative data across settings has resulted in disparate and imprecise conceptualizations of the concept for scholars and practitioners alike. This article examines scholars and practitioners' understandings of culture in relation to health interventions. Drawing on 169 interviews with officials from three different nongovernmental organizations working on health issues in multiple countries-Partners in Health, Oxfam America, and Sesame Workshop-we examine how these respondents' interpretations of culture converge or diverge with recent developments in the study of the concept, as well as how these understandings influence health interventions at three different stages-design, implementation, and evaluation-of a project. Based on these analyses, a tripartite definition of culture is built-as knowledge, practice, and change-and these distinct conceptualizations are linked to the success or failure of a project at each stage of an intervention. In so doing, the study provides a descriptive and analytical starting point for scholars interested in understanding the theoretical and empirical relevance of culture for health interventions, and sets forth concrete recommendations for practitioners working to achieve robust improvements in health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Educational Policy vs. Culturally Sensitive Programs in Turkish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of elementary school teachers about the sensitiveness of principals, teachers, and curriculum on multicultural education. Education provides the transmission and the advancement of its culture while it is developing and enhancing the common values, the integrity and the progress of…

  18. Integrative Report on a culture-sensitive quality & curriculum framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylva, Kathy; Ereky-Stevens, Katharina; Pastori, Giulia; Slot, P.L.; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report draws together research findings that support a comprehensive culture-sensitive European curriculum and quality assessment framework that can inform practice, teacher education and policy. The aim of this integrative report is to inform the development of a comprehensive,

  19. Culturally Sensitive and Environment-Friendly Outcome Measures in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    to review research studies on outcome measures that were developed for ... A systematic review of evidence on culturally sensitive and environment- ... Various databases including Google Scholar, PEDro and PubMed were accessed to search for relevant empirical ... utilization of disease-specific, patient-centered outcome.

  20. Teaching International Business as an Opportunity to Develop Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Ellen J.

    2017-01-01

    Business program graduates are expected to perform with cultural sensitivity in international and intercultural professional environments. In order to support student development of the necessary mindset, a variety of assignments and activities have been integrated into the undergraduate International Business (IB) course. This article describes…

  1. Teaching ethics: when respect for autonomy and cultural sensitivity collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard

    2014-04-01

    Respect for autonomy is a key ethical principle. However, in some cultures other moral domains such as community (emphasizing the importance of family roles) and sanctity (emphasizing the sacred and the spiritual side of human nature) hold equal value. Thus, an American physician may sometimes perceive a conflict between the desire to practice ethically and the wish to be sensitive to the mores of other cultures. For example, a woman may appear to be making what the physician thinks is a bad clinical choice because her spouse is speaking on her behalf. That physician may find it difficult to reconcile the sense that the patient had not exercised freely her autonomy with the desire to be culturally sensitive. In this article, the means by which a physician can reconcile respect for other cultures with respect for autonomy is explored. The question of whether physicians must always defer to patients' requests solely because they are couched in the language of cultural sensitivity is also addressed. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of culturally sensitive dialog tools in diabetes education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Folmann Hempler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-centeredness is a goal in diabetes education, and cultural influences are important to consider in this regard. This report describes the use of a design-based research approach to develop culturally sensitive dialog tools to support person-centered dietary education targeting Pakistani immigrants in Denmark with type 2 diabetes. The approach appears to be a promising method to develop dialog tools for patient education that are culturally sensitive, thereby increasing their acceptability among ethnic minority groups. The process also emphasizes the importance of adequate training and competencies in the application of dialog tools and of alignment between researchers and health care professionals with regards to the educational philosophy underlying their use.

  3. The existing therapeutic interventions for orgasmic disorders: recommendations for culturally competent services, narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Zahra; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Salehi, Mehrdad; K Killeen, Therese; Merghati-Khoei, Effat

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs) have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, "pearl-growing" techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, "orgasm AND intervention". Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. The majority of interventions (90%) related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well defined protocols to screen, assessment and management of women' sexual problems such as FOD

  4. Inequities of Intervention among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Although Response to Intervention (RTI) has been generally studied in relation to student outcomes, the system itself requires further study, particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. CLD students have consistently suffered inequities in the educational system, including over representation in high incidence disability…

  5. Developing a Culturally Sensitive Lifestyle Behavior Change Program for Older Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingel, Andiara; Linares, Deborah E; Gálvez, Patricia; Adamson, Brynn; Aguayo, Liliana; Bobitt, Julie; Castañeda, Yvette; Sebastião, Emerson; Marquez, David X

    2015-12-01

    Despite the burgeoning U.S. Latino population and their increased risk of chronic disease, little emphasis had been placed on developing culturally sensitive lifestyle interventions in this area. This article examines older Latinas' sociocultural context relative to health with the goal of developing a culturally sensitive health behavior intervention. Photo-elicitation indicated two emerging themes that influenced lifestyle choices: family caregiving and religion. Researchers partnered with a faith-based organization to develop and implement a 6-month lifestyle intervention for Latinas ages 50 and older: Abuelas en Acción (AEA). At completion, interviews were conducted to understand women's experiences and the influence AEA had on their lifestyles and health. Findings suggest that religious content empowered and deeply affected women; however, the intergenerational content presented significant challenges for instruction, retention, and implementation. We discuss findings in relation to the health intervention literature and provide suggestions for future interventions drawing on religion, family, and health behavior change. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The existing therapeutic interventions for orgasmic disorders: recommendations for culturally competent services, narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salmani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. Objective: In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. Materials and Methods: For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, “pearl-growing” techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, “orgasm AND intervention”. Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. Results: The majority of interventions (90% related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Conclusion: Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well

  7. The existing therapeutic interventions for orgasmic disorders: recommendations for culturally competent services, narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Zahra; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Salehi, Mehrdad; K.Killeen, Therese; Merghati-Khoei, Effat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, a growing number of interventions for treatment of female orgasmic problems (FODs) have emerged. Whereas orgasm is a extra biologically and learnable experience, there is a need for practitioners that to be able to select which therapy is the most appropriate to their context. Objective: In this critical literature review, we aimed to assess areas of controversy in the existing therapeutic interventions in FOD with taking into accounted the Iranian cultural models. Materials and Methods: For the present study, we conducted an extensive search of electronic databases using a comprehensive search strategy from 1970 till 2014. This strategy was using Google Scholar search, “pearl-growing” techniques and by hand-searching key guidelines, to identify distinct interventions to women's orgasmic problem therapy. We utilized various key combinations of words such as:" orgasm" OR "orgasmic "," female orgasmic dysfunction" OR Female anorgasmia OR Female Orgasmic Disorder ", orgasmic dysfunction AND treatment, “orgasm AND intervention”. Selection criteria in order to be included in this review, studies were required to: 1 employ clinical-based interventions, 2 focus on FOD. Results: The majority of interventions (90%) related to non-pharmacological and other were about pharmacological interventions. Self-direct masturbation is suggested as the most privilege treatment in FOD. Reviewing all therapies indicates couple therapy, sexual skill training and sex therapy seem to be more appropriate to be applied in Iranian clinical settings. Conclusion: Since many therapeutic interventions are introduced to inform sexually-related practices, it is important to select an intervention that will be culturally appropriate and sensitive to norms and values. Professionals working in the fields of health and sexuality need to be sensitive and apply culturally appropriate therapies for Iranian population. We further suggest community well defined protocols

  8. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  9. Intervention of oxygen-control ability to radiation sensitivity, cell aging and cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Hanako; Watanabe, Masami

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen is essential for life, and cells have therefore developed numerous adaptive responses to oxygen change. Here, we examined the difference in oxygen-control functions of human (HE), mouse (ME), and Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells cultured under different oxygen conditions (0.5%, 2% and 20%), and also examined whether oxygen tensions contributed to cellular lifespan and transformation. HE cells had their replicative lifespan slightly extended under hypoxic (0.5% and 2% oxygen) conditions, but were not immortalized under any of the oxygen concentrations. On the other hand, although ME cells cultured under 20% oxygen tension decreased their proliferation potency temporarily at early stage, all rodent cells were immortalized and acquired anchorage-independency, regardless of oxygen tension. These results suggest that cellular oxygen control function is related to sensitivities cellular immortalization and transformation. To understand intervention of oxygen control ability on cellular immortalization and transformation, we examined the intracellular oxidative level, mitochondria functions and radiation sensitivity. Intracellular oxidative levels of hypoxically cultured rodent cells were significantly enhanced. Mitochondrial membrane potential was altered depend on oxygen tensions, but the change was not parallel to mitochondria number in rodent cells. ME cells were particularly sensitive to oxygen change, and showed a clear oxygen effect on the X-ray survival. However, there was no difference in frequency of radiation-induced micronuclei between HE and ME cells. These results suggest that the response to oxygen change differs markedly in HE and rodent cells. (author)

  10. Interventions for confusion and dementia. 5: Changing cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, P

    Previous articles in this series (Vol 7(15): 891-94; Vol 7(17): 1018-20; Vol 7(19): 1145-49; Vol 7(20): 1247-50) have explored the promotion of quality of life for people with dementia and how this can be achieved through existing interventions. This final article moves from discussing specific interventions to cover wider issues around healthcare beliefs and values. A brief historical overview of dementia care is given, outlining the inherited structures and values. Much valuable work has been carried out by the Bradford Dementia Group, who has described changes in dementia care as moving from an 'old' to a 'new' culture. This 'new culture', offering a comprehensive person-centred approach to holistic care, is explored with reference to the work of Kitwood, who has done much to promote quality of life for people suffering from dementia.

  11. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  12. Reliability of direct sensitivity determination of blood cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noman, F.; Ahmed, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. All blood culture samples received at Microbiology Laboratory from 1st July 2006 to 31st August 2006 were ncluded in the study. All samples were inoculated in automated blood culture system BACTEC 9240 which contained enriched Soybean-Casein Digest broth with CO/sub 2/. Once positive, bottles were removed from system; gram staining of the positive broths was done. Susceptibility test was performed from positive broth, on MHA (Mueller-Hinton Agar), with antibiotics panel according to gram stain result. All positive broths were also sub-cultured on blood agar, chocolate agar and McConkey agar for only gram-negative rods. Next day, the zone sizes of all antibiotics were recorded using measuring scale and at the same time susceptibility test was repeated from isolated colonies from subcultures, with inoculums prepared of McFarland 0.5 standard 0.2 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213); E.coli (ATCC 25922) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) were included as quality control strain. Zone sizes were interpreted as sensitive (S), resistant (R) and intermediate (I) according to CLSI recommendation. Two results were compared and recorded. Out of a total 1083 combinations, zone diameters by standard method were either equal or greater than direct zone diameter (never smaller). Most of the discrepancies were in b-lactam/b-lactamase combinations and aminoglycosides. While reporting these groups of antibiotics with direct sensitivity test, one should be cautious. These are the major antibiotic used for life-threatening infections. In case of being heavy/lighter standard inoculums or marginal zones, repeating with standard method should be preferred to minimize the chances of error. (author)

  13. Photodamage of the cells in culture sensitized with bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlenkova, O. A.; Plavskaya, L. G.; Mikulich, A. V.; Leusenko, I. A.; Tretyakova, A. I.; Plavskii, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that exposure to radiation of LED sources of light with an emission band maximum at about 465 and 520 nm having substantially identical damaging effects on animal cells in culture, that are in a logarithmic growth phase and preincubated with pigment. Photobiological effect is caused by photodynamic processes involving singlet oxygen generated by triplet excited sensitizer. Mono-exponential type dependence of cell survival on the energy dose indicates that it is bilirubin that acts as a sensitizer but not its photoproducts. The inclusion of bilirubin in the cells, where it is primarily localized in the mitochondria cells, it is accompanied by multiple amplification photochemical stability compared to pigment molecules bound with albumin

  14. Culture-bound syndrome and a culturally sensitive approach: from a viewpoint of medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, A; Miyakawa, T

    2000-08-01

    Some aspects of the culture-bound syndrome are presented for discussion. From the psychiatric and medical anthropological viewpoints, kamidaari is described as an initiatory illness for seeing a shaman, and focus on clinical realities developing between different therapeutic subcultures in the same culture and the complementary practices of two epistemological ones, namely, the shamanistic and modern psychiatric system in the shamanistic climate. It is suggested that the culture-bound syndrome that reflects cultural influences on disease patterns and renders them difficult to place in a universal classificatory system should be seen as a vernacular bricolage or as tactics used by people within the web of their own local culture of origin. Therapists who treat patients in a cross-epistemological milieu should be aware of the subcultural-epistemological issues that may affect the clinical process. It should be recognized that, depending on the nature of a particular psychiatric crisis, the clinical encounter is straddling the boundaries of multiple clinical realities. At every stage in the clinical field, there is an intersection, consonance, or interruption of rejoinders in the open dialog by all those engaged in the clinical time. Aspects of climatic, culturally sensitive psychotherapy will be described, and the concept of the culture-bound syndrome will be reconsidered. Our approach could be seen as 'situation- and fudo-bound'.

  15. Safety culture relationships with hospital nursing sensitive metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Diane Storer; Wolosin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Public demand for safer care has catapulted the healthcare industry's efforts to understand relationships between patient safety and hospital performance. This study explored linkages between staff perceptions of safety culture (SC) and ongoing measures of hospital nursing unit-based structures, care processes, and adverse patient outcomes. Relationships between nursing-sensitive measures of hospital performance and SC were explored at the unit-level from 9 California hospitals and 37 nursing units. SC perceptions were measured 6 months prior to collection of nursing metrics and relationships between the two sets of data were explored using correlational and regression analyses. Significant relationships were found with reported falls and process measures for fall prevention. Multiple associations were identified with SC and the structure of care delivery: skill mix, staff turnover, and workload intensity demonstrated significant relationships with SC, explaining 22-45% of the variance. SC was an important factor to understand in the quest to advance safe patient care. These findings have affordability and care quality implications for hospital leadership. When senior leaders prioritized a safety culture, patient outcomes may have improved with less staff turnover and more productivity. A business case could be made for investing in patient safety systems to provide reliably safe care. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  16. Information and Communication Technologies – and Culturally Sensitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Michail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.

  17. Vantage sensitivity: a framework for individual differences in response to psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Bernadette; Lionetti, Francesca; Pluess, Michael

    2018-06-01

    People differ significantly in their response to psychological intervention, with some benefitting more from treatment than others. According to the recently proposed theoretical framework of vantage sensitivity, some of this variability may be due to individual differences in environmental sensitivity, the inherent ability to register, and process external stimuli. In this paper, we apply the vantage sensitivity framework to the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology, proposing that some people are more responsive to the positive effects of psychological intervention due to heightened sensitivity. After presenting theoretical frameworks related to environmental sensitivity, we review a selection of recent studies reporting individual differences in the positive response to psychological intervention. A growing number of studies report that some people benefit more from psychological intervention than others as a function of genetic, physiological, and psychological characteristics. These studies support the vantage sensitivity proposition that treatment response is influenced by factors associated with heightened sensitivity to environmental influences. More recently, studies have also shown that sensitivity can be measured with a short questionnaire which appears to predict the response to psychological intervention. Vantage sensitivity is a framework with significant relevance for our understanding of widely observed heterogeneity in treatment response. It suggests that variability in response to treatment is partly influenced by people's differing capacity for environmental sensitivity, which can be measured with a short questionnaire. Application of the vantage sensitivity framework to psychiatry and clinical psychology may improve our knowledge regarding when, how, and for whom interventions work.

  18. Student nurses' experiences of living and studying in a different culture to their own and the development of cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi

    With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...

  19. Prenatal expectations in Mexican American women: development of a culturally sensitive measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Tanaka, Rika; Cmic, Keith; Cirnic, Keith; Gonzales, Nancy; Enders, Craig; Luecken, Linda J

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal expectations describe various domains a woman envisions in preparation for her role as a new mother and influence how women transition into the maternal role. Although the maternal role is strongly influenced by the prevailing familial and sociocultural context, research characterizing prenatal expectations in ethnic minority and low-income women is lacking. As part of the largest growing minority group in the USA, Latina mothers represent an important group to study. Two hundred and ten low-income Mexican American women were administered the Prenatal Experiences Scale for Mexican Americans (PESMA) that was adapted to capture specific cultural aspects of prenatal expectations. Measures of current support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic characteristics were also completed to assess validity. Exploratory factor analysis identified three underlying factors of prenatal expectations: paternal support, family support, and maternal role fulfillment. Associations among these subscales and demographic and cultural variables were conducted to characterize women who reported higher and lower levels of expectations. The PESMA demonstrated good concurrent validity when compared to measures of social support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic constructs. A culturally sensitive measure of prenatal expectations is an important step towards a better understanding of how Mexican American women transition to the maternal role and identify culturally specific targets for interventions to promote maternal health.

  20. Prenatal expectations in Mexican American women: Development of a culturally-sensitive measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L.; Roubinov, Danielle S.; Tanaka, Rika; Crnic, Keith; Gonzales, Nancy; Enders, Craig; Luecken, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prenatal expectations describe various domains a woman envisions in preparation for her role as a new mother and influence how women transition into the maternal role. Although the maternal role is strongly influenced by the prevailing familial and sociocultural context, research characterizing prenatal expectations in ethnic minority and low-income women is lacking. As part of the largest growing minority group in the U.S., Latina mothers represent an important group to study. Methods Two hundred and ten low-income Mexican American women were administered the Prenatal Experiences Scale for Mexican Americans (PESMA) that was adapted to capture specific cultural aspects of prenatal expectations. Measures of current support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic characteristics were also completed to assess validity. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified three underlying factors of prenatal expectations: Paternal Support, Family Support, and Maternal Role Fulfillment. Associations among these subscales, and demographics and cultural variables were conducted to characterize women who reported higher and lower levels of expectations. The PESMA demonstrated good concurrent validity when compared to measures of social support, prenatal depressive symptoms, and other sociodemographic constructs. Conclusions A culturally sensitive measure of prenatal expectations is an important step towards a better understanding of how Mexican American women transition to the maternal role and identify culturally specific targets for interventions to promote maternal health. PMID:23592028

  1. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-01-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and…

  3. Diversifying the Midwifery Workforce: Inclusivity, Culturally Sensitive Bridging, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Holliday; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery educators and regulators in Canada have begun to address diversity, equity, and inclusion in admission processes and program curricula. Populations served by midwives value internationally educated midwives from their countries of origin. The International Midwifery Pre-Registration Program at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, provides assessment, midwifery workplace orientation, and accelerated education for internationally educated midwives on behalf of the regulatory College of Midwives of Ontario. Between 2003 and 2015, midwives from 41 countries participated in the bridging program, and 214 (80%) successfully completed the program and qualified for licensure. Of these 214 graduates, 100% passed the Canadian Midwifery Registration Examination and 193 (90%) were employed full time as midwives within 4 months of graduation. The program curriculum enables the integration of these midwives into health care workplaces utilizing innovative approaches to assessment and competency enhancement. Critical to the bridging process are simulation-based practices to develop effective psychomotor learning, virtual and real primary care community placements, and coaching in empathetic, client-centered communication. Cultural sensitivity is embedded into the multiple assessment and learning modalities, and addresses relevant barriers faced by immigrant midwives in the workplace. Findings from the 13 years of the program may be applicable to increase diversity in other North American midwifery settings. This article describes the process, content, outcomes, and findings of the program. Midwifery educators and regulators may consider the utility of these approaches for their settings. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  4. Culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention for Latino immigrants: the need to integrate fidelity and cultural relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Cardona, Jose Ruben; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2012-03-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce despite extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (2) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training principles, and (3) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. © FPI, Inc.

  5. Culturally Adapting an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention for Latino Immigrants: The Need to Integrate Fidelity and Cultural Relevance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Jose Ruben Parra; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Forgatch, Marion; Sullivan, Cris; Bybee, Deborah; Holtrop, Kendal; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Tams, Lisa; Dates, Brian; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the US. However, the cultural adaptation and dissemination of evidence-based parenting interventions among Latino populations continues to be scarce in spite of extensive research that demonstrates the long-term positive effects of these interventions. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) justify the importance of cultural adaptation research as a key strategy to disseminate efficacious interventions among Latinos, (b) describe the initial steps of a program of prevention research with Latino immigrants aimed at culturally adapting an evidence-based intervention informed by parent management training (PMT) principles, and (c) discuss implications for advancing cultural adaptation prevention practice and research, based on the initial feasibility and cultural acceptability findings of the current investigation. PMID:22428711

  6. Validation of a patient-centered culturally sensitive health care office staff inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Carolyn M; Wall, Whitney; Marsiske, Michael; Nghiem, Khanh; Roncoroni, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Research suggests that patient-perceived culturally sensitive health care encompasses multiple components of the health care delivery system including the cultural sensitivity of front desk office staff. Despite this, research on culturally sensitive health care focuses almost exclusively on provider behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge. This is due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of front desk office staff. Thus, the objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the pilot Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Patient Form (T-CSHCOSI-PF), which is an instrument designed to enable patients to evaluate the patient-defined cultural sensitivity of their front desk office staff. A sample of 1648 adult patients was recruited by staff at 67 health care sites across the United States. These patients anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-PF, a demographic data questionnaire, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Findings Confirmatory factor analyses of the TCSHCOSI-PF revealed that this inventory has two factors with high internal consistency reliability and validity (Cronbach's αs=0.97 and 0.95). It is concluded that the T-CSHCOSI-PF is a psychometrically strong and useful inventory for assessing the cultural sensitivity of front desk office staff. This inventory can be used to support culturally sensitive health care research, evaluate the job performance of front desk office staff, and aid in the development of trainings designed to improve the cultural sensitivity of these office staff.

  7. Human keratinocyte sensitivity towards inflammatory cytokines varies with culture time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Elliott

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating keratinocyte cultures have been reported to synthesize higher concentrations of prostaglandin (PG E than confluent ones. As interleukin-1 (IL-1 stimulates keratinocyte PGE synthesis we investigated whether the degree of confluency of the keratinocyte culture modified the response of the cells to IL-1. It was found that IL-1α (100 U/ml stimulated PGE2 synthesis by proliferating (7 days in culture but not differentiating (14 days in culture keratinocytes. Similar effects were observed using tumour necrosis factor-α. Both arachidonic acid (AA and the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated PGE2 synthesis by 7 and 14 day cultures although the increase was greatest when 7 day cultures were used. Our data indicate that there is a specific down-regulation of the mechanism(s by which some inflammatory cytokines stimulate keratinocyte eicosanoid synthesis as cultured keratinocytes begin to differentiate.

  8. Cultural Connections: An Ethnocultural Counseling Intervention for Black Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martinque K.; Sam, Thomandra S.

    2018-01-01

    Counseling interventions that support the exploration of ethnocultural concerns are beneficial to the overall well-being of Black women in college. The authors describe Cultural Connections, a theoretically based and culturally adapted group counseling intervention for Black women in college. Also presented are a case example demonstrating the…

  9. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  10. Teaching Strategies and Practices that Promote a Culturally Sensitive Nursing Education: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore teaching strategies that promote a culturally sensitive nursing education and culturally sensitive nursing. The diversity of Americans has increased. Thus, the nursing student population and patient population have both become more diverse. Nursing education programs, therefore, need to know the best…

  11. Effects of a Culturally Informed Intervention on Abused, Suicidal African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D.; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J.; Siegelman, Asher E.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined 1) the relative efficacy of a culturally-sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing three protective factors—self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources—versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and 2) the impact of participants’ readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the two conditions. Methods The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Results Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants that were “less ready to change” (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Conclusion Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally-informed intervention. PMID:25403027

  12. Effects of a culturally informed intervention on abused, suicidal African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Farah; Zhang, Huaiyu; Snead, Kara; Jones, Ashley D; Blackmon, Brittane; Bryant, Rachel J; Siegelman, Asher E; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2015-10-01

    This study examined (a) the relative efficacy of a culturally sensitive empowerment group intervention (Nia) aimed at increasing 3 protective factors-self-esteem, hopefulness, and effectiveness of obtaining resources-versus treatment as usual (TAU) for low-income, abused African American women who recently had attempted suicide and (b) the impact of participants' readiness to change with regard to their abusive relationship and suicidal behavior on their levels of each protective factor in the 2 conditions. The sample included 89 African American women who reported intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and a recent suicide attempt. Multivariate general linear modeling revealed that those in Nia showed greater improvements in self-esteem, but not in hopefulness or effectiveness of obtaining resources. However, significant interactions emerged in which participants who were "less ready to change" (i.e., earlier in the stages of change process) their IPV situation and suicidal behavior endorsed greater levels of hopefulness and perceived effectiveness of obtaining resources, respectively, following Nia. Findings suggest that abused, suicidal African American women who are more reluctant initially to changing their abusive situation and suicidal behavior may benefit from even a brief, culturally informed intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  14. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  15. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  16. Intercultural Sensitivity, Gender, and Nationality of Third Culture Kids Attending an International High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Due to the globalization and interconnectedness of people from different cultures, intercultural competence is a prerequisite to communicating effectively across different cultures. The Intercultural Sensitivity Inventory (ICSI) measures a person's ability to modify behavior in culturally appropriate ways when coming into contact with diverse…

  17. Violence against psychiatric nurses: sensitive research as science and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Zeiss, Robert; Rierdan, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses are frequent victims of workplace violence, much of which is perpetrated by patients. In a review of literature on prevalence, perpetrators, and impact of violence on psychiatric nurses, we note that workplace violence is a virtually normative experience for the nurse, rather than a rare occurrence. Verbal violence and sexual harassment, like physical violence, are common experiences; in contrast to physical violence, these are often initiated by co-workers. The emotional impact of violence on psychiatric nurses is studied less often than frequency of exposure; we discuss hypotheses for this paucity of relevant research. Finally, we reflect on the implications of current research, concluding with recommendations for future research on violence against psychiatric nurses. In particular, we elaborate on the role of violence research in the healthcare setting as "sensitive research"--a research process that in itself may have both direct and indirect beneficial effects for the nursing profession.

  18. In Search of Culturally Appropriate Autism Interventions: Perspectives of Latino Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Michaela; Watson, Linda R.; Zhang, Wanqing

    2018-01-01

    Most evidence-based autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions are tested with primarily White, mid-upper class, English-speaking populations, despite the increase in Latino children with ASD in early intervention programs throughout the United States. Unfortunately, interventions that are incongruent with a target population's culture may be…

  19. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R., E-mail: mundy.william@epa.gov

    2011-11-15

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  20. The Exploration of Culturally Sensitive Nursing Care in Pediatric Setting: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the essential aspects of the provision of care is cultural issues. Cultural sensitivity is the key for cultural care. The aim of this study was to explore culturally sensitive care in pediatric nursing care in Iran.Materials and Methods: This study was a conventional content analysis. Participants were consisted of 25 nurses and 9 parents selected through purposive sampling from three pediatric referral centers in Tabriz and Tehran, Iran. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and field notes and were concurrently analyzed by using Graneheim and Lundman (2004 method. Data was transcribed verbatim, words, sentences, and phrases were considered meaning units, abstracted, labeled and compared for developing categories.Results: Culturally sensitive care of a sick child was consisted of three themes: ‘cultural exposure’, ‘intercultural communication’ and ‘the reconciliation of cultural conflict in families/care’. During the ‘cultural exposure’ nurses were informed of the cultural manifestations, strived to identify and understand patients/families with cultural diversities and respect their cultural beliefs. The nurse used the native language in ‘intercultural communication’ or a combination of verbal and nonverbal communication methods to reach a common understanding. Finally, a nurse in the conflict between the culture of child/family and care took actions for making decisions to develop a compliance between care and the family culture and amended parents’ harmful desires through negotiation and appropriate care.Conclusion: Understanding the concept of culturally sensitive care, can help with resolving the problems of cultural exchanges in Pediatric wards. Providing cultural facilities and interpreters to communicate with patients/family increase their satisfaction.

  1. Comparative sensitivity of human and rat neural cultures to chemical-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Freudenrich, Theresa M.; Robinette, Brian L.; Mundy, William R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for rapid, efficient and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing. In vitro cell culture models can recapitulate many of the key cellular processes of nervous system development, including neurite outgrowth, and may be used as screening tools to identify potential developmental neurotoxicants. The present study compared primary rat cortical cultures and human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cultures in terms of: 1) reproducibility of high content image analysis based neurite outgrowth measurements, 2) dynamic range of neurite outgrowth measurements and 3) sensitivity to chemicals which have been shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. There was a large increase in neurite outgrowth between 2 and 24 h in both rat and human cultures. Image analysis data collected across multiple cultures demonstrated that neurite outgrowth measurements in rat cortical cultures were more reproducible and had higher dynamic range as compared to human neural cultures. Human neural cultures were more sensitive than rat cortical cultures to chemicals previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Parallel analysis of morphological (neurite count, neurite length) and cytotoxicity (neurons per field) measurements were used to detect selective effects on neurite outgrowth. All chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in rat cortical cultures did so at concentrations which did not concurrently affect the number of neurons per field, indicating selective effects on neurite outgrowth. In contrast, more than half the chemicals which inhibited neurite outgrowth in human neural cultures did so at concentrations which concurrently decreased the number of neurons per field, indicating that effects on neurite outgrowth were secondary to cytotoxicity. Overall, these data demonstrate that the culture models performed differently in terms of reproducibility, dynamic range and sensitivity to neurite outgrowth inhibitors. While human neural

  2. Culture-sensitive neural substrates of human cognition: a transcultural neuroimaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Northoff, Georg

    2008-08-01

    Our brains and minds are shaped by our experiences, which mainly occur in the context of the culture in which we develop and live. Although psychologists have provided abundant evidence for diversity of human cognition and behaviour across cultures, the question of whether the neural correlates of human cognition are also culture-dependent is often not considered by neuroscientists. However, recent transcultural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that one's cultural background can influence the neural activity that underlies both high- and low-level cognitive functions. The findings provide a novel approach by which to distinguish culture-sensitive from culture-invariant neural mechanisms of human cognition.

  3. Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.

  4. Are Cultural Values and Beliefs Included in U.S. Based HIV Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E.; Williams, John K.; Gupta, Arpana; Malebranche, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which current U.S. based HIV/AIDS prevention and risk reduction interventions address and include aspects of cultural beliefs in definitions, curricula, measures and related theories that may contradict current safer sex messages. Method A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine which published HIV/AIDS prevention and risk reduction interventions incorporated aspects of cultural beliefs. Results This review of 166 HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions, published between 1988 and 2010, identified 34 interventions that varied in cultural definitions and the integration of cultural concepts. Conclusion HIV interventions need to move beyond targeting specific populations based upon race/ethnicity, gender, sexual, drug and/or risk behaviors and incorporate cultural beliefs and experiences pertinent to an individual’s risk. Theory based interventions that incorporate cultural beliefs within a contextual framework are needed if prevention and risk reduction messages are to reach targeted at risk populations. Implications for the lack of uniformity of cultural definitions, measures and related theories are discussed and recommendations are made to ensure that cultural beliefs are acknowledged for their potential conflict with safer sex skills and practices. PMID:21884721

  5. Are cultural values and beliefs included in U.S. based HIV interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Williams, John K; Gupta, Arpana; Malebranche, Dominique

    2012-11-01

    To determine the extent to which current United States based human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention and risk reduction interventions address and include aspects of cultural beliefs in definitions, curricula, measures and related theories that may contradict current safer sex messages. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine which published human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention and risk reduction interventions incorporated aspects of cultural beliefs. This review of 166 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and risk reduction interventions, published between 1988 and 2010, identified 34 interventions that varied in cultural definitions and the integration of cultural concepts. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions need to move beyond targeting specific populations based upon race/ethnicity, gender, sexual, drug and/or risk behaviors and incorporate cultural beliefs and experiences pertinent to an individual's risk. Theory based interventions that incorporate cultural beliefs within a contextual framework are needed if prevention and risk reduction messages are to reach targeted at risk populations. Implications for the lack of uniformity of cultural definitions, measures and related theories are discussed and recommendations are made to ensure that cultural beliefs are acknowledged for their potential conflict with safer sex skills and practices. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. [Culture sensitive analysis of psychosomatic complaints in migrants in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Isaac; Nicolaus, Leonhard; Kriston, Levente; Hölzel, Lars; Härter, Martin

    2012-05-01

    To ensure an adequate health care of migrants, differentiated information on the association of cultural background and migration related factors and psychosomatic complaints are necessary. Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey regarding psychosomatic complaints of migrants from Turkey (n = 77), Italy (n = 95), and Spain (n = 67) and ethnic German resettled from the states of the former Soviet Union (n = 196). Questionnaires distributed by non-health specific counselling agencies of welfare associations. The cultural background was a relevant factor for psychosomatic complaints, showing higher complaints in Turkish and ethnic German resettled migrants, also compared to a sample of age corresponding Germans. In contrast, Spanish and Italian migrants showed a lower risk for psychosomatic complaints. Also gender, feeling unwell in Germany and fatalism showed a significant association with psychosomatic complaints. Migrants in Germany do not have per se a higher risk for psychosomatic complaints. A distinct differentiation by cultural background is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Outsiders in nursing education: cultural sensitivity in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Chun, Edna

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competence is a stated value of nursing and nursing education. However, some institutional and traditional practices in nursing education can unintentionally impede nurses from achieving cultural competence. Both the literature and interviews with nurse educators show that despite educators' intentions to treat all students the same, nontraditional students may feel singled out and may in fact be singled out for closer scrutiny because of their difference from the demographic norms of nursing students. To ensure that the nursing profession reflects the composition of the patient population it serves, nurse educators must first acknowledge the Eurocentric culture of nursing education and, then, work to change the environment in which students are recruited, learn, and take on the role of beginning practicing nurses. © 2014.

  8. Culturally Sensitive Mentoring for Asian International Students in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…

  9. Culturally Sensitive Best Practices for Sex Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Santiago, Verenice; Hund, Alycia M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about sexuality is a lifelong process that begins in childhood and continues through the lifespan. Through family and peer interactions and media sources, youth learn about sexuality and relationships, and develop their own values. The learning process and trajectory, however, may differ among youth from diverse cultures. In fact,…

  10. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several…

  11. Cultural Sensitivity: The Key to Teaching Global Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Judee A.

    2003-01-01

    More ethical practices in business begin with ethical training in business schools. International business education classes can compare corporate codes and actual behavior; explore the role of cultural differences in values, principles, and standards; and analyze ethical dilemmas in a global environment. (SK)

  12. A knowledge synthesis of culturally- and spiritually-sensitive end-of-life care: findings from a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Sinclair, Shane; Horst, Glen

    2016-05-18

    Multiple factors influence the end-of-life (EoL) care and experience of poor quality services by culturally- and spiritually-diverse groups. Access to EoL services e.g. health and social supports at home or in hospices is difficult for ethnic minorities compared to white European groups. A tool is required to empower patients and families to access culturally-safe care. This review was undertaken by the Canadian Virtual Hospice as a foundation for this tool. To explore attitudes, behaviours and patterns to utilization of EoL care by culturally and spiritually diverse groups and identify gaps in EoL care practice and delivery methods, a scoping review and thematic analysis of article content was conducted. Fourteen electronic databases and websites were searched between June-August 2014 to identify English-language peer-reviewed publications and grey literature (including reports and other online resources) published between 2004-2014. The search identified barriers and enablers at the systems, community and personal/family levels. Primary barriers include: cultural differences between healthcare providers; persons approaching EoL and family members; under-utilization of culturally-sensitive models designed to improve EoL care; language barriers; lack of awareness of cultural and religious diversity issues; exclusion of families in the decision-making process; personal racial and religious discrimination; and lack of culturally-tailored EoL information to facilitate decision-making. This review highlights that most research has focused on decision-making. There were fewer studies exploring different cultural and spiritual experiences at the EoL and interventions to improve EoL care. Interventions evaluated were largely educational in nature rather than service oriented.

  13. Implementing the Integrated Strategy for the Cultural Adaptation of Evidence-Based Interventions: An Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Ibrahim, Sarah; Lok, Jana; Fan, Lifeng; Fox, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Background Persons' cultural beliefs about a health problem can affect their perceived acceptability of evidence-based interventions, undermining evidence-based interventions' adherence, and uptake to manage the problem. Cultural adaptation has the potential to enhance the acceptability, uptake, and adherence to evidence-based interventions. Purpose To illustrate the implementation of the first two phases of the integrated strategy for cultural adaptation by examining Chinese Canadians' perceptions of chronic insomnia and evidence-based behavioral therapies for insomnia. Methods Chinese Canadians ( n = 14) with chronic insomnia attended a group session during which they completed established instruments measuring beliefs about sleep and insomnia, and their perceptions of factors that contribute to chronic insomnia. Participants rated the acceptability of evidence-based behavioral therapies and discussed their cultural perspectives regarding chronic insomnia and its treatment. Results Participants actively engaged in the activities planned for the first two phases of the integrated strategy and identified the most significant factor contributing to chronic insomnia and the evidence-based intervention most acceptable for their cultural group. Conclusions The protocol for implementing the two phases of the integrated strategy for cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions was feasible, acceptable, and useful in identifying culturally relevant evidence-based interventions.

  14. Synthesis strategy: building a culturally sensitive mid-range theory of risk perception using literary, quantitative, and qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaki, Leilani A; Loescher, Lois J; Trego, Lori L

    2013-03-01

    This article presents a discussion of development of a mid-range theory of risk perception. Unhealthy behaviours contribute to the development of health inequalities worldwide. The link between perceived risk and successful health behaviour change is inconclusive, particularly in vulnerable populations. This may be attributed to inattention to culture. The synthesis strategy of theory building guided the process using three methods: (1) a systematic review of literature published between 2000-2011 targeting perceived risk in vulnerable populations; (2) qualitative and (3) quantitative data from a study of Samoan Pacific Islanders at high risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Main concepts of this theory include risk attention, appraisal processes, cognition, and affect. Overarching these concepts is health-world view: cultural ways of knowing, beliefs, values, images, and ideas. This theory proposes the following: (1) risk attention varies based on knowledge of the health risk in the context of health-world views; (2) risk appraisals are influenced by affect, health-world views, cultural customs, and protocols that intersect with the health risk; (3) strength of cultural beliefs, values, and images (cultural identity) mediate risk attention and risk appraisal influencing the likelihood that persons will engage in health-promoting behaviours that may contradict cultural customs/protocols. Interventions guided by a culturally sensitive mid-range theory may improve behaviour-related health inequalities in vulnerable populations. The synthesis strategy is an intensive process for developing a culturally sensitive mid-range theory. Testing of the theory will ascertain its usefulness for reducing health inequalities in vulnerable groups. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Cultural Sensitiveness of School Goals and Students’ Failure in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is the means by which society provides for the transmission or advancement of its culture and it is formally done at schools that are the arena of human interaction aimed at producing learning. But some people in that interaction aimed at producing learning cannot achieve as much as the others due to some social or individual factors especially when the society is not homogeneous in terms of culture, language, etc.All cultures do not require the same kinds of knowledge and all may have distinct goals and expectations in education. This study aims at presenting the consensus and conflict in perspectives of students of different ethnic origins on general goals of education and expectations from schools in East and Southeast Turkey. The results will be used to generate a rationale to assume that the failure of students in East and Southeast Turkey where majority of population is ethnically diverse, may be because of the lack of divergent goals and expectations set for school curriculum or that the failure of students is dependent on some other factors except the unique school curriculum unresponsive to cultural or ethnic diversity. For this purpose, the goals of general education (1973, Law number 1739, Item number 2, and school expectations developed by House (1973 were prepared as questionnaire items, piloted, validated and administered to 9373 secondary school students in east and southeast Turkey. The findings of this study were that the students of different ethnic origins value the goals and expectations set for school curriculum in Turkey in significantly different ways.

  16. Interventions to nurture excellence in the nursing home culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschman, M

    2001-08-01

    exit of poor performers and fresh ideas of new recruits can be beneficial, inability to retain experienced personnel can result in replacement costs as high as $7,000 per employee (Proenca & Shewchuk, 1997). Furthermore, fostering employee commitment also has a mediating effect on family members' satisfaction with service quality (Steffen, Nystrom, & O'Connor, 1996). Each organization must be sensitized to its own problems. Attitudes cannot be changed by rules. Staff members need to be involved with listing all the strengths and weaknesses and how to change the negatives to positives in their own facilities. This requires a continuous learning process. The learning organization usually needs to restructure to improve its operation to reduce the hierarchy. If all employees understand the reasons for change and have participated in the change process, they are more likely to have learned organizational values such as trust, commitment, honesty, and integrity by inculcating these values and teaching them to others. Every employee is a partner in building a good reputation for the organization. One person can make a difference in creating, protecting, and building an organization's good name (Young, 1996). Staff members need to have a collaborative relationship with those who survey them, those who use their services, and those who compete with them. That does not mean "cronyism" (a dishonest, close relationship), but an honest, sharing relationship that fosters problem-solving and sharing of best practices. Leaders of the future must be more flexible with a broader variety of experiences. Their ceremonial responsibilities as the head of the organization become a critical and necessary function (Steere, 1996). Ceremonies, rites, and rituals bind the members to the organization. The values and culture work well because leaders exhibit these values in their interactive communication behaviors. The trend toward increasingly empowered organizations addresses the need to move

  17. Cultural sensitivity and supportive expressive psychotherapy: an integrative approach to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tracela M; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Schamberger, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity is a concept that has become increasingly important in psychotherapy research and practice. In response to the growing ethnic minority population and the increased demand for psychological services among minority clients, many therapists and researchers have attempted to identify competencies and guidelines for providing culturally sensitive approaches to treatment. However, many cultural sensitivity concepts are theoretical and have rarely been integrated into an established psychotherapeutic framework. The purpose of this manuscript is to operationalize the concepts of cultural sensitivity into specific therapeutic techniques using a manual-guided Supportive Expressive Psychotherapy approach. Developing these strategies may serve to further assist therapists with the delivery of mental health services to ethnic minority clients.

  18. Sensitive and selective culture medium for detection of environmental Clostridium difficile isolates without requirement for anaerobic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadnum, Jennifer L; Hurless, Kelly N; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Donskey, Curtis J

    2014-09-01

    Effective and easy-to-use methods for detecting Clostridium difficile spore contamination would be useful for identifying environmental reservoirs and monitoring the effectiveness of room disinfection. Culture-based detection methods are sensitive for detecting C. difficile, but their utility is limited due to the requirement of anaerobic culture conditions and microbiological expertise. We developed a low-cost selective broth medium containing thioglycolic acid and l-cystine, termed C. difficile brucella broth with thioglycolic acid and l-cystine (CDBB-TC), for the detection of C. difficile from environmental specimens under aerobic culture conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of CDBB-TC (under aerobic culture conditions) were compared to those of CDBB (under anaerobic culture conditions) for the recovery of C. difficile from swabs collected from hospital room surfaces. CDBB-TC was significantly more sensitive than CDBB for recovering environmental C. difficile (36/41 [88%] versus 21/41 [51%], respectively; P = 0.006). C. difficile latex agglutination, an enzyme immunoassay for toxins A and B or glutamate dehydrogenase, and a PCR for toxin B genes were all effective as confirmatory tests. For 477 total environmental cultures, the specificity of CDBB-TC versus that of CDBB based upon false-positive yellow-color development of the medium without recovery of C. difficile was 100% (0 false-positive results) versus 96% (18 false-positive results), respectively. False-positive cultures for CDBB were attributable to the growth of anaerobic non-C. difficile organisms that did not grow in CDBB-TC. Our results suggest that CDBB-TC provides a sensitive and selective medium for the recovery of C. difficile organisms from environmental samples, without the need for anaerobic culture conditions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Definitions of healing and healing interventions across different cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Ann H; Berger, Ann; Cheng, M Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    For centuries healing has been embedded in non-Western cultures. Traditional cultures believe that healing is derived from the divine and utilize a holistic approach to healing including the body, mind, and spirit. The community and environment are key elements in individual healing along with herbal remedies and ceremonies. Western cultures have accepted some traditional methods of relaxation and exercise, such as yoga and tai chi. In this paper we will examine some similar themes of traditional practices to better understand traditional patients' healing paradigm and find new tools as practitioners of Western medicine.

  20. East-West cultural differences in context-sensitivity are evident in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples. Moreover, no past research has investigated the relation between context-sensitivity and other domains of cognitive development. The present study examined children in the United States and Japan (N = 175, age 4-9 years) to investigate the developmental pattern in context-sensitivity and its relation to executive function. The study found that context-sensitivity increased with age across cultures. Nevertheless, Japanese children showed significantly greater context-sensitivity than American children. Also, context-sensitivity fully mediated the cultural difference in a set-shifting executive function task, which might help explain past findings that East Asian children outperformed their American counterparts on executive function. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Comparison of the sensitivity of typhi dot test with blood culture in typhoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvi, Q [Hamdard College of Medicine, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Pharmacology

    2006-10-15

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Typhi Dot test in comparison to Blood Culture for the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in our setup. Fifty patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria of having Typhoid Fever. The data of all the patients was documented, and they were submitted to the Typhi Dot and Blood Culture tests, apart from other routine investigations. Out of the total 50 patients, 47(94%) had their Blood Culture positive for Typhoid bacillus, while in 49 (98%) the Typhi Dot test was positive. Two patients which were found positive on Typhi dot test, gave negative results on Blood Culture. One patient with the signs and symptoms of Typhoid Fever was found neither positive on Typhi Dot test nor upon Blood Culture. There was no significant difference between the results of Blood Culture and Typhi Dot test in the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. However, Typhi Dot has the advantages of being less expensive and quicker in giving results with excellent sensitivity. (author)

  2. Comparison of the sensitivity of typhi dot test with blood culture in typhoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Q.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Typhi Dot test in comparison to Blood Culture for the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in our setup. Fifty patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria of having Typhoid Fever. The data of all the patients was documented, and they were submitted to the Typhi Dot and Blood Culture tests, apart from other routine investigations. Out of the total 50 patients, 47(94%) had their Blood Culture positive for Typhoid bacillus, while in 49 (98%) the Typhi Dot test was positive. Two patients which were found positive on Typhi dot test, gave negative results on Blood Culture. One patient with the signs and symptoms of Typhoid Fever was found neither positive on Typhi Dot test nor upon Blood Culture. There was no significant difference between the results of Blood Culture and Typhi Dot test in the diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. However, Typhi Dot has the advantages of being less expensive and quicker in giving results with excellent sensitivity. (author)

  3. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Tuah, Rodianson; Riskione, Patricia; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Effendy, Christantie

    2016-01-01

    A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of socio-culturally hierarchical gap between health providers and clients in Indonesian context, (2) to provide attention to the unspoken concerns especially in the context of indirect communication which mostly using non-verbal signs and politeness etiquettes, and (3) to initiate dialog in the society which hold a more community-oriented decision making. Our aim is to compare the communication skills of nursing students who had and had not received a training using a culture-sensitive Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. This was a quasi experimental randomized control study to the fifth semester students of a nursing school at Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The intervention group was trained by the Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline. Both intervention and the control group had learned general nurse-client communication guidelines. The training was 4h with role-plays, supportive information and feedback sessions. An objective-structured clinical examination (OSCE) was conducted 1week after the training, in seven stations, with seven simulated clients. Observers judged the communication skills of the students using a checklist of 5-point Likert scale, whereas simulated clients judged their satisfaction using 4-point Likert scale represented in colorful ribbons. There were significant mean differences in each domain of communication guideline observed between the trained and the control groups as judged by the teachers (p≤0.05) and simulated clients. Training using a culture-sensitive communication skills guideline could improve the communication skills of the nursing students and may increase satisfaction of the clients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  5. A call to improve practice concerning cultural sensitivity in advance directives: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zager, B Sue; Yancy, Margaret

    2011-12-01

    The Patient Self Determination Act of 1990 mandates healthcare providers (HCP) to speak with patients about end-of-life preferences and advance directives (AD). HCP work with patients of varying cultures, and standard ADs do not address cultural differences. In order to understand various cultural beliefs, cultural sensitivity is important especially when discussing advance care planning (ACP). Individuals from differing ethnic backgrounds are likely to turn to their traditional norms of practice when ill or treatment choices must be made. An AD that addresses varying cultural values and beliefs was sought. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted. Articles selected for review included qualitative and quantitative studies. The evidence was evaluated and synthesized for information related to cultural sensitivity and ADs. Three common themes emerged related to ACP discussions and culture. Healthcare provider awareness, communication, and education concerning cultural differences and ACP assisted in meeting the needs for end-of-life planning in the current era of increased globalization. Education for HCP on cultural differences and how to lead discussions promoted ACP. ADs are an essential part of health care and promote patient-centered care. (HCP) should be able to recognize differing cultural values and beliefs in order to initiate conversations about end of life. Initiating conversations about ACP can be facilitated by using open-ended questions that respect the values and beliefs of various cultures. Copyright ©2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. Different Strokes for Different Folks? Contrasting Approaches to Cultural Adaptation of Parenting Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Leijten, Patty; Lachman, Jamie M; Parra-Cardona, José Ruben

    2017-08-01

    Relevant achievements have been accomplished in prevention science with regard to disseminating efficacious parenting interventions among underserved populations. However, widespread disparities in availability of parenting services continue to negatively impact diverse populations in high-income countries (e.g., the USA) and low- and middle-income countries. As a result, a scholarly debate on cultural adaptation has evolved over the years. Specifically, some scholars have argued that in diverse cultural contexts, existing evidence-based parenting interventions should be delivered with strict fidelity to ensure effectiveness. Others have emphasized the need for cultural adaptations of interventions when disseminated among diverse populations. In this paper, we propose that discussions on cultural adaptation should be conceptualized as a "both-and," rather than an "either-or" process. To justify this stance, we describe three distinct parenting intervention projects to illustrate how cultural adaptation and efficacy of evidence-based interventions can be achieved using contrasting approaches and frameworks, depending on cultural preferences and available resources of local contexts. Further, we suggest the need to develop guidelines for consistent reporting of cultural adaptation procedures as a critical component of future investigations. This discussion is relevant for the broader public health field and prevention science.

  7. Voltage-sensitive dye recording from networks of cultured neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Bin

    This thesis describes the development and testing of a sensitive apparatus for recording electrical activity from microcultures of rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons by using voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.The apparatus comprises a feedback-regulated mercury arc light source, an inverted epifluorescence microscope, a novel fiber-optic camera with discrete photodiode detectors, and low-noise preamplifiers. Using an NA 0.75 objective and illuminating at 10 W/cm2 with the 546 nm mercury line, a typical SCG neuron stained with the styryl dye RH423 gives a detected photocurrent of 1 nA; the light source and optical detectors are quiet enough that the shot noise in this photocurrent--about.03% rms--dominates. The design, theory, and performance of this dye-recording apparatus are discussed in detail.Styryl dyes such as RH423 typically give signals of 1%/100 mV on these cells; the signals are linear in membrane potential, but do not appear to arise from a purely electrochromic mechanism. Given this voltage sensitivity and the noise level of the apparatus, it should be possible to detect both action potentials and subthreshold synaptic potentials from SCG cell bodies. In practice, dye recording can easily detect action potentials from every neuron in an SCG microculture, but small synaptic potentials are obscured by dye signals from the dense network of axons.In another microculture system that does not have such long and complex axons, this dye-recording apparatus should be able to detect synaptic potentials, making it possible to noninvasively map the synaptic connections in a microculture, and thus to study long-term synaptic plasticity.

  8. Social-Skill Interventions for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Yan, Min-Chi; Kulkarni, Saili S.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have considered social-skill interventions to be an essential component in the development and progress of students with disabilities. However, there is still relatively limited research on these interventions for individuals from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. This literature review was conducted…

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of an Agent-Based Model of Culture's Consequences for Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Verwaart, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of an agent-based model’s sensitivity to changes in parameters that describe the agents’ cultural background, relational parameters, and parameters of the decision functions. As agent-based models may be very sensitive to small changes in parameter values, it is of

  10. Effects of a Culture-Adaptive Forgiveness Intervention for Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mingxia; Hui, Eadaoin; Fu, Hong; Watkins, David; Tao, Linjin; Lo, Sing Kai

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and application of forgiveness varies across cultures. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a culture-adaptive Forgiveness Intervention on forgiveness attitude, self-esteem, empathy and anxiety of Mainland Chinese college students. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated to either experimental groups or a…

  11. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  12. Enhancing Sensitivity in Adolescent Mothers: Does a Standardised, Popular Parenting Intervention Work with Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Yvonne; BinNoon, Noam

    2014-01-01

    This community pilot study was designed to evaluate a small group intervention, Right From The Start (RFTS), in terms of the benefits it provides to adolescent mothers specifically. The effectiveness of the programme was examined in the areas of maternal sensitivity, parenting confidence, parenting stress, and postnatal depression. RFTS has been…

  13. Maternal sensitivity and mental health: does an early childhood intervention programme have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P early intervention POC may influence mother's mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Teamwork, communication and safety climate: a systematic review of interventions to improve surgical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Greg D; Shannon, Evan M; Dawes, Aaron J; Rollo, Johnathon C; Nguyen, David K; Russell, Marcia M; Ko, Clifford Y; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda A

    2015-07-01

    To define the target domains of culture-improvement interventions, to assess the impact of these interventions on surgical culture and to determine whether culture improvements lead to better patient outcomes and improved healthcare efficiency. Healthcare systems are investing considerable resources in improving workplace culture. It remains unclear whether these interventions, when aimed at surgical care, are successful and whether they are associated with changes in patient outcomes. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched from January 1980 to January 2015. We included studies on interventions that aimed to improve surgical culture, defined as the interpersonal, social and organisational factors that affect the healthcare environment and patient care. The quality of studies was assessed using an adapted tool to focus the review on higher-quality studies. Due to study heterogeneity, findings were narratively reviewed. The 47 studies meeting inclusion criteria (4 randomised trials and 10 moderate-quality observational studies) reported on interventions that targeted three domains of culture: teamwork (n=28), communication (n=26) and safety climate (n=19); several targeted more than one domain. All moderate-quality studies showed improvements in at least one of these domains. Two studies also demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes, such as reduced postoperative complications and even reduced postoperative mortality (absolute risk reduction 1.7%). Two studies reported improvements in healthcare efficiency, including fewer operating room delays. These findings were supported by similar results from low-quality studies. The literature provides promising evidence for various strategies to improve surgical culture, although these approaches differ in terms of the interventions employed as well as the techniques used to measure culture. Nevertheless, culture improvement appears to be associated with other positive effects, including

  15. Alginate foam-based three-dimensional culture to investigate drug sensitivity in primary leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpoor, Mahroo; Yebra-Fernandez, Eva; Parhizkar, Maryam; Orlu, Mine; Craig, Duncan; Khorashad, Jamshid S; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2018-04-01

    The development of assays for evaluating the sensitivity of leukaemia cells to anti-cancer agents is becoming an important aspect of personalized medicine. Conventional cell cultures lack the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the bone marrow (BM), the extracellular matrix and stromal components which are crucial for the growth and survival of leukaemia stem cells. To accurately predict the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells in an in vitro assay a culturing system containing the essential components of BM is required. In this study, we developed a porous calcium alginate foam-based scaffold to be used for 3D culture. The new 3D culture was shown to be cell compatible as it supported the proliferation of both normal haematopoietic and leukaemia cells. Our cell differential assay for myeloid markers showed that the porous foam-based 3D culture enhanced myeloid differentiation in both leukaemia and normal haematopoietic cells compared to two-dimensional culture. The foam-based scaffold reduced the sensitivity of the leukaemia cells to the tested antileukaemia agents in K562 and HL60 leukaemia cell line model and also primary myeloid leukaemia cells. This observation supports the application of calcium alginate foams as scaffold components of the 3D cultures for investigation of sensitivity to antileukaemia agents in primary myeloid cells. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Models and Frameworks for Culturally Responsive Adaptations of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa S.; Villarreal, Victor; Castro, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) youths are underserved by mental health systems; CLD youths are less likely to receive mental health services and more likely to receive services that are inappropriate or inadequate. The lack of well-established treatments for CLD youths has been cited as one contributing factor…

  17. Assessing the cultural in culturally sensitive printed patient-education materials for Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Tran, Henrietta; Chesla, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects Chinese Americans at an alarming rate. To address this health disparity, research in the area of cultural sensitivity and health literacy provides useful guidelines for creating culturally appropriate health education. In this article, we use discourse analysis to examine a group of locally available, Chinese- and English-language diabetes print documents from a surface level and deep structure level of culture. First, we compared these documents to research findings about printed health information to determine whether and how these documents apply current best practices for health literacy and culturally appropriate health communication. Second, we examined how diabetes as a disease and diabetes management is being constructed. The printed materials addressed surface level culture through the use of Chinese language, pictures, foods, and exercises. From a deeper cultural level, the materials constructed diabetes management as a matter of measurement and control that contrasted with previous research suggesting an alternative construction of balance. A nuanced assessment of both surface and deeper levels of culture is essential for creating health education materials that are more culturally appropriate and can lead to increased health literacy and improved health outcomes.

  18. Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity into Interactive Entertainment-Education for Diabetes Self-Management Designed for Hispanic Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly N; Montealegre, Jane R; Rustveld, Luis O; Glover, Talar L; Chauca, Glori; Reed, Brian C; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes self-management education can improve outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, Hispanics, a group that carries a large burden of disease, may not participate in diabetes education programs. Audience engagement with entertainment-education has been associated with improved health education outcomes and may engage and empower Hispanic users to active self-care. Successful use of entertainment-education relies on the use of characters and situations with whom the viewers can feel some sense of involvement and for Hispanic audiences is encouraged when storylines and characters are culturally sensitive. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach that included descriptive statistics of closed-ended and content analysis of open-ended questions to measure the cultural sensitivity of the telenovela portion of a novel technology-based application called Sugar, Heart, and Life (SHL). Specifically, we analyzed the responses of 123 male and female patients diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM to determine viewer involvement with characters and situations in the telenovela, viewer perceived self-efficacy in following recommendations, as well as viewer satisfaction with the program. Our findings indicate that the SHL application achieved its goal of creating a user-friendly program that depicted realistic, culturally sensitive characters and storylines that resonated with Hispanic audiences and ultimately fostered perceived self-efficacy related to following recommendations given about healthy lifestyle changes for diabetes self-management. These findings suggest that the SHL application is a culturally sensitive health education intervention for use by Hispanic male and female individuals that may empower them in self-management of T2DM.

  19. Weight-loss interventions for Hispanic populations: the role of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Halperin, Ruben O

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, ethnic minorities are overrepresented among the overweight and obese population, with Hispanic individuals being among the groups most at risk for obesity and obesity-related disease and disability. Most weight-loss interventions designed for the general population have been less successful with individuals from ethnic minorities and there is a pressing need to develop more effective interventions for these groups. This paper examines the importance of culture in the development of "culturally competent" weight-loss interventions for ethnic minority populations, and discusses specific culturally mediated factors that should be considered in the design and implementation of treatment interventions. While specifically focusing on Hispanic populations, we also address issues of relevance to other multiethnic societies.

  20. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Cultural Adaptation of a Neurobiologically Informed Intervention in Local and International Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Longoria, Zayra; Garcia Isaza, Alejandra; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore; Burlingame, Sarah; Klein, Scott; Berlinski, Samuel; Attanasio, Orazio; Neville, Helen

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between early adversity and numerous negative outcomes across the lifespan is evident in a wide range of societies and cultures (e.g., Pakulak, Stevens, & Neville, 2018). Among the most affected neural systems are those supporting attention, self-regulation, and stress regulation. As such, these systems represent targets for neurobiologically informed interventions addressing early adversity. In prior work with monolingual native English-speaking families, we showed that a two-generation intervention targeting these systems in families improves outcomes across multiple domains including child brain function for selective attention (for detail, see Neville et al., 2013). Here, we discuss the translation and cultural adaptation (CA) of this intervention in local and international contexts, which required systematic consideration of cultural differences that could affect program acceptability. First, we conducted a translation and CA of our program to serve Latino families in the United States using the Cultural Adaptation Process (CAP), a model that works closely with stakeholders in a systematic, iterative process. Second, to implement the adapted program in Medellín, Colombia, we conducted a subsequent adaptation for Colombian culture using the same CAP. Our experience underscores the importance of consideration of cultural differences and a systematic approach to adaptation before assessing the efficacy of neurobiologically informed interventions in different cultural contexts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tough love: A brief cultural history of the addiction intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Claire D

    2012-08-01

    Popular media depictions of intervention and associated confrontational therapies often implicitly reference-and sometimes explicitly present-dated and discredited therapeutic practices. Furthermore, rather than reenacting these practices, contemporary televised interventions revive them. Drawing on a range of literature in family history, psychology, and media studies that covers the course of the last 3 decades, this paper argues that competing discourses about the nuclear family enabled this revival. Historians such as Stephanie Coontz, Elaine Tyler May, and Natasha Zaretsky have demonstrated that the ideal nuclear family in the post-WWII United States was defined by strictly gendered roles for parents and appropriate levels of parental engagement with children. These qualities were supposedly strongly associated with middle-class decorum and material comfort. By the 1970s, this familial ideal was subjected to a variety of criticisms, most notably from mental health practitioners who studied-or attempted to remedy-the problematic family dynamics that arose from, for example, anxious mothers or absent fathers. After psychological professionals began to question the logic of treating maladjusted individuals for the sake of preserving the nuclear family, a therapeutic process for doing exactly that was popularized: the addiction intervention. The delayed prevalence of therapeutic interventions arises from a tension between the psychological establishment that increasingly viewed the nuclear family as the primary site and source of social and psychological ills, and the producers of popular media, who relied on the redemptive myth of the nuclear family as a source of drama. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Interventions to provide culturally-appropriate maternity care services: factors affecting implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Coast, Ernestina

    2017-08-31

    The World Health Organization recently made a recommendation supporting 'culturally-appropriate' maternity care services to improve maternal and newborn health. This recommendation results, in part, from a systematic review we conducted, which showed that interventions to provide culturally-appropriate maternity care have largely improved women's use of skilled maternity care. Factors relating to the implementation of these interventions can have implications for their success. This paper examines stakeholders' perspectives and experiences of these interventions, and facilitators and barriers to implementation; and concludes with how they relate to the effects of the interventions on care-seeking outcomes. We based our analysis on 15 papers included in the systematic review. To extract, collate and organise data on the context and conditions from each paper, we adapted the SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework that lists categories of factors that could influence implementation. We considered information from the background and discussion sections of papers included in the systematic review, as well as cost data and qualitative data when included. Women's and other stakeholders' perspectives on the interventions were generally positive. Four key themes emerged in our analysis of facilitators and barriers to implementation. Firstly, interventions must consider broader economic, geographical and social factors that affect ethnic minority groups' access to services, alongside providing culturally-appropriate care. Secondly, community participation is important in understanding problems with existing services and potential solutions from the community perspective, and in the development and implementation of interventions. Thirdly, respectful, person-centred care should be at the core of these interventions. Finally, cohesiveness is essential between the culturally-appropriate service and other health care providers encountered by women and their

  4. Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-12-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  5. Cultural context and school counseling: Cultural sensitivity to advocate for social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshé Tatar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relevance of understanding the different meanings of culture in the counseling profession is presented. Two approaches to the concept of culture as they relate to counseling are suggested: the first approach stresses the organisational culture of the institution where the counselor works; the second —the multicultural approach— calls for the complex recognition of the variety of ethnic cultural backgrounds of those involved in the counseling situation. Professional practices are analysed as means for the reinforcement of present conditions or as ways for changing them. The concepts of empowerment of and advocacy for our clients are put forward as main components in the challenging new roles of the counseling profession. Implications for counselors are suggested.

  6. Towards culture change in the operating theatre: embedding a complex educational intervention to improve teamwork climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan; Allard, Jon; Hobbs, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Changing teamwork climate in healthcare through a collective shift in attitudes and values may be a necessary precursor to establishing a positive teamwork culture, where innovations can be more readily embedded and sustained. A complex educational intervention was initiated across an entire UK Trust's surgical provision, and then sustained. Attitudes towards teamwork were measured longitudinally to examine if the intervention produced sustainable results. The research aimed to test whether sustaining a complex education intervention to improve teamwork would result in an incremental, longitudinal improvement in attitudes and values towards teamwork. The intervention's larger aim is to progress the historical default position of multi-professional work to authentic inter-professional teamwork, as a positive values climate translates in time into behavioural change defining a safety culture. Attitudes were measured at three points across all surgical team personnel over a period of 4 years, using a validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire with a focus on the 'teamwork climate' domain. Pre- and post-intervention 'teamwork climate' scores were compared to give a longitudinal measure as a test of sustainability. Mean 'teamwork climate' scores improved incrementally and significantly following the series of educational interventions, showing that practitioners' valuing of teamwork activity can be improved and sustained. Longitudinal positive change in attitudes and values towards teamwork can be sustained, suggesting that a deliberate, designed complex intervention can shape a safety climate as a necessary prerequisite for the establishment of a sustainable safety culture.

  7. Cross-Cultural Approach of Postpartum Depression: Manifestation, Practices Applied, Risk Factors and Therapeutic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagorou, Olympia; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria

    2016-03-01

    It is a well known fact that postpartum depression (PPD) is a global phenomenon that women may experience, regardless of cultural identity and beliefs. This literature review presents the cultural beliefs and postnatal practices around the world, in each continent and people's origins, looking through the extent to which they contribute positively or negatively to the onset of the disease. 106 articles were used in this research, through a systematic electronic search of Pubmed (Medline) and Scopus. Comparison is also made between the prevalence, the risk factors and the different ways of appearance of the disease around the world and among immigrants. Finally, the initiatives and interventions made so far by the governments and institutions with a view to prevent and address this global problem are presented. The results showed (a) that different cultures share the same risk factors towards the disease (b) significant differences in the prevalence of the disease among both Western and non Western cultures and between the cultures themselves (c) more tendencies for somatization of depressive symptoms in non-Western cultures, (d) different postnatal practices between cultures, which are not always effective (e) the more non-West a culture is, the less interventions concern on mental health; the same phenomenon is observed on populations burdened by immigration. The beliefs held by culture should be taken seriously in detecting of PPD, as well as the assessment of the needs of women who have recently given birth.

  8. Organizational culture change in U.S. hospitals: a mixed methods longitudinal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A; Linnander, Erika L; Brewster, Amanda L; Ting, Henry; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-03-07

    Improving outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a priority for hospital leadership, clinicians, and policymakers. Evidence suggests links between hospital organizational culture and hospital performance; however, few studies have attempted to shift organizational culture in order to improve performance, fewer have focused on patient outcomes, and none have addressed mortality for patients with AMI. We sought to address this gap through a novel longitudinal intervention study, Leadership Saves Lives (LSL). This manuscript describes the methodology of LSL, a 2-year intervention study using a concurrent mixed methods design, guided by open systems theory and the Assess, Innovate, Develop, Engage, Devolve (AIDED) model of diffusion, implemented in 10 U.S. hospitals and their peer hospital networks. The intervention has three primary components: 1) annual convenings of the ten intervention hospitals; 2) semiannual workshops with guiding coalitions at each hospital; and 3) continuous remote support across all intervention hospitals through a web-based platform. Primary outcomes include 1) shifts in key dimensions of hospital organizational culture associated with lower mortality rates for patients with AMI; 2) use of targeted evidence-based practices associated with lower mortality rates for patients with AMI; and 3) in-hospital AMI mortality. Quantitative data include annual surveys of guiding coalition members in the intervention hospitals and peer network hospitals. Qualitative data include in-person, in-depth interviews with all guiding coalition members and selective observations of key interactions in care for patients with AMI, collected at three time points. Data integration will identify patterns and major themes in change processes across all intervention hospitals over time. LSL is novel in its use of a longitudinal mixed methods approach in a diverse sample of hospitals, its focus on objective outcome measures of mortality, and its

  9. Developing graduate student competency in providing culturally sensitive end of life care in critical care environments - a pilot study of a teaching innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, Holly L; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Grealish, Laurie; Mak, Anita S

    2015-11-01

    Australia's immigration policy has generated a rich diverse cultural community of staff and patients in critical care environments. Many different cultural perspectives inform individual actions in the context of critical care, including the highly sensitive area of end of life care, with nurses feeling poorly prepared to provide culturally sensitive end of life care. This article describes and evaluates the effectiveness of an educational innovation designed to develop graduate-level critical care nurses' capacity for effective interpersonal communication, as members of a multi-disciplinary team in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care. A mixed method pilot study was conducted using a curriculum innovation intervention informed by The Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Program (EXCELL),(1) which is a higher education intervention which was applied to develop the nurses' intercultural communication skills. 12 graduate nursing students studying critical care nursing participated in the study. 42% (n=5) of the participants were from an international background. Information about students' cultural learning was recorded before and after the intervention, using a cultural learning development scale. Student discussions of end of life care were recorded at Week 2 and 14 of the curriculum. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Students demonstrated an increase in cultural learning in a range of areas in the pre-post surveys including understandings of cultural diversity, interpersonal skills, cross cultural interactions and participating in multicultural groups. Thematic analysis of the end of life discussions revealed an increase in the levels of nurse confidence in approaching end of life care in critical care environments. The EXCELL program provides an effective and supportive educational framework to increase graduate nurses' cultural learning

  10. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  11. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2018-06-01

    This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Experience of using an interdisciplinary task force to develop a culturally sensitive multipronged tool to improve stroke outcomes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedunni S. Arulogun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of stroke is on the rise in Nigeria. A multi-faceted strategy is essential for reducing this growing burden and includes promoting medication adherence, optimizing traditional biomarker risk targets (blood pressure, cholesterol and encouraging beneficial lifestyle practices. Successful implementation of this strategy is challenged by inadequate patient health literacy, limited patient/medical system resources, and lack of a coordinated interdisciplinary treatment approach. Moreover, the few interventions developed to improve medical care in Nigeria have generally been aimed at physicians (primarily and nurses (secondarily with minimal input from other key health care providers, and limited contributions from patients, caregivers, and the community itself. The Tailored Hospital-based Risk Reduction to Impede Vascular Events after Stroke (THRIVES study is assessing the efficacy of a culturally sensitive multidimensional intervention for controlling blood pressure in recent stroke survivors. A key component of the intervention development process was the constitution of a project task force comprising various healthcare providers and administrators. This paper describes the unique experience in Sub-Saharan Africa of utilizing of an interdisciplinary Task force to facilitate the development of the multipronged behavioral intervention aimed at enhancing stroke outcomes in a low-middle income country.

  13. A methodology for building culture and gender norms into intervention: an example from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Pelto, Pertti; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2011-05-01

    This paper responds to the call for culturally-relevant intervention research by introducing a methodology for identifying community norms and resources in order to more effectively implement sustainable interventions strategies. Results of an analysis of community norms, specifically attitudes toward gender equity, are presented from an HIV/STI research and intervention project in a low-income community in Mumbai, India (2008-2012). Community gender norms were explored because of their relevance to sexual risk in settings characterized by high levels of gender inequity. This paper recommends approaches that interventionists and social scientists can take to incorporate cultural insights into formative assessments and project implementation These approaches include how to (1) examine modal beliefs and norms and any patterned variation within the community; (2) identify and assess variation in cultural beliefs and norms among community members (including leaders, social workers, members of civil society and the religious sector); and (3) identify differential needs among sectors of the community and key types of individuals best suited to help formulate and disseminate culturally-relevant intervention messages. Using a multi-method approach that includes the progressive translation of qualitative interviews into a quantitative survey of cultural norms, along with an analysis of community consensus, we outline a means for measuring variation in cultural expectations and beliefs about gender relations in an urban community in Mumbai. Results illustrate how intervention strategies and implementation can benefit from an organic (versus a priori and/or stereotypical) approach to cultural characteristics and analysis of community resources and vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of culturally tailored diabetes interventions for Asian immigrants to the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jee Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of tailoring community-based diabetes intervention to Asian immigrant cultures. The Cochrane processes and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations guided this systematic review. PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid, and PsycINFO were searched for analyses and syntheses of primary research published since 2000 that described interventions tailored for the cultures of Asian immigrants with diabetes. This search yielded a total of 9 articles published from 2005 to 2013. The Amsterdam-Maastricht Consensus List for Quality Assessment was used to assess the quality of the studies. Retrieved studies' populations were foreign-born adults >50 years of age with type 2 diabetes. The review revealed that culturally tailored diabetes programs are effective at improving patients' objectively measured clinical outcomes, in particular A1C levels, and psychobehavioral outcomes. Patients were also highly satisfied with bilingual health care providers and bilingual educational programs. There is strong evidence of the effectiveness of tailoring diabetes interventions to Asian immigrant populations' cultures. Further studies, including longitudinal studies and studies with rigorous research designs that subclassify Asian immigrants, are needed to encourage the implementation of culturally tailored diabetes intervention for this ethnic minority. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Was cultural deprivation in fact sensory deprivation? Deprivation, retardation and intervention in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Mical

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, the term "deprivation" entered American psychiatric discourse. This article examines how the concept of deprivation permeated the field of mental retardation, and became an accepted theory of etiology. It focuses on sensory deprivation and cultural deprivation, and analyzes the interventions developed, based on these theories. It argues that the controversial theory of cultural deprivation derived its scientific legitimization from the theory of sensory deprivation, and was a highly politicized concept that took part in the nature-nurture debate.

  17. Evaluating cohort and intervention effects on black adolescents' ethnic-racial identity: a cognitive-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L; McQueen, John P

    2010-11-01

    The importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic-racial identity as protective factors in the psychological and social adjustment of Black youth is well established in the literature. Whaley (2003) developed a cognitive-cultural model of identity to explicate the process by which ethnic-racial socialization impacts ethnic-racial identity and subsequent social and behavioral outcomes among adolescents of African descent. The present study tests the cognitive-cultural model of identity utilizing pilot data from a modified Africentric intervention program. Both explicit and implicit aspects of ethnic-racial identity were evaluated between two cohorts: one group in 2003, which represented historical controls, and another group in 2008 which received the intervention and has pre-test and post-test data. We hypothesized that the evaluation of underlying implicit or schematic processes would be more sensitive to changes in ethnic-racial identity resulting from cohort and intervention effects. Our results confirmed this hypothesis. Implications of applying mainstream behavioral science research paradigms to issues of special concern to the Black community are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pushing boundaries-culture-sensitive care in oncology and palliative care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Beate; Rumpold, Tamara; Amering, Michaela; Masel, Eva Katharina; Watzke, Herbert; Schur, Sophie

    2017-06-01

    In increasingly globalized societies, patient-centered cancer care requires culture-sensitive approaches in order to ensure patients well-being. While migrant patients' needs are frequently reported in the literature, staff members' perception of work with migrant patients, associated challenges, or individual work approaches are largely unknown. This study addresses this research gap through qualitative exploration of experiences of multicultural health care professionals in supportive oncology and palliative care, working with patients from different cultural backgrounds. This study aims to understand staff experience of the impact of culture on cancer care. This study was conducted at the Medical University of Vienna, including staff from different settings of oncology and palliative care, in different professional positions, and with a range of individual migration backgrounds. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 staff members working with patients from different cultural backgrounds. Interviews explored views on the impact of culture on care were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed using a rigorous method of thematic analysis, enhanced with grounded theory techniques. Interviews revealed 4 key topics: culture-specific differences, assumed reasons for differences, consequences of multicultural care, and tools for culture-sensitive care. Strategies to better deal with migrant patients and their families were suggested to improve work satisfaction amongst staff. This study identifies relevant staff challenges in work with migrant patients. Concrete suggestions for improvement include measures on an organizational level, team level, and personal tools. The suggested measures are applicable to improve work satisfaction and culture-sensitive care not only in cancer care but also in other areas of medicine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Relationship Between Cultural Sensitivity and Assertiveness in Nursing Students from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Serap Parlar; Sevinç, Sibel

    2017-07-01

    As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate health care. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and assertiveness in university nursing students. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at two universities in the cities of Kilis and Elazığ, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 444 nursing students. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about participant sociodemographic characteristics, Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. The mean age of participants was 21.09 years. Most students (71.6%) were female and 34.7% of the students stayed at the hostel. Of the students, 44.4%, 27.5%, and 28.2% attended were the second-, third-, and fourth-year students, respectively. Participants were asked about problems related to caring for patients who speak different languages. The mean score for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale was 89.42 ± 13.55 and the total score for all students for the Assertiveness Scale was 112.64 ± 15.61. We identified a positive relationship between total scores for the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale and the Assertiveness Scale ( p assertiveness and year of nursing education and want to work overseas. Nursing students at both schools had a moderate level of cultural sensitivity and assertiveness. It has been determined that as assertiveness level of the students increased, intercultural sensitivity of them also increased. Consequently, it is concluded that training as assertive and self-confident individuals during the nursing education of students has a contribution to making patient-specific and culture-sensitive care.

  20. How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

  1. The Effects of the Japan Bridge Project on Third Graders' Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lindsay; Sherman, Lilian; MaKinster, James

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the Japan BRIDGE Project, a global education program, on its third grade participants. Characterization of lessons and analysis of student interviews were used to investigate the nature of the curriculum and whether or not student participants were more culturally sensitive due to participation. Results indicate…

  2. Listening to the Third Voices of Pangasinan Students: Designing and Enacting Culturally Sensitive Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This response builds upon Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" by exploring how an expanded understanding of the ubiquitous nature of adolescent literacy practices and identities challenge traditional notions of "in school" and "out of school"…

  3. Practitioners' Perspectives on Cultural Sensitivity in Latina/o Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…

  4. Culture and Youth Psychopathology: Testing the Syndromal Sensitivity Model in Thai and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; Weiss, Bahr; Suwanlert, Somsong; Chaiyasit, Wanchai

    2006-01-01

    Current widespread use of the same youth assessment measures and scales across different nations assumes that youth psychopathology syndromes do not differ meaningfully across nations. By contrast, the authors' syndromal sensitivity model posits 3 processes through which cultural differences can lead to cross-national differences in…

  5. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  6. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication : an Agenda for Science and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J.; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A.

    2016-01-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making ...

  7. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in Spanish: culture-sensitive manualized treatment in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-08-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.

  8. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Spanish: Culture-Sensitive Manualized Treatment in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2014-01-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities. PMID:20549680

  9. The roles of effective communication and client engagement in delivering culturally sensitive care to immigrant parents of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally; Piérart, Geneviève; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. Implications for Rehabilitation Effective communication permeates the delivery of culturally sensitive care and provides mutual understanding, which is fundamental to client engagement. The findings illuminate the nature of "partnership" by indicating the role of collaborative therapist strategies in facilitating engagement. Four main strategies facilitate effective communication and

  10. Effects of a team-based assessment and intervention on patient safety culture in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, B; Müller, V; Rochon, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: The measurement of safety culture in healthcare is generally regarded as a first step towards improvement. Based on a self-assessment of safety culture, the Frankfurt Patient Safety Matrix (FraTrix) aims to enable healthcare teams to improve safety culture in their organisations....... In this study we assessed the effects of FraTrix on safety culture in general practice. Methods: We conducted an open randomised controlled trial in 60 general practices. FraTrix was applied over a period of 9 months during three facilitated team sessions in intervention practices. At baseline and after 12...... months, scores were allocated for safety culture as expressed in practice structure and processes (indicators), in safety climate and in patient safety incident reporting. The primary outcome was the indicator error management. Results: During the team sessions, practice teams reflected on their safety...

  11. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  12. The Good Behavior Game: A Classroom-Behavior Intervention Effective across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Julene D.; Houlihan, Daniel; Wanzek, Megan; Jenson, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Few classroom behavioral interventions have been thoroughly studied using culturally and linguistically diverse populations, international student populations, or those from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. Yet, having such tools for school psychologists and teachers is critical for behavior management in the classroom. One important exception…

  13. A Systematic Review of Culturally Specific Interventions to Increase Physical Activity for Older Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katigbak, Carina; Flaherty, Erin; Chao, Ying-Yu; Nguyen, Tam; Cheung, Daphne; Yiu-Cho Kwan, Rick

    Physical activity (PA) is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For older adults, engaging in PA is shown to improve cardiac status, reduce cognitive, and functional decline, and improve overall quality of life. However, only 17% of Asian American adults meet the 2008 federal recommended guidelines for aerobic and muscle strengthening activity; and there is a paucity of data reporting on older Asian Americans - a rapidly growing, underserved group. While data pertaining to Asian Americans is frequently reported at the aggregate level, this masks differences (eg, language, culture, income) among Asian ethnic subgroups that may impact health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to identify intervention, and cultural adaptation strategies in studies promoting PA for older Asian Americans. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify interventions published between 1996-2016 focused on improving PA among older Asian Americans (> 60 years old). Data were abstracted to examine intervention study designs, cultural adaptation strategies, theoretical frameworks, and physical activity measures. Nine studies met the review's inclusion criteria. Community-based recruitment approaches were widely used, and all studies employed cultural adaptation to varying degrees. Most studies reported improvements in PA outcomes, focused on Chinese Americans, and relied on self-reports of PA, while few aimed to increase PA using a multi-component approach. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes, a wider representation of Asian ethnic subgroups, and concentrated efforts to implement deep level adaptations that may increase the salience and sustainability of these interventions.

  14. COMMUNITY INTERVENTION IN THE UNIVERSITY CONTEXT TO RAISE THE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Amalia Rodríguez-Barrera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern university has the mission of training of competent professionals, able to preserve, develop and promote the strengthening of cultural development of students and the community through academic, research and social work practice processes. This paper aims to present the results of Community action in the university context Career Early Childhood Education, to raise the cultural development of families. The intervention was designed according to three basic processes: planning, implementation, evaluation and control, and to ensure, as previous steps, the study programs of disciplines and subjects of the race, for determining the didactic treatment of the required content Community intervention from academic, scientific and practical work; of the main needs of the community and preparing students for the fulfillment of the tasks. The research was conducted with the application of a quasi-experiment Teaching and the use of theoretical, empirical (interview, observation, document analysis and for the collection and statistical data processing methods. The comparison of results between the experimental and control groups before and after application of the Community intervention allowed to check their effectiveness from raising the cultural development of families in the experimental group, in the motivational-regulative dimensions, cognitive, attitudinal and communication. The essential differences in the results of each dimension not only differ significantly between the groups, but all of them is able to distinguish very well the cultural development of families applied after the intervention actions.

  15. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  16. A Systematic Review of Culturally Tailored Obesity Interventions among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wanda Martin; White, Ashley N.; Knowlden, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: African Americans have the highest age-adjusted rates of obesity at 48.1%. High rates of obesity contribute to the disproportionate share of chronic health conditions. In order to reduce these high rates and achieve health equity, intervention programs must address racial health disparities in culturally meaningful ways. Methods: The…

  17. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa-Peláez, Maritza; Ayala, Nancy; Yadon, Zaida E; Heldal, Einar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases) and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients) were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms), for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 385 (14%) were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10%) were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8%) previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms) varied by department from 2-68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Only 21 (5%) of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23%) had a culture and 47 (20%) had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital), culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32%) and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%). Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and only 20% of

  19. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Samayoa-Peláez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area, disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms, for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76% were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB, 385 (14% were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10% were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8% previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms varied by department from 2–68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB. Only 21 (5% of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23% had a culture and 47 (20% had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital, culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32% and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%. Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and

  20. Bioimpedance monitoring of 3D cell culturing-Complementary electrode configurations for enhanced spatial sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir

    2015-01-01

    A bioimpedance platform is presented as a promising tool for non-invasive real-time monitoring of the entire process of three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing in a hydrogel scaffold. In this study, the dynamics involved in the whole process of 3D cell culturing, starting from polymerisation...... spectroscopic (EIS) characterisation were used to determine the configurations' sensitivity field localisation. The 2T setup gives insight into the interfacial phenomena at both electrode surfaces and covers the central part of the 3D cell culture volume, while the four 3T modes provide focus on the dynamics...... the tested biomimetic environment, paving the way to further developments in bioimpedance tracking of 3D cell cultures and tissue engineering....

  1. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

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    Kirill V. Sergueev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  2. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueev, Kirill V; Filippov, Andrey A; Nikolich, Mikeljon P

    2017-06-10

    For decades, bacteriophages (phages) have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter) within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B . abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis . The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B . abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B . abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  3. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueev, Kirill V.; Filippov, Andrey A.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2017-01-01

    For decades, bacteriophages (phages) have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter) within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types. PMID:28604602

  4. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  5. Evaluation of a Cultural Competence Intervention with Implications for the Nurse-Patient Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Althea Betty

    A short-term intervention on participants' knowledge of cultural competence was provided to 38 students in a baccalaureate nursing program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU). The study examined the effectiveness of this intervention. Although WSSU is a Historically Black University, the majority of students in this program were White. Six tools were used for data collection. The Cultural Competence Survey consisted of 19 Likert Scale items that also gave participants an opportunity to elaborate on each response. Four tools allowed participants to provide written answers to prompts related to cultural competence. The final tool made it possible for the investigator to record impressions and reflections regarding various aspects of the study. Results showed that the students are familiar with cultural competence and want to avoid stereotypical behavior in their nurse-patient encounters. The study suggests a need for education in cultural competence in three areas: 1) accepting that cultural competence is a lifelong endeavor, 2) understanding patients from a holistic perspective, and 3) recognizing that all people have biases; however, the competent nurse is self-aware and has been educated to recognize biased behavior.

  6. Increased sensitivity to ET-1 in rat cerebral arteries following organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2000-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is recognized as being involved in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Using organ culture as a model for possible pathological changes we studied changes in ET(A) and ETB receptor function using a sensitive in vitro method. We observed an up-regulation of the ET......(B) receptor and an amazingly increased sensitivity to ET-1 by 3 log units in pEC50; pEC50(fresh) was 8.7 +/- 0.1, and pEC50(cultured) was 11.7 +/- 0.3. pA2 for FR139317 in the fresh vessel was 7.0 +/- 0.2 whereas it could not be obtained for the cultured vessel, indicating a possible cross-talk between the ET......(A) and ET(B) receptors. The increased sensitivity to ET-1 could also take place during cerebrovascular disease such as stroke or haemorrhage rendering the vessels considerably more sensitive to ET-1....

  7. Creating Qungasvik (a Yup'ik intervention "toolbox"): case examples from a community-developed and culturally-driven intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, Stacy M; Charles, Billy; Mohatt, Gerald V

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a Yup'ik Alaska Native approach to suicide and alcohol abuse prevention that resulted in the creation of the Qungasvik, a toolbox promoting reasons for life and sobriety among youth. The Qungasvik is made up of thirty-six modules that function as cultural scripts for creating experiences in Yup'ik communities that build strengths and protection against suicide and alcohol abuse. The Qungasvik manual represents the results of a community based participatory research intervention development process grounded in culture and local process, and nurtured through a syncretic blending of Indigenous and Western theories and practices. This paper will provide a description of the collaborative steps taken at the community-level to develop the intervention modules. This process involved university researchers and community members coming together and drawing from multiple sources of data and knowledge to inform the development of prevention activities addressing youth suicide and alcohol abuse. We will present case examples describing the development of three keystone modules; Qasgiq (The Men's House), Yup'ik Kinship Terms, and Surviving Your Feelings. These modules each are representative of the process that the community co-researcher team took to develop and implement protective experiences that: (1) create supportive community, (2) strengthen families, and (3) give individuals tools to be healthy and strong.

  8. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  9. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  10. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURE POSITIVE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY PROFILE IN TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Sreekumar Pius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection is very common all over the world and in India more than 10 million cases are reported per year. It is one of the common infections diagnosed in the outpatients as well as the hospitalised patients. Empirical treatment of community acquired urinary tract infections are determined by the antibiotic sensitivity in a population. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity amongst the uropathogens to help establish local guidelines on treatment of urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, we collected 1306 samples from patients in whom we suspected to have urinary tract infection based on clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. with fever (greater than 38°C without another explanation or from a patient who had at least one urinary symptom (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic pain or tenderness in our hospital during January 2016-June 2016. RESULTS Urine cultures were positive for 18% of the patients. Among these cultures, Klebsiella pneumonia (41%, Escherichia coli (35% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7% were the common organisms found. Highest antimicrobial sensitivity amongst these pathogens was found with cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin. CONCLUSION Cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin were the highly sensitive systemic antibiotics while ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were the sensitive oral antibiotics in our locality.

  11. Violence in the eye of adolescents: education intervention with Culture Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão Neto, Waldemar; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; de Aquino, Jael Maria; de Lima, Luciane Soares; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    to apply the methodology of Culture Circles on adolescents as a strategy for health education of nurses in the construction of the collective knowledge of the thematic violence. action research type and qualitative study. Participants were 11 adolescents from a public school in Recife, PE, Brazil. Data production in Culture Circles included the participant observation with field diary, photographic recording and filming, as well as the photovoice technique. The analysis was performed by triangulating data in dialogue with the literature. it was shown that the problematizing action provided by the Culture Circle made possible to create situations in which adolescents felt invited to critically refl ect on the phenomenon of violence in all its complexity. the health education intervention, performed by Culture Circles, added learning and mutual growth subsidizing nursing care actions that excel at leadership and autonomy of adolescents.

  12. Assessing Culture and Climate of Federally Qualified Health Centers: A Plan for Implementing Behavioral Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L; Drummond, Karen L; Curran, Geoffrey M; Fortney, John C

    2017-01-01

    This study examines organizational factors relating to climate and culture that might facilitate or impede the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) targeting behavioral health in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Employees at six FQHCs participating in an evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) initiative for mood disorders and alcohol abuse were interviewed (N=32) or surveyed using the Organizational Context Survey (OCS) assessing culture and climate (N=64). The FQHCs scored relatively well on proficiency, a previously established predictor of successful EBP implementation, but also logged high scores on scales assessing rigidity and resistance, which may hinder implementation. Qualitative data contextualized scores on FQHC culture and climate dimensions. Results suggest that the unique culture of FQHCs may influence implementation of evidence-based behavioral health interventions.

  13. Tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions for the improvement of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Thien; Bandupriya, H D Dharshani; López-Villalobos, Arturo; Sisunandar, S; Foale, Mike; Adkins, Steve W

    2015-11-01

    The present review discusses not only advances in coconut tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions but also future research directions toward the resilience of this important palm crop. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is commonly known as the 'tree of life'. Every component of the palm can be used to produce items of value and many can be converted into industrial products. Coconut cultivation faces a number of acute problems that reduce its productivity and competitiveness. These problems include various biotic and abiotic challenges as well as an unstable market for its traditional oil-based products. Around 10 million small-holder farmers cultivate coconut palms worldwide on c. 12 million hectares of land, and many more people own a few coconut palms that contribute to their livelihoods. Inefficiency in the production of seedlings for replanting remains an issue; however, tissue culture and other biotechnological interventions are expected to provide pragmatic solutions. Over the past 60 years, much research has been directed towards developing and improving protocols for (i) embryo culture; (ii) clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis; (iii) homozygote production via anther culture; (iv) germplasm conservation via cryopreservation; and (v) genetic transformation. Recently other advances have revealed possible new ways to improve these protocols. Although effective embryo culture and cryopreservation are now possible, the limited frequency of conversion of somatic embryos to ex vitro seedlings still prevents the large-scale clonal propagation of coconut. This review illustrates how our knowledge of tissue culture and associated biotechnological interventions in coconut has so far developed. Further improvement of protocols and their application to a wider range of germplasm will continue to open up new horizons for the collection, conservation, breeding and productivity of coconut.

  14. Global software development: Commitment, trust, and cultural sensitivity in strategic partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-marie; Krishna, S; Bjørn, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    as through conscious relationship management with the clients. Three major themes describe important aspects of the strategic partnerships: 1) senior management commitment and employee identification with the projects, 2) mutual trust and transparency, and 3) cross-cultural understanding and sensitivity....... The article draws attention to the important collaborative work done by people who are able to span boundaries in the complex organizational set-up of global IT development projects....

  15. Sensitivity of PCR IS6110 in relation to culture and staining in Pott′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid diagnosis is essential to decrease the morbidity and mortality of Pott′s disease. The bacteriological methods are time-consuming or insensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR provides a rapid diagnostic tool and hope for early diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to compare and assess of a rapid and effective method among diagnostic battery (Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture and PCR of Pott′s disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five specimens from clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease were included in this study. They were processed for ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture, and PCR IS6110. The tests tool′s efficiency, positive agreement Kc (Kappa coefficient, and significance level (P value were calculated for correlation between PCR and performed tests. Results: The PCR sensitivity reached to 96% and 46.3% among positive and negative specimens on ZN microscopy. Further, 94% and 36.4% sensitivity were found among positive and negative specimens by BACTEC culture. The total 38 (58.5% specimens were detected either ZN microscopy or by BACTEC culture. Thus, the overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 95% and 74.1%. The kappa coefficient and P value, calculated for PCR against BACTEC culture and combined results of performed bacteriological tests were (Kc=0.60, (P<0.001 and (Kc=0.70, (P<0.001, respectively. Above statistical relations showed a fair agreement with significant differences. Conclusion: The PCR IS6110 may be useful in rapid detection of clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease and those that are negative with bacteriological methods.

  16. Haloxyfop mode of action in liquid cultures of proso millet: An analysis of haloxyfop sensitivity changes during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irzyk, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Haloxyfop is a grass-selective herbicide that inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase in species that are not tolerant to the herbicide. Liquid cultures of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) cells treated with haloxyfop at different phases of growth exhibited different levels of sensitivity to the herbicide. Treatment of 1-d cultures with 1 μM haloxyfop completely inhibited growth within 48 h. In contrast, 1 mM haloxyfop was required to elicit a similar response in 4-, 7-, or 10-d cultures. Calculated IC 50 values indicated a 300-fold decrease in haloxyfop sensitivity during the period from 1 to 4 d. This period of growth coincided with the greatest increase in cell number during culture growth and suggested that dividing cells are most sensitive to haloxyfop. Uptake and metabolism of 14 C-haloxyfop in 1-d and 4-d cultures were compared. In both cultures, amounts of radiolabel uptake were similar. Almost all radioactivity extracted from 1- and 4-d cells was present as the parent compound. These results suggested that the sensitivity change was related to other factors. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity of proso millet cells, measured in vitro by the acetyl-CoA-dependent incorporation of 14 C-bicarbonate into an acid-stable product, was essentially constant during culture growth. Micromolar concentrations of haloxyfop significantly inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity from both sensitive and insensitive cultures. Thus, the change in the sensitivity of cultures to haloxyfop was not correlated with changes in acetyl-CoA carboxylase abundance, activity, or sensitivity to haloxyfop during culture growth. In vivo incorporation of 14 C-acetate into lipids was decreased by 1 μM haloxyfop in both 1-d and 4-d cultures at the earliest sampling times but the amount of inhibition was significantly greater in the sensitive cultures

  17. Development and preliminary evaluation of culturally specific web-based intervention for parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Kim, S; Ko, H; Kim, Y; Park, C G

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Problematic parent-child relationships have been identified as one of the main predictors of adolescents' mental health problems, but there are few existing interventions that address this issue. The format and delivery method of existing interventions for parents are relatively inaccessible for parents with full-time jobs and families living in rural areas. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The newly developed 'Stepping Stone' culturally specific web-based intervention, which is intended to help Korean parents of adolescents to acquire both knowledge and communication and conflict management skills, was found to be feasible and well-accepted by parents. This study enabled us to identify areas for improvement in the content and format of the intervention and strategies. This will potentially increase effect sizes for the outcome variables of parents' perception and behaviours. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This web-based intervention could be delivered across diverse settings, such as schools and community mental health centers, to increase parents' knowledge of adolescent's mental health and allow for early detection of mental health problems. Mental health nurses working in schools may spend a significant amount of time addressing students' mental health issues; thus, this web-based intervention could be a useful resource to share with parents and children. In this way, the mental health nurses could facilitate parental engagement in the intervention and then help them to continue to apply and practice the knowledge and skills obtained through the program. Introduction There is a need for accessible, culturally specific web-based interventions to address parent-child relationships and adolescents' mental health. Aims This study developed and conducted a preliminary evaluation of a 4-week web-based intervention for parents of adolescents aged 11 to 16 years in Korea. Methods We used a two-group, repeated

  18. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice : A cluster randomised trial a cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, Natasha J.; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L M

    2015-01-01

    Background: A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim: To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting: A three-arm cluster randomised trial

  19. Mediating Effect of School Nurses' Self Efficacy between Multicultural Attitude and Cultural Sensitivity in Korean Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won Oak; Im, Yeo Jin; Cho, Hun Ha

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the mediating effect of school nurses' self efficacy, which is one of the significant cognitive factors influencing cultural sensitivity, on the mutual relationships between multicultural attitude and cultural sensitivity in Korean elementary schools. A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used. Participants were 157 school nurses in elementary schools located in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. The survey instruments included Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey, Teacher Efficacy Scale, and Multicultural Sensitivity Scale. Data were analyzed using three regression equations to test the mediation model. The mean score of the school nurses' cultural sensitivity was relatively low. A positive correlation among multicultural attitude, self efficacy, and cultural sensitivity was noted. Self efficacy of school nurses showed a significant mediating effect on the relationships between multicultural attitude and cultural sensitivity. Given the meaningful influence of positive multicultural attitude on cultural sensitivity and significant mediator effect of self efficacy as a school nurse between the two variables, the strategies to cultivate a positive multicultural attitude and enhance school nurses' self efficacy in their unique role should be considered in a training program. School nurses' health care services will benefit from the improvement of cultural sensitivity toward young children from multicultural families. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Improving Medical Decision Making and Health Promotion through Culture-Sensitive Health Communication: An Agenda for Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Böhm, Robert; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Butler, Robb; Chapman, Gretchen B; Haase, Niels; Herrmann, Benedikt; Igarashi, Tasuku; Kitayama, Shinobu; Korn, Lars; Nurm, Ülla-Karin; Rohrmann, Bernd; Rothman, Alexander J; Shavitt, Sharon; Updegraff, John A; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-10-01

    This review introduces the concept of culture-sensitive health communication. The basic premise is that congruency between the recipient's cultural characteristics and the respective message will increase the communication's effectiveness. Culture-sensitive health communication is therefore defined as the deliberate and evidence-informed adaptation of health communication to the recipients' cultural background in order to increase knowledge and improve preparation for medical decision making and to enhance the persuasiveness of messages in health promotion. To achieve effective health communication in varying cultural contexts, an empirically and theoretically based understanding of culture will be indispensable. We therefore define culture, discuss which evolutionary and structural factors contribute to the development of cultural diversity, and examine how differences are conceptualized as scientific constructs in current models of cultural differences. In addition, we will explicate the implications of cultural differences for psychological theorizing, because common constructs of health behavior theories and decision making, such as attitudes or risk perception, are subject to cultural variation. In terms of communication, we will review both communication strategies and channels that are used to disseminate health messages, and we will discuss the implications of cultural differences for their effectiveness. Finally, we propose an agenda both for science and for practice to advance and apply the evidence base for culture-sensitive health communication. This calls for more interdisciplinary research between science and practice but also between scientific disciplines and between basic and applied research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Are cultural values and beliefs included in U.S. based HIV interventions?

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, GE; Williams, JK; Gupta, A; Malebranche, D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which current United States based human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) prevention and risk reduction interventions address and include aspects of cultural beliefs in definitions, curricula, measures and related theories that may contradict current safer sex messages. Method: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine which published human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (H...

  2. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: cultural adaptations and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia L; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62 and 50 % respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 and 5.5 kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women.

  3. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.

  4. Sensitivity assessment of direct method for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in comparison with Dorset Culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim badparva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that lives in the genital tract and causes trichomoniasis in women. About 200 million people all over the world are infected with T. vaginalis. There are various methods with different sensitivity and specificity for detection of this parasite, that one of them is direct smear of vaginal secretions which is simpler, rapid and cheaper than other diagnostic methods. Materials and Methods: Demographic data was gathered by a questionnaire which contained different variables. Vaginal secretions samples were taken by spicolum and two swaps that maintained in glucose solution in separate tubes from 160 women referred to health centers of Khorramabad. One of the vaginal samples was examined by direct smear in saline solution and the other was cultured in Dorse medium. Results: Of 160 women suspected of trichomoniasis, 11.8% and 18.75% were positive by direct smear and culture respectively. The sensitivity of the direct method was 63.3%. Our findings indicated that 30% of the infected women belonged to the 31 – 35 age group, which had the most relative frequency of positive cases. Most of the patients (43% were illiterate or had elementary educational level. Conclussion: The sensivity of direct method is 63% in compare to culture ( as a Gold standard , which is ralatively low . Although the efficacy of this test could be imporved by shortening the elapsed time between sampling and examination , use of skilled microscopists , and different samples , but we recommend that more sensitive methods such as culture and PCR should be used .

  5. Culturally-grounded mother-daughter communication-focused intervention for Thai female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powwattana, Arpaporn; Thammaraksa, Pimrat; Manora, Sroy

    2018-02-05

    Teenage pregnancy-prevention interventions have fallen short in significantly decreasing risk of pregnancy for Thai populations. The "breaking the voice" ("rak luk khun tong pood") culture-appropriate teenage pregnancy-prevention program was developed using community-based research. Qualitative analyses of focus group data identified salient factors related to sexual communication and behavior. The integration of focus group results with theoretical constructs guided the development of an intervention to reduce risky sexual behavior by increasing communication between mothers and their adolescent daughters. A total of 157 mother-daughter dyads from congested areas in Bangkok participated in pilot testing of the intervention by the use of a survey. The findings indicated a significant increase in the frequency of and number of sexual risk communication (P assertiveness, and ability to decrease sexual risk among daughters (P < .05). "Breaking the voice" represents a female-focused and culturally-relevant intervention to combat teenage pregnancy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Why culture matters in health interventions: lessons from HIV/AIDS stigma and NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Ford, Chandra L; Iwelunmor, Juliet I

    2014-02-01

    Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies to reduce the global disease burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes requires a reassessment of individual-based approaches to behavior change. We argue that public health and health behavior intervention should focus more on culture than behavior to achieve meaningful and sustainable change resulting in positive health outcomes. To change negative health behaviors, one must first identify and promote positive health behaviors within the cultural logic of its contexts. To illustrate these points, we discuss stigma associated with obesity and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We conclude that focusing on positive behaviors and sustaining cultural and personal transformations requires a culturally grounded approach to public health interventions, such as that provided by the PEN-3 model.

  7. Development of an Inventory for Health-Care Office Staff to Self-Assess Their Patient-Centered Cultural Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M. Tucker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC is a best practice approach for improving health-care delivery to culturally diverse populations and reducing health disparities. Despite patients’ report that cultural sensitivity by health-care office staff is an important aspect of PC-CSHC, the majority of available research on PC-CSHC focuses exclusively on health-care providers. This may be due in part to the paucity of instruments available to assess the cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff. The objective of the present study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Tucker-Culturally Sensitive Health Care Office Staff Inventory-Self-Assessment Form (T-CSHCOSI-SAF. This instrument is designed to enable health-care office staff to self-assess their level of agreement that they display behaviors and attitudes that culturally diverse patients have identified as office staff cultural sensitivity indicators. Methods: A sample of 510 health-care office staff were recruited at 67 health-care sites across the United States. These health-care office staff anonymously completed the T-CSHCOSI-SAF and a demographic data questionnaire. Results and Level of Evidence: Confirmatory factor analyses of the T-CSHCOSI-SAF revealed that this inventory has 2 factors with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s αs= .916 and .912. Conclusion and Implications: The T-CSHCOSI-SAF is a useful inventory for health-care office staff to assess their own level of patient-centered cultural sensitivity. Such self-assessment data can be used in the development and implementation of trainings to promote patient-centered cultural sensitivity of health-care office staff and to help draw the attention of these staff to displaying patient-centered cultural sensitivity.

  8. The Healthy Migrant Families Initiative: development of a culturally competent obesity prevention intervention for African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Halliday, Jennifer A; Mellor, David; Green, Julie

    2015-03-19

    Although obesity among immigrants remains an important area of study given the increasing migrant population in Australia and other developed countries, research on factors amenable to intervention is sparse. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally-competent obesity prevention program for sub-Saharan African (SSA) families with children aged 12-17 years using a community-partnered participatory approach. A community-partnered participatory approach that allowed the intervention to be developed in collaborative partnership with communities was used. Three pilot studies were carried out in 2008 and 2009 which included focus groups, interviews, and workshops with SSA parents, teenagers and health professionals, and emerging themes were used to inform the intervention content. A cultural competence framework containing 10 strategies was developed to inform the development of the program. Using findings from our scoping research, together with community consultations through the African Review Panel, a draft program outline (skeleton) was developed and presented in two separate community forums with SSA community members and health professionals working with SSA communities in Melbourne. The 'Healthy Migrant Families Initiative (HMFI): Challenges and Choices' program was developed and designed to assist African families in their transition to life in a new country. The program consists of nine sessions, each approximately 1 1/2 hours in length, which are divided into two modules based on the topic. The first module 'Healthy lifestyles in a new culture' (5 sessions) focuses on healthy eating, active living and healthy body weight. The second module 'Healthy families in a new culture' (4 sessions) focuses on parenting, communication and problem solving. The sessions are designed for a group setting (6-12 people per group), as many of the program activities are discussion-based, supported by session materials and program resources. Strong partnerships and

  9. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A.; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. To systematically review the effectiveness of

  10. Development of a theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), culturally relevant intervention on cervical cancer prevention among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.

  11. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-05-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence-favorably evaluated in the West-for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources.

  12. Hospital cultural competency as a systematic organizational intervention: Key findings from the national center for healthcare leadership diversity demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Epané, Josué Patien; Gail, Judith; Gupta, Shivani; Wainio, Joyce Anne

    Cultural competency or the ongoing capacity of health care systems to provide for high-quality care to diverse patient populations (National Quality Forum, 2008) has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address disparities in quality of care, patient experience, and workforce representation. But far too many health care organizations still do not treat cultural competency as a business imperative and driver of strategy. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a systematic, multifaceted, and organizational level cultural competency initiative on hospital performance metrics at the organizational and individual levels. This demonstration project employs a pre-post control group design. Two hospital systems participated in the study. Within each system, two hospitals were selected to serve as the intervention and control hospitals. Executive leadership (C-suite) and all staff at one general medical/surgical nursing unit at the intervention hospitals experienced a systematic, planned cultural competency intervention. Assessments and interventions focused on three organizational level competencies of cultural competency (diversity leadership, strategic human resource management, and patient cultural competency) and three individual level competencies (diversity attitudes, implicit bias, and racial/ethnic identity status). In addition, we evaluated the impact of the intervention on diversity climate and workforce diversity. Overall performance improvement was greater in each of the two intervention hospitals than in the control hospital within the same health care system. Both intervention hospitals experienced improvements in the organizational level competencies of diversity leadership and strategic human resource management. Similarly, improvements were observed in the individual level competencies for diversity attitudes and implicit bias for Blacks among the intervention hospitals. Furthermore, intervention hospitals outperformed their respective

  13. Maintaining Research Integrity While Balancing Cultural Sensitivity: A Case Study and Lessons From the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Rebekah; Loiseau, Bethina; Darren, Benedict; Raman, Salem A; Dimaras, Helen; Loh, Lawrence C

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary emphasis on creating culturally relevant and context specific knowledge increasingly drives researchers to conduct their work in settings outside their home country. This often requires researchers to build relationships with various stakeholders who may have a vested interest in the research. This case study examines the tension between relationship development with stakeholders and maintaining study integrity, in the context of potential harms, data credibility and cultural sensitivity. We describe an ethical breach in the conduct of global health research by a arising from the ad-hoc participation of a community stakeholder external to the visiting research group. A framework for reflection is developed from a careful examination of underlying factors and presented with a discussion of consequences and mitigation measures. This framework aims to present lessons learned for researchers working abroad who might face similar situations in their work. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A culturally adapted family intervention for African American families coping with parental cancer: outcomes of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this 2-year pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted family intervention in improving family communication among African American parents coping with cancer and their school-age children. A secondary objective was to determine its impact on other symptoms of psychosocial distress (depression and anxiety). The third objective was to assess for acceptability and feasibility. Using a two-arm pre-intervention and post-intervention prospective design, 12 African American families received five bi-monthly sessions of either a culturally adapted family intervention (n=7 families) or psycho-education treatment (n=5 families). Parents and their children completed pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires assessing perceptions of family communication, quality of their relationship, and symptoms of depression. School-age children additionally completed a questionnaire assessing their levels of anxiety. Consumer satisfaction was also evaluated at post-intervention. Parents and school-age children who completed the culturally adapted family intervention reported significantly better communication with each other and were more satisfied compared with the psycho-education control group. No changes were noted in symptoms of anxiety or depression. The culturally adapted family intervention was acceptable based on our findings, families' feedback, and rates of retention. Feasibility is uncertain because our oncology clinic approach to recruitment was slower than expected. Providing culturally adapted family intervention programs to African American families who are coping with parental cancer may result in improved family communication. This pilot study serves as the first step in the development of culturally adapted family intervention programs to help African American families cope with parental cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. How guiding coalitions promote positive culture change in hospitals: a longitudinal mixed methods interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Brewster, Amanda L; McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika L; Cherlin, Emily; Fosburgh, Heather; Ting, Henry H; Curry, Leslie A

    2018-03-01

    Quality collaboratives are widely endorsed as a potentially effective method for translating and spreading best practices for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Nevertheless, hospital success in improving performance through participation in collaboratives varies markedly. We sought to understand what distinguished hospitals that succeeded in shifting culture and reducing 30-day risk-standardised mortality rate (RSMR) after AMI through their participation in the Leadership Saves Lives (LSL) collaborative. We conducted a longitudinal, mixed methods intervention study of 10 hospitals over a 2-year period; data included surveys of 223 individuals (response rates 83%-94% depending on wave) and 393 in-depth interviews with clinical and management staff most engaged with the LSL intervention in the 10 hospitals. We measured change in culture and RSMR, and key aspects of working related to team membership, turnover, level of participation and approaches to conflict management. The six hospitals that experienced substantial culture change and greater reductions in RSMR demonstrated distinctions in: (1) effective inclusion of staff from different disciplines and levels in the organisational hierarchy in the team guiding improvement efforts (referred to as the 'guiding coalition' in each hospital); (2) authentic participation in the work of the guiding coalition; and (3) distinct patterns of managing conflict. Guiding coalition size and turnover were not associated with success (p values>0.05). In the six hospitals that experienced substantial positive culture change, staff indicated that the LSL learnings were already being applied to other improvement efforts. Hospitals that were most successful in a national quality collaborative to shift hospital culture and reduce RSMR showed distinct patterns in membership diversity, authentic participation and capacity for conflict management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  16. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis...... of the isolation of the causative bacteria from blood. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the glutaraldehyde coagulation time, total leucocyte count, per cent neutrophil granulocytes, pulse rate and duration of disease could help to discriminate endocarditis from other diseases. Among 138 animals necropsied...... the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultivation were 70.7 per cent, 93.8 per cent and 89.1 per cent, respectively. None of the other measurements could be used to discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis cases....

  17. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  18. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  19. Relationship between sensitivity to ultraviolet light and budding in yeast cells of different culture ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsuta, J.; Okajima, S.

    1976-01-01

    Subpopulations of yeast cells, consisting of cells of different sizes and different percentages of budding cells, were prepared by centrifugation through sucrose solutions with linear density gradients of cultures at different phases of the growth cycle. Ultraviolet survival of these cells was determined by colony counting, and the survival rate was compared with the cells' respiratory rates. Individual budding cells and interdivisional cells, and also mother cells and daughter cells derived from irradiated budding cells, were isolated by the micromanipulation technique. The number of divisions in each cell was measured during a 21-hr incubation period immediately after irradiation. In the population in the logarithmic phase consisting of homogeneous cells of middle size, no difference in uv sensitivity was observed between mother cells and daughter cells, irrespective of mutual adhesion. Budding cell resistance was observed in the population in the transitional phase; this was due to the lesser uv sensitivity of daughter cells in the fresh medium. In the stationary phase, daughter cells were rather more sensitive than mother cells or interdivisional cells, so there was little difference in uv sensitivity between budding cells and interdivisional cells

  20. Mediating Effect of School Nurses' Self Efficacy between Multicultural Attitude and Cultural Sensitivity in Korean Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyun Suk, PhD, RN

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Given the meaningful influence of positive multicultural attitude on cultural sensitivity and significant mediator effect of self efficacy as a school nurse between the two variables, the strategies to cultivate a positive multicultural attitude and enhance school nurses' self efficacy in their unique role should be considered in a training program. School nurses' health care services will benefit from the improvement of cultural sensitivity toward young children from multicultural families.

  1. Effectiveness of culturally focused interventions in increasing the satisfaction of hospitalized Asian patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Millicent; Ubogaya, Karolina; Chen, Xing; Wint, Diana; Worral, Priscilla Sandford

    2016-08-01

    Patient satisfaction is a driving force for healthcare organizations to enhance patient services. As the Asian population in the United States is increasing at a significant rate, it is important to understand the needs of this population to implement culturally focused services that will lead to increased Asian in-patient satisfaction. The objective of the systematic review was to identify the best available evidence on the effectiveness of culturally focused interventions in increasing satisfaction of hospitalized adult Asian patients. This review considered studies that included Asian adults, 18 years of age and older, who were admitted to acute-care hospitals in countries where Asians are a minority culture. This review considered studies that included any intervention or sets of interventions implemented by hospitals for the purpose of making the hospital experience consistent with the cultural preferences of adult Asian in-patients. Satisfaction of adult Asian hospitalized patients as measured by self-report satisfaction scales or tools considered by accrediting and/or governing bodies to be acceptable sources of evidence of patients' perceptions of their care. This review first considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs and quasi-experimental studies. As no RCTs or quasi-experimental studies were found, the reviewers also considered before and after studies, cohort studies and case-control studies for inclusion. This review also considered for inclusion descriptive study designs including case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies related to the adult Asian population in acute-care hospital settings. Three descriptive studies were selected in the review. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies in English and Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) languages. A search of MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Educational Research

  2. Framing the impact of culture on health: a systematic review of the PEN-3 cultural model and its application in public health research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews available studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. We search electronic databases and conducted a thematic analysis of empirical studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. Studies were mapped to describe their methods, target population and the health behaviors or health outcomes studied. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies reviewed used the PEN-3 model as a theoretical framework to centralize culture in the study of health behaviors and to integrate culturally relevant factors in the development of interventions. The model was also used as an analysis tool, to sift through text and data in order to separate, define and delineate emerging themes. PEN-3 model was also significant with exploring not only how cultural context shapes health beliefs and practices, but also how family systems play a critical role in enabling or nurturing positive health behaviors and health outcomes. Finally, the studies reviewed highlighted the utility of the model with examining cultural practices that are critical to positive health behaviors, unique practices that have a neutral impact on health and the negative factors that are likely to have an adverse influence on health. The limitations of model and the role for future studies are discussed relative to the importance of using PEN-3 cultural model to explore the influence of culture in promoting positive health behaviors, eliminating health disparities and designing and implementing sustainable public health interventions.

  3. Methods for the cultural adaptation of a diabetes lifestyle intervention for Latinas: an illustrative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Diego; Barrera, Manuel; Strycker, Lisa A; Toobert, Deborah J; Glasgow, Russell E; Geno, Cristy R; Almeida, Fabio; Perdomo, Malena; King, Diane; Doty, Alyssa Tinley

    2011-05-01

    Because Latinas experience a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its complications, there is an urgent need to reach them with interventions that promote healthful lifestyles. This article illustrates a sequential approach that took an effective multiple-risk-factor behavior-change program and adapted it for Latinas with type 2 diabetes. Adaptation stages include (a) information gathering from literature and focus groups, (b) preliminary adaptation design, and (c) preliminary adaptation test. In this third stage, a pilot study finds that participants were highly satisfied with the intervention and showed improvement across diverse outcomes. Key implications for applications include the importance of a model for guiding cultural adaptations, and the value of procedures for obtaining continuous feedback from staff and participants during the preliminary adaptation test.

  4. Barriers to healthy eating among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Telle Hjellset, Victoria; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-11-01

    To explore barriers to healthy dietary changes experienced by Pakistani immigrant women participating in a culturally adapted intervention, and whether these barriers were associated with intentions to change dietary behaviours. Participants were randomly assigned to control and intervention group. The 7-month intervention consisted of six educational group sessions on diet and physical activity, based on knowledge about Pakistani lifestyle and focusing on blood glucose control. Data on barriers for and intentions to healthy dietary changes were collected through an interview with help of a questionnaire. The article is based on data from follow-up assessments in the intervention group, comprising 82 women, aged 28-62 years, without a history of type 2 diabetes. The most important barriers to healthy dietary changes were preferences of children and other family members and perceived expectations during social gatherings. The perceived pressure from other family members was especially strong when the women were trying to change to more vegetables, lentils, and fish and to use less oil in food preparation. The barriers were inversely related to intentions to change. The women encountered various types of barriers when trying to change to healthier food habits, the most prominent being those related to the social dimensions of food consumption, as well as to awareness of the amount of oil used for cooking.

  5. Commentary on Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Positive Youth Development With Implications for Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Silvia H; Verma, Suman

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing focus on youth positive development issues among researchers and practitioners around the world. In this special issue of Child Development, each of the international authors provides new perspectives and understanding about youth developmental assets in different cultural settings. The present commentary (a) examines some of the cross-cultural themes that emerge from the four articles by international authors in this issue with implications for positive youth development (PYD) and (b) how intervention science can benefit by incorporating a PYD approach. As evident, youth involved in contexts that provide positive resources from significant others not only were less likely to exhibit negative outcomes, but also were more likely to show evidence of positive development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Historical-cultural theory and pedagogical interventions: possibilities and achievements of good teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chaves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This text has the objective of reflecting and socializing the educa - tional practices and experiences of formation in service carried out in cities of the states of Paraná and São Paulo, as deployment of researches, projects and extension courses. The present elaboration contemplates studies on the organization of teaching and it is gui - ded according to the Historical-Cultural Theory, which sustains the pedagogical interventions to Children Education and Basic Educa - tion. The Historical-Cultural Theory is presented as a theoretical reference for a purpose of acting in a humanization and emancipa - tion perspective. Therefore, so that the didactic procedures be rich in meaning, the communication, the affection and the choice of the resources and procedures must act as essential characteristics in the teaching process.

  7. How commercial and ``violent'' video games can promote culturally sensitive science learning: some questions and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-12-01

    In their paper, Muñoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Muñoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3® precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and violent representations of gender, race, class, nationality, science and technology. However, there are many questions that arise in bringing these commercial video games into science classrooms, including the questions of how students' capacities for critical reflection can be facilitated, whether traditional science teachers can take on the role of using such games in their classrooms, and which video games would be most appropriate to use. In this response, I raise these questions and consider some of the challenges in order to further the possibility of implementing Muñoz and El-Hani's creative proposal for generating culturally sensitive science classrooms.

  8. Maternal sensitivity and infant attachment security in Korea: cross-cultural validation of the Strange Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mi Kyoung; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to analyze infant and maternal behavior both during the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and a free play session in a Korean sample (N = 87) to help understand whether mother-infant attachment relationships are universal or culture-specific. Distributions of attachment classifications in the Korean sample were compared with a cross-national sample. Behavior of mothers and infants following the two separation episodes in the SSP, including mothers' proximity to their infants and infants' approach to the caregiver, was also observed, as was the association between maternal sensitivity observed during free play session and infant security. The percentage of Korean infants classified as secure versus insecure mirrored the global distribution, however, only one Korean baby was classified as avoidant. Following the separation episodes in the Strange Situation, Korean mothers were more likely than mothers in Ainsworth's Baltimore sample to approach their babies immediately and sit beside them throughout the reunion episodes, even when their babies were no longer distressed. Also, Korean babies less often approached their mothers during reunions than did infants in the Baltimore sample. Finally, the link between maternal sensitivity and infant security was significant. The findings support the idea that the basic secure base function of attachment is universal and the SSP is a valid measure of secure attachment, but cultural differences in caregiving may result in variations in how this function is manifested.

  9. Regulate the culture: the police intervention in musical practices (Buenos Aires, 1820-1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Mariel Guillamon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze what were the main areas of intervention of the police respect the musical culture. To do this, at first we inquire about the action of musicians, theater manager and officials of the provincial government at the time of claim and regulate activities, contracts and materials spaces through the police. In a second part, we aprroach about that that was enunciated as part of the " desirable order” for activities and musical practices , customs and habits of the public frequent the theater Coliseo Provisional, rights and obligations of the theater manager , musicians and government.

  10. Safety culture and the 5 steps to safer surgery: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M R; Roberts, M J; Alderson, M L; Gale, T C E

    2015-06-01

    Improvements in safety culture have been postulated as one of the mechanisms underlying the association between the introduction of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist with perioperative briefings and debriefings, and enhanced patient outcomes. The 5 Steps to Safer Surgery (5SSS) incorporates pre-list briefings, the three steps of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) and post-list debriefings in one framework. We aimed to identify any changes in safety culture associated with the introduction of the 5SSS in orthopaedic operating theatres. We assessed the safety culture in the elective orthopaedic theatres of a large UK teaching hospital before and after introduction of the 5SSS using a modified version of the Safety Attitude Questionnaire - Operating Room (SAQ-OR). Primary outcome measures were pre-post intervention changes in the six safety culture domains of the SAQ-OR. We also analysed changes in responses to two items regarding perioperative briefings. The SAQ-OR survey response rate was 80% (60/75) at baseline and 74% (53/72) one yr later. There were significant improvements in both the reported frequency (Pculture domain scores (Working Conditions, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Safety Climate and Teamwork Climate) of the SAQ-OR (Pculture of elective orthopaedic operating theatres. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Urine culture guided antibiotic interventions: A pharmacist driven antimicrobial stewardship effort in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Rowan, Nicole; Pflugeisen, Bethann Mangel; Alajbegovic, Sanjin

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are overprescribed for abnormal urine tests including asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), contributing to rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Pharmacists reviewed urine cultures daily from emergency department (ED) encounters to assess antibiotic appropriateness. We studied antibiotic prescribing practices and assessed compliance to national guidelines, correlations with urine analysis (UA) components, and opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship in the ED. This quality improvement project (QIP) was a prospective cohort study at a community hospital ED, with data collected from finalized urine cultures resulting October 30, 2014 through January 5, 2015. Analyses were conducted using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests and stepwise multiple logistic regression. Urine cultures from 457 encounters were reviewed, of which 136 met the inclusion criteria as non-pregnant and asymptomatic for urinary tract infection (UTI). 43% of 136 patients were treated with antibiotics, for a total of 426 antibiotic days. Pharmacist interventions for these patients resulted in 122/426 (29%) of potential antibiotic days saved. Factors found to significantly increase the odds of antibiotic prescribing in asymptomatic patients included presence of leukocyte esterase (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-17.2; p=0.03) or nitrites (OR=10.8, 95% CI: 1.7-68.1; p=0.01) in the urine and age≥75 (OR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-9.6, p=0.02). Pharmacist intervention in discontinuing or modifying antibiotics for asymptomatic patients with urine cultures reduced unnecessary antibiotic exposure and was a first step in antimicrobial stewardship efforts in the ED. Future work includes limiting urine tests and subsequent antibiotic therapy for non-pregnant asymptomatic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. Method: We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after…

  13. Second-Grade Urban Learners: Preliminary Findings for a Computer-Assisted, Culturally Relevant, Repeated Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jessica G.; Gardner, Ralph, III; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a multicomponent, supplemental intervention on the reading fluency of second-grade African-American urban students who showed reading and special education risk. The packaged intervention combined repeated readings and culturally relevant stories, delivered through a novel computer software program to enhance…

  14. Barriers and enablers in the implementation of a provider-based intervention to stimulate culturally appropriate hypertension education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Haafkens, Joke A.; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify barriers and enablers influencing the implementation of an intervention to stimulate culturally appropriate hypertension education (CANE) among health care providers in primary care. Methods: The intervention was piloted in three Dutch health centers. It consists of a toolkit

  15. Ensuring cultural sensitivity for Muslim patients in the Australian ICU: considerations for care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Al-Mutair, Abbas

    2013-11-01

    Australia is a diverse and multicultural nation, made up of a population with a predominant Christian faith. Islam, the second largest religion in the world, has demonstrated significant growth in Australia in the last decade. Coming from various countries of origin and cultural backgrounds, Muslim beliefs can range from what is considered 'traditional' to very 'liberal'. It is neither possible nor practical for every intensive care clinician to have an intimate understanding of Islam and Muslim practices, and cultural variations amongst Muslims will mean that not all beliefs/practices will be applicable to all Muslims. However, being open and flexible in the way that care is provided and respectful of the needs of Muslim patients and their families is essential to providing culturally sensitive care. This discussion paper aims to describe the Islamic faith in terms of Islamic teachings, beliefs and common practices, considering how this impacts upon the perception of illness, the family unit and how it functions, decision-making and care preferences, particularly at the end of life in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Delivering culturally sensitive, sexual health education in western Kenya: a phenomenological case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Gary

    2017-09-01

    While generic programmes have been created to raise sexual health awareness, these cannot always be applied to communities whose cultures and circumstances make them especially vulnerable to infection. Taking a phenomenological approach, this paper examines the circumstances of the Gusii people of Kisii, Kenya, and examines the specific challenges of providing sexual health education to the community as experienced by an ethnic Gusii woman, Joyce Ombasa. Joyce's story reveals that the Gusii living in and around rural villages have several cultural characteristics that make them susceptible to HIV/AIDS and that render community health education problematic, especially if offered by a female educator of the same ethnicity. Women cannot teach men. Discussions of sex and condom use, and viewing the naked bodies of the opposite sex are taboo. Promiscuity is commonplace and there is a reluctance to use condoms and to undergo HIV testing. Female circumcision persists and there is a high rate of sexual violence, incest and intergenerational sexual intercourse. In addition, government policies and legislation threaten to exacerbate some of the sexually risky behaviours. Bringing HIV education and female empowerment to the rural Gusii requires a culturally sensitive approach, discarding sexual abstinence messages in favour of harm minimisation, including the promotion of condom use, regular HIV testing and the rejection of female circumcision and intergenerational sex. Trust needs to be built through tactics such as adopting a complex and fluid outsider identity and replacing formal sex education with training in income generating skills and casual discussions regarding condoms and sexual health.

  17. The Impact of Educational Interventions on Organizational Culture at an Urban Federal Agency. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, Janet Myrick

    1994-01-01

    This study on the impact of educational interventions on organizational culture is an evaluation of a major educational initiative undertaken by an urban federal agency, namely the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC). The design of this educational evaluation captures the essence of NASA-LaRC's efforts to continue its distinguished and international stature in the aeronautical research community following the Challenger tragedy. More specifically, this study is an evaluation of the educational initiative designed to ameliorate organizational culture via educational interventions, with emphasis on communications, rewards and recognition, and career development. After completing a review of the related literature, chronicling the educational initiative, interviewing senior managers and employees, and critically examining thousands of free responses on employee perceptions of organizational culture, it is found that previous definitions of organizational culture are more accurately classified as manifestations of organizational culture. This research has endeared to redefine 'organizational culture' by offering a more accurate and diagnostic perspective.

  18. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  19. Analysis of sensitive questions across cultures : An application of multigroup item randomized response theory to sexual attitudes and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.G.; Pieters, R.; Stremersch, S.

    2012-01-01

    Answers to sensitive questions are prone to social desirability bias. If not properly addressed, the validity of the research can be suspect. This article presents multigroup item randomized response theory (MIRRT) to measure self-reported sensitive topics across cultures. The method was

  20. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: an exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrey, K L; Amason, P

    2001-01-01

    Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication.

  1. Coral population trajectories, increased disturbance and management intervention: A sensitivity analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Riegl, Bernhard; Berumen, Michael L.; Bruckner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs distant from human population were sampled in the Red Sea and one-third showed degradation by predator outbreaks (crown-of-thorns-starfish=COTS observed in all regions in all years) or bleaching (1998, 2010). Models were built to assess future trajectories. They assumed variable coral types (slow/fast growing), disturbance frequencies (5,10,20years), mortality (equal or not), and connectivity (un/connected to un/disturbed community). Known disturbances were used to parameterize models. Present and future disturbances were estimated from remote-sensing chlorophyll and temperature data. Simulations and sensitivity analysis suggest community resilience at >20-year disturbance frequency, but degradation at higher frequency. Trajectories move from fast-grower to slow-grower dominance at intermediate disturbance frequency, then again to fast-grower dominance. A similar succession was observed in the field: Acropora to Porites to Stylophora/Pocillopora dominance on shallow reefs, and a transition from large poritids to small faviids on deep reefs. Synthesis and application: Even distant reefs are impacted by global changes. COTS impacts and bleaching were key driver of coral degradation, coral population decline could be reduced if these outbreaks and bleaching susceptibility were managed by maintaining water quality and by other interventions. Just leaving reefs alone, seems no longer a satisfactory option. 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution.

  2. Coral population trajectories, increased disturbance and management intervention: A sensitivity analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Riegl, Bernhard

    2013-03-07

    Coral reefs distant from human population were sampled in the Red Sea and one-third showed degradation by predator outbreaks (crown-of-thorns-starfish=COTS observed in all regions in all years) or bleaching (1998, 2010). Models were built to assess future trajectories. They assumed variable coral types (slow/fast growing), disturbance frequencies (5,10,20years), mortality (equal or not), and connectivity (un/connected to un/disturbed community). Known disturbances were used to parameterize models. Present and future disturbances were estimated from remote-sensing chlorophyll and temperature data. Simulations and sensitivity analysis suggest community resilience at >20-year disturbance frequency, but degradation at higher frequency. Trajectories move from fast-grower to slow-grower dominance at intermediate disturbance frequency, then again to fast-grower dominance. A similar succession was observed in the field: Acropora to Porites to Stylophora/Pocillopora dominance on shallow reefs, and a transition from large poritids to small faviids on deep reefs. Synthesis and application: Even distant reefs are impacted by global changes. COTS impacts and bleaching were key driver of coral degradation, coral population decline could be reduced if these outbreaks and bleaching susceptibility were managed by maintaining water quality and by other interventions. Just leaving reefs alone, seems no longer a satisfactory option. 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution.

  3. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Baldwin M; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature-nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism-collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism-collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences.

  4. A Framework for the Study of Complex mHealth Interventions in Diverse Cultural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Perkins, Nancy; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Sleeth, Jessica; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2017-04-20

    To facilitate decision-making capacity between options of care under real-life service conditions, clinical trials must be pragmatic to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) interventions under the variable conditions of health care settings with a wide range of participants. The mHealth interventions require changes in the behavior of patients and providers, creating considerable complexity and ambiguity related to causal chains. Process evaluations of the implementation are necessary to shed light on the range of unanticipated effects an intervention may have, what the active ingredients in everyday practice are, how they exert their effect, and how these may vary among recipients or between sites. Building on the CONSORT-EHEALTH (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials of Electronic and Mobile HEalth Applications and onLine TeleHealth) statement and participatory evaluation theory, we present a framework for the process evaluations for mHealth interventions in multiple cultural settings. We also describe the application of this evaluation framework to the implementation of DREAM-GLOBAL (Diagnosing hypertension-Engaging Action and Management in Getting Lower BP in Indigenous and LMIC [low- and middle-income countries]), a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT), and mHealth intervention designed to improve hypertension management in low-resource environments. We describe the evaluation questions and the data collection processes developed by us. Our literature review revealed that there is a significant knowledge gap related to the development of a process evaluation framework for mHealth interventions. We used community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods and formative research data to develop a process evaluation framework nested within a pragmatic RCT. Four human organizational levels of participants impacted by the mHealth intervention were identified that included patients, providers, community and organizations actors, and health systems and

  5. Discrimination of skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers by interleukin-1α and interleukin-6 production on cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chun, Young-Jin; Heo, Yong; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2016-09-01

    In vitro testing methods for classifying sensitizers could be valuable alternatives to in vivo sensitization testing using animal models, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GMT), but there remains a need for in vitro methods that are more accurate and simpler to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Thus, the aim of our study was to establish an in vitro assay as a screening tool for detecting skin sensitizers using the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. HaCaT cells were exposed to 16 relevant skin sensitizers and 6 skin non-sensitizers. The highest dose used was the dose causing 75% cell viability (CV75) that we determined by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The levels of extracellular production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6 were measured. The sensitivity of IL-1α was 63%, specificity was 83% and accuracy was 68%. In the case of IL-6, sensitivity: 69%, specificity: 83% and accuracy: 73%. Thus, this study suggests that measuring extracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 by human HaCaT cells may potentially classify skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Influence of Organizational Culture on School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kayla N; Solari Williams, Kayce D; Warren, Judith; McKyer, E Lisako Jones; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-06-01

    Although the influence of organizational culture has been examined on a variety of student outcomes, few studies consider the influence that culture may have on school-based obesity prevention interventions. We present a systematic review of the literature to examine how elements of organizational culture may affect the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions. Fourteen studies examining the impact of organizational-level characteristics on school-based obesity prevention interventions were identified through the online databases EBSCO (CINAHL, ERIC, Agricola), Web of Science, Medline (PubMed), and Scopus. Five themes were identified as elements of organizational culture that influence the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of school-based obesity prevention interventions: organizational response to limited resources, value placed on staff training and professional development, internal support, organizational values, and school climate. Organizational culture can greatly influence the success of school-based obesity interventions. The collection of data related to organizational-level factors may be used to identify strategies for creating and sustaining a supportive environment for obesity prevention interventions in the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  7. Culturally sensitive strategies designed to target the silent epidemic of hepatitis B in a Filipino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Michelle; Tice, Alan D; Taylor-Garcia, David; Akinaka, Kenneth T; Lusk, Heather; Ona, Fernando

    2007-06-01

    Hepatitis B is frequent in the Philippines. A high rate of immigration to the United States has brought many Filipinos with infections who are asymptomatic yet will go on to develop liver cancer and cirrhosis unless diagnose and evaluated. Interventions are necessary to educate this ethnic community, identify those infected, and offer therapy. In an effort to reach this high risk population in Hawai'i an intervention program was designed to address the silent epidemic of hepatitis. Ethnic barriers were crossed through involvement of trusted, key stakeholders and individuals within the Filipino health care and church communities, along with groups that had joint missions to address viral hepatitis. After extensive planning and meetings with faith-based organizations and health care providers in the Filipino community, it was decided to hold a community health fair in the Filipino community to provide culturally appropriate health information and services. More than 500 individuals attended the health fair; 167 participated in a survey and were tested for hepatitis B. Significant knowledge gaps were found in relation to risk factors, prevention strategies, and transmission. Five individuals tested positive; all were immigrants and did not know of their disease. The objective to educate people and test them for hepatitis was successful through utilizing ethnic community leaders, religious organizations, health care professionals, and a collaborative health fair.

  8. Prostate Cancer Information Available in Health-Care Provider Offices: An Analysis of Content, Readability, and Cultural Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Seel, Jessica S; Yelton, Brooks; Steck, Susan E; McCormick, Douglas P; Payne, Johnny; Minter, Anthony; Deutchki, Elizabeth K; Hébert, James R; Friedman, Daniela B

    2018-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCA) is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States, and African American men have the highest incidence among men in the United States. Little is known about the PrCA-related educational materials being provided to patients in health-care settings. Content, readability, and cultural sensitivity of materials available in providers' practices in South Carolina were examined. A total of 44 educational materials about PrCA and associated sexual dysfunction was collected from 16 general and specialty practices. The content of the materials was coded, and cultural sensitivity was assessed using the Cultural Sensitivity Assessment Tool. Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook were used to assess readability. Communication with health-care providers (52.3%), side effects of PrCA treatment (40.9%), sexual dysfunction and its treatment (38.6%), and treatment options (34.1%) were frequently presented. All materials had acceptable cultural sensitivity scores; however, 2.3% and 15.9% of materials demonstrated unacceptable cultural sensitivity regarding format and visual messages, respectively. Readability of the materials varied. More than half of the materials were written above a high-school reading level. PrCA-related materials available in health-care practices may not meet patients' needs regarding content, cultural sensitivity, and readability. A wide range of educational materials that address various aspects of PrCA, including treatment options and side effects, should be presented in plain language and be culturally sensitive.

  9. Pilot study of a culturally adapted psychoeducation (CaPE) intervention for bipolar disorder in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Ishrat; Chaudhry, Imran B; Rahman, Raza R; Hamirani, Munir M; Mehmood, Nasir; Haddad, Peter M; Hodsoll, John; Young, Allan H; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2017-12-01

    Despite the use of maintenance medication, recurrence rates in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) are high. To date, there are no clinical trials that have investigated the use of psychological interventions in bipolar disorder in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally adapted bipolar psychoeducation programme (CaPE) in Pakistan. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar I and II outpatients were randomized to either 12 weekly sessions of individual psychoeducation plus Treatment As Usual (Intervention) or Treatment As Usual (TAU) (Control). Outcomes were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), EuroQoL (EQ-5D), Bipolar Knowledge and Attitudes and Questionnaire (BKAQ), and a self-reported measure of medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4 items, MMAS-4). Effect sizes were derived from baseline adjusted standardized regression coefficients. Retention in the study was good, 80% of patients in the TAU follow-up assessment and 100% of patients in the CaPE group attended all 12 sessions. Patient satisfaction was higher in the CaPE group relative to control (ES = 1.41). Further, there were large effect sizes shown for CaPE versus TAU for medication adherence (MMAS-4: ES = 0.81), knowledge and attitudes towards bipolar (BKAQ: ES = 0.68), mania (YMRS: ES = 1.18), depression (BDI: ES = 1.17) and quality of life measures (EQ-5D: ES ⇒ 0.88). Culturally adapted psychoeducation intervention is acceptable and feasible, and can be effective in improving mood symptoms and knowledge and attitudes to BPAD when compared with TAU. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02210390.

  10. Development and testing of culturally sensitive patient information material for Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migrants with depression or chronic low back pain (KULTINFO): study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Zill, Jördis M; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bermejo, Isaac

    2014-07-04

    Many of the approximately 15 million people with a migration background living in Germany (19% of the population) are inadequately reached by existing healthcare provision. In the literature, the necessity for cultural adaptation of information material for patients with a migration background is often cited as a measure for improving healthcare.In this study, culturally sensitive information material will be developed and evaluated for patients with a migration background and depression or chronic low back pain. In this respect, it will be examined whether culturally sensitive information material is judged as more useful by the patients than standard translated patient information without cultural adaptation. The implementation and evaluation of culturally sensitive patient information material will occur in the framework of a double-blind randomized controlled parallel-group study in four study centres in Germany. Primary care patients with a Turkish, Polish, Russian or Italian migration background with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or chronic low back pain will be included and randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. In the intervention group, culturally sensitive patient information will be handed to the patient at the end of the physician consultation, while in the control group, standard translated patient information material will be provided. The patients will be surveyed by means of questionnaires following the consultation as well as after 8 weeks and 6 months. In addition to the primary outcome (subjective usefulness), several patient- and physician-rated secondary outcomes will be considered. The study will provide an empirical answer to the question of whether persons with a migration background perceive culturally sensitive patient information material as more useful than translated information material without cultural adaptation. Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (DRKS-ID) DRKS00004241 and Universal Trial Number

  11. THE EFFECT OF A CULTURALLY TAILORED SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION INTERVENTION WITH PLAINS INDIAN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchell, Beverly A; Robbins, Leslie K; Lowe, John A; Hoke, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of incorporating tribal specific cultural beliefs into a tailored substance abuse prevention intervention for at risk rural Oklahoma Native American Indian (NAI) Plains adolescents. The 10 hour Native American Talking Circle Intervention, a school-based, group substance abuse prevention program, was implemented over a 8.5 week period and evaluated using a one group, pretest-posttest design. Measurements were from the Native Self-Reliance Questionnaire and the Substance Problems Scale from Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Quick (GAIN-Q). One-tailed, paired sample t-tests demonstrated significant increase in self-reliance, from 86.227 to 92.204 (t (43) = -2.580, p = .007) and a decrease in substance abuse/use, from 2.265 to 1.265 (t (33) = 1.844, p = .007). The Native Talking Circle Intervention based on tribal-specific values and beliefs was shown to be effective with substance abuse/use at-risk NAI Plains tribal adolescents.

  12. The Cultural Relevance of Mindfulness Meditation as a Health Intervention for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592

  13. A Transcription and Translation Protocol for Sensitive Cross-Cultural Team Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lauren; Birkhead, Ana Sanchez; Fernandez, Cecilia; Egger, Marlene J

    2017-10-01

    Assurance of transcript accuracy and quality in interview-based qualitative research is foundational for data accuracy and study validity. Based on our experience in a cross-cultural ethnographic study of women's pelvic organ prolapse, we provide practical guidance to set up step-by-step interview transcription and translation protocols for team-based research on sensitive topics. Beginning with team decisions about level of detail in transcription, completeness, and accuracy, we operationalize the process of securing vendors to deliver the required quality of transcription and translation. We also share rubrics for assessing transcript quality and the team protocol for managing transcripts (assuring consistency of format, insertion of metadata, anonymization, and file labeling conventions) and procuring an acceptable initial translation of Spanish-language interviews. Accurate, complete, and systematically constructed transcripts in both source and target languages respond to the call for more transparency and reproducibility of scientific methods.

  14. DIP and DIP + 2 as glutathione oxidants and radiation sensitizers in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.; Power, J.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Kosower, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Two diamide analogues, diazene dicarboxylic acid bis (N'-methyl-piperazide) or DIP, and its bis-N'-methyl iodide salt, or DIP + 2, were tested for their ability to penetrate cultured Chinese hamster cells and oxidize intracellular glutathione. DIP penetrated the cells at a reasonable rate at 18 0 C, 160 nmoles being required to oxidize the endogenous glutathione of 2 x 10 6 cells, but it penetrated very slowly at 0 0 C. DIP + 2 did not effectively oxidize glutathione in Chinese hamster cells, possibly because it did not enter the cels. DIP became toxic after about 10 min of exposure, but its toxicity could be moderated by using anoxic conditions. DIP, but not DIP + 2, sensitized anoxic Chinese hamster cells to X-radiation by a factor of 1.5, an effect that was due entirely to removal of the shoulder from the survival curve. (author)

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swavely, Deborah; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Maldonado, Edgardo; Eid, Sherrine; Etchason, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Low health literacy is more prevalent in persons with limited education, members of ethnic minorities, and those who speak English as a second language, and is associated with multiple adverse diabetes-related health outcomes. This study examined the effectiveness of a low health literacy and culturally sensitive diabetes education program for economically and socially disadvantaged adult patients with type 2 diabetes. A pre-post prospective study design was used to examine outcomes over 12 months. Outcome measures included diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-care, measured using reliable and valid survey tools, and A1C. Over this period of time 277 patients were enrolled in the program, with 106 participants completing survey data. At the completion of the program patients had significant improvements in diabetes knowledge (p literacy improves short-term outcomes. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  16. Cultural differences in sensitivity to social context: detecting affective incongruity using the N400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Sharon G; Yee, Alicia; Lowenberg, Kelly; Lewis, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    East Asians and Asian-Americans tend to allocate relatively greater attention to background context compared to European Americans across a variety of cognitive and neural measures. We sought to extend these findings of cultural differences to affective stimuli using the N400, which has been shown to be sensitive to deep processing of affective information. The degree to which Asian-Americans and European Americans responded to semantic incongruity between emotionally expressive faces (i.e., smiling or frowning) and background affective scenes was measured. As predicted, Asian-Americans showed a greater N400 to incongruent trials than to congruent trials. In contrast, European Americans showed no difference in amplitude across the two conditions. Furthermore, greater affective N400 incongruity was associated with higher interdependent self-construals. These data suggest that Asian-Americans and those with interdependent self-construals process the relationship between perceived facial emotion and affective background context to a greater degree than European Americans and those with independent self-construals. Implications for neural and cognitive differences in everyday social interactions, and cultural differences in analytic and holistic thinking are discussed.

  17. Development and Validation of Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined qualitative approaches with quantitative research design to come up with a survey instrument called Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES.This survey instrument is intended to extract the learners’ beliefs and expectations on the integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts. Significant contribution of the instrument can be traced to establishing and defining the constructs and categories on how curriculum localization and context-based science learning can be developed aligned with students’ expectations and beliefs. The development process employed non-conventional processes adopted from literature which included pilot study to identify pre-deterministic constructs and specific categories for the items to be included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and factor analysis to establish the categories or constructs of the survey instruments. Reliability measures of the instrument and its respective constructs were established for standardization. These categories were intended to aid researchers for an in-depth analysis when the instrument is administered for its purpose. The raw statistical categories were qualitatively paralleled with the pre-deterministic constructs to establish congruence of the survey tool to Instructional Congruence Framework (ICF.

  18. Focus groups to increase the cultural acceptability of a contingency management intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Leickly, Emily; Herron, Jalene; Shaw, Jennifer; Skalisky, Jordan; Dirks, Lisa G; Avey, Jaedon P; McPherson, Sterling; Nepom, Jenny; Donovan, Dennis; Buchwald, Dedra; McDonell, Michael G

    2018-07-01

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people seek evidence-based, cost-effective, and culturally acceptable solutions for treating alcohol use disorders. Contingency management (CM) is a feasible, low-cost approach to treating alcohol use disorders that uses "reinforcers" to promote and support alcohol abstinence. CM has not been evaluated among AI/AN communities. This study explored the cultural acceptability of CM and adapted it for use in diverse AI/AN communities. We conducted a total of nine focus groups in three AI/AN communities: a rural reservation, an urban health clinic, and a large Alaska Native healthcare system. Respondents included adults in recovery, adults with current drinking problems, service providers, and other interested community members (n = 61). Focus group questions centered on the cultural appropriateness of "reinforcers" used to incentivize abstinence and the cultural acceptability of the intervention. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded independently by two study team members using both a priori and emergent codes. We then analyzed coded data. Across all three locations, focus group participants described the importance of providing both culturally specific (e.g., bead work and cultural art work supplies), as well as practical (e.g., gas cards and bus passes) reinforcers. Focus group participants underscored the importance of providing reinforcers for the children and family of intervention participants to assist with reengaging with family and rebuilding trust that may have been damaged during alcohol use. Respondents indicated that they believed CM was in alignment with AI/AN cultural values. There was consensus that Elders or a well-respected community member implementing this intervention would enhance participation. Focus group participants emphasized use of the local AI/AN language, in addition to the inclusion of appropriate cultural symbols and imagery in the delivery of the intervention. A CM

  19. Resistance to Cultural Intervention: Formation of Inhibitory Collective and children's Self-Defensive Regulation in a Chinese School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aruna; Li, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Lihua; Zhang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    A sequel to the previous article "Roots of Excellence: The Releasing Effect of Individual Potentials through Educational Cultural Intervention in a Chinese School" (in press), the present study is on the unexpected reversal phenomena in the process of cultural intervention. The goal of the intervention is to construct the dynamics of Jiti (well-organized collective in Chinese) through creative activities to promote students' development. In the intervention, the releasing effect (Wu et al. 2016) emerged as well, but the teacher's concern about worsening discipline and academic performance evoked and reinforced his habitual notions and practices of education, turning the joint activities into a way of strengthening discipline. The energy that had been discharging at the beginning of the intervention was inhibited, so that many more problematic behaviors took shape. The whole class formed an inhibitory atmosphere, within which pupils formed self-defensive regulation strategies. By comparing with the productive collective in which intervention was effective and analyzing this unexpected reversal process, we can not only see pupils' self-construction status in the inhibitory culture but illuminate the formation of the teacher's resistance to educational and cultural transformation as well. Resistance is originated from teachers not being able to interpret pupils' inner developmental needs but instead anxious about the ongoing problems.

  20. The nature and efficacy of culturally-adapted psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, A; Baker, S; Edge, D; Nottidge, W; Noke, M; Press, C J; Husain, N; Rathod, S; Drake, R J

    2018-04-01

    Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia founded on Western belief systems and values may not be efficacious in different cultures without adaptation. This systematic review analyses the nature and outcomes of culturally-adapted psychosocial interventions in schizophrenia, examining how interventions have been adapted, their efficacy and what features drive heterogeneity in outcome. Articles identified by searching electronic databases from inception to 3 March 2016, reference lists and previous reviews were independently screened by two authors for eligible controlled trials. Data on the nature of adaptations was analysed inductively using thematic analyses. Meta-analyses were conducted using random effects models to calculate effect sizes (Hedges' g) for symptoms. Forty-six studies with 7828 participants were included, seven adapted for minority populations. Cultural adaptations were grouped into nine themes: language, concepts and illness models, family, communication, content, cultural norms and practices, context and delivery, therapeutic alliance, and treatment goals. Meta-analyses showed significant post-treatment effects in favour of adapted interventions for total symptom severity (n = 2345, g: -0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.36 to -0.09), positive (n = 1152, g: -0.56, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.26), negative (n = 855, g: -0.39, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.15), and general (n = 525, g: -0.75, CI -1.21 to -0.29) symptoms. The adaptation process can be described within a framework that serves as a benchmark for development or assessment of future adaptations. Culturally adapted interventions were more efficacious than usual treatment in proportion to the degree of adaptation. There is insufficient evidence to show that adapted interventions are better than non-adapted interventions. Features of context, intervention and design influenced efficacy. Investigating whether adaptation improves efficacy, most importantly amongst ethnic minorities, requires

  1. [Cultural Competence in Intervention with Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis Between Health Professionals, Social Workers and Police Officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Mariana; Matos, Marlene

    2016-10-01

    Cultural diversity places increased demands on services to multicultural populations, so the development of cultural competence by help professionals is currently a concern in institutional practices. This study evaluated the perception of cultural competence of help professional of three distinct areas: health services, social services and criminal police. Through an online questionnaire, we questioned the perception of cultural competence, at four dimensions: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, technical skills, and organizational support. There were 610 participants, mostly female (58%), with a mean age of 39.74 years, developing activity in the social area (37%), health (33%) or the police (30%). The professionals showed, in general, a positive perception of their cultural competence. Those who had formative experiences on the subject and had more time service, perceived themselves, significantly, as more culturally competent. Significant differences were found between professionals from different areas: health professionals were more effective in terms of technical skills, the social workers at the level of cultural knowledge and polices at the level of cultural awareness. Health professionals were the ones that showed a lower perception at the level of organizational support. Despite the positive perception that technicians have about their awareness and knowledge of the values, norms and customs of immigrant communities, they realize technical aptitude as less positive, showing difficulty in practical application of their knowledge. Cultural competence has implications for good professional practice in serving multicultural populations, being urgent to invest in the development of culturally competent interventions to ensure more effective services, namely in hospitals and health centres.

  2. A study of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention in a predominately African American workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cox, Tiffany L; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C; Jefferson, Wendy K; Brakhage, Cora

    2010-01-01

    The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Crossover design study. Workplace. A total of 39 women volunteered for this study, of whom 27 completed it. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese, with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m², weight of 97.9 kg, and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = -3.4 kg, P culturally enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity.

  3. Food perceptions in terms of health among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline; Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2011-10-01

    To explore food perceptions in terms of health among Pakistani immigrant women, and if such perceptions could be altered through a culturally adapted intervention. The study is a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention aiming at reducing diabetes risk among Pakistani women, Oslo, Norway. There were 198 participants (25-62 years) recruited through a multi-recruitment strategy and randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Data were collected through interviews with the help of a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Baseline data showed that many women emphasised vegetables (87%) and fish (52%) as important in a healthy diet, and perceived that the consumption of sugar (66%), oil (60%) and hard fat (39%) should be limited. After intervention, there was an increased proportion of women in the intervention group who perceived that consumption of sugar (p = 0.021) and white flour (p = 0.010) should be limited, in line with the emphasis of the intervention. Food perceptions in terms of health were generally in line with public dietary advice, however, with large variation among the women. A culturally adapted intervention had the potential to alter such perceptions.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure in non-diabetic people in China: a dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Gu, Dongfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Rao, Dabeeru C; Jaquish, Cashell E; Hixson, James E; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Chen, Jichun; Lu, Fanghong; Hu, Dongsheng; Rice, Treva; Kelly, Tanika N; Hamm, L Lee; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang

    2009-03-07

    Since insulin resistance is thought to be the underlying mechanism for metabolic syndrome, affected individuals might be sensitive to a dietary sodium intervention. We aimed to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure. 1906 Chinese participants without diabetes, aged 16 years or more, were selected to receive a low-sodium diet (51.3 mmol per day) for 7 days followed by a high-sodium diet (307.8 mmol per day) for an additional 7 days. Participants were excluded from the analysis if metabolic risk factor information was missing or if they did not complete their dietary interventions. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and on days 2, 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of: abdominal obesity, raised blood pressure, high triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol, or high glucose. High salt sensitivity was defined as a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure of more than 5 mm Hg during low-sodium or an increase of more than 5 mm Hg during high-sodium intervention. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00721721. Of the 1881 participants with information regarding metabolic syndrome, 283 had metabolic syndrome. 1853 participants completed the low-sodium diet and 1845 completed the high-sodium diet. Multivariable-adjusted mean changes in blood pressure were significantly greater in participants with metabolic syndrome than in those without on both low-sodium and high-sodium diets (plow-sodium and a 3.13-fold increased odds (1.80-5.43) of high salt-sensitivity during the high-sodium intervention. These results suggest that metabolic syndrome enhances blood pressure response to sodium intake. Reduction in sodium intake could be an especially important component in reducing blood pressure in patients with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  5. An examination of cross-cultural systems implementing evidence-based assessment and intervention approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Laura K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of evidence-based assessment and intervention approaches for youth with behavioral and/or emotional problems is rising to recognition worldwide. Feasibility research is critical to examine what characteristics of systems allow for success or barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practices into real-world settings, especially when working cross-culturally. This paper briefly reviews the experience of 4 international sites to understand how the overall structure and specific site variables directed the implementation of the World Health Organization and the World Psychiatry Association project. Discussion includes a thematic summary of the successes and challenges experienced by the sites, and future directions of feasibility studies.

  6. Culturally adaptive storytelling intervention versus didactic intervention to improve hypertension control in Vietnam: a cluster-randomized controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa L; Allison, Jeroan J; Ha, Duc A; Chiriboga, Germán; Ly, Ha N; Tran, Hanh T; Nguyen, Cuong K; Dang, Diem M; Phan, Ngoc T; Vu, Nguyen C; Nguyen, Quang P; Goldberg, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Vietnam is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Novel, large-scale, effective, and sustainable interventions to control hypertension in Vietnam are needed. We report the results of a cluster-randomized feasibility trial at 3 months follow-up conducted in Hung Yen province, Vietnam, designed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two community-based interventions to improve hypertension control: a "storytelling" intervention, "We Talk about Our Hypertension," and a didactic intervention. The storytelling intervention included stories about strategies for coping with hypertension, with patients speaking in their own words, and didactic content about the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors including salt reduction and exercise. The didactic intervention included only didactic content. The storytelling intervention was delivered by two DVDs at 3-month intervals; the didactic intervention included only one installment. The trial was conducted in four communes, equally randomized to the two interventions. The mean age of the 160 study patients was 66 years, and 54% were men. Most participants described both interventions as understandable, informative, and motivational. Between baseline and 3 months, mean systolic blood pressure declined by 8.2 mmHg (95% CI 4.1-12.2) in the storytelling group and by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI 1.4-9.5) in the didactic group. The storytelling group also reported a significant increase in hypertension medication adherence. Both interventions were well accepted in several rural communities and were shown to be potentially effective in lowering blood pressure. A large-scale randomized trial is needed to compare the effectiveness of the two interventions in controlling hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02483780.

  7. A meta-analysis of educational interventions designed to enhance cultural competence in professional nurses and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ruth W; Polanin, Joshua R

    2015-02-01

    Increasing professional nurses' and nursing students cultural competence has been identified as one way to decrease the disparity of care for vulnerable and minority groups, but effectiveness of training programs to increase competence remains equivocal. The purpose of this project is to synthesize educational interventions designed to increase cultural competence in professional nurses and nursing students. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize all existing studies on increasing cultural competence. A comprehensive search and screen procedures was conducted to locate all cultural competence interventions implemented with professional nurses and nursing students. Two independent researchers screened and coded the included studies. Effect sizes were calculated for each study and a random-effects meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 25 studies were included in the review. Two independent syntheses were conducted given the disparate nature of the effect size metrics. For the synthesis of treatment-control designed studies, the results revealed a non-statistically significant increase in cultural competence (g¯=.38, 95% CI: -.05, .79, p=.08). Moderator analyses indicated significant variation as a function of the measurements, participant types, and funding source. The pretest-posttest effect size synthesis revealed a significant increase in overall cultural competence (g¯=.45, 95% CI: .24, .66, pcompetence have shown varied effectiveness. Greater research is required to improve these interventions and promote cultural competence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Culture and drug sensitivity testing among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Mexico: national data for 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejel, Ivonne; Castellanos, Martin; Marín, Diana; Mendoza, Alberto; Harries, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    This study documented the number and results of mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) in Mexico from 2009-2013 and assessed whether states with a higher risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) performed more CDST and had more cultures showing MDR-TB. Data for this longitudinal, descriptive, operational research study came from the electronic records of 31 state public health laboratories in Mexico. The total number of CDSTs was 6 470, increasing from 2 143 in the first 2 years to 4 327 in the latter 3 years. There was a significant increase in the proportion of cultures showing sensitivity to all drugs, from 53.1% to 60.9% in 2011-2013 (P tuberculosis were Mexico, particularly in high-risk MDR-TB states where a higher proportion of cultures showed MDR-TB. Scale up and wider coverage of CDST should continue.

  9. Culturally adapting a physical activity intervention for Somali women: the need for theory and innovation to promote equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Ermias, Azieb; Lung, Amber; Mohamed, Amina Sheik; Ellis, B Heidi; Linke, Sarah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Bowen, Deborah J; Marcus, Bess H

    2017-03-01

    There is pressing need for innovation in clinical research to more effectively recruit, engage, retain, and promote health among diverse populations overburdened by health disparities. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed illustration of the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based intervention to bolster translational research with currently underserved communities. The cultural adaptation heuristic framework described by Barrera and colleagues is applied to the adaptation of a physical activity evidence-based intervention with adult Somali women. Widespread changes were required to ensure program feasibility and acceptability, including the reduction of assessment protocols and changes discordant with current trends in physical activity research. The cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions offers an important mechanism for reducing health disparities. Improved reporting standards, assessment of features relevant to underserved communities, and greater funding requirements to ensure better representation are needed to promote more widespread access for all people.

  10. Validating a Culturally-Sensitive Social Competence Training Programme for Adolescents with ASD in a Chinese Context: An Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond Won Shing; Leung, Cecilia Nga Wing; Ng, Denise Ching Yiu; Yau, Sania Sau Wai

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on social skills training on ASD were done almost exclusively in the West with children as the main subjects. Demonstrations of the applicability of social interventions in different cultures and age groups are warranted. The current study outlined the development and preliminary evaluation of a CBT-context-based social competence…

  11. Do not forget culture when implementing mental health interventions for violence survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bonilla-Escobar

    Full Text Available Abstract Armed conflict has positioned Colombia as the country with the second highest internal displacement of citizens. This situation has forced government projects and international cooperation agencies to intervene to mitigate the impact of violence; however, the coping strategies implemented by the country’s minorities are still unknown. The study objective is to describe the coping strategies and their relation with mental health within Afro-descendant culture in Colombia and the effects that armed conflict has on these coping mechanisms, through a phenomenological study involving focus groups and interviews with experts. Rituals and orality have a healing function that allow Afro-Colombian communities to express their pain and support each other, enabling them to cope with loss. Since the forced displacement, these traditions have been in jeopardy. Armed conflict prevents groups from mourning, generating a form of latent pain. Afro-Colombians require community interventions that create similar spaces for emotional support for the bereaved persons in the pre-conflict period. Thus, it is essential to understand the impact of this spiritual and ritualistic approach on mental health issues and the relevance of narrative and community interventions for survivors.

  12. Impact of a learning circle intervention across academic and service contexts on developing a learning culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel; Henderson, Amanda; Cooke, Marie; Creedy, Debra

    2011-05-01

    Partnerships between university schools of nursing and health services lead to successful learning experiences for students and staff. A purposive sample of academics and students from a university school of nursing and clinicians from three health institutions involved in clinical learning (n=73) actively participated in a learning circles intervention conducted over 5 months in south east Queensland. Learning circle discussions resulted in enhanced communication and shared understanding regarding: (1) staff attitudes towards students, expectations and student assessment; (2) strategies enhancing preparation of students, mechanisms for greater support of and recognition of clinicians; (3) challenges faced by staff in the complex processes of leadership in clinical nursing education; (4) construction of learning, ideas for improving communication, networking and sharing; and (5) questioning routine practices that may not enhance student learning. Pre-post surveys of hospital staff (n=310) revealed significant differences across three sub-scales of 'accomplishment' (t=-3.98, pLearning circles can positively enhance organisational learning culture. The intervention enabled participants to recognise mutual goals. Further investigation around staff perception of their influence on their workplace is required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From "Water Boiling in a Peruvian Town" to "Letting them Die": culture, community intervention, and the metabolic balance between patience and zeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2011-03-01

    While the concept of culture has long been central to community psychology research and intervention, it has most frequently referred to the communities in which such work occurs. The purpose of this paper is to reframe this discussion by viewing community interventions as instances of intercultural contact between the culture of science, reflected in community intervention research, and the culture of the communities in which those interventions occur. Following a brief discussion of the complexities of culture as a concept, two illustrative stories of failed community interventions are provided to highlight the centrality of cultural and contextual understanding as prelude to community intervention. These stories, set 50 years apart, reflect the depth and pervasive influence of both the culture of science and the culture of communities. Next, a series of propositions about the culture of social science as a partial reflection of the broader culture of the United States are offered, and their implications for the conduct of community interventions drawn. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations which, together, provide an ecological mind-set for taking culture seriously in community interventions. Central to this mind set are the importance of focusing on communities rather than programs and emphasizing the intervention goal of choice over change.

  14. Effectiveness of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care in increasing uptake of skilled maternity care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Ernestina; Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Portela, Anayda

    2016-12-01

    Addressing cultural factors that affect uptake of skilled maternity care is recognized as an important step in improving maternal and newborn health. This article describes a systematic review to examine the evidence available on the effects of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care on the use of skilled maternity care during pregnancy, for birth or in the postpartum period. Items published in English, French and/or Spanish between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2014 were considered. Fifteen studies describing a range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on population and intervention characteristics; study design; definitions and data for relevant outcomes; and the contexts and conditions in which interventions occurred. Because most of the included studies focus on antenatal care outcomes, evidence of impact is particularly limited for care seeking for birth and after birth. Evidence in this review is clustered within a small number of countries, and evidence from low- and middle-income countries is notably lacking. Interventions largely had positive effects on uptake of skilled maternity care. Cultural factors are often not the sole factor affecting populations' use of maternity care services. Broader social, economic, geographical and political factors interacted with cultural factors to affect targeted populations' access to services in included studies. Programmes and policies should seek to establish an enabling environment and support respectful dialogue with communities to improve use of skilled maternity care. Whilst issues of culture are being recognized by programmes and researchers as being important, interventions that explicitly incorporate issues of culture are rarely evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  15. Essential education in communication skills and cultural sensitivities for global public health in an evolving veterinary world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Adams, C L

    2009-08-01

    In the practise of veterinary medicine and global public health, communication skill is as critical as clinical reasoning and an extensive knowledge base. Effective communication skills and cross-cultural sensitivity are essential across the board for interdisciplinary, international, and local veterinary medicine. This paper offers an evidence-based, three-part framework for developing and sustaining curricula that enhance communication skills and cross-cultural sensitivity so that students are better prepared to practise veterinary medicine in an evolving world. These curricula may well also serve as a conduit for encouraging more veterinary graduates to choose global public health as a career path.

  16. Principles for the development of Aboriginal health interventions: culturally appropriate methods through systemic empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Barnett, Leda

    2015-01-01

    To increase Aboriginal participation in mainstream health services, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence health service usage. This knowledge can contribute to the development of culturally appropriate health services that respect Aboriginal ways of being. We used a community-based participatory approach to examine the reasons for underutilization of health services by Aboriginal Australians. Based on three focus groups and 18 interviews with Aboriginal health professionals, leaders, and community members in rural, regional, and urban settings, we identified five factors that influenced usage, including (1) negative historical experiences, (2) cultural incompetence, (3) inappropriate communication, (4) a collective approach to health, and (5) a more holistic approach to health. Given that these factors have shaped negative Aboriginal responses to health interventions, they are likely to be principles by which more appropriate solutions are generated. Although intuitively sensible and well known, these principles remain poorly understood by non-Aboriginal health systems and even less well implemented. We have conceptualized these principles as the foundation of an empathic health system. Without empathy, health systems in Australia, and internationally, will continue to face the challenge of building effective services to improve the state of health for all minority populations.

  17. A fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for clinical detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Liqing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 21 million new cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths every year. Blood culture is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of typhoid fever, but it is time-consuming and takes several days for isolation and identification of causative organisms. It is then too late to initiate proper antibiotic therapy. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity, and no practical value in endemic areas. As early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment are essential for optimal management, especially in children, a rapid sensitive detection method for typhoid fever is urgently needed. Although PCR is sensitive and rapid, initial research indicated similar sensitivity to blood culture and lower specificity. We developed a fast and highly sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Typhi, allowing same-day initiation of treatment after accurate diagnosis of typhoid. Methods An ox bile tryptone soy broth was optimized for blood culture, which allows the complete lysis of blood cells to release intracellular bacteria without inhibiting the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Using the optimised broth Salmonella Typhi bacteria in artificial blood samples were enriched in blood culture and then detected by a PCR targeting the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi. Results Tests demonstrated that 2.4% ox bile in blood culture not only lyzes blood cells completely within 1.5 hours so that the intracellular bacteria could be released, but also has no inhibiting effect on the growth of Salmonella Typhi. Three hour enrichment of Salmonella Typhi in tryptone soya broth containing 2.4% ox bile could increase the bacterial number from 0.75 CFU per millilitre of blood which is similar to clinical typhoid samples to the level which regular PCR can detect. The whole blood culture PCR assay takes less than 8 hours to complete rather than several days for conventional blood culture

  18. The effect of culture density and proliferation rate on the expression of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, J.M.; Jaffe, G.J.; Brzeski, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The number and activity of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps expressed by many cell types in vitro, including human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), have been shown to decline with increasing culture density. Cell proliferation also declined as cultures became dense so it was unclear if pump number was modulated by cell proliferation or culture confluency. By exposing RPE cultures to various feeding regimens, using culture medium containing or lacking serum, it was possible to produce RPE cultures with a range of culture densities and growth rates. These were analyzed for proliferative activity by quantifying [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation and for Na/K ATPase pump number by measuring specific [ 3 H]ouabain binding. The results suggest that pump number is modulated by culture density and, further, that the density-dependent regulation of pump number requires serum. Although density-dependent modulation of culture growth is also serum requiring, cell proliferation and pump number did not appear to be related; cultures of similar density which differed significantly in growth rate had similar numbers of pumps. The view that elevated numbers of pumps were not necessarily found in proliferating cells was further supported by qualitative examination of radioautographs of cells dually labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]ouabain. Cycling cells which had [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled nuclei did not have notably higher labeling with [ 3 H]ouabain. However, [ 3 H]ouabain labeling, as an indicator of pump site number and distribution, did vary among cells in an RPE population and also within individual cells. This latter observation suggests that unpolarized RPE cells in sparse cultures may have regionally different requirements for ionic regulation

  19. The effect of culture density and proliferation rate on the expression of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.M.; Jaffe, G.J.; Brzeski, C.M. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The number and activity of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps expressed by many cell types in vitro, including human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), have been shown to decline with increasing culture density. Cell proliferation also declined as cultures became dense so it was unclear if pump number was modulated by cell proliferation or culture confluency. By exposing RPE cultures to various feeding regimens, using culture medium containing or lacking serum, it was possible to produce RPE cultures with a range of culture densities and growth rates. These were analyzed for proliferative activity by quantifying ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation and for Na/K ATPase pump number by measuring specific ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding. The results suggest that pump number is modulated by culture density and, further, that the density-dependent regulation of pump number requires serum. Although density-dependent modulation of culture growth is also serum requiring, cell proliferation and pump number did not appear to be related; cultures of similar density which differed significantly in growth rate had similar numbers of pumps. The view that elevated numbers of pumps were not necessarily found in proliferating cells was further supported by qualitative examination of radioautographs of cells dually labeled with ({sup 3}H)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)ouabain. Cycling cells which had ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled nuclei did not have notably higher labeling with ({sup 3}H)ouabain. However, ({sup 3}H)ouabain labeling, as an indicator of pump site number and distribution, did vary among cells in an RPE population and also within individual cells. This latter observation suggests that unpolarized RPE cells in sparse cultures may have regionally different requirements for ionic regulation.

  20. [Effectiveness of an intervention to improve safety culture. Less is more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Picazo, J J; Ferrer-Bas, P; Garrido-Corro, B; Pujalte-Ródenas, V; de la Cruz Murie, P; Blázquez-Pedrero, M; Sánchez-Lorca, S; Soler-Gallego, P; Albacete-Moreno, C; Alcaraz-Pérez, T; Pérez-Romero, S

    To assess the impact of a long-term initiative to improve safety culture among professionals working in a Health Area, and to know their perceived usefulness. An uncontrolled intervention study was designed in a public health care organization including a 3rd level hospital and 5,000 professionals. To measure the impact, the AHRQ Survey was conducted by telephone. A total of 7 dimensions of culture were measured, before starting the project (2012, n=100) and 3 years later (2015, n=207). Variations between 2012 and the respondents aware of the project in 2015 (RAP) were compared, as also between this last group and the rest of respondents (RNAP). The utility was assessed using a 5-item Likert scale, defining higher utility by medians 4 or higher. The response rates were above 80%. In 2015, the 41.5% of respondents were RAP (95%CI: 34.8-48.3), which was perceived as of high utility. Negative variations were detected in "sense of security" (-9.9%, P<.01, vs. 2012, and -4.2% between 2015 groups) and "feedback and communication errors" (-10.0% vs. 2012, and -8.9% between 2015 groups, P<.05). There was a not-significant positive variation in "openness in communication" (1.3% vs. 2012, and 6.9% between 2015 groups). The "management support" showed a not-significant improve in 2015 (37.0%, 95%CI: 30.9-43.1, in RAP; and 38.3%, 95%CI: 33.1-43.4, in RANP) in comparison to 2012 (31.4%, 95%CI: 28.4-39.7). A paradoxical worsening is detected in several dimensions, this probably due to immaturity of the organization and the instrument used. Thus, tools explicitly considering the degree of maturity may be more appropriate to measure cultural changes, although more studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [How do Turkish immigrants evaluate cultural sensitivity in a German tertiary hospital?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Arnd; Uyar, Müberra; Henning, Bernhard F; Uslucan, Haci H; Westhoff, Timm; Pagonas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Culturally adequate medical care is a goal in Germany, but quantitative data concerning inpatients is lacking. Inpatients of a German tertiary hospital: Turkish migrants (T) and Germans (G) were interviewed in their respective native language. 121 T and 121 G were interviewed. 97.5% of T were Muslims, 82.6% of G were Christians. 88.5% of T judged religion as "important" or "very important" (G: 35.8%). 50.8% of T saw their opportunity to pray in the hospital as "bad" or "very bad" (G: 0.9%). Keeping to Islamic dietary rules in the hospital was "difficult" or "very difficult" for 90% of T. For 79.0% of female T care by a same-sex staff was "important" or "very important" (female G: 36.3%, male T: 40.0%, male G: 7.7%). The presence of a same-sex person during examinations or treatments was "much" or "very much" appreciated by 69.7% of female T, if same-sex care was impossible (female G: 25.4%, male T: 28.9%, male G: 6.1%). A retrospective analysis revealed that 5.8% of all 8988 hospital admissions during the period of study recruitment were Turkish migrants. To meet the needs of Turkish migrants German hospitals should improve the opportunity for Muslims to pray. Additionally, the cooperation with local imams should be sought. Precise descriptions of food ingredients or an adapted menu could help T to deal with Muslim dietary commandments. A culturally sensitive hospital should take into account that female as well as male T prefer to be cared of by same-sex physicians and nurses. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.

  2. Downsides of an overly context-sensitive self: implications from the culture and subjective well-being research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Eunkook M

    2007-12-01

    The self becomes context sensitive in service of the need to belong. When it comes to achieving personal happiness, an identity system that derives its worth and meaning excessively from its social context puts itself in a significantly disadvantageous position. This article integrates empirical findings and ideas from the self, subjective well-being, and cross-cultural literature and tries to offer insights to why East Asian cultural members report surprisingly low levels of happiness. The various cognitive, motivational, behavioral, and affective characteristics of the overly relation-oriented self are discussed as potential explanations. Implications for the study of self and culture are offered.

  3. Developing theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing in 4 Asian American populations, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Stewart, Susan L; Burke, Nancy J; Chen, Moon S

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is 5 to 12 times more common among Asian Americans than in the general US population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver cancer among Asians. The purpose of this article is to describe the step-by-step approach that we followed in community-based participatory research projects in 4 Asian American groups, conducted from 2006 through 2011 in California and Washington state to develop theoretically based and culturally appropriate interventions to promote hepatitis B testing. We provide examples to illustrate how intervention messages addressing identical theoretical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework were modified to be culturally appropriate for each community. Intervention approaches included mass media in the Vietnamese community, small-group educational sessions at churches in the Korean community, and home visits by lay health workers in the Hmong and Cambodian communities. Use of the Health Behavior Framework allowed a systematic approach to intervention development across populations, resulting in 4 different culturally appropriate interventions that addressed the same set of theoretical constructs. The development of theory-based health promotion interventions for different populations will advance our understanding of which constructs are critical to modify specific health behaviors.

  4. Examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation with Latina/o immigrants exposed to adapted parent training interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Cardona, J Rubén; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Rodríguez, Melanie M Domenech; Dates, Brian; Tams, Lisa; Bernal, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical studies aimed at examining the impact of differential cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical and prevention interventions. This prevention study consisted of a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the impact of 2 differentially culturally adapted versions of the evidence-based parenting intervention known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTOR). The sample consisted of 103 Latina/o immigrant families (190 individual parents). Each family was allocated to 1 of 3 conditions: (a) a culturally adapted PMTO (CA), (b) culturally adapted and enhanced PMTO (CE), and (c) a wait-list control. Measurements were implemented at baseline (T1), treatment completion (T2) and 6-month follow up (T3). Multilevel growth modeling analyses indicated statistically significant improvements on parenting skills for fathers and mothers (main effect) at 6-month follow-up in both adapted interventions, when compared with the control condition. With regard to parent-reported child behaviors, child internalizing behaviors were significantly lower for both parents in the CE intervention (main effect), compared with control at 6-month follow-up. No main effect was found for child externalizing behaviors. However, a Parent × Condition effect was found indicating a significant reduction of child externalizing behaviors for CE fathers compared with CA and control fathers at posttest and 6-month follow-up. Present findings indicate the value of differential cultural adaptation research designs and the importance of examining effects for both mothers and fathers, particularly when culturally focused and gender variables are considered for intervention design and implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Impact of engaging middle management in practice interventions on staff support and learning culture: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Burmeister, Liz; Schoonbeek, Sue; Ossenberg, Christine; Gneilding, Julieanne

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different levels of engaging middle management in ward based strategies implemented by a project educator. The challenge for learning in practice is to develop effective teams where experienced staff engage and foster learning with students and other novice staff. A quasi-experimental pre- and post- intervention four group design was conducted from November 2009 to May 2010 across four general surgical and four general medical inpatient matched units in two settings in South East Queensland, Australia. Staff survey data was used to compare control and intervention groups (one actively engaging nurse managers) before and after 'practice learning' interventions. The survey comprised demographic data and data from two validated scales (support instrument for nurses facilitating learning and clinical learning organisational culture). Number of surveys returned pre- and post-intervention was 336 from 713 (47%). There were significant differences across many subscales pertaining to staff perception of support in the intervention groups, with only one change in the control group. The number of significant different subscales in the learning culture was also greater when middle management supported the intervention. Middle management should work closely with facilitators to assist embedding practice interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-02-01

    We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after the intervention (immediate and delayed) in schools. The intervention comprised three 1-hour assembly-style hip-hop-themed multimedia classes. A mean total of 225 children participated in two baseline preintervention sales with and without calorie labels; 149 children participated in immediate postintervention food sales, while 133 children participated in the delayed sales. No significant change in purchased calories was observed in response to labels alone before the intervention. However, a mean decline in purchased calories of 20% (p < .01) and unhealthy foods (p < .01) was seen in immediately following the intervention compared to baseline purchases, and this persisted without significant decay after 7 days and 12 days. A 3-hour culturally targeted calorie label intervention may improve food-purchasing behavior of children. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J A J; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997-2009). a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the intervention. More systematic experiments are needed in which

  8. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nierkens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. AIM: To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. METHODS: Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997-2009. INCLUSION CRITERIA: a effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. RESULTS: Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. CONCLUSION: This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a

  9. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of a family booklet on comfort care in dementia: sensitive topics revised before implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, J.T.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; de Graas, T.; Nakanishi, M.; Toscani, F.; Arcand, M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Families of patients with dementia may need support in difficult end-of-life decision making. Such guidance may be culturally sensitive. Methods: To support families in Canada, a booklet was developed to aid decision making on palliative care issues. For reasons of cost effectiveness

  10. Comparison of communication skills between trained and untrained students using a culturally sensitive nurse-client communication guideline in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Tuah, R.; Riskione, P.; Prabandari, Y.S.; Effendy, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A communication guideline that is sensitive to the local culture is influential in the process of nursing care. The Gadjah Mada nurse-client communication guideline, the "Ready-Greet-Invite-Discuss," was meant (1) to strengthen the relationship between the nurse and the client despite of

  11. Rhythm experience and Africana culture trial (REACT!): A culturally salient intervention to promote neurocognitive health, mood, and well-being in older African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukach, Alexis J; Jedrziewski, M Kathryn; Grove, George A; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn J; Williams, Shardae S; Wollam, Mariegold E; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    The Rhythm Experience and Africana Culture Trial (REACT!) is a multi-site randomized controlled intervention study designed to examine the efficacy of using African Dance as a form of moderate-intensity physical activity to improve cognitive function in older African Americans. African Americans are almost two times more likely than Caucasians to experience cognitive impairment in late adulthood. This increased risk may be attributed to lower level and quality of education, lower socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, all of which are recognized as risk factors for dementia. Fortunately, interventions targeting cardiovascular health (i.e., physical activity) are associated with improved neurocognitive function and a reduced risk for dementia, so African Americans may be particularly suited for interventions targeting cardiovascular health and cognitive function. Here, we describe a randomized intervention protocol for increasing physical activity in older (65-75years) African Americans. Participants (n=80) at two study locations will be randomized into one of two groups. The treatment group will participate in African Dance three times per week for six months and the control group will receive educational training on Africana history and culture, as well as information about health behaviors, three times per week for six months. If successful, the REACT! study may transform community interventions and serve as a platform and model for testing other populations, age groups, and health outcomes, potentially identifying novel and creative methods for reducing or eliminating health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Pilot Study of a Culturally Adapted Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Yang, Jian; Yao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Zhuang, Xiangxiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lee, Gabrielle T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effects of a culturally adapted early intervention influenced by the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) on reduction of autism symptoms and severity categorization for young children with autism spectrum disorders in China. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control or intervention…

  13. Cultural interventions and multi-disciplinary teams to enhance ‘feeling at home’ in ‘Krachtwijken’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, Sandra; Dorresteijn, Willemien; Duyvendak, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    This report serves as one of the two background documents for the HvA/UvA research proposal concerning cultural interventions in the process of urban regeneration in Krachtwijken in Amsterdam. The report at hand, based on a review of the international literature on art and regeneration, and on

  14. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  15. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizatioons - Prevention of accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    1999-01-01

    workplaces and the contribution communicates ongoing work with such a method, including political, cultural and structural elements. A selective study of literature within safety culture, corporate culture and organisational theory has shown that the safety culture approach can benefit from...... the organisational culture approaches of Alvesson and Geertz and organisational theory dealing with political processes (Pettigrew, Knights). The implicit models of organisation and man within mainstream safety culture approaches seems to be too rationalistic compared with day to day life of organisations...

  16. Cultural Adaptation of an Evidence-Informed Psychosocial Intervention to Address the Needs of PHIV+ Youth in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Gisselle; Saisaengjan, Chutima; Gopalan, Priya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lakhonpon, Sudrak; Nestadt, Danielle Friedman; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Mellins, Claude Ann; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2017-01-01

    Globally, pediatric HIV has largely become an adolescent epidemic. Thailand has the highest HIV prevalence in Asia (1.2%), with more than 14,000 children living with HIV. There is growing demand for evidence-based psychosocial interventions for this population that include health and mental health support and sexual risk reduction, which can be integrated into HIV care systems. To address this need, a multidisciplinary team of Thai and US researchers adapted an existing evidence-informed, family-based intervention, The Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Program + (CHAMP+), which has been tested in multiple global trials. Using community-based participatory research methods, changes to the intervention curriculum were made to address language, culture, and Thai family life. Involvement of families, youth, and stakeholders in the adaptation process allowed for identification of salient issues and of program delivery methods that would increase engagement. Participants endorsed using a cartoon-based curriculum format for fostering discussion (as in CHAMP+ South Africa) given stigma around discussing HIV in the Thai context. The Thai version of CHAMP+ retained much of the curriculum content incorporating culturally appropriate metaphors and story line. Sessions focus on family communication, coping, disclosure, stigma, social support, and HIV education. This paper explores lessons learned through the adaption process of CHAMP+ Thailand that are applicable to other interventions and settings. It discusses how culturally informed adaptations can be made to interventions while maintaining core program components.

  17. Ethnic Identity and Parenting Stress in South Asian Families: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Aneesa

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…

  18. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  19. Culture and sensitivity pattern in patients with external ventricular drain infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, M.F.A.; Ali, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: External ventricular (EVD) is a life saving procedure and involves insertion of a catheter in ventricular space to drain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our objective of this study was to determine the culture and sensitivity (C/S) pattern in patients with EVD infection. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Department of Neurosurgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from December 1, 2008 to January 31, 2010. All admitted patients who had acute hydrocephalus, underwent EVD insertion after excluding meningitis and ventriculitis by physical examination and per operative CSF sampling. The EVD was done at right Kocher's point. Prophylactic third generation antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) was started and continued till EVD was in place. C/S was sent to PIMS laboratory on first documented fever and or change of CSF color or when plan was to replace EVD with Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VP). Once infection was there CSF was sent for C/S initially and routine examination (R/E) daily. Antibiotics were changed according to C/S report and continued till they were needed. Infection rate was also estimated. Results: Among 76 patients 41 (53.9%) were male and 35 (46.1%) were females. Most were adults and were between 31 to 40 years of age. Mean duration of EVD was 11.41 days. Overall infection rate was 11.8%. Among causative organisms Staphylococcus Aureus (44.4%) was most common followed by Acenitobacter and Enterobacter and commonly used prophylactic antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) had considerable resistance. Conclusion: EVD is a simple and life saving procedure. Most common organisms causing infection are Staphylococcus Aureus followed by Acenitobacter. Conventional used antibiotic Ceftriaxone has considerable resistance. (author)

  20. Perspectives of weather and sensitivities to heat: Social media applications for cultural climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bradley J.

    This dissertation explores the cultural significance and physical perception of heat evident in a corpus of Twitter messages collected for six cities across the US over a seven-week period following historic heat events in the summer of 2012. Through a mixed-methods analysis of what weather means and how it feels, emergent conceptual tools are put forth that seek to envisage weather and society as co-productive, and sometimes indistinguishable, elements in a broader ecological process of world formation. Following a review of concepts from literature on everyday interactions with weather, the dissertation proceeds with two analytical chapters. The first analysis is textual and focuses on 'weather typing' as a discursive practice that works to produce abstract spaces with, of, and for weather through the conceptual distancing of the environment from the body. These practices are considered constitutive of situated perspectives of weather, many of which show a latent influence of heat, be it in the form of shared bodily energy or as an ambient environmental factor. The second analysis quantitatively explores emotional and physiological sensitivities to heat through transforming textual indicators into metrics that can be meaningfully tracked over time alongside biometeorological constructs, particularly with apparent temperature. Each analysis is intended to open the study of weather to multiple lines of inquiry across different scales while remaining rooted in empirical observation. The conclusion of the dissertation is left open as a discussion on further uses of these concepts and analytical strategies in hopes that they may find uses in different contexts, with different data sources, and through a variety of theoretical lenses.

  1. Translating global recommendations on HIV and infant feeding to the local context: the development of culturally sensitive counselling tools in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the process used to develop an integrated set of culturally sensitive, evidence-based counselling tools (job aids by using qualitative participatory research. The aim of the intervention was to contribute to improving infant feeding counselling services for HIV positive women in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methods Formative research using a combination of qualitative methods preceded the development of the intervention and mapped existing practices, perceptions and attitudes towards HIV and infant feeding (HIV/IF among mothers, counsellors and community members. Intervention Mapping (IM protocol guided the development of the overall intervention strategy. Theories of behaviour change, a review of the international HIV/IF guidelines and formative research findings contributed to the definition of performance and learning objectives. Key communication messages and colourful graphic illustrations related to infant feeding in the context of HIV were then developed and/or adapted from existing generic materials. Draft materials were field tested with intended audiences and subjected to stakeholder technical review. Results An integrated set of infant feeding counselling tools, referred to as 'job aids', was developed and included brochures on feeding methods that were found to be socially and culturally acceptable, a Question and Answer Guide for counsellors, a counselling card on the risk of transmission of HIV, and an infant feeding toolbox for demonstration. Each brochure describes the steps to ensure safer infant feeding using simple language and images based on local ideas and resources. The brochures are meant to serve as both a reference material during infant feeding counselling in the ongoing prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT of HIV programme and as take home material for the mother. Conclusion The study underscores the importance of formative research and a systematic theory

  2. Yeast Autolysis in Sparkling Wine Aging: Use of Killer and Sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains in Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Silvia Jane; De Leonardis, Antonella; Lustrato, Giuseppe; Testa, Bruno; Iorizzo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Sparkling wines produced by traditional method owe their characteristics to secondary fermentation and maturation that occur during a slow ageing in bottles. Yeast autolysis plays an important role during the sparkling wine aging. Using a combination of killer and sensitive yeasts is possible to accelerate yeast autolysis and reduce maturing time. killer and sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, separately and in co-cultures, were inoculated in base wine and bottled on pilot-plant scale. Commercial Saccaromyces bayanus strain was also investigated. Protein free amino acid and polysaccharides contents and sensory analysis were determined on the wine samples at 3, 6 and 9 months of aging. Yeast autolysis that occurs during the production of sparkling wines, obtained with co-cultures of killer and sensitive strains, has influenced free amino acids, total protein and polysaccharides content after 3 months aging time: sparkling wines, produced without the use of these yeasts, have reached the same results only after 9 months aging time. These results demonstrate that killer and sensitive yeasts in co-culture can accelerate the onset of autolysis in enological conditions, and has a positive effect on the quality of the aroma and flavor of sparkling wine. This paper offers an interesting biotechnological method to reduce production time of sparkling wine with economical benefits for the producers. We revised all patents relating to sparkling wine considering only those of interest for our study.

  3. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Pil-Mun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Seok [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Gwacheon 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D{sub 10} value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  4. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D 10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  5. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  6. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John

    2013-12-28

    Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

  7. Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold

    2013-08-10

    Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time

  8. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  9. A Culturally Adapted Smoking Cessation Intervention for Korean Americans: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Family Norm Toward Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S; Kim, Seong-Ho; Fang, Hua; Kwon, Simona; Shelley, Donna; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Korean men and women have the highest current smoking rates across all Asian ethnic subgroups in the United States. This is a 2-arm randomized controlled study of a culturally adapted smoking cessation intervention. The experimental condition received eight weekly 40-min individualized counseling sessions that incorporated Korean-specific cultural elements, whereas the control condition received eight weekly 10-min individualized counseling sessions that were not culturally adapted. All participants also received nicotine patches for 8 weeks. One-hundred nine Korean immigrants (91 men and 18 women) participated in the study. The rate of biochemically verified 12-month prolonged abstinence was significantly higher for the experimental condition than the control condition (38.2 vs. 11.1 %, χ (2) = 10.7, p family norm significantly mediated the effect of cessation intervention on abstinence. Smoking cessation intervention for Korean Americans should be culturally adapted and involve family members to produce a long-term treatment effect.

  10. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476

  11. Engaging Parents in Preventive Interventions for Young Children: Working with Cultural Diversity Within Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Brotman, Laurie M

    2017-08-01

    A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers. This paper describes the initial development of ParentCorps and ongoing improvements to realize that vision. Initial development focused on creating a parenting intervention that places culture at the center and effectively embedding it in schools. ParentCorps includes core components found in nearly all effective parenting interventions with a culturally informed approach to engaging families and supporting behavior change. As the intervention is implemented at scale in increasingly diverse communities, improvement efforts include augmenting professional development to increase racial consciousness among all staff (evaluators, coaches, and school-based facilitators) and applying an implementation science framework to study and more fully support schools' use of a package of engagement strategies.

  12. The Impact of a Cultural Lifestyle Intervention on Metabolic Parameters After Gestational Diabetes Mellitus A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman-Kravits, Dana; Meyerstein, Naomi; Abu-Rabia, Yones; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Harman-Boehm, Ilana

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Israel is increasing in all ethnic groups but most markedly in the Bedouin population. We aimed to assess the effects of a lifestyle change intervention on risk markers for type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). One hundred eighty Jewish and Bedouin post-GDM women were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG) starting 3-4 months after delivery. The IG participated in healthy lifestyle sessions led by a dietician and a sports instructor for 24 months after delivery. The IG participants had three individual 45-min counseling sessions and four 90-min group meetings (10 women each). The dietary and exercise recommendations were culturally adapted. The primary outcome of the study was HOMA-IR. We monitored clinical and chemical biomarkers 1 and 2 years after delivery. After 1 and 2 years of intervention, the metabolic measures improved substantially. The intervention reduced the insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR levels in the IG compared with those in the CG (p < 0.001). This novel culturally tailored lifestyle intervention program significantly improved the metabolic and morphometric indices measured 1 and 2 years after delivery. These results highlight and underscore the importance of effective lifestyle change education following GDM.

  13. The effects of the ARC organizational intervention on caseworker turnover, climate, and culture in children's service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Dukes, Denzel; Green, Philip

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the effects of the Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention strategy on caseworker turnover, climate, and culture in a child welfare and juvenile justice system. Using a pre-post, randomized blocks, true experimental design, 10 urban and 16 rural case management teams were randomly assigned to either the ARC organizational intervention condition or to a control condition. The culture and climate of each case management team were assessed at baseline and again after the one-year organizational intervention was completed. In addition, caseworker turnover was assessed by identifying caseworkers on the sampled teams who quit their jobs during the year. Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) analyses indicate that the ARC organizational intervention reduced the probability of caseworker turnover by two-thirds and improved organizational climate by reducing role conflict, role overload, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization in both urban and rural case management teams. Organizational intervention strategies can be used to reduce staff turnover and improve organizational climates in urban and rural child welfare and juvenile justice systems. This is important because child welfare and juvenile justice systems in the U.S.A. are plagued by high turnover rates, and there is evidence that high staff turnover and poor organizational climates negatively affect service quality and outcomes in these systems.

  14. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  15. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann B; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2013-04-01

    Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE: The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include (1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; (2) assess the population, need, and context; (3) evaluate the intervention to be adapted with attention to

  16. Structured communicative skills training for medical interns improves history taking skills on sensitive issues: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Sukhlecha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communication is a process that allows us to interact with other people. Medical professionals need to possess good communication skills for history taking, diagnosis, and treatment. Communicative skills are hardly taught in medical schools of India. The students are expected to learn them on their own. To address this issue, we introduced communicative skills training (CST for medical interns. Objective: Primary – To determine the effectiveness of CST in improving history taking on sensitive issues by medical interns. Secondary – To improve patients' satisfaction through improved communicative skills. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control study carried out on medical interns at Jamnagar. The interns were randomized to either Group A or Group B. Intervention in the form of CST was given to Group A while Group B was control. The topic of CST was “eliciting sexual history.” Assessment of participants was done by pre- and post-intervention objective structured clinical examination. For ethical reasons, Group B was also given CST by experts after completion of our study but their results were not included for analysis. Results: Although mean scores increased in both the groups, (from 6.4 to 13.4 in the intervention group and from 6.5 to 7.5 in controls, the percent increase was much larger in the intervention group than controls (109% vs. 15%. Students gave a positive feedback to CST. Opinion of teachers was favoring CST. Among the patients allotted to intervention group, 83% were satisfied. Conclusion: CST imparted to medical interns helps in improving doctor–patient relationship.

  17. Effects of video-feedback intervention on harmonious parent–child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with intellectual disabilities : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodes, M. W.; Meppelder, M.; de Moor, M.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study tested whether video-feedback intervention based on attachment and coercion theory increased harmonious parent–child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Methods: Observer ratings of

  18. Delivering culturally sensitive health messages: the process of adapting brochures for grandparents raising grandchildren in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A

    2010-05-01

    The efficacy of programs to reduce health disparities depends on their ability to deliver messages in a culturally sensitive manner. This article describes the process of designing a series of brochures for grandparents raising grandchildren. National source material on topics important to grandparents (self-care, service use, addiction, and grandchildren's difficult behaviors) was put into draft brochures and pilot tested in two focus groups drawn from Native Hawaiian Asian and Pacific Islander populations. Elements of surface and deep levels directed the form and content of the final brochures. On a surface level, these brochures reflect local culture through pictures and language. On a deep level, which integrates cultural beliefs and practices, they reflect the importance of indirect communication and harmonious relationships. The final brochures have been received favorably in the community. The process of adapting educational material with attention to surface and deep levels can serve as a guide for other health promotion materials.

  19. A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention addressing a Middle Eastern immigrant population at risk of diabetes, the MEDIM (impact of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes In Malmö): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sanjib; Leijon, Matti; Gerdtham, Ulf; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Arvidsson, Daniel; Bennet, Louise

    2013-09-03

    Studies have shown that lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients. However, research on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in high-risk immigrant populations with different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds is scarce. The aim was to design a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for an immigrant population and to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. In this randomized controlled trial, 308 participants (born in Iraq, living in Malmö, Sweden and at high risk of type 2 diabetes) will be allocated to either a culturally adapted intervention or a control group. The intervention will consist of 10 group counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity and behavioral change over 6 months, and the offer of exercise sessions. Cultural adaptation includes gender-specific exercise sessions, and counseling by a health coach community member. The control group will receive the information about healthy lifestyle habits provided by the primary health care center. The primary outcome is change in fasting glucose level. Secondary outcomes are changes in body mass index, insulin sensitivity, physical activity, food habits and health-related quality of life. Measurements will be taken at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Data will be analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. The cost-effectiveness during the trial period and over the longer term will be assessed by simulation modeling from patient, health care and societal perspectives. This study will provide a basis to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention designed for immigrants from the Middle East in terms of improvement in glucose metabolism, and will also assess its cost-effectiveness. Results from this trial may help health care providers and policy makers to adapt and implement lifestyle interventions suitable for this population group that can be conducted in the community. Clinical

  20. Temperature sensitivity of the penicillin-induced autolysis mechanism in nongrowing cultures of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusser, W; Ishiguro, E E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the ampicillin-induced autolysis of nongrowing Escherichia coli was determined. The autolysis mechanisms in amino acid-deprived relA mutant cells treated with chloramphenicol were temperature sensitive. This temperature-sensitive autolysis was demonstrated in three independent ways: turbidimetric determinations, viable cell counts, and solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan.

  1. The role of national culture in advertising's sensitivity to business cycles : An investigation across continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; DeKimpe, M.; Steenkamp, J.E.M.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors conduct a systematic investigation into the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures in 37 countries, covering four key media: magazines, newspapers, radio, and television. They show that advertising is considerably more sensitive to business-cycle fluctuations than the economy

  2. A Measure of Cultural Competence as an Ethical Responsibility: Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Collins, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the psychometric qualifications of a new video-based measure of school professionals' ethical sensitivity toward issues of racial intolerance in schools. The new scale, titled the Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test (Quick-REST) is based on the ethical principles commonly shared by school-based professional…

  3. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of a family booklet on comfort care in dementia: sensitive topics revised before implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Hertogh, Cees M P M; de Graas, Tjomme; Nakanishi, Miharu; Toscani, Franco; Arcand, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Families of patients with dementia may need support in difficult end-of-life decision making. Such guidance may be culturally sensitive. To support families in Canada, a booklet was developed to aid decision making on palliative care issues. For reasons of cost effectiveness and promising effects, we prepared for its implementation in Italy, the Netherlands and Japan. Local teams translated and adapted the booklet to local ethical, legal and medical standards where needed, retaining guidance on palliative care. Using qualitative content analyses, we grouped and compared adaptations to understand culturally sensitive aspects. Three themes emerged: (1) relationships among patient, physician and other professionals-the authority of the physician was more explicit in adapted versions; (2) patient rights and family position-adding detail about local regulations; and (3) typology of treatments and decisions. Considerations underlying palliative care decisions were detailed (Dutch and Italian versions), and the Japanese version frequently referred to professional and legal standards, and life-prolongation was a competing goal. Text on artificial feeding or fluids and euthanasia was revised extensively. Providing artificial feeding and fluids and discussing euthanasia may be particularly sensitive topics, and guidance on these subjects needs careful consideration of ethical aspects and possible adaptations to local standards and practice. The findings may promote cross-national debate on sensitive, core issues regarding end-of-life care in dementia.

  4. Density gradient localization of vanadate- and NO-3-sensitive ATPase from sterile cultures of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the separation and some characteristics of ATPase activities bound with plant membanes prepared from sterile cultures of Spirodela polyrrhiza. The membrane-bound ATPases were separated on sucrose gradients and distinguished by membrane density and sensitivity to several inhibitors. The results showed that N0-3-sensitive ATPase activity associated with the tonoplast was localized at a sucrose density between 1.095-1.117 g•cm-3. The vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity bound with the plasma membrane showed a density between 1.127-1.151 g•cm-3. Both ATPases were insensitive to azide and oligomycin and were separable from markers for mitochondria.

  5. Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: comparing East and West

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we compared how individuals from these two cultures passively respond to emotional cues from faces and voices using an Oddball task. Participants viewed in-group emotional faces, with or without simultaneous vocal expressions, while performing a face-irrelevant vis...

  6. Using Co-Design to Develop a Collective Leadership Intervention for Healthcare Teams to Improve Safety Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Ward

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While co-design methods are becoming more popular in healthcare; there is a gap within the peer-reviewed literature on how to do co-design in practice. This paper addresses this gap by delineating the approach taken in the co-design of a collective leadership intervention to improve healthcare team performance and patient safety culture. Over the course of six workshops healthcare staff, patient representatives and advocates, and health systems researchers collaboratively co-designed the intervention. The inputs to the process, exercises and activities that took place during the workshops and the outputs of the workshops are described. The co-design method, while challenging at times, had many benefits including grounding the intervention in the real-world experiences of healthcare teams. Implications of the method for health systems research are discussed.

  7. The effectiveness of different intervention strategies for the prevention of zoonotic metacercariae infection in cultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2013-01-01

    interventions was reduced 91.7% compared to before interventions. The intensity of FZT was also significantly lower in the pond management group, compared to the drug treatment group and the control group after interventions. The results demonstrate that improving farm and pond management practices can......Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a major public health problem. It is estimated that in Vietnam 26,366 "disability-adjusted life years" (DALYs) are lost due to FZT. Fish from aquaculture are a main source of protein and of great economic importance in both rural and urban areas...... with two intervention groups; a drug treatment of human and animal groups and a farm management group (control of snail vectors and fecal pollution of pond). A third group (non-intervention) served as control. Fish were examined for FZT metacercariae prevalence and intensity before and after interventions...

  8. Ethical sensitivity intervention in science teacher education: Using computer simulations and professional codes of ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Shawn Yvette

    A simulation was created to emulate two Racial Ethical Sensitivity Test (REST) videos (Brabeck et al., 2000). The REST is a reliable assessment for ethical sensitivity to racial and gender intolerant behaviors in educational settings. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the REST was performed using the Quick-REST survey and an interview protocol. The purpose of this study was to affect science educator ability to recognize instances of racial and gender intolerant behaviors by levering immersive qualities of simulations. The fictitious Hazelton High School virtual environment was created by the researcher and compared with the traditional REST. The study investigated whether computer simulations can influence the ethical sensitivity of preservice and inservice science teachers to racial and gender intolerant behaviors in school settings. The post-test only research design involved 32 third-year science education students enrolled in science education classes at several southeastern universities and 31 science teachers from the same locale, some of which were part of an NSF project. Participant samples were assigned to the video control group or the simulation experimental group. This resulted in four comparison group; preservice video, preservice simulation, inservice video and inservice simulation. Participants experienced two REST scenarios in the appropriate format then responded to Quick-REST survey questions for both scenarios. Additionally, the simulation groups answered in-simulation and post-simulation questions. Nonparametric analysis of the Quick-REST ascertained differences between comparison groups. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for internal consistency. The REST interview protocol was used to analyze recognition of intolerant behaviors in the in-simulation prompts. Post-simulation prompts were analyzed for emergent themes concerning effect of the simulation on responses. The preservice video group had a significantly higher mean rank score than

  9. Examination of cultural competence in service providers in an early intervention programme for psychosis in Montreal, Quebec: Perspectives of service users and treatment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Shruthi; Jordan, Gerald; Pope, Megan A; Iyer, Srividya N

    2018-06-01

    To better understand cultural competence in early intervention for psychosis, we compared service users' and service providers' perceptions of the importance of providers being culturally competent and attentive to aspects of culture. At a Canadian early intervention programme, a validated scale was adapted to assess service user (N = 51) and provider (N = 30) perceptions of service providers' cultural competence and the importance accorded thereto. Analyses of variance revealed that the importance of service providers being culturally competent was rated highest by service providers, followed by visible minority service users, followed by white service users. Providers rated themselves as being more interested in knowing about service users' culture than service users perceived them to be. Service users accorded less import to service providers' cultural competence than providers themselves, owing possibly to varied socialization. A mismatch in users' and providers' views on providers' efforts to know their users' cultures may influence mental healthcare outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Creating Qungasvik (A Yup’ik Intervention “Toolbox”): Case Examples from a Community-Developed and Culturally-Driven Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, Stacy M.; Charles, Billy; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Yup’ik Alaska Native approach to suicide and alcohol abuse prevention that resulted in the creation of the Qungasvik, a toolbox promoting reasons for life and sobriety among youth. The Qungasvik is made up of thirty-six modules that function as cultural scripts for creating experiences in Yup’ik communities that build strengths and protection against suicide and alcohol abuse. The Qungasvik manual represents the results of a community based participatory research intervention development process grounded in culture and local process, and nurtured through a syncretic blending of Indigenous and Western theories and practices. This paper will provide a description of the collaborative steps taken at the community-level to develop the intervention modules. This process involved university researchers and community members coming together and drawing from multiple sources of data and knowledge to inform the development of prevention activities addressing youth suicide and alcohol abuse. We will present case examples describing the development of three keystone modules; Qasgiq (The Men’s House), Yup’ik Kinship Terms, and Surviving Your Feelings. These modules each are representative of the process that the community co-researcher team took to develop and implement protective experiences that: (1) create supportive community, (2) strengthen families, and (3) give individuals tools to be healthy and strong. PMID:24764018

  11. The Cultural Dependence of the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire: The Case of Iranian Kurdish Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A good theory-based tool for measuring ethical sensitivity, which is usable in different contexts, is scarce. In this study, we examined the Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ in line with its seven-dimension structure. The scale was presented to a sample of 556 Iranian Kurdish teachers in primary, middle, and high schools. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to scrutinize the original factor structure of the ESSQ. The results confirmed that the ESSQ supports a reasonable model fit to study the seven dimensions of ethical sensitivity as it was developed in the original study. However, some modifications were conducted to free high error covariance between four pairs of items in the scale. This modification increased the fit indices and thus resulted in a good model fit. In addition to examining the satiability of the ESSQ, a further analysis showed that the level of ethical sensitivity in the targeted sample was high.

  12. CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY OF BACTERIAL GROWTH FROM EXOTIC COWS SUFFERING FROM ENDOMETRITIS UNDER PAKISTANI CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriology of endometritis and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates in Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows maintained at Research Institute for Physiology of Animal Reproduction, Bhunikey, District Kasur were carried out. Out of 100 samples, 89 contained different strains of bacteria and 11 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Bacillus subtilis (08.99%, Corynebacterium pyogenes (19.10%, Escherichia coli (29.21%, Neisseria meningitides (03.37%, Staphylococcus aureus (23.60%, Streptococcus pneumonia (03.37% and Streptococcus pyogenes (12.36%. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (92% were sensitive to neomycin, followed by doxycyline (89%. Clindramycin showed the lowest results in terms of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity (51%.

  13. Testing of a Model with Latino Patients That Explains the Links Among Patient-Perceived Provider Cultural Sensitivity, Language Preference, and Patient Treatment Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jessica D Jones; Wall, Whitney; Tucker, Carolyn M

    2016-03-01

    Disparities in treatment adherence based on race and ethnicity are well documented but poorly understood. Specifically, the causes of treatment nonadherence among Latino patients living in the USA are complex and include cultural and language barriers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether patients' perceptions in patient-provider interactions (i.e., trust in provider, patient satisfaction, and patient sense of interpersonal control in patient-provider interactions) mediate any found association between patient-perceived provider cultural sensitivity (PCS) and treatment adherence among English-preferred Latino (EPL) and Spanish-preferred Latino (SPL) patients. Data from 194 EPL patients and 361 SPL patients were obtained using questionnaires. A series of language-specific structural equation models were conducted to test the relationship between patient-perceived PCS and patient treatment adherence and the examined mediators of this relationship among the Latino patients. No significant direct effects of patient-perceived PCS on general treatment adherence were found. However, as hypothesized, several significant indirect effects emerged. Preferred language appeared to have moderating effects on the relationships between patient-perceived PCS and general treatment adherence. These results suggest that interventions to promote treatment adherence among Latino patients should likely include provider training to foster patient-defined PCS, trust in provider, and patient satisfaction with care. Furthermore, this training needs to be customized to be suitable for providing care to Latino patients who prefer speaking Spanish and Latino patients who prefer speaking English.

  14. Culture and drug sensitivity testing among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Mexico: national data for 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Orejel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study documented the number and results of mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST in Mexico from 2009–2013 and assessed whether states with a higher risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB performed more CDST and had more cultures showing MDR-TB. Data for this longitudinal, descriptive, operational research study came from the electronic records of 31 state public health laboratories in Mexico. The total number of CDSTs was 6 470, increasing from 2 143 in the first 2 years to 4 327 in the latter 3 years. There was a significant increase in the proportion of cultures showing sensitivity to all drugs, from 53.1% to 60.9% in 2011–2013 (P < 0.001 and a significant decrease in the proportion showing MDR-TB, from 28.2% in 2009 to 19.8% in 2013 (P < 0.001. Cases of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis were < 1% per year. In the 12 states with higher risk for MDR-TB, significantly more CDSTs (2 382 test were done in 2011–2013 than in the other 19 states (1 945 tests. Also, for each year the proportion of cultures showing MDR-TB was significantly higher in high risk MDR-TB states than in lower risk ones (P < 0.001. During the 5-year study period, CDST was scaled up in Mexico, particularly in high-risk MDR-TB states where a higher proportion of cultures showed MDR-TB. Scale up and wider coverage of CDST should continue.

  15. A Cultural, Linguistic, and Ecological Framework for Response to Intervention with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie Esparza; Doolittle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) has been heralded by many as the long-awaited alternative to using a discrepancy formula for special education eligibility decisions. RTI focuses on intervening early through a multi-tiered approach where each tier provides interventions of increasing intensity. RTI has the potential to affect change for English…

  16. Effect of diisopropylfluorophosphate on synaptic transmission and acetylcholine sensitivity in neuroblastoma-myotube co-culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, M.; Chang, F.C.T.; Foster, R.E.; Glenn, J.F.; Mark, G.; Maxwell, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the effects of the irreversible organophosphorous cholinesterase inhibitor, DFP, on clonal G8-1 myotubes co-cultured with ACh- secreting NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells. The enzyme activity is shown, plotted as a function of time in culture. The enzyme activity remained low over four days. At the end of this time, the cultures were nearly confluent with myoblasts but contained less than 2% multinucleated myotubes. The AChE activity increased gradually after horse serum was added to the growth medium to promote myotube formation, reaching a maximum of 1.1 nmole. C 14 ACh/min/mg protein on the 15th day

  17. Cultural Variations in the Effect of Interview Privacy and the Need for Social Conformity on Reporting Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mneimneh Zeina M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is an important feature of the interview interaction mainly due to its potential effect on reporting information, especially sensitive information. Here we examine the effect of third-party presence on reporting both sensitive and relatively neutral outcomes. We investigate whether the effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the respondent’s need for social conformity and the respondent’s country of residence. Three types of outcomes are investigated: behavioral, attitudinal, and relatively neutral health events. Using data from 22,070 interviews and nine countries in the cross-national World Mental Health Survey Initiative, we fit multilevel logistic regression to study reporting effects on questions about suicidal behavior and marital ratings, and contrast these with questions about having high blood pressure, asthma, or arthritis. We find that there is an effect of third-party presence on reporting sensitive information and no effect on reporting of neutral information. Further, the effect of the interview privacy setting on reporting sensitive information is moderated by the need for social conformity and the cultural setting.

  18. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...

  19. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context.

  20. Fulfilling Their Dreams: Marginalized Urban Youths' Perspectives on a Culturally Sensitive Social and Emotional Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Christopher D.; Rivera, Roberto C.; Shemwell, Daniel; Elison, Zachary M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests educators need to focus on cultivating social and emotional competencies that youth will need to thrive in the new knowledge economy (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). For marginalized urban youth, in particular, few have derived programs and interventions to assist with these…

  1. Towards a Culturally Sensitive and Deeper Understanding of "Rote Learning" and Memorisation of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Po-Li

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to provide evidence that "rote learning" or "memorisation" is a complex construct and is deeply embedded in the East Asian culture. An in-depth understanding of this learning approach is increasingly crucial considering the complex demography of contemporary higher education nowadays. Not only is there a rise…

  2. Self-starvation in context: towards a culturally sensitive understanding of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S

    1995-07-01

    Extreme forms of self-starvation can be traced across time and place, and may be construed using a variety of explanatory models. Curiously, the prevailing biomedical definition of anorexia nervosa has assigned primacy to the exclusive use of 'fat phobia' by the affected subjects to justify their diminished food intake. This paper assembles evidence to show that this culturally constructed version of fat phobic anorexia nervosa has neglected the full metaphorical significance of self-starvation and, when applied in a cross-cultural context, may constitute a category fallacy. By delegitimizing other rationales for non-eating and thereby barring subjective expressions, this regnant interpretive strategy may obscure clinicians' understanding of patients' lived experience, and even jeopardize their treatment. Nonetheless, it is a relatively simple task to attune the extant diagnostic criteria to a polythetic approach which will avert cultural parochialism in psychiatric theory and practice. As a corollary of the archival and ethnocultural study of extreme self-starvation, there is, contrary to epistemological assumptions embedded in the biomedical culture of contemporary psychiatry, no 'core psychopathology' of anorexia nervosa.

  3. Using cognitive behaviour therapy with South Asian Muslims: Findings from the culturally sensitive CBT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Phiri, Peter; Munshi, Tariq; Rathod, Shanaya; Ayub, Muhhhamad; Gobbi, Mary; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) needs adaptation for it to be effective for patients from collectivistic cultures, as currently CBT is underpinned by individualistic values. In prior studies we have demonstrated that CBT could be adapted for Pakistani patients in Southampton, UK, and for local populations in Pakistan. Findings from these studies suggest that CBT can be adapted for patients from collectivistic cultures using a series of steps. In this paper we focus on these steps, and the process of adapting CBT for specific groups. The adaptation process should focus on three major areas of therapy, rather than simple translation of therapy manuals. These include (1) awareness of relevant cultural issues and preparation for therapy, (2) assessment and engagement, and (3) adjustments in therapy. We also discuss the best practice guidelines that evolved from this work to help therapists working with this population. We reiterate that CBT can be adapted effectively for patients from traditional cultures. This is, however, an emerging area in psychotherapy, and further work is required to refine the methodology and to test adapted CBT.

  4. Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: Comparing East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese (Liu et al., 2015. Here, we compared how individuals from these two cultures passively respond to emotional cues from faces and voices using an Oddball task. Participants viewed in-group emotional faces, with or without simultaneous vocal expressions, while performing a face-irrelevant visual task as the EEG was recorded. A significantly larger visual MMN was observed for Chinese versus English participants when faces were accompanied by voices, suggesting that Chinese were influenced to a larger extent by task-irrelevant vocal cues. These data highlight further differences in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, arguing that distinct cultural practices in communication (e.g., display rules shape neurocognitive activity associated with the early perception and integration of multi-sensory emotional cues.

  5. East-West Cultural Differences in Context-Sensitivity are Evident in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples.…

  6. Towards More Socio-Culturally Sensitive Research and Study of Workplace E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remtulla, Karim A.

    2010-01-01

    This article advocates workplace adult education and training researchers and scholar practitioners interested in career and technical education (CTE), adult education and technology, and who are attempting social and cultural critiques of workplace e-learning. The emphasis on the technological and artefactual in workplace e-learning research and…

  7. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  8. HB&L System: rapid determination of antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from blood cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Barocci

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood culture is an important method to detect microbial pathogens on blood, very useful for diagnosing bacterial infections. Unfortunately, classical diagnostic protocols cannot directly identify bacteria responsible for sepsis and accordingly their antimicrobial profiles. This problem causes a delay of almost two days in the availability of a specific antimicrobial profile. Objective. Among the main causes of death, sepsis have a relevant importance. For this reason it is important both to identify pathogens and to perform an antimicrobial susceptibility test in the shortest time as possible. For this purpose, the main aim of this study is the evaluation of the performances of an antimicrobial susceptibility determination directly performed on positive blood cultures. Materials and methods. This study has been performed on 70 positive blood cultures, during the period from January to July 2009. A number of 35 blood cultures were positive for Gram negative bacteria, and 35 were positive for Gram positive bacteria. From these positive blood cultures, after a short sample preparation, it has been possible to directly determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles by using the HB&L (formerly URO-QUICK instrument. Results. The HB&L system results showed a very good correlation with both the classical disk diffusion method and VITEK 2 automatic system.The performances between the methods carried out in this study were equivalent. Conclusions. From data reported, thanks to the rapidity and simplicity of the method used, we can assert that the direct susceptibility test available with the HB&L system, is useful for a rapid and early choice of the antibiotic treatment.

  9. The roles of health culture and physical environment in workplace health promotion: a two-year prospective intervention study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingnan; Fu, Hua; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin

    2018-04-05

    To understand the potential influencing factors on the effectiveness of workplace health promotion interventions and examine whether workplace health culture and physical environment can mediate the relationship between workplace health promotion and intervention effectiveness. A total of 719 participants from 10 Chinese government agencies were recruited for a prospective self-controlled trial. Questionnaires, qualitative interviews, and direct observation were used for the baseline evaluation, process evaluation, and effectiveness evaluation. Based on the results of the need assessment and risk assessment at each workplace, a two-year comprehensive health intervention was conducted by each workplace. Health outcomes including self-rated health (SRH) and mental health were measured at baseline and 24 months. Health culture was measured at 24 months. Physical environment and intervention implementation were measured at 12 months and 24 months. Compared with the baseline, the means of SRH and mental health increased significantly by 0.302 and 2.698, respectively. The SRH scores were different before and after intervention; furthermore, the differences varied by workplace. Health culture mediated the relationship between intervention implementation and intervention effectiveness, including SRH and mental health improvement, but physical environment did not. Physical environment quality was significantly negatively correlated with SRH improvement and mental health improvement. Under the relatively high-quality interventions with scores higher than 4.047 or 4.151 (out of 5), better health culture may led to greater SRH and mental health improvements. Health culture may mediate the relationship between intervention implementation and intervention effectiveness, whereas physical environment does not seem to mediate this relationship. Under relatively high-quality interventions, a better health culture may lead to more positive improvements in SRH and mental health

  10. Radio-sensitivity of callus and cell cultures, and RAPD characterization of variants in banana [Musa spp.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.M.; Karmarkar, V.M.; Ganapathi, T.R.; Bapat, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Although bananas and plantains are one of the most important fruit crops, gearing up the breeding programmes for these has always remained the most difficult task due to several inherent problems such as parthenocarpy, barriers in obtaining viable seeds and long life cycle etc. In this regard, incorporation of in vitro techniques such as shoot-tip / cell cultures along with conventional as well as non-conventional methods of genetic improvement is of utmost importance, especially in those vegetatively propagated species with long crop cycle and low in vivo proliferation rate. In order to understand the radio-sensitivity, the callus and cell cultures of banana were exposed to differential doses of gamma-rays. Growth of the callus cultures reduced with increasing dose of gamma-rays. Similar trend was noticed in irradiation of cell suspensions also where a dose of 40 Gy and more was completely lethal. The experience gained from previous and present experiments has yielded optimization of the procedures for gamma-irradiation and subsequent handling of banana in vitro cultures. The RAPD analysis of the selected variants was unable to detect adequate polymorphism, and further experimentation in these regards is being done. (author)

  11. Perceptions of risk factors for diabetes among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Hjellset, Victoria T; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2011-06-01

    To explore perceptions of diabetes risk factors among Pakistani immigrant women, as part of their explanatory model of the disease, and the changes in these perceptions after a culturally adapted intervention. Intervention study, carried out in Oslo, Norway, comprising 198 women. At baseline, about 75% of the women perceived sugar to be a risk factor for diabetes, about 30% mentioned physical inactivity and stress and close to 20% mentioned overweight. Twelve per cent could not identify any risk factors. When asked about foods to include in a diet to prevent diabetes, vegetables were mentioned by 45%, while 33% did not know any foods to include. Among those attending ≥60% of the educational sessions, the proportions mentioning little physical activity (pfood to include was reduced to 10% (p=0.004). Except for little physical activity, similar changes in responses were not registered in the control group. There is a need for improved knowledge about diabetes prevention among Pakistani immigrant women, and a culturally adapted intervention may contribute to this.

  12. Do cultural differences influence batterer intervention program outcomes? A studywith Spanish and Latin American offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability, responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The sample consisted of 278batterers (211 Spanish and 67 Latin American who participated in a community-based battererintervention program. Results showed significant differences between Spanish and Latin Americanoffenders in perceived severity, victim blaming, violence against women acceptability, and benevolentsexism. Regarding batterer intervention program outcomes, results showed that despite initial differencesbetween Spanish and Latin American offenders, both groups benefit equally from the intervention.

  13. Different strokes for different folks? : Contrasting approaches to cultural adaptation of parenting interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia, A.; Leijten, P.; Lachman, J.M.; Parra-Cardona, J.R.

    Relevant achievements have been accomplished in prevention science with regard to disseminating efficacious parenting interventions among underserved populations. However, widespread disparities in availability of parenting services continue to negatively impact diverse populations in high-income

  14. Culturally sensitive adaptation of the concept of relational communication therapy as a support to language development: An exploratory study in collaboration with a Tanzanian orphanage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schütte

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC who grow up in institutional care often show communication and language problems. The caregivers lack training, and there are few language didactics programmes aimed at supporting communication and language development in OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to adapt the German concept of relational communication therapy (RCT as a support to language development in a Tanzanian early childhood education context in a culturally sensitive way. Following the adaptation of the concept, a training programme for Tanzanian caregiver students was developed to compare their competencies in language didactics before and after training. Methods: A convergent mixed methods design was used to examine changes following training in 12 participating caregiver students in a Tanzanian orphanage. The competencies in relational language didactics were assessed by a self-developed test and video recordings before and after intervention. Based on the results, we drew conclusions regarding necessary modifications to the training modules and to the concept of RCT. Results: The relational didactics competencies of the caregiver students improved significantly following their training. A detailed analysis of the four training modules showed that the improvement in relational didactics competencies varied depending on the topic and the teacher. Conclusion: The results provide essential hints for the professionalisation of caregivers and for using the concept of RCT for OVC in institutional care in Tanzania. Training programmes and concepts should not just be transferred across different cultures, disciplines and settings; they must be adapted to the specific cultural setting.

  15. Is the Chronic Care Model Integrated Into Research Examining Culturally Competent Interventions for Ethnically Diverse Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvrin, Marie; Lorant, Vincent; d'Hoore, William

    2015-12-01

    The chronic care model (CCM) concerns both the medical and the cultural and linguistic needs of patients through the inclusion of cultural competence in the delivery system design. This literature review attempted to@@ identify the domains of the CCM culturally competent (CC) interventions that the adults from ethnic minorities suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus report. We identified the CCM and the CC components in the relevant studies published between 2005 and 2014. Thirty-two studies were included. Thirty-one articles focused on self-management and 20 on community resources. Twenty-three interventions integrated cultural norms from the patients' backgrounds. CC interventions reported the CCM at the individual level but need to address the organizational level more effectively. The scope of CC interventions should be expanded to transform health care organizations and systems. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Specificity and sensitivity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale for suicidal ideation among adolescents entering early intervention service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granö, Niklas; Oksanen, Jorma; Kallionpää, Santeri; Roine, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between hopelessness and suicidal behaviour in clinical populations. The aim of the study was to investigate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) for suicidal ideation in adolescents who show early risk signs on the psychiatric disorder continuum. Three-hundred and two help-seeking adolescents (mean age = 15.5 years) who were entering an early intervention team at Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, completed questionnaires of BHS and suicidal ideation, derived from Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results suggest that a BHS cut-off score ≥8 (sensitivity = 0.70, specificity = 0.76) or cut-off score ≥9 (sensitivity = 0.63, specificity = 0.80) may be useful to detect suicidal ideation with BHS in help-seeking adolescents population. Results remain mainly the same in a separate analysis with adolescents at risk for psychosis. The results support previous cut-off points for BHS in identification of suicidal ideation. The results suggest also that lower cut-off scores may be useful in sense of sensitivity, especially in clinical settings.

  17. The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lanou, Amy J; Glass, Jolie

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of a low-fat, plant-based diet on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity, while controlling for exercise in free-living individuals. In an outpatient setting, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a low-fat, vegan diet or a control diet based on National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, without energy intake limits, and were asked to maintain exercise unchanged. Dietary intake, body weight and composition, resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, and insulin sensitivity were measured at baseline and 14 weeks. Mean +/- standard deviation intervention-group body weight decreased 5.8 +/- 3.2 kg, compared with 3.8 +/- 2.8 kg in the control group (P = .012). In a regression model of predictors of weight change, including diet group and changes in energy intake, thermic effect of food, resting metabolic rate, and reported energy expenditure, significant effects were found for diet group (P effect of food (P vegan diet was associated with significant weight loss in overweight postmenopausal women, despite the absence of prescribed limits on portion size or energy intake.

  18. The development of culturally-sensitive measures for research on ageing

    OpenAIRE

    INGERSOLL-DAYTON, BERIT

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to import existing measures developed in other countries when constructing research instruments for use with older people can result in several problems including inappropriate wording, unsuitable response sets, and insufficient attention to cultural nuances. This paper addresses such problems by discussing a mixed methods approach to measurement development (i.e. both qualitative and quantitative) that incorporates input from the aging adults for whom the measure is intended. To tes...

  19. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...

  20. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizations -Prevention of Accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Kamp, Annette; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    mainstream safety culture approaches is over rationalististic compared with day to day life of organisations. A simplistic model of mans behaviour, and too abbreviated understanding of the total set of goals and means in action in organisation and rather simple change management models flaws the safety...... of an organisation as a Multi-cultural Organisation. Second on change processes as political processes where the needed change have to be negotiated and reshaped....

  1. Results of Applying Cultural Domain Analysis Techniques and Implications for the Design of Complementary Feeding Interventions in Northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Stephanie; Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Wittenbrink, Brittney; Milani, Peiman; Diallo, Abdoulaye Moussa; Ndoye, Tidiane; Wone, Issa; Parker, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Designing effective nutrition interventions for infants and young children requires knowledge about the population to which the intervention is directed, including insights into the cognitive systems and values that inform caregiver feeding practices. To apply cultural domain analysis techniques in the context of implementation research for the purpose of understanding caregivers' knowledge frameworks in Northern Senegal with respect to infant and young child (IYC) feeding. This study was intended to inform decisions for interventions to improve infant and young child nutrition. Modules from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were employed in interviews with a sample of 126 key informants and caregivers from rural and peri-urban sites in the Saint-Louis region of northern Senegal. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and qualitative thematic analysis were used to analyze the data. Cluster analysis showed that caregivers identified 6 food clusters: heavy foods, light foods, snack foods, foraged foods, packaged foods, and foods that are good for the body. The study also revealed similarities and differences between the 2 study sites in caregivers' knowledge frameworks. The demonstration of differences between biomedical concepts of nutrition and the knowledge frameworks of northern Senegalese women with regard to IYC feeding highlights the value of knowledge about emic perspectives of local communities to help guide decisions about interventions to improve nutrition.

  2. The sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide smear and fungal culture relative to clinical assessment in the evaluation of tinea pedis: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jacob Oren; Levitt, Barrie H; Akhavan, Arash; Yanofsky, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH) smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5%) and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%), respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5%) and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%). Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  3. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  4. ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud!: Randomized Controlled Trial of a Culturally Based Dietary Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Crew, Katherine; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2015-05-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant nutrition programs targeted to underserved cancer survivors. Our aim was to examine the effect of a culturally based approach to dietary change on increasing fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake and decreasing fat intake among Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Participants were randomized to Intervention and Control groups. Diet recalls, detailed interviews, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Hispanic women (n=70) with stage 0 to III breast cancer who completed adjuvant treatment and lived in New York City were randomized between April 2011 and March 2012. The Intervention group (n=34) participated in ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud!, a culturally based nine-session (24 hours over 12 weeks) intervention including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips. The Control group (n=36) received written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors. Change at 6 months in daily F/V servings and percent calories from total fat were the main outcome measures. Linear regression models adjusted for stratification factors and estimated marginal means were used to compare changes in diet from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Baseline characteristics were the following: mean age 56.6 years (standard deviation 9.7 years), mean time since diagnosis 3.4 years (standard deviation 2.7 years), mean body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) 30.9 (standard deviation 6.0), 62.9% with annual household income ≤$15,000, mean daily servings of all F/V was 5.3 (targeted F/V 3.7 servings excluding legumes/juices/starchy vegetables/fried foods), and 27.7% of daily calories from fat. More than 60% in the Intervention group attended seven or more of nine classes, with overall study retention of 87% retention at 6 months. At month 6, the Intervention group compared with Control group reported an increase in mean servings of F/V from baseline (all F/V: +2.0 vs -0.1; P=0.005; targeted F/V: +2

  5. Social-cultural impacts of transnational oil corporations in environmentally sensitive areas. Documentation VII 1 E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, L

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of two case studies of indigenous peoples living in the Americas. It is the first report in a series and the others will be devoted to indigenous peoples in Africa and Asia. The focus is on the activities of transnational corporations on indigenous lands. However, it should be acknowledged from the outset that transnational corporations today act with the knowledge and consent of the national governments involved. The case studies cover oil development in diverse areas where indigenous peoples live: the rainforest and the arctic. The report concludes with recommendations for Governments and transnational corporations which, if followed could promote cultural diversity and sustainable development. (orig.).

  6. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial of culturally sensitive relationship education for male same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Hutsell, David W

    2016-09-01

    Relationship education, effective in improving relationship quality among different-sex couples, represents a promising and nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive relationship education program was developed specifically for male same-sex couples, which includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) and newly developed content to address unique challenges faced by this group (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 20 couples) was conducted to evaluate the program. To assess program efficacy, dyadic longitudinal data (collected at pre- and postprogram and 3-month follow-up) were analyzed using multilevel models that accounted for nonindependence in data from indistinguishable dyads. Results indicated significant program effects in comparison to waitlist controls on couple constructive and destructive communication, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. Gains in each of these areas were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Although there was no evidence of within-person program effects on social support, satisfaction, or relationship instability immediately postprogram, all 3 showed within-person improvements by follow-up. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. In summary, study findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of the program and highlight the potential value of culturally sensitive adaptations of relationship education for same-sex couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sensitivity to radiation of human normal, hyperthyroid, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Hiraoka, Toshio; Kopecky, K.J.; Nakamura, Nori; Jones, M.P.; Ito, Toshio; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-09-01

    Samples of thyroid tissue removed surgically from 63 patients were cultured in vitro and X-irradiated to investigate the radiosensitivities of various types of thyroid epithelial cells. A total of 76 samples were obtained, including neoplastic cells from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) or follicular adenoma (FA), cells from hyperthyroidism (HY) patients, and normal cells from the surgical margins of PC and FA patients. Culturing of the cells was performed in a manner which has been shown to yield a predominance of epithelial cells. Results of colony formation assays indicated that cells from HY and FA patients were the least radiosensitive: when adjusted to the overall geometric mean plating efficiency of 5.5 %, the average mean lethal dose D 0 was 97.6 cGy for HY cells, and 96.7 cGy and 94.3 cGy, respectively, for neoplastic and normal cells from FA patients. Cells from PC patients were more radiosensitive, normal cells having an adjusted average D 0 of 85.0 cGy and PC cells a significantly (p = .001) lower average D 0 of 74.4 cGy. After allowing for this variation by cell type, in vitro radiosensitivity was not significantly related to age at surgery (p = .82) or sex (p = .10). These results suggest that malignant thyroid cells may be especially radiosensitive. (author)

  8. Counseling Spanish-speaking patients: Atlanta pharmacists' cultural sensitivity, use of language-assistance services, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyk, Andrew J; Muzyk, Tara L; Barnett, Candace W

    2004-01-01

    To document the types of language-assistance services available in pharmacies and the perceptions of pharmacists regarding the effectiveness of these services, and to measure the attitudes toward counseling Spanish-speaking patients and cultural sensitivity of pharmacists. Cross-sectional assessment. Metropolitan Atlanta, Ga. Registered Georgia pharmacists residing in metropolitan Atlanta. Mailed survey, with repeat mailing 2 weeks later. 38 survey items measuring demographic and practice-site characteristics, types of language-assistance services available with an assessment of the effectiveness of each measured on a nominal scale, and attitudinal items concerning counseling of Spanish-speaking patients and pharmacists' cultural sensitivity using a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Of 1,975 questionnaires mailed, 608 were returned, a 30.8% response rate. Nearly two thirds of the pharmacists had recently counseled a Spanish-speaking patient, but only one fourth of those respondents considered their interactions effective. Nearly all pharmacists, 88.0%, worked in pharmacies with language-assistance services. Of seven types of these services, a mean of 2.19 were available in pharmacies, and the majority of pharmacists (84.4% or more) identifying a service considered it to be effective. The pharmacists were neutral about counseling Spanish-speaking patients (mean = 2.94) and indifferent toward other cultures (mean = 3.28); however, they agreed they had a responsibility to counsel Spanish-speaking patients, and they believed that use of language-assistance services would constitute a reasonable effort to counsel these patients. Pharmacists have an opportunity to address barriers to communication with the Spanish-speaking population through use of language-assistance services and educational measures within the profession.

  9. Behavior Bingo: The Effects of a Culturally Relevant Group Contingency Intervention for Students with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.

    2018-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…

  10. Criteria for the prioritization of public health interventions for climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Hongoh

    Full Text Available Prioritizing resources for optimal responses to an ever growing list of existing and emerging infectious diseases represents an important challenge to public health. In the context of climate change, there is increasing anticipated variability in the occurrence of infectious diseases, notably climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases. An essential step in prioritizing efforts is to identify what considerations and concerns to take into account to guide decisions and thus set disease priorities. This study was designed to perform a comprehensive review of criteria for vector-borne disease prioritization, assess their applicability in a context of climate change with a diverse cross-section of stakeholders in order to produce a baseline list of considerations to use in this decision-making context. Differences in stakeholder choices were examined with regards to prioritization of these criteria for research, surveillance and disease prevention and control objectives. A preliminary list of criteria was identified following a review of the literature. Discussions with stakeholders were held to consolidate and validate this list of criteria and examine their effects on disease prioritization. After this validation phase, a total of 21 criteria were retained. A pilot vector-borne disease prioritization exercise was conducted using PROMETHEE to examine the effects of the retained criteria on prioritization in different intervention domains. Overall, concerns expressed by stakeholders for prioritization were well aligned with categories of criteria identified in previous prioritization studies. Weighting by category was consistent between stakeholders overall, though some significant differences were found between public health and non-public health stakeholders. From this exercise, a general model for climate-sensitive vector-borne disease prioritization has been developed that can be used as a starting point for further public health prioritization

  11. Criteria for the prioritization of public health interventions for climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Gosselin, Pierre; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Campagna, Céline; Samoura, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing resources for optimal responses to an ever growing list of existing and emerging infectious diseases represents an important challenge to public health. In the context of climate change, there is increasing anticipated variability in the occurrence of infectious diseases, notably climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases. An essential step in prioritizing efforts is to identify what considerations and concerns to take into account to guide decisions and thus set disease priorities. This study was designed to perform a comprehensive review of criteria for vector-borne disease prioritization, assess their applicability in a context of climate change with a diverse cross-section of stakeholders in order to produce a baseline list of considerations to use in this decision-making context. Differences in stakeholder choices were examined with regards to prioritization of these criteria for research, surveillance and disease prevention and control objectives. A preliminary list of criteria was identified following a review of the literature. Discussions with stakeholders were held to consolidate and validate this list of criteria and examine their effects on disease prioritization. After this validation phase, a total of 21 criteria were retained. A pilot vector-borne disease prioritization exercise was conducted using PROMETHEE to examine the effects of the retained criteria on prioritization in different intervention domains. Overall, concerns expressed by stakeholders for prioritization were well aligned with categories of criteria identified in previous prioritization studies. Weighting by category was consistent between stakeholders overall, though some significant differences were found between public health and non-public health stakeholders. From this exercise, a general model for climate-sensitive vector-borne disease prioritization has been developed that can be used as a starting point for further public health prioritization exercises relating to

  12. Cultural Factors and Program Implications: HIV/AIDS Interventions and Condom Use among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV…

  13. Cultural Adaptation of a Neurobiologically Informed Intervention in Local and International Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Longoria, Zayra; Garcia Isaza, Alejandra; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore; Burlingame, Sarah; Klein, Scott; Berlinski, Samuel; Attanasio, Orazio; Neville, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between early adversity and numerous negative outcomes across the lifespan is evident in a wide range of societies and cultures (e.g., Pakulak, Stevens, & Neville, 2018). Among the most affected neural systems are those supporting attention, self-regulation, and stress regulation. As such, these systems represent targets for…

  14. LGBT Cultural Competence and Interventions to Help Oncology Nurses and Other Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radix, Asa; Maingi, Shail

    2018-02-01

    To define and give an overview of the importance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) cultural competency and offer some initial steps on how to improve the quality of care provided by oncology nurses and other health care professionals. A review of the existing literature on cultural competency. LGBT patients experience cancer and several other diseases at higher rates than the rest of the population. The reasons for these health care disparities are complex and include minority stress, fear of discrimination, lower rates of insurance, and lack of access to quality, culturally competent care. Addressing the health care disparities experienced by LGBT individuals and families requires attention to the actual needs, language, and support networks used by patients in these communities. Training on how to provide quality care in a welcoming and non-judgmental way is available and can improve health equity. Health care professionals and institutions that acquire cultural competency training can improve the overall health of LGBT patients who currently experience significant health care disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Relational-Cultural Theory to Conceptualize Couple Interventions in the Treatment of Sex Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…

  16. A systematic review of assessment and intervention strategies for effective clinical communication in culturally and linguistically diverse students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie; Purcell, Alison; Power, Emma

    2016-09-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students often experience difficulties with the clinical communication skills that are essential for successful interactions in the workplace. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of assessment and intervention strategies for this population. The two aims of this study were: to evaluate the effectiveness of assessment tools in identifying and describing the clinical communication difficulties of CALD health care students; and to determine whether communication programmes improved their clinical communication skills. Systematic review based on the Cochrane protocol. Articles were identified through a search of established databases using MeSH and key search terms. Studies published in English from 1990 to March 2015 were included if they described assessment strategies or a training programme for communication skills of CALD students. Studies were excluded if they did not describe implementation of a specific assessment or intervention programme. Data were extracted independently by the first author and verified by the second author. Quality was measured by the Best Evidence Medical Education guide and the Educational Interventions Critical Appraisal Tool. The Kirkpatrick hierarchy was used to measure impact. Meta-analysis was not conducted because of the heterogeneity of programme design and outcome measures. One hundred and twenty-nine articles met the criteria for full text review. Eighty-six articles were excluded. Thirteen articles addressing assessment and 30 articles reporting on communication training programmes were included in this review. Assessment tools used rubrics and rating scales effectively. Intervention studies focused on speech and language skills (n = 20), interpersonal skills (n = 7) and faculty-level support (n = 5). Although 17 studies reported positive findings on student satisfaction, only eight reported improved skills post-training. The development of effective

  17. A Website Supporting Sensitive Religious and Cultural Advance Care Planning (ACPTalk): Formative and Summative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Patrick; O'Callaghan, Clare; Boyd, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Background Advance care planning (ACP) promotes conversations about future health care needs, enacted if a person is incapable of making decisions at end-of-life that may be communicated through written documentation such as advance care directives. To meet the needs of multicultural and multifaith populations in Australia, an advance care planning website, ACPTalk, was funded to support health professionals in conducting conversations within diverse religious and cultural populations. ACPTalk aimed to provide religion-specific advance care planning content and complement existing resources. Objective The purpose of this paper was to utilize the context, input, process, and product (CIPP) framework to conduct a formative and summative evaluation of ACPTalk. Methods The CIPP framework was used, which revolves around 4 aspects of evaluation: context, input, process, and product. Context: health professionals’ solutions for the website were determined through thematic analysis of exploratory key stakeholder interviews. Included religions were determined through an environmental scan, Australian population statistics, and documentary analysis of project steering committee meeting minutes. Input: Project implementation and challenges were examined through documentary analysis of project protocols and meeting minutes. Process: To ensure religion-specific content was accurate and appropriate, a website prototype was built with content review and functionality testing by representatives from religious and cultural organizations and other interested health care organizations who completed a Web-based survey. Product: Website analytics were used to report utilization, and stakeholder perceptions were captured through interviews and a website survey. Results Context: A total of 16 key stakeholder health professional (7 general practitioners, 2 primary health nurses, and 7 palliative care nurses) interviews were analyzed. Website solutions included religious and cultural

  18. A Website Supporting Sensitive Religious and Cultural Advance Care Planning (ACPTalk): Formative and Summative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; O'Callaghan, Clare; Boyd, Leanne

    2018-04-16

    Advance care planning (ACP) promotes conversations about future health care needs, enacted if a person is incapable of making decisions at end-of-life that may be communicated through written documentation such as advance care directives. To meet the needs of multicultural and multifaith populations in Australia, an advance care planning website, ACPTalk, was funded to support health professionals in conducting conversations within diverse religious and cultural populations. ACPTalk aimed to provide religion-specific advance care planning content and complement existing resources. The purpose of this paper was to utilize the context, input, process, and product (CIPP) framework to conduct a formative and summative evaluation of ACPTalk. The CIPP framework was used, which revolves around 4 aspects of evaluation: context, input, process, and product. Context: health professionals' solutions for the website were determined through thematic analysis of exploratory key stakeholder interviews. Included religions were determined through an environmental scan, Australian population statistics, and documentary analysis of project steering committee meeting minutes. Input: Project implementation and challenges were examined through documentary analysis of project protocols and meeting minutes. Process: To ensure religion-specific content was accurate and appropriate, a website prototype was built with content review and functionality testing by representatives from religious and cultural organizations and other interested health care organizations who completed a Web-based survey. Product: Website analytics were used to report utilization, and stakeholder perceptions were captured through interviews and a website survey. Context: A total of 16 key stakeholder health professional (7 general practitioners, 2 primary health nurses, and 7 palliative care nurses) interviews were analyzed. Website solutions included religious and cultural information, communication ideas, legal

  19. The need for a culturally-tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Bushra Farah; Hides, Leanne; Kisely, Steve; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Black, Emma; Gill, Neeraj; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2016-10-21

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: 'suicide', 'gatekeeper', 'training', 'suicide prevention training', 'suicide intervention training' and 'Indigenous'. Other internationally relevant descriptors for the keyword "Indigenous" (e.g. "Maori", "First Nations", "Native American", "Inuit", "Metis" and "Aboriginal") were also used. Six articles, comprising five studies, met criteria for inclusion; two Australian, two from USA and one Canadian. While pre and post follow up studies reported positive outcomes, this was not confirmed in the single randomised controlled trial identified. However, the randomised controlled trial may have been underpowered and contained participants who were at higher risk of suicide pre-training. Uncontrolled evidence suggests that gatekeeper training may be a promising suicide intervention in Indigenous communities but needs to be culturally tailored to the target population. Further RCT evidence is required.

  20. The Ethical Implications of Cultural Intervention by Space-faring Civilizations -- What Science Fiction Has to Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupa, M.

    Science fiction (Scifi) plays out the concerns of our possible scientistic futures; it is a source for exploring the deep rooted psychological concerns of mankind with science and the humanities. In this paper it is proposed Scifi is a valid source of hypotheses to examine, not as "evidence", but as candidate ­ often cautionary ­ notions, i.e., scenarios to be studied. Scifi represents a kind of Jungian mythological based story-telling, putting forward tales that express our conscious/unconscious concerns. Thus, when looking into ethical questions like, "where will techno-progressive futures take us?", we import into them these archetypes, hopes and fears, as a result they frequently reappear as familiar tropes. In this respect it is appropriate not to ignore them, but to openly challenge/appreciate them: to see what scenarios are indeed likely and how they may impact us reciprocally. This paper examines some of these aspects, and provides examples of how they are represented in the Scifi genre, in particular with consideration of the ethical implications of cultural intervention by space-faring civilizations. Given the specific analysis/examples provided, it concludes with an ethical scenario analysis (a dialectic argument), within the limiting conditions of the Drake Equation, Fermi Paradox and Cultural History. It comments on the potential existential risk of the Active SETI programmes recently initiated, indeed the need for an ethical exosociological review of all proposed Interstellar projects that express an "Intervention-Propensity".

  1. The need for a culturally-tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Farah Nasir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. Method Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: ‘suicide’, ‘gatekeeper’, ‘training’, ‘suicide prevention training’, ‘suicide intervention training’ and ‘Indigenous’. Other internationally relevant descriptors for the keyword “Indigenous” (e.g. “Maori”, “First Nations”, “Native American”, “Inuit”, “Metis” and “Aboriginal” were also used. Results Six articles, comprising five studies, met criteria for inclusion; two Australian, two from USA and one Canadian. While pre and post follow up studies reported positive outcomes, this was not confirmed in the single randomised controlled trial identified. However, the randomised controlled trial may have been underpowered and contained participants who were at higher risk of suicide pre-training. Conclusion Uncontrolled evidence suggests that gatekeeper training may be a promising suicide intervention in Indigenous communities but needs to be culturally tailored to the target population. Further RCT evidence is required.

  2. Effects of video-feedback intervention on harmonious parent-child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with intellectual disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, M W; Meppelder, M; de Moor, M; Kef, S; Schuengel, C

    2018-03-01

    This study tested whether video-feedback intervention based on attachment and coercion theory increased harmonious parent-child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Observer ratings of video-recorded structured interaction tasks at home formed pretest, post-test, and 3-month follow-up outcome data in a randomized controlled trial with 85 families. Repeated measures analyses of variance and covariance were conducted to test for the intervention effect and possible moderation by IQ and adaptive functioning. The intervention effect on harmonious parent-child interaction was conditional on parental social adaptive behaviour at pretest, with lower adaptive functioning associated with stronger intervention benefit at post-test and follow-up compared to care as usual. Intervention effects were not conditional on parental IQ. Intervention effects for sensitive discipline were not found. Although the video-feedback intervention did not affect observed parenting for the average parent, it may benefit interaction between children and parents with lower parental adaptive functioning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Culturally Diverse Beliefs Concerning Dying, Death, and Bereavement: A School Psychologist's Intervention Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    School psychologists need to employ a multicultural perspective in the areas of death, dying, and bereavement. To develop multicultural sensitivity and competency requires setting aside one's personal beliefs in an attempt to adopt another's perspective. Consequently, school psychologists first need to explore their own attitudes about death and…

  4. Fetal Stress and Programming of Hypoxic/Ischemic-Sensitive Phenotype in the Neonatal Brain: Mechanisms and Possible Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Gonzalez, Pablo; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies has clearly shown a close link between adverse in utero environment and the increased risk of neurological, psychological and psychiatric disorders in later life. Fetal stresses, such as hypoxia, malnutrition, and fetal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and glucocorticoids may directly or indirectly act at cellular and molecular levels to alter the brain development and result in programming of heightened brain vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the development of neurological diseases in the postnatal life. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. However, glucocorticoids may play a crucial role in epigenetic programming of neurological disorders of fetal origins. This review summarizes the recent studies about the effects of fetal stress on the abnormal brain development, focusing on the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms and highlighting the central effects of glucocorticoids on programming of hypoxicischemic-sensitive phenotype in the neonatal brain, which may enhance the understanding of brain pathophysiology resulting from fetal stress and help explore potential targets of timely diagnosis, prevention and intervention in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and other for brain disorders. PMID:22627492

  5. Fetal stress and programming of hypoxic/ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the neonatal brain: mechanisms and possible interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Gonzalez, Pablo; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies has clearly shown a close link between adverse in utero environment and the increased risk of neurological, psychological and psychiatric disorders in later life. Fetal stresses, such as hypoxia, malnutrition, and fetal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and glucocorticoids may directly or indirectly act at cellular and molecular levels to alter the brain development and result in programming of heightened brain vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the development of neurological diseases in the postnatal life. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. However, glucocorticoids may play a crucial role in epigenetic programming of neurological disorders of fetal origins. This review summarizes the recent studies about the effects of fetal stress on the abnormal brain development, focusing on the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms and highlighting the central effects of glucocorticoids on programming of hypoxic-ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the neonatal brain, which may enhance the understanding of brain pathophysiology resulting from fetal stress and help explore potential targets of timely diagnosis, prevention and intervention in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and other brain disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study design and protocol for a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress and self-management intervention for localized prostate cancer: The Encuentros de Salud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Antoni, Michael H; Moreno, Patricia I; Traeger, Lara; Perdomo, Dolores; Dahn, Jason; Miller, Gregory E; Cole, Steve; Orjuela, Julian; Pizarro, Edgar; Yanez, Betina

    2018-06-14

    Almost 2.8 million men in the U.S. are living with prostate cancer (PC), accounting for 40% of all male cancer survivors. Men diagnosed with prostate cancer may experience chronic and debilitating treatment side effects, including sexual and urinary dysfunction, pain and fatigue. Side effects can be stressful and can also lead to poor psychosocial functioning. Prior trials reveal that group-based cognitive behavioral stress and self-management (CBSM) is effective in reducing stress and mitigating some of these symptoms, yet little is known about the effects of culturally-translated CBSM among Spanish-speaking men with PC. This manuscript describes the rationale and study design of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial to determine whether participation in a culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (C-CBSM) intervention leads to significantly greater reductions in symptom burden and improvements in health-related quality of life relative to participation in a non-culturally adapted cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention. Participants (N = 260) will be Spanish-speaking Hispanic/Latino men randomized to the standard, non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention (e.g., cognitive behavioral strategies, stress management, and health maintenance) or the culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention (e.g., content adapted to be compatible with Hispanic/Latino cultural patterns and belief systems, meanings, values and social context) for 10 weeks. Primary outcomes (i.e., disease-specific symptom burden and health-related quality of life) will be assessed across time. We hypothesize that a culturally adapted C-CBSM intervention will be more efficacious in reducing symptom burden and improving health-related quality of life among Hispanic/Latino men when compared to a non-culturally adapted CBSM intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Skin Bleaching and Dermatologic Health of African and Afro-Caribbean Populations in the US: New Directions for Methodologically Rigorous, Multidisciplinary, and Culturally Sensitive Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Emma K T; Alexis, Andrew; Mohamed, Nihal; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A; Liu, Bian

    2016-12-01

    Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. Exposure to chemicals in the bleaching products, notably, mercury (Hg), hydroquinone, and steroids, has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects, such as Hg poisoning and exogenous ochronosis. In New York City (NYC), skin care product use has been identified as an important route of Hg exposure, especially among Caribbean-born blacks and Dominicans. However, surprisingly sparse information is available on the epidemiology of the health impacts of skin-bleaching practices among these populations. We highlight the dearth of large-scale, comprehensive, community-based, clinical, and translational research in this area, especially the limited skin-bleaching-related research among non-White populations in the US. We offer five new research directions, including investigating the known and under-studied health consequences among populations for which the skin bleach practice is newly emerging at an alarming rate using innovative laboratory and statistical methods. We call for conducting methodologically rigorous, multidisciplinary, and culturally sensitive research in order to provide insights into the root and the epidemiological status of the practice and provide evidence of exposure-outcome associations, with an ultimate goal of developing potential intervention strategies to reduce the health burdens of skin-bleaching practice.

  8. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Quave

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed.

  9. Medical Ethnobotany in Europe: From Field Ethnography to a More Culturally Sensitive Evidence-Based CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    European folk medicine has a long and vibrant history, enriched with the various documented uses of local and imported plants and plant products that are often unique to specific cultures or environments. In this paper, we consider the medicoethnobotanical field studies conducted in Europe over the past two decades. We contend that these studies represent an important foundation for understanding local small-scale uses of CAM natural products and allow us to assess the potential for expansion of these into the global market. Moreover, we discuss how field studies of this nature can provide useful information to the allopathic medical community as they seek to reconcile existing and emerging CAM therapies with conventional biomedicine. This is of great importance not only for phytopharmacovigilance and managing risk of herb-drug interactions in mainstream patients that use CAM, but also for educating the medical community about ethnomedical systems and practices so that they can better serve growing migrant populations. Across Europe, the general status of this traditional medical knowledge is at risk due to acculturation trends and the urgency to document and conserve this knowledge is evident in the majority of the studies reviewed. PMID:22899952

  10. Preparation and participation of undergraduate students to inform culturally sensitive research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jo Nell; Cagle, Carolyn Spence

    2009-07-01

    Most student work as research assistants occurs at the graduate level of nursing education, and little is known about the role of undergraduate students as research assistants (RAs) in major research projects. Based on our desire to study Mexican American (MA) cancer caregivers, we needed bilingual and bicultural RAs to serve as data collectors with women who spoke Spanish and possessed cultural beliefs that influenced their caregiving. Following successful recruitment, orientation, and mentoring based on Bandura's social learning theory [Bandura, A., 2001. Social learning theory: an agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 1-26] and accepted teaching-learning principles, RAs engaged in various behaviors that facilitated study outcomes. Faculty researchers, RAs, and study participants benefitted greatly from the undergraduate student involvement in this project. This article describes successful student inclusion approaches, ongoing faculty-RA interactions, and lessons learned from the research team experience. Guidelines discussed support the potential for making the undergraduate RA role a useful and unique learning experience.

  11. Social and Cultural Context of Betel Quid Consumption in Taiwan and Implications for Prevention and Cessation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Ma, Wei-Fen; Lam, Cho; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Mi-Ting; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Tsai-Chung; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Lu, I-Ying; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-04-16

    In Taiwan, betel quid chewing is a part of social life for chewers. Betel quid itself, with or without tobacco, is a Group 1 human carcinogen. Betel quid chewing has become a severe health threat in Taiwan. The aim of the present study was to identify the individual, social, contextual, and cultural factors related to initiation, continuous use, and cessation of betel quid chewing. Four focus groups and 15 in depth face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2013 with current and former users of betel quid, members of a community organization located in central Taiwan. A thematic analysis identified themes evident across all groups. Study participants (N = 41) were 66% male and 34% female; mean age was 40.34 ± 9.23 years. Participants stated that betel quid initiation usually occurs during childhood and that the most frequent reasons for chewing were: to follow cultural/social traditions, to achieve an energetic feeling, and to avoid boredom. Participants perceived betel quid chewing as an addiction and a risk factor for cancer and other health-related conditions. The most frequently mentioned barriers to quitting betel quid included: peer pressure and selected withdrawal symptoms. For the development of culturally relevant and effective cessation interventions for betel quid in Taiwan, it is critical to understand and address perceptions of betel quid chewing and barriers to cessation.

  12. Reducing cultural and psychological barriers to Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention counseling: initial data on an enrollment meta-intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Durantini, Marta R; Albarracín, Julia; Crause, Candi; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of Latino culture (e.g., machismo, marianism) can act as barriers to enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. To lift these barriers, a culturally appropriate meta-intervention was designed to increase intentions to enroll in HIV-prevention counseling by Latinos. Latino participants (N=41) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control meta-intervention condition that varied the introduction to a HIV-prevention counseling program. Following the meta-intervention, participants were issued an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. The outcome measure was the intention to enroll in a HIV-prevention counseling session. Findings indicated that enrollment intentions were higher in the experimental meta-intervention condition (96%) than in the control meta-intervention condition (53%). In addition, the effects of the meta-intervention were comparable across genders and participant ages. Findings suggest that the use of a culturally appropriate meta-intervention may be an effective strategy for increasing Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. These promising findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy and effectiveness of this meta-intervention.

  13. Biodegradable, pH-sensitive chitosan beads obtained under microwave radiation for advanced cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowski, Marek; Janus, Łukasz; Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Bogdał, Dariusz; Matysek, Dalibor

    2018-04-01

    A new type of promising chitosan beads with advanced properties were obtained under microwave radiation according to Green Chemistry principles. Biomaterials were prepared using chitosan as raw material and glutamic acid/1,5-pentanodiol mixture as crosslinking agents. Additionally beads were modified with Tilia platyphyllos extract to enhance their antioxidant properties. Beads were investigated over their chemical structure by FT-IR analysis. Also their morphology has been investigated by SEM method. Additionally swelling capacity of the obtained hydrogels was determined. Lack of cytotoxicity has been confirmed by MTT assay. Proliferation studies were carried out on L929 mouse fibroblasts. Advanced properties of the obtained beads were investigated by studying pH sensitivity and antioxidant properties by DPPH method. Also susceptibility to degradation and biodegradation by Sturm Test method was evaluated. Results shows that proposed chitosan beads and their eco-friendly synthesis method can be applied in cell therapy and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Classroom-Based Phonological Sensitivity Intervention (PSI) Using a Narrative Platform: An Experimental Study of First Graders at Risk for a Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of classroom-based phonological sensitivity intervention (PSI) using a narrative platform for children in first grade who are at risk for a reading disability. Participants consisted of 59 first graders identified as at risk for later reading impairments. At-risk designation was dictated by…

  15. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  16. The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay: Rapid, Sensitive and Culture-Independent Identification of Bacteria and Candida in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Richard E.; Peterson, Stephen; Carroll, Karen C.; Zhang, Sean X.; Avornu, Gideon D.; Rounds, Megan A.; Carolan, Heather E.; Toleno, Donna M.; Moore, David; Hall, Thomas A.; Massire, Christian; Richmond, Gregory S.; Gutierrez, Jose R.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J.; Blyn, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) and sepsis are rising in incidence throughout the developed world. The spread of multi-drug resistant organisms presents increasing challenges to treatment. Surviving BSI is dependent on rapid and accurate identification of causal organisms, and timely application of appropriate antibiotics. Current culture-based methods used to detect and identify agents of BSI are often too slow to impact early therapy and may fail to detect relevant organisms in many positive cases. Existing methods for direct molecular detection of microbial DNA in blood are limited in either sensitivity (likely the result of small sample volumes) or in breadth of coverage, often because the PCR primers and probes used target only a few specific pathogens. There is a clear unmet need for a sensitive molecular assay capable of identifying the diverse bacteria and yeast associated with BSI directly from uncultured whole blood samples. We have developed a method of extracting DNA from larger volumes of whole blood (5 ml per sample), amplifying multiple widely conserved bacterial and fungal genes using a mismatch- and background-tolerant PCR chemistry, and identifying hundreds of diverse organisms from the amplified fragments on the basis of species-specific genetic signatures using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). We describe the analytical characteristics of the IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay and compare its pre-clinical performance to current standard-of-care methods in a collection of prospectively collected blood specimens from patients with symptoms of sepsis. The assay generated matching results in 80% of culture-positive cases (86% when common contaminants were excluded from the analysis), and twice the total number of positive detections. The described method is capable of providing organism identifications directly from uncultured blood in less than 8 hours. Disclaimer: The IRIDICA BAC BSI Assay is not available in the United States. PMID:27384540

  17. The PRIDE (Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education) Toolkit: Development and Evaluation of Novel Literacy and Culturally Sensitive Diabetes Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kathleen; Chambers, Laura; Bumol, Stefan; White, Richard O; Gregory, Becky Pratt; Davis, Dianne; Rothman, Russell L

    2016-02-01

    Patients with low literacy, low numeracy, and/or linguistic needs can experience challenges understanding diabetes information and applying concepts to their self-management. The authors designed a toolkit of education materials that are sensitive to patients' literacy and numeracy levels, language preferences, and cultural norms and that encourage shared goal setting to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. The Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education (PRIDE) toolkit was developed to facilitate diabetes self-management education and support. The PRIDE toolkit includes a comprehensive set of 30 interactive education modules in English and Spanish to support diabetes self-management activities. The toolkit builds upon the authors' previously validated Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit (DLNET) by adding a focus on shared goal setting, addressing the needs of Spanish-speaking patients, and including a broader range of diabetes management topics. Each PRIDE module was evaluated using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument to determine the material's cultural appropriateness and its sensitivity to the needs of patients with low literacy and low numeracy. Reading grade level was also assessed using the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, and SMOG formulas. The average reading grade level of the materials was 5.3 (SD 1.0), with a mean SAM of 91.2 (SD 5.4). All of the 30 modules received a "superior" score (SAM >70%) when evaluated by 2 independent raters. The PRIDE toolkit modules can be used by all members of a multidisciplinary team to assist patients with low literacy and low numeracy in managing their diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Proliferation of mouse endometrial stromal cells in culture is highly sensitive to lysophosphatidic acid signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, Shizu; Kano, Kuniyuki; Inoue, Asuka; Aoki, Junken

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) proliferate rapidly both in vivo and in vitro. Here we show that proliferation of ESCs in vitro is strongly dependent on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling. LPA is produced by autotaxin (ATX) and induces various kinds of cellular processes including migration, proliferation and inhibition of cell death possibly through six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA 1-6 ). We found that ESCs proliferated rapidly in vitro in an autocrine manner and that the proliferation was prominently suppressed by either an ATX inhibitor (ONO-8430506) or an LPA 1/3 antagonist (Ki16425). Among the cells lines tested, mouse ESCs were the most sensitive to these inhibitors. Proliferation of ESCs isolated from either LPA 1 - or LPA 3 -deficient mice was comparable to proliferation of ESCs isolated from control mice. An LPA receptor antagonist (AM095), which was revealed to be a dual LPA 1 /LPA 3 antagonist, also suppressed the proliferation of ESCs. The present results show that LPA signaling has a critical role in the proliferation of ESCs, and that this role is possibly mediated redundantly by LPA 1 and LPA 3 . - Highlights: • Uterine endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) proliferate rapidly both in vivo and in vitro. • ESCs proliferated in vitro in an autocrine fashion. • Proliferation of mouse ESCs was prominently suppressed by inhibitors of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling. • LPA receptors, LPA 1 and LPA 3 , had redundant role in supporting the proliferation of ESCs.

  19. Sensitivity of cultured lymphocytes from patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome to ultraviolet light and phytohemagglutinin stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, P.; Celotti, L.; Furlan, D.; Pattarello, I.; Peserico, A.

    1990-01-01

    DNA repair and replication after in vitro UV irradiation were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from 6 patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and from a group of control donors. DNA repair synthesis (UDS) was measured in unstimulated lymphocytes by incubation with 3H-TdR in the presence of hydroxyurea for 3 and 6 h after UV irradiation (6-48 J/m2). DNA replication was measured in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, UV-irradiated or mock-irradiated, by incubation with 3H-TdR for 24 h. The effect of the mitogen was followed during 5 days after stimulation by determining the incorporation of 3H-TdR, the increase of cell number, and the mitotic index. NBCCS and control lymphocytes showed equal sensitivity to UV light in terms of UDS and reduced response to PHA. On the contrary, the mitotic index and the number of cells in stimulated cultures were significantly lower in the affected subjects. These data suggest an altered progression along the cell cycle, which could be characteristic of stimulated NBCCS lymphocytes

  20. Drug and radiation sensitivity measurements of successful primary monolayer culturing of human tumor cells using cell-adhesive matrix and supplemented medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.L.; Spitzer, G.; Ajani, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The limitations of the agar suspension culture method for primary culturing of human tumor cells prompted development of a monolayer system optimized for cell adhesion and growth. This method grew 83% of fresh human tumor cell biopsy specimens, cultured and not contaminated, from a heterogeneous group of 396 tumors including lung cancer (93 of 114, 82%); melanoma (54 of 72, 75%); sarcoma (46 of 59, 78%); breast cancer (35 of 39, 90%); ovarian cancer (16 of 21, 76%); and a miscellaneous group consisting of gastrointestinal, genitourinary, mesothelioma, and unknown primaries (78 of 91, 86%). Cell growth was characterized morphologically with Papanicolaoustained coverslip cultures and cytogenetically with Giemsastained metaphase spreads. Morphological features such as nuclear pleomorphism, chromatin condensation, basophilic cytoplasm, and melanin pigmentation were routinely seen. Aneuploid metaphases were seen in 90% of evaluable cultures, with 15 of 28 showing 70% or more aneuploid metaphases. Colony-forming efficiency ranged between 0.01 and 1% of viable tumor cells, with a median efficiency of 0.2%. This culture system uses a low inoculum of 25,000 viable cells per well which permitted chemosensitivity testing of nine drugs at four doses in duplicate from 2.2 X 10(6) viable tumor cells and radiation sensitivity testing at five doses in quadruplicate from 0.6 X 10(6) cells. Cultures were analyzed for survival by computerized image analysis of crystal violet-stained cells. Drug sensitivity studies showed variability in sensitivity and in survival curve shape with exponential cell killing for cisplatin, Adriamycin, and etoposide, and shouldered survival curves for 5-fluorouracil frequently seen. Radiation sensitivity studies also showed variability in both sensitivity and survival curve shape. Many cultures showed exponential cell killing, although others had shouldered survival curves

  1. [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Nesterov, A E; Nosareva, O V; Shishkina, L N; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Positive dynamics of the virus accumulation was observed only in the monocyte-macrophages with maximum values of virus concentration (5.0-5.5 Ig PFU/ml) mainly within six days after the infection. The fact of VARV replication in the monocyte-macrophages was confirmed by the data of electron microscopy. At the same time, virus vaccines when tested in doses 3.3 and 4.2 Ig PFU/ml did not show the ability to reproduce in these human cells. The people sensitivity to VARV as assessed from the data obtained on human monocyte-macrophages corresponded to -1 PFU (taking into account the smooth interaction of the virus in the body to the cells of this type), which is consistent to previously found theoretical data on the virus sensitivity. The human susceptibility to VARV assessed experimentally can be used to predict the adequacy of developed smallpox models (in vivo) based on susceptible animals. This is necessary for reliable assessment of the efficiency of development of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis of the smallpox.

  2. Evaluating a culturally tailored peer-mentoring and education pilot intervention among Chinese breast cancer survivors using a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; You, Jin; Man, Jenny; Loh, Alice; Young, Lucy

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate a social support intervention that was culturally tailored for Chinese Americans who face many challenges because of cultural and linguistic barriers. Intervention with a one-group pre- or post-test design, mixed methods, and a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. Southern California. 14 Chinese American breast cancer survivors post-treatment and eight breast cancer peer mentors. The intervention was a 10-week program to provide emotional and informational support through peer mentoring and education. Health outcomes were assessed before and after the intervention. Eight weekly process evaluations and two focus group interviews also were conducted. Depressive and anxiety symptoms. The program was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. Participants valued the program highly. Inductive analysis suggested possible mechanisms for effectiveness, such as reducing stigma, empowerment, and increased sense of belonging. The peer-mentoring and education program has the potential to serve as a model intervention for ethnic minorities. Mixed methods and CBPR are valuable in evaluating pilot interventions with minorities. Focusing on relationships may be fruitful for designing novel interventions for cancer survivors from collectivistic cultures. Peer-mentoring and education programs can be integrated into communities and clinics to improve care for underserved minority cancer survivors and to reduce health disparities.

  3. ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud!: Randomized Controlled Trial of a Culturally Based Dietary Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Crew, Katherine; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2015-05-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant nutrition programs targeted to underserved cancer survivors. Our aim was to examine the effect of a culturally based approach to dietary change on increasing fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake and decreasing fat intake among Hispanic breast cancer survivors. Participants were randomized to Intervention and Control groups. Diet recalls, detailed interviews, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Hispanic women (n=70) with stage 0 to III breast cancer who completed adjuvant treatment and lived in New York City were randomized between April 2011 and March 2012. The Intervention group (n=34) participated in ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud!, a culturally based nine-session (24 hours over 12 weeks) intervention including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips. The Control group (n=36) received written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors. Change at 6 months in daily F/V servings and percent calories from total fat were the main outcome measures. Linear regression models adjusted for stratification factors and estimated marginal means were used to compare changes in diet from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Baseline characteristics were the following: mean age 56.6 years (standard deviation 9.7 years), mean time since diagnosis 3.4 years (standard deviation 2.7 years), mean body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) 30.9 (standard deviation 6.0), 62.9% with annual household income ≤$15,000, mean daily servings of all F/V was 5.3 (targeted F/V 3.7 servings excluding legumes/juices/starchy vegetables/fried foods), and 27.7% of daily calories from fat. More than 60% in the Intervention group attended seven or more of nine classes, with overall study retention of 87% retention at 6 months. At month 6, the Intervention group compared with Control group reported an increase in mean servings of F/V from baseline (all F/V: +2.0 vs -0.1; P=0.005; targeted F

  4. Developing a culturally appropriate branding for a social and emotional wellbeing intervention in an Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Robert J; Murray, Lesley; Hicks, Jolleen; Nicholas, Amberlee; Anwar-McHenry, Julia

    2018-02-22

    An initial consultation process to implement a culturally appropriate social and emotional wellbeing campaign in an Aboriginal community indicated that the fundamental principles of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign were acceptable, but that a cultural adaptation of the branding should be sought. A competition was held inviting community members to design a brand logo for the campaign in their community. Local judges selected "winners" in various categories, and six of the submissions were selected for testing in the broader community via street intercept interviews. Respondents were asked which logo they liked best, their perceived meanings of the designs and the perceived appropriateness of the designs for a social and emotional wellbeing campaign. A convenience sample of N = 26 local Aboriginal people who lived and/or worked in Roebourne completed the questionnaire. There was a clear majority preference for logo "D," which communicated appropriate meanings of pride and strength in standing together, and reflected the underlying strengths and capacities of Aboriginal people which this project seeks to harness and support. The approach of using a logo competition to develop the campaign brand was highly successful and enabled further meaningful engagement with the community and other service providers in the town. The success of the competition process resulted from an emphasis on relationship building, listening to the local community and involving the community in decision-making. So what? By conforming to established, but not always adhered to, recommendations for community consultation, successful and more enduring outcomes are likely. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  5. Developing resources to facilitate culturally-sensitive service planning and delivery - doing research inclusively with people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Gemma; Larkin, Michael; Rose, John; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Malcolm, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    (Please see www.Toolsfortalking.co.uk for an easy read summary of the project.) The Tools for Talking are a set of resources that were developed through collaboration between Black, Asian and minority ethnic people with learning disabilities and researchers at the University of Birmingham. The resources were designed to be used by people with learning disabilities and service providers to facilitate culturally-sensitive communication and information sharing, service planning and delivery. They comprise illustrative videos and exploratory activities relating to five topics, namely, culture, activities, support from staff, important people, choices and independence. These topics emerged as important to people with learning disabilities during the 'Access to Social Care-Learning Disabilities' (ASC-LD) study which involved interviews with 32 adults with learning disabilities from Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities. The results of the ASC-LD study were used to develop a set of draft resources which were then co-developed through collaboration with people with learning disabilities and service providers. A 'Partnership event' was convened to involve stakeholders in the development of the resources. This paper describes the refinement of these materials by people with learning disabilities from Black, Asian and minority ethnic backgrounds in cooperation with a range of other stakeholders. Background Black, Asian and minority ethnic people with learning disabilities face inequities in health and social care provision. Lower levels of service uptake and satisfaction with services have been reported, however, this is largely based on the views of carers. The 'Access to Social Care: Learning Disabilities (ASC-LD)' study sought to explore the views and experiences of social support services among adults with learning disabilities from Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities. Interviews with 32 Black, Asian and minority ethnic adults with learning disabilities

  6. A Knowledge-Based System For Analysis, Intervention Planning and Prevention of Defects in Immovable Cultural Heritage Objects and Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, J.; Cacciotti, R.; Kuneš, P.; ČerÅanský, M.; Bláha, J.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents a project aiming to develop a knowledge-based system for documentation and analysis of defects of cultural heritage objects and monuments. The MONDIS information system concentrates knowledge on damage of immovable structures due to various causes, and preventive/remedial actions performed to protect/repair them, where possible. The currently built system is to provide for understanding of causal relationships between a defect, materials, external load, and environment of built object. Foundation for the knowledge-based system will be the systemized and formalized knowledge on defects and their mitigation acquired in the process of analysis of a representative set of cases documented in the past. On the basis of design comparability, used technologies, materials and the nature of the external forces and surroundings, the developed software system has the capacity to indicate the most likely risks of new defect occurrence or the extension of the existing ones. The system will also allow for a comparison of the actual failure with similar cases documented and will propose a suitable technical intervention plan. The system will provide conservationists, administrators and owners of historical objects with a toolkit for defect documentation for their objects. Also, advanced artificial intelligence methods will offer accumulated knowledge to users and will also enable them to get oriented in relevant techniques of preventive interventions and reconstructions based on similarity with their case.

  7. Culture des acteurs et modèles d’intervention dans l’innovation technopédagogique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peraya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available L’intégration pédagogique des TIC va bien au-delà de la simple maîtrise de l’outil par l’enseignant. Depuis quelques années, il existe des standards de compétences qui prennent en compte d’autres dimensions, notamment des aspects de planification de l’enseignement, de gestion de classe et de formation continue par les TIC. Mais ces listes souvent interminables en disent plus sur les objets de culture que sur la culture elle-même en tant qu’élément clé d’intervention. Nous présentons et comparons deux modèles de pilotage et de soutien de l’innovation technopédagogique qui permettent de mieux comprendre les facteurs en jeu et d’accompagner les acteurs du dispositif de formation. Nos efforts de modélisation de ces facteurs nous ont permis d’identifier quatre sous-dimensions caractéristiques de la culture des acteurs relative à l’intégration des TIC : les représentations/visions, les habiletés/ressources, les attitudes et les pratiques. L’articulation de ces éléments fournit un ensemble d’indicateurs qui permettent d’identifier des aspects à développer et à soutenir afin d’optimiser les chances de succès de l’intégration des TIC.

  8. Addressing semen loss concerns: towards culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, A; Gandhi, K; Collumbien, M

    2001-11-01

    A situation analysis of sexual networking and sexual health in an industrial area of Gujarat, India, identified anxiety about masturbation and other semen loss concerns as major preoccupations among young men. This paper describes how the Deepak Charitable Trust addressed these concerns in their HIV prevention programme for young men aged 15 to 30. Flowcharts were used as participatory learning tools and to obtain data on the perceived consequences of masturbation, both before and after intervention activities. Research was also done on the relation between semen-related anxieties and sexual risk behaviour by DCT and two other NGOs among young men engaging in unsafe sexual behaviour. DCT advocates addressing masturbation and other semen loss concerns in all sexual health campaigns in South Asia, based on the magnitude of these concerns, their potential to confound syndromic management of STIs and their significance as an idiom of psychosocial distress. Masturbation and associated anxieties about sexual performance are seen as health issues and discussed as such by the programme. There is immediate identification among young men, whether or not they are already sexually active, and it provides an excellent entry point for sexual health and safer sex education. The community response to these efforts has been entirely positive.

  9. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  10. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial to Study the Impact of a Nutrition-Sensitive Intervention on Adult Women With Cancer Cachexia Undergoing Palliative Care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neha; Naufahu, Jane; Tewfik, Sundus; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Garg, Rakesh; Tewfik, Ihab

    2017-03-01

    Advanced cancer patients with disease progression develop cachexia. Nevertheless, cancer patients at nutritional risk have shown improved body weight and quality of life with oral nutritional supplements. This was a randomized controlled trial in adult female cancer patients (n = 63) attending palliative clinics, with symptoms of cachexia. Eligible patients were randomly distributed into control (n = 33) and intervention (n = 30) groups. Both groups were provided with nutritional and physical activity counseling, but the intervention group received an additional 100 g of Improved Atta (IAtta) for 6 months daily consumption. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of IAtta (with counseling) in enhancing the health status of cachexic patients. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, physical activity level and quality of life parameters were assessed at baseline, after 3 months, and at the end of 6 months. Patients in the control group (n = 15) had significantly decreased body weight ( P = .003), mid-upper-arm circumference ( P = .002), and body fat ( P = .002) by the end of intervention. A trend of body weight gain in the intervention group (n = 17; P = .08) and significant increase of body fat ( P = .002) was observed; moreover, patients reported a significant improvement in fatigue ( P = .002) and appetite scores ( P = .006) under quality-of-life domains at the end of intervention. Embedding a nutrition-sensitive intervention ( IAtta ) within Indian palliative care therapy may improve quality of life and stabilize body weight in cancer cachexia patients.

  11. Cultural adaptation of a cognitive-behavioural intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe: Nzira Itsva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Tarisai; Nyamayaro, Primrose; Magidson, Jessica F; Chibanda, Dixon; Chingono, Alfred; Munjoma, Ronald; Macpherson, Kirsty; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo Ellen; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Kidia, Khameer; Safren, Steven A; Abas, Melanie

    2017-09-01

    Few evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy have been adapted for use in Africa. We selected, culturally adapted and tested the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adherence and for delivery in a clinic setting in Harare, Zimbabwe. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated using a mixed-methods assessment, including ratings of provider fidelity of intervention delivery, and qualitative assessments of feasibility using individual semi-structured interviews with counsellors (n=4) and patients (n=15). The intervention was feasible and acceptable when administered to 42 patients and resulted in improved self-reported adherence in a subset of 15 patients who were followed up after 6months.

  12. Selective Intercultural Sensitivity to Different Sources of Cultural Identity: Study of Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at Teacher Education Programs of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatadze, Shalva; Gorgadze, Natia

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the intercultural sensitivity of students in teacher educational programs at higher education institutes (HEIs) in Georgia. Design/methodology/approach: This research explored the intercultural sensitivity among 355 randomly selected students in teacher education programs at higher education…

  13. Familial study of ataxia telangiectasia. Heterozygotes identification on the basis of sensitivity of gamma-irradiated cultures to caffeine post-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, A.L.; Kotecki, M. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Zaklad Genetyki Czlowieka; Ignatowicz, R. [Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of caffeine (CF), {gamma}-irradiation + CF post-treatment on chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocyte cultures from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), his parents and brother. In the studied family both the homozygotes and the obligatory heterozygotes of AT showed increased sensitivity to CF post-treatment. Individual differences in sensitivity to {gamma}-irradiation + CF post-treatment proved to be correlated with the sensitivity of non-irradiated cells to CF treatment, but not to {gamma}-irradiation. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Familial study of ataxia telangiectasia. Heterozygotes identification on the basis of sensitivity of gamma-irradiated cultures to caffeine post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, A.L.; Kotecki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of caffeine (CF), γ-irradiation + CF post-treatment on chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocyte cultures from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), his parents and brother. In the studied family both the homozygotes and the obligatory heterozygotes of AT showed increased sensitivity to CF post-treatment. Individual differences in sensitivity to γ-irradiation + CF post-treatment proved to be correlated with the sensitivity of non-irradiated cells to CF treatment, but not to γ-irradiation. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Mathur, P; Gupta, B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. No 'very major' discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in beta lactam - beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  16. Abundance and diversity of culturable Pseudomonas constitute sensitive indicators for adverse long-term copper impacts in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Maja Kristine; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Nybroe, Ole

    2013-01-01

    heterotrophic bacteria. This indicates that the Pseudomonas population is not resilient towards copper stress and that culturable Pseudomonas spp. comprise sensitive bio-indicators of adverse copper impacts in contaminated soils. Further this study shows that copper exposure decreases bacterial diversity...

  17. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  18. Changes in sensitivity to radiation and to bleomycin occurring during the life history of monolayer cultures of a mouse tumour cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.; Bleehen, N.M.

    1975-01-01

    The response to X-radiation and to bleomycin has been measured at a number of times during the life of monolayer cultures of EMT6 mouse tumour cells. Little change in radiation sensitivity was seen at any time and no loss of the shoulder to the survival curve occurred. Cultures in early plateau phase (where a considerable amount of cell proliferation is balanced by cell loss) showed a reduced sensitivity to bleomycin when compared with cells in exponential growth. However, after a longer period in plateau phase, when proliferation had virtually ceased, the sensitivity became greater than that of exponential phase cells. These findings are discussed with reference to the conflicting results of other workers. (author)

  19. Interventions to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Anton; McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the characteristics and reviews the methodological quality of interventions designed to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA. A total of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period of 2002-13. Studies were included if they evaluated an intervention strategy designed to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, the USA or Canada. Information on the characteristics and methodological quality of included studies was extracted using standardized assessment tools. Sixteen published evaluations of interventions to improve cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples were identified: 11 for Indigenous peoples of the USA and 5 for Indigenous Australians. The main types of intervention strategies were education and training of the health workforce, culturally specific health programs and recruitment of an Indigenous health workforce. Main positive outcomes reported were improvements in health professionals' confidence, and patients' satisfaction with and access to health care. The methodological quality of evaluations and the reporting of key methodological criteria were variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, low or no reporting of consent rates, confounding and non-validated measurement instruments. There is a lack of evidence from rigorous evaluations on the effectiveness of interventions for improving cultural competency in health care for Indigenous peoples. Future evaluations should employ more rigorous study designs and extend their measurement of outcomes beyond those relating to health professionals, to those relating to the health of Indigenous peoples. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  20. Perceptions of the Host Country's Food Culture among Female Immigrants from Africa and Asia: Aspects Relevant for Cultural Sensitivity in Nutrition Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner, Lisa Maria; Terragni, Laura; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdol, Annhild

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore how female immigrants from Africa and Asia perceive the host country's food culture, to identify aspects of their original food culture they considered important to preserve, and to describe how they go about preserving them. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Setting: Oslo, Norway. Participants: Twenty one female…

  1. Don't Be a Stranger--Designing a Digital Intercultural Sensitivity Training Tool That Is Culture General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degens, Nick; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Beulens, Adrie; Krumhuber, Eva; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    Digital intercultural training tools play an important role in helping people to mediate cultural misunderstandings. In recent years, these tools were made to teach about specific cultures, but there has been little attention for the design of a tool to teach about differences across a wide range of cultures. In this work, we take the first steps…

  2. Saltelli Global Sensitivity Analysis and Simulation Modelling to Identify Intervention Strategies to Reduce the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 Contaminated Beef Carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Brookes

    Full Text Available Strains of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157 are important foodborne pathogens in humans, and outbreaks of illness have been associated with consumption of undercooked beef. Here, we determine the most effective intervention strategies to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated beef carcasses using a modelling approach.A computational model simulated events and processes in the beef harvest chain. Information from empirical studies was used to parameterise the model. Variance-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA using the Saltelli method identified variables with the greatest influence on the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses. Following a baseline scenario (no interventions, a series of simulations systematically introduced and tested interventions based on influential variables identified by repeated Saltelli GSA, to determine the most effective intervention strategy.Transfer of STEC O157 from hide or gastro-intestinal tract to carcass (improved abattoir hygiene had the greatest influence on the prevalence of contaminated carcases. Due to interactions between inputs (identified by Saltelli GSA, combinations of interventions based on improved abattoir hygiene achieved a greater reduction in maximum prevalence than would be expected from an additive effect of single interventions. The most effective combination was improved abattoir hygiene with vaccination, which achieved a greater than ten-fold decrease in maximum prevalence compared to the baseline scenario.Study results suggest that effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of STEC O157 contaminated carcasses should initially be based on improved abattoir hygiene. However, the effect of improved abattoir hygiene on the distribution of STEC O157 concentration on carcasses is an important information gap-further empirical research is required to determine whether reduced prevalence of contaminated carcasses is likely to result in reduced

  3. Maintenance of changes in food intake and motivation for healthy eating among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland-Kigen, Kaja Marie; Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline; Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    To investigate maintenance of changes in food intake and motivation for healthy eating at follow-up 2 data collection after a lifestyle intervention among Pakistani immigrant women. A culturally adapted lifestyle intervention, aiming at reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection including FFQ and questions on intentions to change dietary behaviour was completed at baseline, right after the 7 ± 1 month intervention (follow-up 1) and 2-3 years after baseline (follow-up 2). Oslo, Norway. Pakistani women (n =198), aged 25-60 years, randomized into control and intervention groups. From follow-up 1 to follow-up 2 there was a shift from action to maintenance stages for intention to reduce fat intake (P diet.

  4. Assessing Change in Psychosocial Functioning of Incarcerated Girls with a Substance Use Disorder: Gender Sensitive Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia L.; Jackson, Mary S.; Kirk, Raymond; Pharr, O. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the effectiveness of a female gender-specific substance abuse treatment intervention (Holistic Enrichment for At-Risk Teens, or HEART) in improving problems related to personal and social functioning. A quasi-experimental, 2-group pretest and posttest repeated measures design was used to…

  5. Performance of a Highly Sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Low-Prevalence Setting: a Prospective Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Borrás, Rafael; Briones, María Luisa; Clari, María Ángeles; Cresencio, Vicenta; Giménez, Estela; Muñoz, Carmen; Oltra, Rosa; Servera, Emilio; Scheelje, Talia; Tornero, Carlos; Navarro, David

    2018-05-01

    The potential impact of routine real-time PCR testing of respiratory specimens from patients with presumptive tuberculosis in terms of diagnostic accuracy and time to tuberculosis treatment inception in low-prevalence settings remains largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective intervention cohort study. Respiratory specimens from 1,020 patients were examined by acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy, tested by a real-time Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex PCR assay (Abbott RealTi me MTB PCR), and cultured in mycobacterial media. Seventeen patients tested positive by PCR (5 were acid-fast bacillus smear positive and 12 acid-fast bacillus smear negative), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was recovered from cultures for 12 of them. Patients testing positive by PCR and negative by culture ( n = 5) were treated and deemed to have responded to antituberculosis therapy. There were no PCR-negative/culture-positive cases, and none of the patients testing positive for nontuberculous mycobacteria ( n = 20) yielded a positive PCR result. The data indicated that routine testing of respiratory specimens from patients with presumptive tuberculosis by the RealTi me MTB PCR assay improves the tuberculosis diagnostic yield and may reduce the time to antituberculosis treatment initiation. On the basis of our data, we propose a novel mycobacterial laboratory algorithm for tuberculosis diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline in Twin Families (VIPP-Twins): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van den Bulk, Bianca G; Linting, Mariëlle; Damsteegt, Rani C; Vrijhof, Claudia I; van Wijk, Ilse C; Crone, Eveline A; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-06-06

    Intervention programs with the aim of enhancing parenting quality have been found to be differentially effective in decreasing negative child outcomes such as externalizing behavioral problems, resulting in modest overall effect sizes. Here we present the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to examine the efficacy of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline for Twin Families (VIPP-Twins) on parenting quality and children's behavioral control and social competence. In addition, we aim to test the differential susceptibility theory; we examine differential efficacy of the intervention based on genetic make-up or temperament for both parents and children. Lastly, we explore neurobiological mechanisms underlying intervention effects on children's developmental outcomes. The original VIPP-SD was adapted for use in families with twins. The VIPP-Twins consists of five biweekly sessions in which the families are visited at home, parent-child interactions are videotaped and parents receive positive feedback on selected video fragments. Families (N = 225) with a same sex twin (mean age = 3.6 years) were recruited to participate in the study. The study consists of four assessments. After two baseline assessments in year 1 and year 2, a random 40 % of the sample will receive the VIPP-Twins program. The first post-test assessment will be carried out one month after the intervention and there will be a long term follow-up assessment two years after the intervention. Measures include observational assessments of parenting and children's social competence and behavioral control, and neurobiological assessments (i.e., hormonal functioning and neural (re-)activity). Results of the study will provide insights in the efficacy of the VIPP-Twins and reveal moderators and mediators of program efficacy. Overall the randomized controlled trial is an experimental test of the differential susceptibility theory. Dutch Trial

  7. Variation of radiation sensitivity of Friend Erythroleukemia cells cultured in the presence of the differentiation inducer DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einspenner, M.; Boulton, J.E.; Borsa, J.

    1984-01-01

    Differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC) was induced with 1.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the culture medium. Cell growth, erythroid differentiation, and radiosensitivity of the proliferative capacity of the cells were measured and compared to a noninduced control culture of identical age. Induced cells first appeared on Day 2 after DMSO addition, and increased to a maximum of 80 to 90% of the cell population on Day 5, whereas in the control culture, induction was less than 2% of the cells. Radiosensitivity of the cells in the induced culture relative to that of cells in the control culture, showed an age-dependent variation. On days 1 and 2 after DMSO addition, the cells in the induced culture were less radiosensitive than those in the control culture. At later times, this relationship was reversed, and between days 3 and 5 the clonable cells in the induced culture were less radiosensitive than those in the control culture. These results suggest that the metabolic events associated with commitment of FELC to differentiate affect their ability to cope with the radiation-induced lesions underlying the loss of division capacity

  8. Orthographically sensitive treatment for dysprosody in children with childhood apraxia of speech using ReST intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Patricia; Macdonald-D'Silva, Anita G; van Rees, Lauren J; Ballard, Kirrie J; Arciuli, Joanne

    2014-04-01

    Impaired prosody is a core diagnostic feature of Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) but there is limited evidence of effective prosodic intervention. This study reports the efficacy of the ReST intervention used in conjunction with bisyllabic pseudo word stimuli containing orthographic cues that are strongly associated with either strong-weak or weak-strong patterns of lexical stress. Using a single case AB design with one follow-up and replication, four children with CAS received treatment of four one-hour sessions per week for three weeks. Sessions contained 100 randomized trials of pseudo word treatment stimuli. Baseline measures were taken of treated and untreated behaviors; retention was measured at one day and four weeks post-treatment. Children's production of lexical stress improved from pre to post-treatment. Treatment effects and maintenance varied among participants. This study provides support for the treatment of prosodic deficits in CAS.

  9. Shock Index More Sensitive Than Cardiogenic Shock in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemradj, V.V.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Boer, M.J. de; Suryapranata, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but there is evidence that shock index (SI), taking into account both blood pressure and heart rate, is a more sensitive and powerful predictor. We investigated the

  10. Are Perfectionism, Individualism, and Racial Color-Blindness Associated with Less Cultural Sensitivity? Exploring Diversity Awareness in White Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T.; Castro, Antonio J.; Cunningham, Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Cultural ideologies of meritocracy and individualism act as strong barriers for college students in understanding the most complex systems of inequity across racial, cultural, and gendered lines. The dichotomous thinking patterns of maladaptive perfectionists may also relate to resistance of multicultural awareness. This study examined whether…

  11. Don't Be a Stranger-Designing a Digital Intercultural Sensitivity Training Tool that is Culture General

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, Nick; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Beulens, Adrie; Krumhuber, E.; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    Digital intercultural training tools play an important role in helping people to mediate cultural misunderstandings. In recent years, these tools were made to teach about specific cultures, but there has been little attention for the design of a tool to teach about differences across a wide range

  12. Ex vivo cultures of glioblastoma in three-dimensional hydrogel maintain the original tumor growth behavior and are suitable for preclinical drug and radiation sensitivity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiguet Jiglaire, Carine, E-mail: carine.jiguet-jiglaire@univ-amu.fr [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); Baeza-Kallee, Nathalie; Denicolaï, Emilie; Barets, Doriane [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); Metellus, Philippe [Aix Marseille Université, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille (France); CRO2, UMR 911, Faculté de Médecine de la Timone, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13284 Marseille Cedex (France); INSERM, U911, 13005 Marseille (France); APHM, Timone Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, 13005 Marseille (France); Timone Hospital, 264 Rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2014-02-15

    Identification of new drugs and predicting drug response are major challenges in oncology, especially for brain tumors, because total surgical resection is difficult and radiation therapy or chemotherapy is often ineffective. With the aim of developing a culture system close to in vivo conditions for testing new drugs, we characterized an ex vivo three-dimensional culture system based on a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel and compared it with classical two-dimensional culture conditions. U87-MG glioblastoma cells and seven primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas were subjected to radiation therapy and chemotherapy drugs. It appears that 3D hydrogel preserves the original cancer growth behavior and enables assessment of the sensitivity of malignant gliomas to radiation and drugs with regard to inter-tumoral heterogeneity of therapeutic response. It could be used for preclinical assessment of new therapies. - Highlights: • We have compared primary glioblastoma cell culture in a 2D versus 3D-matrix system. • In 3D morphology, organization and markers better recapitulate the original tumor. • 3D-matrix culture might represent a relevant system for more accurate drug screening.

  13. Ex vivo cultures of glioblastoma in three-dimensional hydrogel maintain the original tumor growth behavior and are suitable for preclinical drug and radiation sensitivity screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiguet Jiglaire, Carine; Baeza-Kallee, Nathalie; Denicolaï, Emilie; Barets, Doriane; Metellus, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new drugs and predicting drug response are major challenges in oncology, especially for brain tumors, because total surgical resection is difficult and radiation therapy or chemotherapy is often ineffective. With the aim of developing a culture system close to in vivo conditions for testing new drugs, we characterized an ex vivo three-dimensional culture system based on a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel and compared it with classical two-dimensional culture conditions. U87-MG glioblastoma cells and seven primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas were subjected to radiation therapy and chemotherapy drugs. It appears that 3D hydrogel preserves the original cancer growth behavior and enables assessment of the sensitivity of malignant gliomas to radiation and drugs with regard to inter-tumoral heterogeneity of therapeutic response. It could be used for preclinical assessment of new therapies. - Highlights: • We have compared primary glioblastoma cell culture in a 2D versus 3D-matrix system. • In 3D morphology, organization and markers better recapitulate the original tumor. • 3D-matrix culture might represent a relevant system for more accurate drug screening

  14. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  15. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal M. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n=34 or a control group (n=36 that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p<0.0005 and waist circumference (p=0.04 significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  16. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  17. Development of a culturally appropriate computer-delivered tailored Internet-based health literacy intervention for Spanish-dominant Hispanics living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Ownby, Raymond L; Kane, Michael N

    2014-11-30

    Low health literacy is associated with poor medication adherence in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to poor health outcomes. As linguistic minorities, Spanish-dominant Hispanics (SDH) face challenges such as difficulties in obtaining and understanding accurate information about HIV and its treatment. Traditional health educational methods (e.g., pamphlets, talking) may not be as effective as delivering through alternate venues. Technology-based health information interventions have the potential for being readily available on desktop computers or over the Internet. The purpose of this research was to adapt a theoretically-based computer application (initially developed for English-speaking HIV-positive persons) that will provide linguistically and culturally appropriate tailored health education to Spanish-dominant Hispanics with HIV (HIV + SDH). A mixed methods approach using quantitative and qualitative interviews with 25 HIV + SDH and 5 key informants guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) Skills model was used to investigate cultural factors influencing medication adherence in HIV + SDH. We used a triangulation approach to identify major themes within cultural contexts relevant to understanding factors related to motivation to adhere to treatment. From this data we adapted an automated computer-based health literacy intervention to be delivered in Spanish. Culture-specific motivational factors for treatment adherence in HIV + SDH persons that emerged from the data were stigma, familismo (family), mood, and social support. Using this data, we developed a culturally and linguistically adapted a tailored intervention that provides information about HIV infection, treatment, and medication related problem solving skills (proven effective in English-speaking populations) that can be delivered using touch-screen computers, tablets, and smartphones to be tested in a future study. Using a theoretically

  18. Fatherhood Education from a Cultural Perspective: Evolving Roles and Identities after a Fatherhood Intervention for Latinos in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Maritza; Villar, Maria Elena; Tafur-Salgado, Rocio; Ibanez, Sandra; Azevedo, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article uses gender-role theory to consider the involvement of Latino fathers in their children's lives as a result of participating in a fatherhood educational intervention. Open-ended interviews (n = 48) were conducted with participants of the program. Findings revealed that the content of the group intervention encouraged fathers to…

  19. Cultural variation is part of human nature : Literary universals, context-sensitivity, and "shakespeare in the bush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Michelle Scalise

    2003-12-01

    In 1966, Laura Bohannan wrote her classic essay challenging the supposition that great literary works speak to universal human concerns and conditions and, by extension, that human nature is the same everywhere. Her evidence: the Tiv of West Africa interpret Hamlet differently from Westerners. While Bohannan's essay implies that cognitive universality and cultural variation are mutually exclusive phenomena, adaptationist theory suggests otherwise. Adaptive problems ("the human condition") and cognitive adaptations ("human nature") are constant across cultures. What differs between cultures is habitat: owing to environmental variation, the means and information relevant to solving adaptive problems differ from place to place. Thus, we find differences between cultures not because human minds differ in design but largely because human habitats differ in resources and history. On this view, we would expect world literature to express both human universals and cultural particularities. Specifically, we should expect to find literary universality at the macro level (e.g., adaptive problems, cognitive adaptations) and literary variation at the micro level (e.g., local solutions to adaptive problems).

  20. Associations between Culturally Relevant Recruitment Strategies and Participant Interest, Enrollment and Generalizability in a Weight-loss Intervention for African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Lyerly, Jordan E; Gause, Haylee M; Resnicow, Ken

    2016-07-21

    Culturally relevant recruitment strategies may be an important approach for recruiting ethnic minorities for interventions. Previous research has examined associations between recruitment strategies and enrollment of African Americans (AA), but has not explored more deeply the role of incorporating sociocultural values into recruitment strategies. Our current study explores whether sociocultural recruitment mediums were associated with demographics, interest and enrollment in a weight-loss intervention. Sociocultural mediums included community partnerships, culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth. Non-sociocultural mediums included community/school events that did not specifically target AAs. Analyses examined whether demographics of enrolled families differed by recruitment strategy and if recruitment strategy predicted scheduling a baseline visit, enrolling in a run-in phase, and enrolling in the intervention program. Families recruited from culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth were 1.96 times more likely to schedule a baseline visit (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.05, 3.68) than families recruited from non-sociocultural mediums. No differences were found for sociocultural mediums on enrolling in the run-in phase or the intervention. However, among enrolled families, those recruited from sociocultural mediums were less likely to be employed (X(2) [1, N=142] =5.53, P<.05) and more likely to have lower income (X(2) [1, N=142] =13.57, P<.05). Sociocultural mediums were associated with scheduling a baseline visit, but not enrollment. They were, however, effective in recruiting a more generalizable sample among enrolled participants based on demographic characteristics. Integrating sociocultural values into recruitment methods may be a valuable strategy for increasing interest in participation among underrepresented AA families.

  1. Family Planning and AIDS/HIV Intervention from a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Enhancing the Pharmacist's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Randal D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared perceptions of pharmacy students in three different cultures (Malaysia, Thailand, United States) concerning pharmacist counseling about contraceptive use for family planning and AIDS prevention. Results indicate students in each culture, by gender, had different comfort levels with such counseling, implying need for different…

  2. Gender-sensitive Value Chain Intervention Improved Profit Efficiency among Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato Producers in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rwanda Super Foods project sought to develop a value chain for processed orange-fleshed sweetpotato products to respond to farmer concerns over lack of markets. This study used data collected from five districts in rural Rwanda under supper food project between August and September 2014. The study applied a stochastic profit frontier model to data collected from 846 households growing sweetpotato, among which 327 were value chain participants; 312 were “spillover” households that received planting material from participant households, and the remainder control households with no project links. Results showed that average level of profit efficiency in sweetpotato production systems is 55%; suggesting that an estimated 45% of profit is lost due to the combined effect of technical, allocative and scale inefficiency. The profit efficiency of participant households was 64% compared to 20% of the control households. Moreover, the profit efficiency of the female beneficiary, female spillover, and male beneficiary households was found to be 55%, 70%, and 90% against 17% for male control households, respectively. Findings suggest that an orange-fleshed sweetpotato based value chain intervention can enhance the profit efficiency of the poor and disadvantageous households, if designed with special attention to women’s needs. Thus, polices and programs aiming at improving the livelihood of smallholder should be designed targeting women and resource poor.

  3. Quantifying the Sensitivity of the Production of Environmental Externalities to Market-Based Interventions in the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2017-12-01

    The optimization function that governs the dispatching of power generators to meet electricity demand minimizes the marginal cost of electricity generation without regard to the environmental or public health damages caused by power production. Although technologies exist for reducing the externalities resulting from electricity generation at power plants, current solutions typically raise the cost of power production or introduce operational challenges for the grid. This research quantifies the trade-offs and couplings between the cooling water, greenhouse gas emissions, and air quality impacts of different power generating technologies under business as usual market conditions, as well as a series of market-based interventions aimed to reduce the production of those externalities. Using publicly available data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) for power plant water use and emissions, a unit commitment and dispatch power market simulation model is modified to evaluate the production of environmental externalities from power production. Scenarios are developed to apply a set of fees for cooling water, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and sulfur oxide emissions, respectively. Trade-offs between environmental performance, overall generation costs, and shifts in the power plants dispatched to meet demand are quantified for each power market simulation. The results from this study will provide insight into the development of a novel market-based framework that modifies the optimization algorithms governing the dispatching of electricity onto the grid in efforts to achieve cost-effective improvements in its environmental performance without the need for new infrastructure investments.

  4. A knowledge synthesis of culturally- and spiritually-sensitive end-of-life care: findings from a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Sinclair, Shane; Horst, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple factors influence the end-of-life (EoL) care and experience of poor quality services by culturally- and spiritually-diverse groups. Access to EoL services e.g. health and social supports at home or in hospices is difficult for ethnic minorities compared to white European groups. A tool is required to empower patients and families to access culturally-safe care. This review was undertaken by the Canadian Virtual Hospice as a foundation for this tool. Methods To explore atti...

  5. Influencing organisational culture to improve hospital performance in care of patients with acute myocardial infarction: a mixed-methods intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A; Brault, Marie A; Linnander, Erika L; McNatt, Zahirah; Brewster, Amanda L; Cherlin, Emily; Flieger, Signe Peterson; Ting, Henry H; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2018-03-01

    Hospital organisational culture affects patient outcomes including mortality rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction; however, little is known about whether and how culture can be positively influenced. This is a 2-year, mixed-methods interventional study in 10 US hospitals to foster improvements in five domains of organisational culture: (1) learning environment, (2) senior management support, (3) psychological safety, (4) commitment to the organisation and (5) time for improvement. Outcomes were change in culture, uptake of five strategies associated with lower risk-standardised mortality rates (RSMR) and RSMR. Measures included a validated survey at baseline and at 12 and 24 months (n=223; average response rate 88%); in-depth interviews (n=393 interviews with 197 staff); and RSMR data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. We observed significant changes (porganisational culture that supports high performance may help hospitals in their efforts to improve clinical outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Preprocedural High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchin, Thomas; Räber, Lorenz; Koskinas, Konstantinos C; Piccolo, Raffaele; Jüni, Peter; Pilgrim, Thomas; Stortecky, Stefan; Khattab, Ahmed A; Wenaweser, Peter; Bloechlinger, Stefan; Moschovitis, Aris; Frenk, Andre; Moro, Christina; Meier, Bernhard; Fiedler, Georg M; Heg, Dik; Windecker, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac troponin detected by new-generation, highly sensitive assays predicts clinical outcomes among patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) treated medically. The prognostic value of baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) elevation in SCAD patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions is not well established. This study assessed the association of preprocedural levels of hs-cTnT with 1-year clinical outcomes among SCAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Between 2010 and 2014, 6974 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled in the Bern Percutaneous Coronary Interventions Registry. Among patients with SCAD (n=2029), 527 (26%) had elevated preprocedural hs-cTnT above the upper reference limit of 14 ng/L. The primary end point, mortality within 1 year, occurred in 20 patients (1.4%) with normal hs-cTnT versus 39 patients (7.7%) with elevated baseline hs-cTnT (P<0.001). Patients with elevated hs-cTnT had increased risks of all-cause (hazard ratio 5.73; 95% confidence intervals 3.34-9.83; P<0.001) and cardiac mortality (hazard ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 2.12-10.31; P<0.001). Preprocedural hs-TnT elevation remained an independent predictor of 1-year mortality after adjustment for relevant risk factors, including age, sex, and renal failure (adjusted hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval 1.10-3.92; P=0.024). A graded mortality risk was observed across higher tertiles of elevated preprocedural hs-cTnT, but not among patients with hs-cTnT below the upper reference limit. Preprocedural elevation of hs-cTnT is observed in one fourth of SCAD patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Increased levels of preprocedural hs-cTnT are proportionally related to the risk of death and emerged as independent predictors of all-cause mortality within 1 year. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02241291. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Maxisorp RAST. A sensitive method for detection of antigen-specific human IgE in culture fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Pedersen, M F; Malling, H J

    1989-01-01

    For determination of allergen-specific IgE in cell culture supernatants and other highly diluted IgE preparations a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) based on high adsorption polystyrene test tubes has been developed ("Maxisorp RAST"). Cladosporium herbarum extract was used as a model allergen...

  8. Metformin improves glucose effectiveness, not insulin sensitivity: predicting treatment response in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in an open-label, interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Cindy T; Keefe, Candace; Duran, Jessica; Welt, Corrine K

    2014-05-01

    Although metformin is widely used to improve insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), its mechanism of action is complex, with inconsistent effects on insulin sensitivity and variability in treatment response. The aim of the study was to delineate the effect of metformin on glucose and insulin parameters, determine additional treatment outcomes, and predict patients with PCOS who will respond to treatment. We conducted an open-label, interventional study at an academic medical center. Women with PCOS (n = 36) diagnosed by the National Institutes of Health criteria participated in the study. Subjects underwent fasting blood sampling, an IV glucose tolerance test, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, transvaginal ultrasound, and measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated androgen levels before and after 12 weeks of treatment with metformin extended release 1500 mg/d. Interval visits were performed to monitor anthropometric measurements and menstrual cycle parameters. Changes in glucose and insulin parameters, androgen levels, anthropometric measurements, and ovulatory menstrual cycles were evaluated. Insulin sensitivity did not change despite weight loss. Glucose effectiveness (P = .002) and the acute insulin response to glucose (P = .002) increased, and basal glucose levels (P = .001) decreased after metformin treatment. T levels also decreased. Women with improved ovulatory function (61%) had lower baseline T levels and lower baseline and stimulated T and androstenedione levels after metformin treatment (all P effectiveness and insulin sensitivity, metformin does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS but does improve glucose effectiveness. The improvement in glucose effectiveness may be partially mediated by decreased glucose levels. T levels also decreased with metformin treatment. Ovulation during metformin treatment was associated with lower baseline T levels and greater T and androstenedione decreases during

  9. A critique of the design, implementation, and delivery of a culturally-tailored self-management education intervention: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Manbinder S; Gale, Nicola K; Gill, Paramjit; Marshall, Tom; Jolly, Kate

    2015-02-07

    Self-management education is at the forefront of addressing the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases. For those at greatest risk, such as minority-ethnic and/or socio-economically deprived groups, self-management education can be culturally-tailored to encourage behavioural change. Yet, the application of culturally appropriate material and expertise within health promotion services continues to be debated. We critique the design, implementation, and delivery of a culturally-tailored self-management intervention, with particular focus on the experiences of lay educators. A mixed methods qualitative evaluation was undertaken to understand self-management service provision to culturally diverse communities (i.e. how components such as lay workers, group-based design, and culturally-appropriate educational material are intended to encourage behavioural change). We interviewed lay educators delivering the Chronic Disease Educator programme along with attendees, whilst observing workshops. Data were thematically analysed using a content-based constant comparison approach through a number of interpretative analytical stages. Lay educators felt part of the local community, relating to attendees from different races and ethnicities. However, lay educators faced challenges when addressing health beliefs and changing lifestyle practices. Culturally-tailored components aided communication, with educator's cultural awareness leading to close relationships with attendees, while the group-based design facilitated discussions of the emotional impact of illness. Lay educators bring with them a number of nuanced skills and knowledge when delivering self-management education. The development and training required for this role is inhibited by financial constraints at policy-level. The interpretation of being from the 'community' links with the identity and status of the lay role, overlapping notions of race, ethnicity, and language.

  10. Cultural Sensitive Care Provision in a Public Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre: A Case Study from the Toulouse University Hospital Intercultural Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Gesine; Bonnet, Sylvie; Coussot, Yolaine; Journot, Katja; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Child and adolescent mental health services in Europe are confronted with children with increasingly diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. Clinicians encounter cultural environments of hyperdiversity in terms of languages and countries of origin, growing diversity within groups, and accelerated change with regards to social and administrational situations (Hannah, in: DelVecchio Good et al. (eds) Shattering culture: American medicine responds to cultural diversity, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 2011). Children and families who live in these complex constellations face multiple vulnerabilizing factors related to overlapping or intersecting social identities (Crenshaw in Univ Chic Leg Forum 140:139-167, 1989). Mobilizing existing resources in terms of social and family support, and encouraging creative strategies of interculturation in therapeutic work (Denoux, in: Blomart and Krewer (eds) Perspectives de l'interculturel, L'Harmattan, Paris, 1994) may be helpful in order to enhance resilience. Drawing from experiences in the context of French transcultural and intercultural psychiatry, and inspired by the Mc Gill Cultural Consultation in Child Psychiatry, we developed an innovative model, the Intercultural Consultation Service (ICS). This consultation proposes short term interventions to children and families with complex migration experiences. It has been implemented into a local public health care structure in Toulouse, the Medical and Psychological Centre la Grave. The innovation includes the creation of a specific setting for short term therapeutic interventions and team training via shared case discussions. Our objectives are (a) to improve outcomes of mental health care for the children through a better understanding of the child's family context (exploration of family dynamics and their relatedness to complex migration histories), (b) to enhance intercultural competencies in professionals via shared case discussions, and, (c) to improve the therapeutic

  11. A voltage-sensitive dye-based assay for the identification of differentiated neurons derived from embryonic neural stem cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson N Leão

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells hold great therapeutical promise for the replacement of degenerated tissue in neurological diseases. To fulfill that promise we have to understand the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of multipotent cells into specific types of neurons. Embryonic stem cell (ESC and embryonic neural stem cell (NSC cultures provide a valuable tool to study the processes of neural differentiation, which can be assessed using immunohistochemistry, gene expression, Ca(2+-imaging or electrophysiology. However, indirect methods such as protein and gene analysis cannot provide direct evidence of neuronal functionality. In contrast, direct methods such as electrophysiological techniques are well suited to produce direct evidence of neural functionality but are limited to the study of a few cells on a culture plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe a novel method for the detection of action potential-capable neurons differentiated from embryonic NSC cultures using fast voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD. We found that the use of extracellularly applied VSD resulted in a more detailed labeling of cellular processes compared to calcium indicators. In addition, VSD changes in fluorescence translated precisely to action potential kinetics as assessed by the injection of simulated slow and fast sodium currents using the dynamic clamp technique. We further demonstrate the use of a finite element model of the NSC culture cover slip for optimizing electrical stimulation parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our method allows for a repeatable fast and accurate stimulation of neurons derived from stem cell cultures to assess their differentiation state, which is capable of monitoring large amounts of cells without harming the overall culture.

  12. Abnormal responses to mid-ultraviolet light of cultured fibroblasts from patients with disorders featuring sunlight sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Paterson, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The postultraviolet light (UV) colony-forming ability and DNA repair properties were examined of human skin fibroblasts derived from two groups of donors at high risk of cancer; (a) persons exhibiting sensitivity to sunlight; and (b) persons with conditions possibly associated with an underlying defect in the repair of radiogenic DNA damage. A comparison was made between the effects of far UV (254 nm) and mid UV (313 nm). Biochemical studies performed on strains sensitive to 313-nm UV alone suggest that their unusual photoresponse is not attributable to defective repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore, our data imply that thymine glycols are unlikely candidates for the critical lethal lesions in 313-nm UV-sensitive strains. Evidence is presented in support of the contention that mid UV may be partially radiomimetic, thus extending our understanding of the deleterious biological effects of this ubiquitous environmental carcinogen

  13. Examining the cross-cultural sensitivity of the Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F and validation of a Dutch version.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Stes

    Full Text Available The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F is used to examine students' study approaches in higher education. The questionnaire assumes to measure two factors: a deep and a surface study approach. Analyses into the validity and reliability of the original English R-SPQ-2F yielded positive results. In this study, we examined the degree to which these positive results can also be found for the Dutch version that we developed. By comparing our results with the results of earlier studies in different cultures, we conclude cross-cultural sensitivity is an important point to be borne in mind when using the R-SPQ-2F. Our research supports the validity and reliability of our Dutch version of the R-SPQ-2F.

  14. Looking beyond "affordable" health care: cultural understanding and sensitivity-necessities in addressing the health care disparities of the U.S. Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim-Lovseth, Mary K; Aldana, Adriana

    2010-10-01

    Health disparities are pervasive in the United States; but among Hispanics, access to health care is encumbered by poverty, lack of insurance, legal status, and racial or minority status. Research has identified certain aspects of Hispanic culture, values, and traditions contributing to the nature of the Hispanic patient-doctor relationship and the quality of the health care service. Current educational efforts by nonprofit organizations, government, health professionals, and pharmaceutical manufacturers fail to address the needs for accessible and appropriately culture-sensitive information when approaching the diverse Hispanic community. Understanding Hispanics' consumptive practices and expectations surrounding medications is critical to the success of many treatment regimens. Recommendations are presented to address this health care issue.

  15. In defense of weight phobia as the central organizing motive in anorexia nervosa: historical and cultural arguments for a culture-sensitive psychological conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, T

    1996-05-01

    Recently several proposals at dropping weight phobia as the central criterion for the differential diagnosis of anorexia nervosa have been advanced, aiming at establishing a new diagnostic category including any self-induced weight loss. The validity of weight phobia as a diagnostic criterion is defended. After summarizing clinical arguments, four groups of culturally or historically remote cases of self-induced weight loss or refusal of food are analyzed in regard to the presence of weight phobia and clinical similarity to modern anorexia nervosa (extreme fasting in the Third World, in the European late Middle Ages, early modern times, and late 19th century). It is demonstrated that modern Western anorexia nervosa with weight phobia is clearly distinct from other groups of cases of extreme fasting without weight phobia. It is concluded that the psychological motive of weight phobia should remain the central criterion for the differential diagnosis of anorexia nervosa.

  16. West Indian interventions at the heart of the cultural establishment: Edric Connor, Pearl Connor, and the BBC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidnall, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The history of New Commonwealth migration to Great Britain and its impact on British national identity have been the subjects of growing scholarly interest, but they are often viewed overwhelmingly in terms of racial tension and conflict, a perspective reinforced by the tendency to trace this history as a succession of crisis moments marked by violence and immigration restriction. This article instead focuses on an instance of cultural collaboration between two Trinidadian settler-artists, Edric and Pearl Connor, and Britain's premier cultural institution, the BBC. The BBC careers of these two individuals suggest that the Connors used their professional opportunities to integrate West Indian history, culture, and talent into BBC programming in an effort to formulate and promote an inclusive conception of British culture, one that embraced the imperial connections between the colonies and the 'mother country' and involved the growing West Indian and New Commonwealth communities in Britain itself. Furthermore, their success highlights a moment, between roughly 1945 and 1965, when the BBC was open to the Connors' progressive vision of a British culture 6f the future. Only when the cultural priorities of the Connors and the Corporation diverged in the 1960s did the disillusionment so characteristic of later generations of 'black British' artists become pronounced.

  17. Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons are a Novel, Highly Sensitive Tissue Culture Platform for Botulinum Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and acceleration of toxin degradation may be more amenable to therapeutic intervention, the neuronal response to intoxication and the molecular ...References [1] L.L. Simpson, Identification of the major steps in botulinum toxin action, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 44 (2004) 167–193. [2] J.C...BoNT) therapeutics: time to think outside the BoNT?, Botulinum J 1 (2009) 261–269. [6] L.L. Simpson, The origin, structure , and pharmacological

  18. The effects of 6-mercaptopurine nucleotide derivatives on the growth and survival of 6-mercaptopurine-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, H. P.; Hawley, P.; White, S. E.; Gibson, I.; Tidd, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (MP)-sensitive and -resistant cell culture lines were used to further characterize the apparent ability of MP nucleotide derivatives to overcome resistance to the parent drug. 6-Mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside 5'-monophosphate [MPRP], bis(6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(MPR)P], bis(O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribofuranoside)-5', 5"'-monophosphate [bis(dibut.MPR)P], and O2',O3'-dibutyryl-6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-D-ribo...

  19. The Role of National Culture in Advertising’s Sensitivity to Business Cycles: An Investigation Across All Continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Deleersnyder (Barbara); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict); P.S.H. Leeflang (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCutting advertising budgets has traditionally been a popular reaction by companies around the globe when faced with a slacking economy. Still, anecdotal evidence suggests the presence of considerable cross-country variability in the cyclical sensitivity of advertising expenditures. We

  20. Sensitization by wortmannin of heat- or X-ray induced cell death in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masanori; Suzuki, Norio; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Hirano, Kazuya; Umeda, Noriko; Sakai, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Here we found that wortmannin sensitized Chinese hamster V79 cells to hyperthermic treatment at 44.0 deg C as determined either by colony formation assay or by dye exclusion assay. Wortmannin enhanced heat-induced cell death accompanying cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP). Additionally, the induction of heat shock protein HSP70 was suppressed and delayed in wortmannin-treated cells. Heat sensitizing effect of wortmannin was obvious at more than 5 or 10 μM of final concentrations, while radiosensitization was apparent at 5 μM. Requirement for high concentration of wortmannin, i.e., order of μM, suggests a possible role of certain protein kinases, such as DNA-PK and/or ATM among PI3-kinase family. The sensitization was minimal when wortmannin was added at the end of heat treatment. This was similar to the case of X-ray. Since heat-induced cell death and PARP cleavage preceded HSP70 induction phenomenon, the sensitization to the hyperthermic treatment was considered mainly caused by enhanced apoptotic cell death rather than secondary to suppression or delay by wortmannin of HSP70 induction. Further, in the present system radiosensitization by wortmannin was also at least partly mediated through enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (author)

  1. Sensitivity of Pigment Content of Banana and Orchid Tissue Culture Exposed to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fiel

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatini, Riry; Saleh, Norihan Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan) corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothsc...

  2. SENSITIVITY OF PIGMENT CONTENT OF BANANA AND ORCHID TISSUE CULTURE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riry Prihatini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothschildianum cultures were exposed to 6 and 12 mT ELF-EMF generated by controllable ELF-EMF built up machine for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours. After exposure, the banana and orchid cultures were incubated at 25° C for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the ELF-EMF exposure had different effects on banana and slipper orchid cultures though both plant species belong to monocotyledon. The highest increase in chlorophyll content on banana was resulted by the high intensity and long duration of ELF-EMF exposure (12 mT for 4 hours, whereas on slipper orchid the modest and short duration of ELF-EMF exposure produced the most excessive chlorophyll content. Different ELF-EMF exposures (12 mT for 4 hours and 6 mT for 30 minutes had potential to be applied on each plant to improve in vitro plant (banana and slipper orchid, respectively growth. The increased chlorophyll and carotene/xanthophyll content on banana indicated that the banana was more tolerant to ELF-EMF exposure compared to slipper orchid. 

  3. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  4. Quantitative analysis of genes regulating sensitivity to heavy ion irradiation in cultured cell lines of malignant choroid melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Ken; Adachi, Nanao; Nimura, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    As a treatment strategy for malignant melanoma, heavy ion irradiation has been planned in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). However, the molecular biology of the malignant melanoma cell after irradiation of heavy ion is still unknown. In this study, we used resistant and sensitive cell lines of malignant melanoma to study the effects of heavy ion irradiation. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of early response genes for heavy ion irradiation was carried out on these cell lines using microarray technology. (author)

  5. Quantitative analysis of genes regulating sensitivity to heavy ion irradiation in cultured cell lines of malignant choroid melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Ken; Nimura, Yoshinori; Kato, Masaki; Seki, Naohiko; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Mizuho; Shino, Yayoi; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Mizota, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    As a treatment strategy for malignant melanoma, heavy ion irradiation has been planned in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). However, the molecular biology of the malignant melanoma cell after irradiation of heavy ion is still unknown. In this study, we used resistant and sensitive cell lines of malignant melanoma to study the effects of heavy ion irradiation. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of early response genes for heavy ion irradiation was carried out on these cell lines using microarray technology. (author)

  6. Cultured smooth muscle cells of the human vesical sphincter are more sensitive to histamine than are detrusor smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Oberbach, Andreas; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2006-05-01

    To compare histamine receptor expression in cultured smooth muscle cells from the human detrusor and internal sphincter using receptor-specific agonists. Smooth muscle cells from the bladder dome and internal sphincter were cultured from 5 male patients undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer therapy. Calcium transients in cells stimulated with carbachol, histamine, histamine receptor 1 (H1R)-specific heptanecarboxamide (HTMT), dimaprit (H2R), and R-(alpha)-methylhistamine (H3R) were measured by calcium imaging. Histamine receptor proteins were detected by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. H1R, H2R, and H3R expression was found in tissue and cultured cells. Carbachol stimulated equal numbers of detrusor and sphincter cells (60% and 51%, respectively). Histamine stimulated significantly more cells than carbachol in detrusor (100%) and sphincter (99.34%) cells. Calcium responses to carbachol in detrusor and sphincter cells were comparable and did not differ from those to histamine in detrusor cells. However, histamine and specific agonists stimulated more sphincter cells than did carbachol (P <0.001), and the calcium increase was greater in sphincter cells than in detrusor cells. Single cell analysis revealed comparable H2R responses in detrusor and sphincter cells, but H1R and H3R-mediated calcium reactions were significantly greater in sphincter cells. Histamine very effectively induces calcium release in smooth muscle cells. In sphincter cells, histamine is even more effective than carbachol regarding the number of reacting cells and the intracellular calcium increase. Some of the variability in the outcome of antihistaminic interstitial cystitis therapies might be caused by the ineffectiveness of the chosen antihistaminic or unintentional weakening of sphincteric function.

  7. Comparison of Assays for Sensitive and Reproducible Detection of Cell Culture-Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, George D.; Rochelle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water. PMID:22038611

  8. Short-term effectiveness of a culturally tailored educational intervention on foot self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarmouch, Latifa; Elyacoubi, Abdelhadi; Dahmash, Latifeh; El Ansari, Nawal; Sebbani, Majda; Amine, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Self-management education (SME) is an important yet unacknowledged aspect of diabetes care. Despite the raise of diabetes and its complications with significant burden in developing countries, research on SME interventions in Morocco is lacking. To assess the effectiveness of a culturally tailored SME intervention on foot-care self-management practices among type 2 diabetes patients and to identify factors associated with practices variation. We designed a pre-post prospective quasi-experimental study and recruited patients with type 2 diabetes aged 30 years old or above. The intervention consisted of an interactive group discussion using different materials: a narrative video, a PowerPoint presentation and a printed guide. Foot-care practices were assessed prior to the session and one month later using 2 items from the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA). Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with a favorable variation, defined as an increase in the mean frequency score of foot-care by a minimum of 1 day/week. A total of 199 participants were recruited and 133 completed the second assessment. Mean age was 55.2 ± 11.2 years old. Women represented 67% and 72% of participants was illiterate. The foot-care score mean increased from 3.5 ± 2.9 days to 5.9 ± 1.8 days one month after the intervention (mean variation was 2.4 ± 3.1 days; p education about diabetic foot was associated with lower likelihood of a favorable variation (OR = 0.26; 95%CI: 0.08-0.78). There was a general improvement in foot-care practices after the intervention. Our findings suggest the role of literacy and previous patient education in shaping the observed variation. Culturally tailored interventions targeting other disease management domains are needed in our context.

  9. Promoting Psychological Well-Being in an Urban School Using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Patrick B.; Summerville, Meredith A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Patterson, Julie; Earnshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    School psychology has recently reconceptualized its service provision model to include multitiered systems of academic and psychosocial promotion, prevention, and intervention. The availability of evidence-based programs and advances in school consultation theory accompany the paradigm shift of the field. Despite these advances, implementing…

  10. A novel chemotherapeutic sensitivity-testing system based on collagen gel droplet embedded 3D-culture methods for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Hong, Zhixian; Feng, Fan; Chai, Yantao; Zhang, Yunkai; Jiang, Qiyu; Hu, Yan; Wu, Shunquan; Wu, Yingsong; Gao, Xunian; Chen, Qiong; Wan, Yong; Bi, Jingfeng; Zhang, Zheng

    2017-11-08

    Patients suffering from advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often exhibit a poor prognosis or dismal clinical outcomes due to ineffective chemotherapy or a multi-drug resistance (MDR) process. Thus, it is urgent to develop a new chemotherapeutic sensitivity testing system for HCC treatment. The presence study investigated the potential application of a novel chemotherapeutic sensitivity-testing system based on a collagen gel droplet embedded 3D-culture system (CD-DST). Primary cells were separating from surgical resection specimens and then tested by CD-DST. To identify whether HCC cell lines or cells separating from clinical specimens contain MDR features, the cells were treated with an IC 50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) or IC max (maximal inhibitory concentration) concentration of antitumor agents, e.g., 5-furuolouracil (5-FU), paclitaxel (PAC), cisplatin (CDDP), epirubicin (EPI), or oxaliplatin (L-OHP), and the inhibitory rates (IRs) were calculated. HepG2 cells were sensitive to 5-FU, PAC, CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP; the IC 50 value is 0.83 ± 0.45 μg/ml, 0.03 ± 0.02 μg/ml, 1.15 ± 0.75 μg/ml, 0.09 ± 0.03 μg/ml, or 1.76 ± 0.44 μg/ml, respectively. Only eight (8/26), nine (9/26), or five (5/26) patients were sensitive to the IC max concentration of CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP; whereas only three (3/26), four (4/26), or two (2/26) patients were sensitive to the IC 50 concentration of CDDP, EPI, or L-OHP. No patients were sensitive to 5-FU or PAC. The in vitro drug sensitivity exanimation revealed the MDR features of HCC and examined the sensitivity of HCC cells from clinical specimens to anti-tumor agents. CD-DST may be a useful method to predict the potential clinical benefits of anticancer agents for HCC patients.

  11. Changing the culture of neurodisability through language and sensitivity of providers: Creating a safe place for LGBTQIA+ people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alexander; Laoch, Ari; Zasler, Nathan D

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in sexual and gender diversity in neurorehabilitation. Healthcare professionals wanting to improve their practice know the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of specific communities. To critically review the literature about neurological disorders in people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and people with other sexual orientations and forms of gender expression (LGBTQIA+). Systematic search in electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science) and identification of relevant studies. Quantitative and qualitative findings are summarized and reported by neurological disorders: a) neurodisability/epilepsy (17.7%), b) intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorders (19.6%), c) dementia/HIV-related dementia (39.2%), d) spinal cord injury (7.8%), and e) traumatic brain injury/stroke (15.7%). LGBTQIA+ people with neurodisabilities and their partners/families of choice can conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity for fear of diminished quality of care. Their invisibility translates into health disparities, lack of policies and services that meet their unique needs. Dementia is the most common neurodisability documented in LGBTQIA+ people. We provide recommendations to increase LGBTQIA+ cultural competency for clinical practice, research, and policy to help different stakeholders to promote a positive change in the culture of neurodisability.

  12. Exposure to culturally sensitive sexual health information and impact on health literacy: a qualitative study among newly arrived refugee women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pia; Carlzén, Katarina; Agardh, Anette

    2017-07-01

    In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how information on sexual and reproductive health and rights was perceived by female recipients and whether being exposed to such information contributed to enhanced sexual and reproductive health and rights literacy. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with nine women and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes emerged: (1) opening the doors to new understandings of sexual and reproductive health and rights and (2) planting the seed for engagement in sexual and reproductive health and rights issues, illustrating how cultural norms influenced perceptions, but also how information opened up opportunities for challenging these norms. Gender-separate groups may facilitate information uptake, while discussion concerning sexual health norms may benefit from taking place in mixed groups.

  13. Environmental ground borne noise and vibration protection of sensitive cultural receptors along the Athens Metro Extension to Piraeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2012-11-15

    Attiko Metro S.A., the state company ensuring the development of the Athens Metro network, has recently initiated a new extension of 7.6 km, has planned for line 3 of Athens Metro from Haidari to Piraeus "Dimotikon Theatre" towards "University of Piraeus" (forestation), connecting the major Piraeus Port with "Eleftherios Venizelos" International Airport. The Piraeus extension consists of a Tunnel Boring Machine, 2 tracks and, tunnel sections, as well as 6 stations and a forestation (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) at the end of the alignment. In order to avoid the degradation of the urban acoustic environment from ground borne noise and vibration during metro operation, the assessment of the required track types and possible noise mitigation measures was executed, and for each section and each sensitive building, the ground borne noise and vibration levels will be numerically predicted. The calculated levels were then compared with ground borne noise and vibration level criteria. The necessary mitigation measures were defined in order to guarantee, in each location along the extension, the allowable ground borne Noise and Vibration max. levels inside nearby sensitive buildings taking into account alternative Transfer Functions for ground borne noise diffusion inside the buildings. Ground borne noise levels were proven to be higher than the criterion where special track work is present and also in the case of the sensitive receptor: "Dimotikon Theatre". In order to reduce the ground borne noise levels to allowable values in these sections, the installation of tracks and special track work on a floating slab was assessed and recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive probability values of serum agglutination test titres for the diagnosis of Salmonella Dublin culture-positive bovine abortion and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Miguel, C; Crilly, J; Grant, J; Mee, J F

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of maternal serology for the diagnosis of Salmonella Dublin bovine abortion and stillbirth. A retrospective, unmatched, case-control study was carried out using twenty year's data (1989-2009) from bovine foetal submissions to an Irish government veterinary laboratory. Cases (n = 214) were defined as submissions with a S. Dublin culture-positive foetus from a S. Dublin unvaccinated dam where results of maternal S. Dublin serology were available. Controls (n = 415) were defined as submissions where an alternative diagnosis other than S. Dublin was made in a foetus from an S. Dublin unvaccinated dam where the results of maternal S. Dublin serology were available. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data: the dichotomous dependent variable was the S. Dublin foetal culture result, and the independent variables were the maternal serum agglutination test (SAT) titre results. Salmonella serology correctly classified 87% of S. Dublin culture-positive foetuses at a predicted probability threshold of 0.44 (cut-off at which sensitivity and specificity are at a maximum, J = 0.67). The sensitivity of the SAT at the same threshold was 73.8% (95% CI: 67.4%-79.5%), and the specificity was 93.2% (95% CI: 90.3%-95.4%). The positive and negative predictive values were 84.9% (95% CI: 79.3%-88.6%) and 87.3% (95% CI: 83.5%-91.3%), respectively. This study illustrates that the use of predicted probability values, rather than the traditional arbitrary breakpoints of negative, inconclusive and positive, increases the diagnostic value of the maternal SAT. Veterinary laboratory diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners can recover from the test results, information previously categorized, particularly from those results declared to be inconclusive. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Social Skills Instruction for Urban Learners with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Culturally Responsive and Computer-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Keyes, Starr E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of culturally relevant/responsive, computer-based social skills instruction on the social skill acquisition and generalization of 6 urban African American sixth graders with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A multiple-probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the social skills…

  16. University-Community Partnerships: Bridging People and Cultures in an HIV/AIDS Health Intervention in an African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Head, Rachel; Rikard, R. V.; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa

    2012-01-01

    As universities become more involved in real-world problems that affect racial and ethnic communities, university members are identifying strategies to effectively work with culturally diverse community partners. The Communities and Health Disparities Project described in this article is an example of collaborative scholarship that engages the…

  17. Experiential training for enhancing intercultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to enhance intercultural sensitivity using cross-cultural movies and focused group discussions with invited guests. Both treatment and control groups consisted of 9 Caucasian participants. The researcher conducted 8 group sessions with the participants of treatment group. Pre and post intervention data were collected on the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale. Results show that there was a significant increase in the participants' scores in the treatment group and not a significant difference in participants' pre and post scores in the control group. Further analysis on the five different dimensions of the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale was also conducted.

  18. Effect of fructose consumption on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diet-intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Schene, Merle R; Holman, Rebecca; Romijn, Johannes A; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-12-01

    High fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to several features of metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, but to our knowledge, no previous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled diet-intervention studies in nondiabetic subjects to determine the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials on the basis of predetermined eligibility criteria. Two investigators independently performed the study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Results were pooled with the use of the generic inverse-variance method with random effects weighting and were expressed as mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. Twenty-nine articles that described 46 comparisons in 1005 normal-weight and overweight or obese participants met the eligibility criteria. An energy-matched (isocaloric) exchange of dietary carbohydrates by fructose promoted hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.91; P = 0.04) but had no effect on fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: -0.79 pmol/L; 95% CI: -6.41, 4.84 pmol/L; P = 0.78), the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (MD: 0.13; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.34; P = 0.21), or glucose disposal rates under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: 20.41, 0.41; P = 1.00). Hypercaloric fructose (∼25% excess of energy compared with that of the weight-maintenance control diet) raised fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: 3.38 pmol/L; 95% CI: 0.03, 6.73 pmol/L; P fructose consumption, in isocaloric exchange or in hypercaloric supplementation, promotes the development of hepatic insulin resistance in nondiabetic adults without affecting peripheral or muscle insulin sensitivity. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to assess whether real

  19. Healthy caregivers-healthy children (HC2) phase 2: Integrating culturally sensitive childhood obesity prevention strategies into childcare center policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Lebron, Cynthia; Moise, Rhoda; Sunil Mathew, M; Sardinas, Krystal; Chang, Catherina; Palenzuela, Joanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Shelnutt, Karla P; Spector, Rachel; Altare, Fiorella; Natale, Ruby

    2017-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children, most states lack childcare center (CCC) nutrition and physical activity policies. The Healthy Caregivers, Healthy Children (HC) Phase 2 project is examining the relationship between the CCC nutrition and physical activity environment and child dietary intake/physical activity patterns and body mass index (BMI). A total of 24 "Quality Counts" (Miami Dade County, Florida's Quality Rating Improvement System [QRIS)]) CCCs serving low resource families with ≥50 2-to-5year olds attending have been randomized to either intervention (n=12) or control (n=12). The HC2 intervention arm CCCs receive implementation of a daily curricula for (1) teachers/parents; (2) children; (3) snack, beverage, physical activity, and screen time policies; and (4) technical assistance with menu modifications. Control arm schools receive an attention control safety curriculum. HC2 is delivered once a month in year 1, quarterly in year 2 and will be disseminated throughout the Quality Counts network in year 3. Primary outcome measures include the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool (EPAO), standardized dietary intake and physical activity patterns surveys, and child BMI. The 'Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM)' framework will guide the interpretation of outcome measures. CCCs are in need of evidence-based standardized nutrition and physical activity policies. The intersection of RE-AIM and early childhood obesity prevention in the childcare setting could generate robust and new information to the field about potential barriers, facilitators, adoption, and sustainability in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Print versus a culturally-relevant Facebook and text message delivered intervention to promote physical activity in African American women: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2015-03-27

    African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population. Social media platforms (i.e. Facebook) and text messaging represent potential mediums to promote physical activity. This paper reports the results of a randomized pilot trial evaluating a theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory) multi-component intervention using Facebook and text-messages to promote physical activity among African American women. Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to receive one of two multi-component physical activity interventions over 8 weeks: a culturally-relevant, Social Cognitive Theory-based, intervention delivered by Facebook and text message (FI) (n = 14), or a non-culturally tailored print-based intervention (PI) (n = 15) consisting of promotion brochures mailed to their home. The primary outcome of physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, physical activity-related psychosocial variables, and participant satisfaction. All randomized participants (N = 29) completed the study. Accelerometer measured physical activity showed that FI participants decreased sedentary time (FI = -74 minutes/week vs. PI = +118 minute/week) and increased light intensity (FI = +95 minutes/week vs. PI = +59 minutes/week) and moderate-lifestyle intensity physical activity (FI = + 27 minutes/week vs. PI = -34 minutes/week) in comparison to PI participants (all P's  .05). Results of secondary outcomes showed that in comparison to the PI, FI participants self-reported greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (FI = +62 minutes/week vs. PI = +6 minutes/week; P = .015) and had greater enhancements in self-regulation for physical activity (P program to a friend

  1. The role of organisational and cultural factors in the implementation of system-wide interventions in acute hospitals to improve patient outcomes: protocol for a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Hadis; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Cunningham, Frances; Hillman, Ken; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2013-03-09

    Little is known about the role of the organisational culture in the success and sustainability of the hospital-wide interventions, and how local culture affects patient outcomes in acute hospitals. A systematic literature review will be conducted to identify organisational factors influencing hospital-wide interventions and patient outcomes. A search of English language articles will be performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsychInfo and Global Health databases using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after design studies and interrupted time-series analysis studies will be included. 'Grey literature' will be excluded, however peer-reviewed journals that are likely to publish relevant studies (JAMA, BMJ, BMJ Quality and Safety, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine and Implementation Science) will be hand searched for the last 5 years. Two reviewers will independently undertake a title and abstract review using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies will be excluded only after discussion between at least two reviewers, who will assess and agree on the inclusion, risk of bias and quality rating of the studies. One author will extract summary descriptive data from these studies; the other author will review this documentation for accuracy and completeness. It is likely that the studies will be heterogeneous in nature, therefore a narrative synthesis of the findings will be conducted. We will discuss characteristics of the studies and stratify the results according to the type of hospital-wide interventions, organisational factors associated with them and outcomes measured.

  2. Tribal Recommendations for Designing Culturally Appropriate Technology-Based Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2012-01-01

    Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues to reach Native youth on sensitive health topics. Project Red Talon, a sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention project that serves the 43 federally recognized tribes in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, used community-based participatory research…

  3. Achieving cultural congruency in weight loss interventions: can a spirituality-based program attract and retain an inner-city community sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chad; Dutton, William Blake; Durant, Taryn; Annunziato, Rachel A; Marcotte, David

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by obesity and are less likely to access healthcare than Caucasians. It is therefore imperative that researchers develop novel methods that will attract these difficult-to-reach groups. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of an urban community sample attracted to a spiritually based, weight loss intervention. METHODS. Thirteen participants enrolled in a pilot version of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy (3S) applied to disordered eating behavior and obesity. Treatment consisted of 12 one-hour sessions in a group therapy format. At baseline, participants were measured for height and weight and completed a battery of self-report measures. The sample was predominantly African-American and Hispanic and a large percentage of the sample was male. Mean baseline scores of the EDE-Q, YFAS, and the CES-D revealed clinically meaningful levels of eating disordered pathology and depression, respectively. The overall attrition rate was quite low for interventions targeting obesity. This application of a spiritually centered intervention seemed to attract and retain a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample. By incorporating a culturally congruent focus, this approach may have been acceptable to individuals who are traditionally more difficult to reach.

  4. Achieving Cultural Congruency in Weight Loss Interventions: Can a Spirituality-Based Program Attract and Retain an Inner-City Community Sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chad; Dutton, William Blake; Durant, Taryn; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Marcotte, David

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by obesity and are less likely to access healthcare than Caucasians. It is therefore imperative that researchers develop novel methods that will attract these difficult-to-reach groups. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of an urban community sample attracted to a spiritually based, weight loss intervention. Methods. Thirteen participants enrolled in a pilot version of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy (3S) applied to disordered eating behavior and obesity. Treatment consisted of 12 one-hour sessions in a group therapy format. At baseline, participants were measured for height and weight and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results. The sample was predominantly African-American and Hispanic and a large percentage of the sample was male. Mean baseline scores of the EDE-Q, YFAS, and the CES-D revealed clinically meaningful levels of eating disordered pathology and depression, respectively. The overall attrition rate was quite low for interventions targeting obesity. Discussion. This application of a spiritually centered intervention seemed to attract and retain a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample. By incorporating a culturally congruent focus, this approach may have been acceptable to individuals who are traditionally more difficult to reach. PMID:24804086

  5. Achieving Cultural Congruency in Weight Loss Interventions: Can a Spirituality-Based Program Attract and Retain an Inner-City Community Sample?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Davis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by obesity and are less likely to access healthcare than Caucasians. It is therefore imperative that researchers develop novel methods that will attract these difficult-to-reach groups. The purpose of the present study is to describe characteristics of an urban community sample attracted to a spiritually based, weight loss intervention. Methods. Thirteen participants enrolled in a pilot version of Spiritual Self-Schema Therapy (3S applied to disordered eating behavior and obesity. Treatment consisted of 12 one-hour sessions in a group therapy format. At baseline, participants were measured for height and weight and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results. The sample was predominantly African-American and Hispanic and a large percentage of the sample was male. Mean baseline scores of the EDE-Q, YFAS, and the CES-D revealed clinically meaningful levels of eating disordered pathology and depression, respectively. The overall attrition rate was quite low for interventions targeting obesity. Discussion. This application of a spiritually centered intervention seemed to attract and retain a predominantly African-American and Hispanic sample. By incorporating a culturally congruent focus, this approach may have been acceptable to individuals who are traditionally more difficult to reach.

  6. The sensitivity of radiation and its combined effect with anticancer drugs on cultured human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Shinichiro

    1986-01-01

    The cultured lung tumor cells were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays, with and without combinations of adriamycin (ADR) and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Cell survival was assayed by colony formation in vitro in soft agar and in plate. Most of small cell lung carcinoma cells used here were radiosensitive, while one of them showed radioresistent comparable to non-small cell lung tumors and other tumor cells. In the treatment with drugs (ADR or 5-FJ) following 60 Co γ-irradiation (postirradiation treatment), it proved to be twice as effective as drug treatment preceding irradiation (preirradiation treatment). Preirradiation treatment demonstrated that 5-FU treated cell were more radiosensitive than ADR treated ones. In the preirradiation treatment, the most enhanced killing effect was observed when cells were irradiated twenty four hours after 5-FU treatment, on the other hand, in the ADR treatment, treatment interval showed no differrece. In the postirradiation treatment, the greatest enhancement was observed when cells were irradiated twenty hours after ADR exposure, while most effective forty eight hours after 5-FU treatment. (author)

  7. Culture-free, highly sensitive, quantitative detection of bacteria from minimally processed samples using fluorescence imaging by smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Lee, Won-Il; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2018-06-30

    A critical unmet need in the diagnosis of bacterial infections, which remain a major cause of human morbidity and mortality, is the detection of scarce bacterial pathogens in a variety of samples in a rapid and quantitative manner. Herein, we demonstrate smartphone-based detection of Staphylococcus aureus in a culture-free, rapid, quantitative manner from minimally processed liquid samples using aptamer-functionalized fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles. The tagged S. aureus cells were magnetically captured in a detection cassette, and then fluorescence was imaged using a smartphone camera with a light-emitting diode as the excitation source. Our results showed quantitative detection capability with a minimum detectable concentration as low as 10 cfu/ml by counting individual bacteria cells, efficiently capturing S. aureus cells directly from a peanut milk sample within 10 min. When the selectivity of detection was investigated using samples spiked with other pathogenic bacteria, no significant non-specific detection occurred. Furthermore, strains of S. aureus from various origins showed comparable results, ensuring that the approach can be widely adopted. Therefore, the quantitative fluorescence imaging platform on a smartphone could allow on-site detection of bacteria, providing great potential assistance during major infectious disease outbreaks in remote and resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbially enhanced dissolution and reductive dechlorination of PCE by a mixed culture: Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjie; Abriola, Linda M.; Amos, Benjamin K.; Suchomel, Eric J.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Löffler, Frank E.; Christ, John A.

    2013-08-01

    Reductive dechlorination catalyzed by organohalide-respiring bacteria is often considered for remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones due to cost savings, ease of implementation, regulatory acceptance, and sustainability. Despite knowledge of the key dechlorinators, an understanding of the processes and factors that control NAPL dissolution rates and detoxification (i.e., ethene formation) is lacking. A recent column study demonstrated a 5-fold cumulative enhancement in tetrachloroethene (PCE) dissolution and ethene formation (Amos et al., 2009). Spatial and temporal monitoring of key geochemical and microbial (i.e., Geobacter lovleyi and Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains) parameters in the column generated a data set used herein as the basis for refinement and testing of a multiphase, compositional transport model. The refined model is capable of simulating the reactive transport of multiple chemical constituents produced and consumed by organohalide-respiring bacteria and accounts for substrate limitations and competitive inhibition. Parameter estimation techniques were used to optimize the values of sensitive microbial kinetic parameters, including maximum utilization rates, biomass yield coefficients, and endogenous decay rates. Comparison and calibration of model simulations with the experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to accurately reproduce measured effluent concentrations, while delineating trends in dechlorinator growth and reductive dechlorination kinetics along the column. Sensitivity analyses performed on the optimized model parameters indicate that the rates of PCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) transformation and Dehalococcoides growth govern bioenhanced dissolution, as long as electron donor (i.e., hydrogen flux) is not limiting. Dissolution enhancements were shown to be independent of cis-DCE accumulation; however, accumulation of cis-DCE, as well as column length and flow rate (i.e., column residence time

  9. Sensitivity of Direct Culture, Enrichment and PCR for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Broiler Flocks at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; Simpkin, E; Lee, R; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Vidal, A B

    2017-06-01

    Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. and for C. jejuni and C. coli individually. The sample was considered positive if at least one method detected the target and this interpretation was taken to represent a 'proxy gold standard' for detection in the absence of a gold standard reference test. The sensitivity of each individual method to detect Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni and C. coli was then estimated relative to the proxy gold standard. Enrichment in adapted Exeter broth (deficient in polymyxin B) with a resuscitation step was 100% sensitive, whilst direct culture on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was highly sensitive (97.9%). Enrichment methods using Preston broth and Bolton broth were significantly less sensitive. Enrichment in Exeter broth promoted the recovery of C. jejuni, whilst enrichment in Bolton broth favoured C. coli. A RT-PCR detection test could identify 80% of flocks that were co-colonised with both species. This study found that 76.3% (n = 127) of flocks were colonised with Campylobacter spp. The majority (95.9%) of Campylobacter-positive flocks were colonised with C. jejuni; however, approximately one-third of positive flocks were simultaneously colonised with both C. jejuni and C. coli. The findings highlight the impact of different detection methodologies on the accuracy of the estimated incidence of both C. jejuni and C. coli entering the abattoir within broiler flocks and the associated

  10. Potent homocysteine-induced ERK phosphorylation in cultured neurons depends on self-sensitization via system Xc-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Li; Hu Xiaoling; Xue Zhanxia; Yang Jun; Wan Lishu; Ren Yan; Hertz, Leif; Peng Liang

    2010-01-01

    Homocysteine is increased during pathological conditions, endangering vascular and cognitive functions, and elevated homocysteine during pregnancy may be correlated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. This study showed that millimolar homocysteine concentrations in saline medium cause phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2 ) in cerebellar granule neurons, inhibitable by metabotropic but not ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. These findings are analogous to observations by , that similar concentrations cause neuronal death. However, these concentrations are much higher than those occurring clinically during hyperhomocysteinemia. It is therefore important that a ∼ 10-fold increase in potency occurred in the presence of the glutamate precursor glutamine, when ERK 1/2 phosphorylation became inhibitable by NMDA or non-NMDA antagonists and dependent upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation. However, glutamate release to the medium was reduced, suggesting that reversal of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system X c - could be involved in potentiation of the response by causing a localized release of initially accumulated homocysteine. In agreement with this hypothesis further enhancement of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation occurred in the additional presence of cystine. Pharmacological inhibition of system X c - prevented the effect of micromolar homocysteine concentrations, and U0126-mediated inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation enhanced homocysteine-induced death. In conclusion, homocysteine interacts with system X c - like quisqualate (Venkatraman et al. 1994), by 'self-sensitization' with initial accumulation and subsequent release in exchange with cystine and/or glutamate, establishing high local homocysteine concentrations, which activate adjacent ionotropic glutamate receptors and cause neurotoxicity.

  11. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Tripathi

    Full Text Available The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (U373-MG cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, cyclophosphamide (CPA, ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against

  12. Quantitative analysis of the synthesis and secretion of type VII collagen in cultured human dermal fibroblasts with a sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Satoshi; Ogura, Yuki; Akutsu, Nobuko; Nishiyama, Toshio

    2007-02-01

    Type VII collagen is the major component of anchoring fibrils in the epidermal basement membrane. Its expression has been analyzed by immunostaining or Northern blotting, but rarely at the protein level. In this study, we have quantitatively examined the effects of ascorbic acid and various cytokines/growth factors on the protein synthesis and secretion of type VII collagen by human dermal fibroblasts in culture, using a developed, highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay with two kinds of specific monoclonal antibodies against the non-collagenous domain-1. Ascorbic acid and its derivative induced a twofold increase in type VII collagen synthesis, and markedly increased the secretion of type VII collagen into the medium when compared with the control culture. This effect was not influenced by the presence of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). The synthesis of type VII collagen was elevated by TGF-beta1, platelet-derived growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, but not by TGF-alpha. Thus, our data indicate that the synthesis and secretion of type VII collagen in human dermal fibroblasts are regulated by ascorbate and the enhancement of type VII collagen gene expression by cytokines/growth factors is accompanied with elevated production of type VII collagen at the protein level.

  13. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of [3H] saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites

  14. Hypothesis of a nuclear accident to the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with important radioactive release out of the site: risks prevention, intervention strategies. Evaluation of the sensitization to the nuclear risk of the physician practicing near the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, Th.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis has for hypothesis a nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with radioactive release out of the site: the risks prevention and the strategies of intervention are studied. An evaluation of the sensitization to a nuclear risk is made for the general practitioner that practices near the site. (N.C.)

  15. Collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test for adjuvant chemotherapy after complete resection of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masayoshi; Maeda, Hajime; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Fukuhara, Kenjiro; Shintani, Yasushi; Funakoshi, Yasunobu; Funaki, Soichiro; Nojiri, Takashi; Kusu, Takashi; Kusumoto, Hidenori; Kimura, Toru; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a prospective clinical study to individualize adjuvant chemotherapy after complete resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), based on the drug sensitivity test. Patients with resectable c-stage IB-IIIA NSCLC were registered between 2005 and 2010. We performed the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) on a fresh surgical specimen to assess in vitro chemosensitivity and evaluated the prognostic outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin/paclitaxel based on the CD-DST. Among 92 registered patients, 87 were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The success rate of CD-DST was 86% and chemosensitivity to carboplatin and/or paclitaxel was evident in 57 (76%) of the 75 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was completed in 22 (73%) of 30 patients. The 5-year overall survival rates were 71, 73, and 75% for all, CD-DST success, and chemosensitive patients, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates of the chemosensitive patients who completed adjuvant chemotherapy using carboplatin/paclitaxel were 68 and 82%, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates of the patients with stage II-IIIA chemosensitive NSCLC were 58 and 75%, respectively. Comparative analyses of the chemosensitive and non-chemosensitive/CD-DST failure groups showed no significant survival difference. CD-DST can be used to evaluate chemosensitivity after lung cancer surgery; however, its clinical efficacy for assessing individualized treatment remains uncertain.

  16. Unpacking the Black Box: A Formative Research Approach to the Development of Theory-Driven, Evidence-Based, and Culturally Safe Text Messages in Mobile Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Toth, Zsolt; Barron, Marcia; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Perkins, Nancy; Sleeth, Jessica; Wabano, Mary Jo; Williamson, Pamela; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-22

    evidence-based text message created by researchers and the message received by the recipient in mobile health interventions. These discrepancies were primarily generated by six mediators of meaning in SMS messages: (1) negative or non-affirming framing of advocacies, (2) fear- or stress-inducing content, (3) oppressive or authoritarian content, (4) incongruity with cultural and traditional practices, (5) disconnect with the reality of the social determinants of health and the diversity of cultures within a population, and (6) lack of clarity and/or practicality of content. These 6 mediators of meaning provide the basis for sound strategies for message development because they impact directly on the target populations' capability, opportunity, and motivation for behavior change. The quality of text messages impacts significantly on the effectiveness of a mobile health intervention. Our research underscores the urgent need for interventions to incorporate and evaluate the quality of SMS messages and to examine the mediators of meaning within each targeted cultural and demographic group. Reporting on this aspect of mobile health intervention research will allow researchers to move away from the current black box of SMS text message development, thus improving the transparency of the process as well as the quality of the outcomes.

  17. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  18. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As III ) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As III on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As III were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As III than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As III in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As III -mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As III cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: ► Examination of effect of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells. ► Dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity in C

  19. Implementation science for ambulatory care safety: a novel method to develop context-sensitive interventions to reduce quality gaps in monitoring high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kathryn M; Su, George; Lisker, Sarah; Patterson, Emily S; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2017-06-24

    their anxiety, save time, and improve monitoring of high-risk patients. We anticipate that the design seed approach promotes robust and context-sensitive solutions to safety and quality problems because it provides a human-centered link between the experienced problem and various solutions that can be tested for viability. The study also demonstrates a novel integration of industrial and human factors methods (journey mapping, process tracing and design seeds) linked to implementation theory for use in designing interventions that anticipate and reduce implementation challenges.

  20. 'I believe high blood pressure can kill me:' using the PEN-3 Cultural Model to understand patients' perceptions of an intervention to control hypertension in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Gyamfi, Joyce; Quakyi, Nana Kofi; Ntim, Micheal; Addison, Abigail; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2017-07-04

    Currently in Ghana, there is an on-going task-shifting strategy in which nurses are trained in hypertension management. While this study will provide useful information on the viability of this approach, it is not clear how patients in the intervention perceive hypertension, the task-shifting strategy, and its effects on blood pressure management. The objective of this paper is to examine patients' perceptions of hypertension and hypertension management in the context of an on-going task-shifting intervention to manage blood pressure control in Ghana. Forty-two patients participating in the Task Shifting Strategy for Hypertension program (23 males, 19 females, and mean age 61. 7 years) completed in-depth, qualitative interviews. Interviews were transcribed, and key words and phrases were extracted and coded using the PEN-3 Cultural Model as a guide through open and axial coding techniques, thus allowing rich exploration of the data. Emergent themes included patients' perceptions of hypertension, which encompassed misperceptions of hypertension and blood pressure control. Additional themes included enablers and barriers to hypertension management, and how the intervention nurtured lifestyle change associated with blood pressure control. Primary enabling factors included the supportive nature of TASSH nurses, while notable barriers were financial constraints and difficulty accessing medication. Nurturing factors included the motivational interviewing and patient counseling which instilled confidence in the patients that they could make lasting behavior changes. This study offers a unique perspective of blood pressure control by examining how patients view an on-going task-shifting initiative for hypertension management. The results of this study shed light on factors that can help and hinder individuals in low-resource settings with long-term blood pressure management.

  1. Postpartum depression and culture: Pesado Corazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Beckstrand, Renea L; Corbett, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe what the literature has shown about postpartum depression (PPD) in culturally diverse women. The majority of qualitative studies done with women identified as having PPD have been conducted with Western women, with the second largest group focusing on Chinese women. This article reviews the qualitative studies in the literature and discusses how the management of PPD in technocentric and ethnokinship cultures differs. Social support has been shown to be significantly related to fewer symptoms of PPD, and culturally prescribed practices may or may not be cultural mediators in decreasing the incidence of PPD. Nurses should be sensitive to the varied ways in which culturally diverse women perceive, explain, and report symptoms of PPD. Exemplary interventions for culturally diverse women suffering from PPD are examined in this article as well, although it is clear that additional research is needed to develop models for culturally competent interventions for PPD in culturally diverse women and to document the outcomes of such interventions.

  2. Mapping the Health Information Landscape in a Rural, Culturally Diverse Region: Implications for Interventions to Reduce Information Ine